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Grammer

1 Articles
English language has two articles, the and a/an. An article is used for a noun.
An article like an adjective modifies a noun.
For example, a book, the book, a cup, the cup, an umbrella, the umbrella
The article the is called definite article and the article a/an is called indefinite
article.

Types of Articles
There are two articles in English language.
1. Indefinite article: a/an
2. Definite article: the
An article is used before a noun or an adjective modifying a noun.

Definite Article: (the)


The definite article "the" is used for a definite, specific or particular noun.
Example. He bought the shirt.
The article the before the noun shirt in above sentence means that the shirt,
he bought, is a specific or particular shirt and not any shirt.

Indefinite Article: (a/an)


The definite article a/an is used for indefinite, non-specific or non-particular
(common) noun.
Example. He bought a shirt.
The article a before shirt in above sentence means that the shirt he bought is
any shirt and not a specific shirt.

Rules for using Indefinite Article (a/an)


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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

The article form a is used before a word (singular) beginning with a consonant,
or a vowel with a consonant sound.
e.g. a book, a cat, a camera, a university, a European
The article form an is used before a word (singular) beginning with a vowel (a,
e, i, o, u) or consonant with vowel sound (or beginning with mute h ).
e.g. an apple, an elephant, an umbrella, an hour,
1. Before a singular noun which is countable
e.g. He bought a book
She is eating an apple.
2. Before a singular noun which refers to a class of things.
e.g. An orange is rich in vitamins.
3. Before a name of a profession
e.g. She wants to be a doctor
He is an engineer.
4. For certain expressions of quantity
e.g. a lot of, a few, a couple, a dozen
5. For certain numbers.
e.g. a hundred, a thousand, a million
6. Before a singular, countable noun in exclamation.
e.g. What a beautiful flower!
What a nice shirt!
7. Article a/an is not used before uncountable nouns
e.g. water, milk, sand etc

Rules for using definite Article (the)


The article the can be used both before a singular and plural noun according to
the following grammatical rules. e.g. the book, the books
1. Before the place, object or group of object which is unique or considered to be
unique and geographical region and points on globe.
e.g. the earth, the moon, the sky, the stars, the north pole, the equator
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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

2. For a noun which becomes definite or particular because it is already


mentioned
and is being mentioned a second time.
e.g. The teacher helped a student and the student became happy.
3. For a noun made specific or definite in a clause or a phrase.
e.g. The old lady, The girl with blue eyes, The boy that I saw, The nice red
shirt
4. Before superlatives, and first, second,.. etc, and only
e.g. The best day, The only method, the second month,
5. Before a phrase composed of a proper and common noun
e.g. The New York city, The river Nile, The library of Congress
6. Before the names of organizations
e.g. The Association of Chartered Accountants, The World Health Organization
7. Before names of scientific principles, theories, laws etc. e.g. the Pythagorean
theorem, the laws of Newton, The Fahrenheit Scale. But no article will be used
for
these names if written in forms like, Newtons Law, Daltons Law of Partial
Pressures, Hooks Law of Elasticity
8. Article the is not used for names of universities if written in forms like Oxford
University, Yale University, Columbia University. But article the is used if
names
of university are written in forms like The University of Oxford, The
University of
Yale, The University of Toronto.
9. Article the is not used for names of countries of places. e.g. New York,
America,
Mexico, Japan, London. Butarticle the is used for a name, if it
expresses a
group of place, states, or land. e.g. The United States, The
Philippines, The
Netherlands

2 Sentence

Sentence

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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

A group of words which expresses a complete idea or thought is called a


sentence.

Example
He bought a car.

The above group of word expresses a complete idea. Such combination of words
is called a sentence.
Now, look at another group of words book a read him. This group of words does
not make a complete sense so it cannot be called a sentence.
A sentence is a combination of words including a subject and a verb which
express a complete idea. A sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a
period, question mark or exclamation mark.

Examples
He goes to school.
She is eating an apple.
My name is John.
What are you doing?
Who are you?
What a beautiful flower!

Subject and Predicate

A sentence is group of words which expresses a complete thought


i.e. He ate an apple.
A sentence consists of two parts i.e. subject and predicate.
Sentence = Subject + Predicate

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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Subject
The part of sentence which performs some action in a sentence is called Subject.
A subject is sometimes also defined as the part of sentence which is being
spoken about in sentence (especially in sentences having a static verb). A subject
has a close relationship to what is being discussed in sentence. A subject can be
a noun, pronoun, noun clause or noun phrase.
Examples
He is flying a kite.
John is driving a car.
She ate an apple
I wrote him a letter.

Predicate
The part of sentence which tells about the subject is called predicate.
Examples
He is flying a kite.
John is driving a car.
She ate an apple
I wrote him a letter.
Subject refers to the actor of a sentence. The part of a sentence about which
something is told in a sentence is the subject of sentence. While the part of a
sentence that tells something about subject is the predicate of sentence.
Example.

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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

In the above example, she is a subject because it performs an action of


washing clothes. We can also say that she is a subject because something (that
she is washing her clothes) is told about it in sentence. While the rest part of the
sentence is washing her clothes is predicate of sentence because it tells
something (washing her clothes) about the subject.

Kinds of Sentence
Sentence
A group of word that expresses a complete idea or thought is called a
sentence.
Example.
He bought a book.
The above group of words He bought a book expresses a complete though
hence it is a sentence. A sentence begins with capital letter and ends with a
period, question mark or exclamation mark.

Kinds of sentences

There are four kinds of sentences.

Assertive or Declarative Sentence


A sentence that makes a statement or assertion is called an assertive or
declarative sentence. Assertive sentence ends with a period.
Examples
He goes to school
He likes to play chess.
They are singing a song.

Interrogative Sentence
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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

A sentence that asks a question is called an interrogative sentence. Interrogative


sentence ends with question mark.
Examples.
Where are you going?
Do you use your laptop?

Imperative Sentence
A sentence that expresses a request, command or advice is called an imperative
sentence.
Examples
Open the door. (an order)
Please help me. (a request)

Exclamatory Sentence
A sentence that expresses strong feelings or emotions is called an exclamatory
sentence. These sentences express surprise, joy, sorrow, appreciation, love
excitement, frustration, anger etc. An exclamatory sentence ends with
exclamation mark.
Examples
What a beautiful flower it is!
How nicely she is singing!
That is fantastic!
Hurrah! We won the match!

3 Phrase and Clause

Definitions
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University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

A clause is defined as a group of related words that contains a subject and


predicate (verb).
e.g. he came.

A phrase is defined as a group of related words that does not contain a subject
and a verb.
e.g. on the table.

Consider the following example.


He is laughing at a joker.

The above sentence has two parts he is laughing and at a joker.

The first part of the sentence he is laughing is a clause because it has a subject
(he) and a predicate (is laughing).
The second part of the sentence at a joker is a phrase because it does not
contain subject and verb.
The difference between a clause and a phrase is that a clause consists of both
subject and verb, but a phrase lacks a subject and verb.

Examples.
The underlined part of each of following sentences shows a clause, while the rest
part (non-underlined) of each sentence shows a phrase.
He reached school in time.
I was standing near a wall.
They are singing in a loud voice.
She made tea for the guests.
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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

He a bought a book for his friend.


I will meet him in my office.
You look handsome in this picture.

Clause
A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a
predicate
For example, he laughed.
A clause refers to a group of related words (within a sentence or itself as an
independent sentence) which has both subject and predicate.
Example
I will meet him in office.
The part of above sentence I will meet him is a clause because it has a
subject(I) and a predicate(will meet him). On the other hand, the rest part of
above sentence in office lacks both subject and predicate(verb) such group of
word is called phrase.
A clause may stand as a simple sentence or may join another clause to make a
sentence. Therefore, a sentence consists of one, two or more clauses.

Examples.

He is sleeping.
(one clause)
The kids were laughing at the joker.
(one clause)
The teacher asked a question, but no one answered. (two clauses)
I am happy, because I won a prize.
(two clauses)
I like Mathematics, but my brother likes Biology,
because he wants to become a doctor.
(three clauses)

Clauses are divided into main clause (also called independent clause) and
subordinate clause (also called dependent clauses).
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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Types of Clauses

There are two major types of clauses main (or independent) clause and
subordinate (or dependant) clause.

Main Clause and Subordinate Clause Comparison

He is buying a shirt which looks very nice.

The above sentence has two clauses He is buying a shirt and which looks very
nice. The clause He is buying a shirt expresses a complete thought and can
alone stand as a sentence. Such a clause is called main or independent
clause.
While the clause which looks very nice does not express a complete thought
and cant stand as a sentence. It depends on another clause (main clause) to
express complete idea. Such a clause is called subordinate or dependent
clause.

Main or Independent Clause


Main (or independent) clause is a clause that expresses a complete thought and
can stand as a sentence.
Examples
I met the boy who had helped me.
She is wearing a shirt which looks nice.
The teacher asked a question but no one answered.
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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

He takes medicine because he suffers from fever.


He became angry and smashed the vase into peaces.
In the above sentences each underlined part shows main clause. It expresses
complete though and can stand as a sentence that is why a main or an
independent clause is normally referred as a simple sentence.

Subordinate or dependent Clause


Subordinate (or independent) clause is a clause which does not express complete
thought and depends on another clause (main clause) to express complete
thought. Subordinate clause does not express complete idea and cant stand as a
sentence. A sentence having a subordinate clause must have a main clause.
Example
He likes Chinese rice which tastes good.
The clause which tastes good in above sentence is a subordinate clause
because it does not express complete thought and cant stand as a sentence. It
depends on main clause (he likes Chinese rise) to express complete thought.
Examples.
I met the boy who had helped me.
I bought a table that costs $ 100.
He takes medicine because he suffers from fever.
The teacher asked a question but no one answered.
Subordinate (or dependent) clauses are further divided into tree types,
1. Noun Phrase, 2. Adjective Phrase, 3. Adverb Phrase

Types of Subordinate Clause

Functions of Subordinate Clause.

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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

A subordinate (dependent) clause may function as a noun, an adjective or an


adverb in sentence. On the basis of their function in a sentence, subordinate
clauses can be divided in to following types.
1. Noun Clause
2. Adjective Clause.
3. Adverb Clause

Noun Clause
A dependent clause that functions as a noun in a sentence is called noun
clause.
A noun clause performs same function like a noun in a sentence.
Example
What he did made a problem for his family.
In above sentence the clause what he did functions as a noun, hence it is a
noun clause. A noun clause works as a noun that acts as a subject, object, or
predicate in a sentence. A noun clause starts with words that, what, whatever,
who, whom, whoever, whomever.
Examples
Whatever you learn will help you in future.
What you said made me laugh.
He knows that he will pass the test.
Now I realize what he would have thought.

(noun clause as a subject)


(noun clause as a subject)
(noun clause as an object)
(noun clause as an object)

Adjective Clause
A dependent clause that functions as an adjective in a sentence is called
adjective clause.
An adjective clause works like adjective in a sentence. The function of an
adjective is to modify (describe) a noun or a pronoun. Similarly a noun clause
modifies a noun or a pronoun.
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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Example
He wears a shirt which looks nice.
The clause which looks nice in above sentence is an adjective clause because it
modifies noun shirt in the sentence.
An adjective clause always precedes the noun it modifies.
Examples.
I met the boy who had helped me.
An apple that smells bad is rotten.
The book which I like is helpful in preparation for test.
The house where I live consists of four rooms.
The person who was shouting needed help.
Adjective clause begins with relative pronoun (that, who, whom, whose, which,
or whose) and is also relative clause.
Adjective (relative) clauses can be restrictive clause or nonrestrictive clause

Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses


Adjective (relative) clauses can be restrictive clause or
nonrestrictive clause. A restrictive clause limits the meaning of preceding noun
or pronoun. A nonrestrictive clause tells us something about preceding noun or
pronoun but does not limit the meaning of preceding noun or pronoun.
Example
The student in the class who studied a lot passed the test. (restrictive clause)
The student in the class, who had attended all the lectures, passed the
test.
(nonrestrictive clause)
In the first sentence the clause who studied a lot restrict information to
preceding noun(student), it means that there is only one student in the class who
studied a lot, hence it is a restrictive clause.
In the second sentence the clause who had attended all the lectures gives us
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Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
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information about preceding noun but does not limit this information to the
preceding noun. It means there can be several other students in the class who
had attended all the lectures.
A comma is always used before a restrictive clause in a sentence and also after
nonrestrictive clause if it is within a main clause. That is usually used to
introduce a restrictive clause while which is used to introduce a nonrestrictive
clause.
Example
The table that costs $ 100 is made of steel.
The table, which costs $ 100, is made of steel.
clause)

(restrictive clause)
(nonrestrictive

Adverb Clause
A dependent clause that functions as an adverb in a sentence is called
adverb clause
An adverb clause like an adverb modifies a verb, adjective clause or other adverb
clause in a sentence. It modifies(describes) the situation in main clause in
terms of time, frequency (how often), cause and effect, contrast,
condition, intensity (to what extent).
The subordinating conjunctions used for adverb clauses are as follows.
Time: when, whenever, since, until, before, after, while, as, by the time, as soon
as
Cause and effect: because, since, now that, as long as, so, so that,
Contrast: although, even, whereas, while, though
Condition: if, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, providing or provided that,
in case
Examples.
Dont go before he comes.
He takes medicine because he is ill.
Although he tried a lot, he couldnt climb up the tree.
Unless you study for the test, you cant pass it.
I will go to the school unless it rains.
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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

You are safe as long as you drive carefully.


You can achieve anything provided that you struggle for it.

Phrase
A phrase is defined as a group of related words that lacks both subject and
verb.
A phrase is a part of a sentence. It is a group of words (within a sentence) that
does not contain both subject and verb, and does not express a complete idea.
Example.
He is standing near a wall.
The part of above sentence near a wall is a phrase because it does not contain
subject and verb, and does not express a complete idea.
A phrase does not include both subject and verb at a same time and does not
make a complete sense, hence a phrase cannot stand as a sentence on its own.
If a group of words include both subject and verb then it becomes a clause, so
the difference in a clause and a phrase is that a clause contains subject and verb
but a phrase does not contain subject and verb.
Here are some examples of phrases.
He is laughing at a joker.
She is making tea for the guests.
I saw a girl with blue eyes.
He always behaves in a strange way.
The boy in the red shirt is my cousin.
The boy, with a book in his hand, won a prize.
A sentence may consist of one or more phrases.
For example, The boy in the red shirt behaves in a strange way.

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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
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University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

A phrase functions as a noun, adverb, or adjective in a sentence, therefore a


phrase is also defined as a group of words (lacking subject and verb), that
functions as a single part of speech, in a sentence.
Examples
He is wearing a nice read shirt.
The people at the party were dancing.
The man in the room is our teacher.
man)
She gave me a glass full of water.
glass)
He always behaves in a strange way.
behave)
He returned in a short while.
return)

(as a noun/object)
(as a noun/subject)
(as adjective, modifies noun
(as adjective, modifies noun
(as adverb, modifies verb
(as adverb, modifies verb

On the basis of their functions and constructions, phrases are divided into various
types i.e. noun phrase, verb phrase, adverb phrase, adjective phrase,
appositive phrase, infinite phrase, participle phrase and gerund phrase.

Types of Phrases

A phrase is a group of related words (within a sentence) without both subject and
verb. For example, He is laughing at the joker.
A phrase functions as a noun, verb, adverb, adjective or preposition in a
sentence. The function of a phrase depends on its construction (words it
contains). On the basis of their functions and constructions, phrases are divided
into various types i.e. noun phrase, verb phrase, adverb phrase, adjective
phrase, appositive phrase, infinite phrase, participle phrase and gerund
phrase.

Noun Phrase
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A noun phrase consists of a noun and other related words (usually modifiers
and determiners) which modify the noun. It functions like a noun in a sentence.
A noun phrase consists of a noun as the head word and other words (usually
modifiers and determiners) which come after or before the noun. The whole
phrase works as a noun in a sentence.
Noun Phrase = noun + modifiers
(the modifiers can be after or before noun)
Examples.
He is wearing a nice red shirt.
She brought a glass full of water.
The boy with brown hair is laughing.
A man on the roof was shouting.

(as noun/object)
(as noun/object)
(as noun/subject)
(as noun/subject)

A sentence can also contain more noun phrases.


For example. The girl with blue eyes bought a beautiful chair.

Prepositional phrase.
A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, object of preposition(noun or
pronoun) and may also consist of other modifiers.
e.g. on a table, near a wall, in the room, at the door, under a tree
A prepositional phrase starts with a preposition and mostly ends with a noun or
pronoun. Whatever prepositional phrase ends with is called object of preposition.
A prepositional phrase functions as an adjective or adverb in a sentence.
Examples.
A boy on the roof is singing a song.
The man in the room is our teacher.
She is shouting in a loud voice.
He always behaves in a good manner.

(As adjective)
(As adjective)
(As adverb)
(As adverb)

Adjective Phrase.

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University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

An adjective phrase is a group of words that functions like an adjective in a


sentence. It consists of adjectives, modifier and any word that modifies a noun or
pronoun.
An adjective phrase functions like an adjective to modify (or tell about) a noun or
a pronoun in a sentence.
Examples.
He is wearing a nice red shirt.
(modifies shirt)
The girl with brown hair is singing a song. (modifies girl)
He gave me a glass full of water.
(modifies glass)
A boy from America won the race.
(modifies boy)
Prepositional phrases and participle phrases also function as adjectives so we can
also call them adjective phrases when they function as adjective. In the above
sentence The girl with brown hair is singing a song, the phrase with brown
hair is a prepositional phrase but it functions as an adjective.

Adverb Phrase
An adverb phrase is a group of words that functions as an adverb in a sentence.
It consists of adverbs or other words (preposition, noun, verb, modifiers) that
make a group with works like an adverb in a sentence.
An adverb phrase functions like an adverb to modify a verb, an adjective or
another adverb.
Examples
He always behaves in a good manner.
They were shouting in a loud voice.
She always drives with care.
He sat in a corner of the room.
He returned in a short while.

(modifies verb behave)


(modifies verb shout)
(modifies verb drive)
(modifies verb sit)
(modifies verb return)

A prepositional phrase can also act as an adverb phrase. For example in above
sentence He always behaves in a good manner, the phrase in a good manner
is a prepositional phrase but it acts as adverb phrase here.

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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Verb Phrase
A verb phrase is a combination of main verb and its auxiliaries (helping verbs)
in a sentence.
Examples.
He is eating an apple.
She has finished her work.
You should study for the exam.
She has been sleeping for two hours.
According to generative grammar, a verb phrase can consist of main verb, its
auxiliaries, its complements and other modifiers. Hence it can refer to the whole
predicate of a sentence.
Example. You should study for the exam.

Infinitive Phrase
An infinitive phrase consist of an infinitive(to + simple form of verb) and
modifiers or other words associated to the infinitive. An infinitive phrase always
functions as an adjective, adverb or a noun in a sentence.
Examples.
He likes to read books.
(As noun/object)
To earn money is a desire of everyone. (As noun/subject)
He shouted to inform people about fire. (As adverb, modifies verb
shout)
He made a plan to buy a car.
(As adjective, modifies noun
plan)

Gerund Phrase
A gerund phrase consists of a gerund(verb + ing) and modifiers or other words
associated with the gerund. A gerund phrase acts as a noun in a sentence.
Examples
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I like writing good essays.


She started thinking about the problem.
Sleeping late in night is not a good habit.
Weeping of a baby woke him up.

(As noun/object)
(As noun/object)
(As noun/subject)
(As noun/subject)

Participle Phrase
A participle phrase consists of a present participle (verb + ing), a past
participle (verb ending in -ed or other form in case of irregular verbs) and
modifiers or other associate words. A participle phrase is separated by commas.
It always acts as an adjective in a sentence.
Examples
The kids, making a noise, need food.
(modifies kids)
I received a letter, mentioning about my exam.
(modifies letter)
The table, made of steel, is too expensive.
(modifies table)
We saw a car, damaged in an accident.
(modifies car)

Absolute Phrase
Absolute phrase (also called nominative phrase) is a group of words including a
noun or pronoun and a participle as well as any associated modifiers. Absolute
phrase modifies (give information about) the entire sentence. It resembles a
clause but it lack a true finite verb. It is separated by a comma or pairs of
commas from the rest sentence.
Examples
He looks sad, his face expressing worry.
She was waiting for her friend, her eyes on the clock.
John is painting a wall, his shirt dirty with paint.

4 Kinds of Sentences According to Structure

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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

A sentence may consist of one clause (independent clause) or more clauses


(independent and dependent clauses). An independent clause is also called main
clause. A dependent clause is also called subordinate clause.
On the basis of numbers of clause and types of clauses present in a sentence,
sentences are divided in to four kinds.

Simple Sentence
A simple sentence consists of only one independent clause containing a
subject and a verb and it expresses complete thought. There is no dependent
clause.
An independent clause (also called main clause) is called a simple sentence.
Examples.
He laughed.
She ate an apple.
They are sleeping.
I bought a book.

Compound Sentence
A compound sentence consists of at least two independent clauses joined by
coordinating conjunctions. There is no dependent clause in compound sentence.
The coordinating conjunctions use to join independent clauses are for, and, nor,
but, or, yet, so. Independent clauses can also be joined by a semicolon (;). A
comma may or may not be used before the conjunction in compound sentence.
Examples
I like an apple but my brother likes a mango.
I helped him and he became happy.
He failed two times yet he is not disappointed.
I asked him a question; he replied correctly.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Complex Sentence
A complex sentence consists of one independent clause and at least one
dependent clause joined by subordinating conjunction (because, although,
since, when, unless etc) or relative pronoun (that, who, which etc).
Examples
I met the boy who had helped me.
She is wearing a shirt which looks nice.
You cant pass the test unless you study for it.
If a complex sentence begins with an independent clause, a comma is not used
between clauses in a complex sentence. If a complex sentence begins with
dependent clause then a comma is use after dependent clause in a complex
sentence. See the following example.
He is playing well although he is ill.
Although he is ill, he is playing well.

Complex - Compound Sentence


A complex-compound sentence consists of at least two independents and
one or more dependent clauses. It is also sometimes called compoundcomplex Sentence.
Examples
1. He went to college and I went to a market where I bought a book.
2. I like Mathematics but my bother likes Biology
because he wants to be a doctor.
In the first sentence of above sentence, there are two independent clauses he
went to college and I went to a market, and one dependent clause where I
bought a book.

5 Parts of Speech
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Noun

Noun is a word which names a person, a place or a thing.

For example chair, table, book, New York, computer, cup, boy, John, hospital,
Newton, garden, room, man, Paris, doctor, and pen are nouns because each of
these words is a name of a person, a place or a thing.

Examples.
Chair, table, book, cup, computer, picture, (names of things)
New York, Paris, Canada, Toronto, school, hospital, cinema, garden, (names of
places)
John, Newton, R.H Stephen, Einstein, man, boy, doctor (names of persons)

Types of Noun

There are two main types of noun.


Common Noun
Proper Noun

Common Noun.
Name of a common or a non-specific thing, place, or person is called common
noun.
Common noun refers to a non-specific or non-particular thing, place or person.
For example book, pen, room, garden man, girl, road, camera, month, day, chair,
school, boy, car, are common nouns because each of these nouns refers to a
common thing, place or person.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Proper Noun.
Name of a particular or a specific thing, place or person is called proper Noun.
For example BMW Car, April, Monday, Oxford University, New York, America, John,
Newton, Einstein, R.H Stephen, are proper nouns because each of these nouns
refers to a particular thing, place or person.
If a common noun is specified it becomes a proper noun. For example day is a
common noun but if it is specified like Monday or Friday, it becomes proper noun.
Similarly car is a common noun but if it is specified like BMW Car, it becomes
proper noun.

Use of CAPITAL LETTER for proper noun.


The first letter of proper noun is always written in capital letter.
Examples.
He lives in Paris.
She studies in Oxford University.
Author of this book is John Stephen.
Laws of motion were presented by Newton
The richest person of the world is Bill Gates.

Use of THE for proper noun.


1. The article the is used before some proper nouns. Here are some rules for the
use of article the before proper nouns.
2. Article the is not used before the name of countries, cities, for example New
York, Mexico, Canada, Toronto, London, Paris, America. But if the name of country
or city or place expresses group of places or lands or states, then article the will
be used before it. For example, the Philippines, the Netherlands, the United States
3. Article the is not used before the name of universities, for example Oxford
University, Yale University, or Columbia University. But if the name of university is
written in a order that it includes the word of then article the will be used
before it, for example, the University of British Colombia, the university of Oxford,
the University of Toronto.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

4. Article the is used before names composed of both common noun and proper
noun, for example the New York city, the Dominion of Canada, the River Nile
5. The is used before the names of laws, principles, theories or devices, for
example, the Pythagorean Theorem, the Fahrenheit Scale, the Law of Newton, the
Allais effect. But if the proper noun is used in possessive form, no article will be
used, for example Newtons Laws of Motion, Hookes Law of Elasticity, Daltons
Law of Partial Pressures.
6. The used by the name of ocean, sea, river, dessert or forest (except lakes and
fall) for example the Pacific Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Sahara, the Black
Forests.
7. The is used before the names of buildings, hotels, libraries having particular
names, for example the Brunel Hotel, the Lahore Museum, the Library of
Congress,
8. The is used before the name of a geographical region and points on globe, for
example the Middle East, the West, the Equator, the North Pole
9. The is usually used before the names of organizations for example, the
Association of Chartered Accountants, the World Health Organization,

Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Countable Nouns.
A noun which can be counted is called countable noun.
Pen is countable noun because we can count it and can say one pen, two pens,
three pens or more pens. Pen, chair, cup, room, man, baby, bottle, dog, cat are
examples countable nouns.

Singular and Plural noun (Countable Noun)

A countable noun can be singular as well as plural. Article a or an is used


before singular noun but not before plural noun.
If a singular noun starts with consonant letter then a is used before it, i.e. a
book, a cat, a pen. If a singular noun starts with a vowel letter or with
consonant which sounds like vowel in that word, an is used before it i.e. an
apple, an umbrella, an onion, an hour.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Plural noun (Countable Noun)


Plural noun means more than one person, place or thing. Word chair is a
singular noun but word chairs is plural noun.

1.

Plurals are usually formed by adding s or es to singular noun for example book
books, catcats, boxboxes, taxtaxes. If a word ends with y, the y is changed
to I then es is added to make it plural, for example, babybabies, ladyladies.
There may be some exceptions.
2. Some plural are formed in different ways for example, manmen, childchildren,
leafleaves, wifewives, footfeet, tootteeth, datumdata, basisbases. Such
plurals are called irregular plural forms.
3. Some nouns have same plural and singular form, for example, sheepsheep,
deerdeer, swineswine.

Uncountable Nouns.
Uncountable noun refers to substances which cannot be counted.
For example, water is an uncountable noun because we cannot count it. We
cannot say, one water or two water. Such substances which cannot be counted
in terms of numbers are called uncountable noun.
Examples: Water, milk, bread, honey, rain, furniture, news, information,
pleasure, honesty, courage, weather, music, preparation, warmth, wheat are
examples of uncountable nouns.

Use of Uncountable Nouns.


Uncountable nouns are usually treated as singular noun for auxiliary verbs in
sentence but articles a or an are usually not used before uncountable nouns.
Examples.
Water maintains its level.
Necessity is the mother of invention
His preparation was not good.
The Weather is very pleasant today.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

This information is very helpful in solving the problem.


The warmth of sun causes evaporation of water.
Uncountable nouns may be used as countable noun when it refers to an
individual thing. For example life is uncountable noun but it be used as countable
noun if refers to individual, lives.
Example.
It was feared that two lives had been lost.
We can also use word like some, any, no, little, more etc before uncountable
nouns if needed in sentence.
Examples.
They have no information about the accused.
There is little milk in the glass.

Changing Uncountable nouns into countable nouns.


We can change uncountable noun into countable noun if we specify a unit or
measuring standard for it. For example water is an uncountable noun but we
can make it countable by saying one glass of water or two glass of water etc. In
this example we selected a unit that is glass. We can also say one litre of water or
one cup of water etc. By selecting such units or measuring standards we can
change uncountable noun in to countable which can be counted in terms of
numbers.
Examples.
Uncountable countable
Bread a piece of bread.
Wheat a grain of wheat.
Milk a glass of milk
Information a piece of information

Verb

Verb is a word which shows action or state of something.


Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Examples. Write, run, eat, drink, catch, clean, speak, laugh, weep, are some
verbs
He is writing a letter.

In the above example, the verb write tells us about the action (writing) of the
subject (he). A verb has its subject in sentence and verb tells us what its subject
does, did or will do.

Verbs describe action or state. Most verbs describe action, such verbs are called
dynamic verb, for example write, eat, run, speak. Some verbs describe state of
something, such verbs are called stative verb and are not usually used in
continuous tense for example be, impress, please, surprise, belong to, consist of,
resemble, seem
Examples.
He works in a factory(action)
I boughta computer. (action)
John seems happy. (state)
He resembles his brother (state)
Some verbs can be used as dynamic verb as well as stative verb.
Example.
She looks very beautiful. (look as stative verb)
She looked at black board. (look as dynamic verb)

Forms of verb according to tense or time of action.


Verb has three forms according to tense.

Base form

2. Past Simple

4. Past participle

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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

For example, gowentgone. Go is base form, went is past simple form, and
gone is past participle form. These three form may also be named as 1st form,
2nd form and 3rd form of verb, which are denoted by V1, V2 and V3 respectively.
ing is added to base form verb to make present participle which can be used
with auxiliary verb to be in continuous tense, for example, gogoing, eat
eating, laughlaughing.

Formation of past simple and past participle


On the basis formation of past simple and past participle, verb is divided into
Regular verbs
Irregular verbs

Regular Verbs.
Some verbs form their past simple and past participle form by adding -ed to
their base form, such verbs are called regular verbs, for example laughlaughed
laughed, looklookedlooked.

Some examples

Verb

Past
Base form Past simple or
Present
participle or
or V1
V2
participle
V3

To advise

advise

advised

advised

Advising

To allow

allow

allowed

allowed

Allowing

To enjoy

enjoy

enjoyed

enjoyed

Enjoying

To rain

rain

rained

rained

Raining

To smile

smile

smiled

smiled

Smiling

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Irregular Verbs.
Some verbs form their past simple and participle in different ways for example,
buyboughtbought, eatateeaten, such verbs are called irregular verbs.

Some examples

Verb

Base form or Past simple


V1
or V2

Past
Present
participle or
participle
V3

To know

know

knew

known

Knowing

To go

go

went

gone

Going

To drink

drink

drank

drunk

Drinking

To hold

hold

held

held

Holding

To write

wriite

wrote

written

Writing

Some verbs remain same in past simple and past participle.

Some example

Verb

Base form
or V1

Past
Past simple or
Present
participle or
V2
participle
V3

To cut

cut

cut

cut

Cutting

To shut

shut

shut

shut

Shutting

To spread

spread

spread

spread

Spreading

To put

put

put

put

Putting

To read

read

read

read

reading

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Main Verbs and Auxiliary or Helping verbs


A sentence can have both main verb and helping verb (auxiliary verb).
Main verb: A verb which has major meaning in terms of action are called main
verb, i.e. write, buy, eat etc.
Helping verb: A verb which supports the main verb to form the structure of
sentence, according a specific tense, is called helping verb or auxiliary verb, i.e.
is, am, have, was, had, is, will etc.
Main verb has real meaning and tells more about action while helping verb has
no (or little) meaning if it is alone but it adds time information about action if
used with main verb to specify the tense or time of the main verb. The examples
below will help in better understanding.

She is eating an apple. (eat is main verb while is is helping verb)


She was eating an apple. (eat is main verb while was is helping verb)

The main verbs in these sentences eat convey the information about the action
which is done on an apple, while the helping verbs in these sentences "is, and
was" tells us the about the time of action by referring to specific tense. In first
sentence with helping verb "is" action (eating an apple) is being done right now
in the present time while in the second sentence with hepling verb "was" action
(eating an apple) was being done in past.

It means the MAIN VERB CONVEYS the meaning of action with a little information
about its time, but the HELPING VERB (also called auxilliary Verb) tell us more
about the time of action. Helping verbs and main verbs together make a
structure of sentence of a specific tense (action and its time)

Use of helping verbs.


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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

There are three primary helping verbs, be, do, and have, which are majorly
used in tenses.

Be (am, is, are). Forms of be are used for continuous tenses.

Example. She is laughing. (Present Continuous tense)

Have (have, has, had). Forms of have are used in perfect tense.

Example.
He has completed his work. (Present prefect tense)
He had bought a car. (Past perfect tense)

Do(do, does, did). Forms of do are used in indefinite(simple) tenses i.e.


present simple tense or past simple tense.

Example.
They do not play chess. (Present simple tense)
I did not see him. (Past simple)

Modal Verbs (Modal auxiliaries)


Modal verbs are used to express ideas such as ability, possibility, intention or
necessity.
Examples.

Can, could (ability)


May might (possibility)
Will, shall, would (intention)
Should (necessity)
Must (necessity)
Ought to

Modal verbs can be used before main verb as helping verbs.


Examples
I can play violin.
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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
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It may rain today.


You must learn the test-taking strategies.
I will call you.

Transitive and intransitive verbs

Transitive Verbs.

A verb which needs to have object in sentence is called transitive verb.


Transitive verbs should have an object in sentence because without subject it
does not covey complete meaning.
Example.
He bought ______.

There should be some object in this sentence for verb buy. Without an object
the verb bought does not give complete meaning. To make it more meaningful
we use some object for verb bought i.e book or computer or car.

He bought a book.
or
He bought a computer.
or
He bought a computer.

More examples.
John is eating a mango.
He has completedhis work.
I caught a bird in bushes.
She wrote a story.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Intransitive sentence.
A verb which does not need to have object in sentence is called intransitive.
Intransitive verb can give complete meaning with an object in sentence for it.
Example.
He slept.
She is laughing.
It has rained.
He is running.
They arrived.

Adjective

Adjective is a word that modifies (gives more information about) a noun or


pronoun.
For example, tall man, old house, red car. The words tall, old, red are
adjectives which give more information about nouns man, house, and car in
these examples.
More than one adjective can also be used for a single noun in sentence.
Examples.
The beautiful girl entered into the room.
The tall, beautiful girl entered into the room.
The tall, thin, beautiful girl entered into the room.
The tall, thin, beautiful and intelligent girl entered into the room.

An adjective gives information about the colour, size, characteristic, quality,


quantity or personal traits of a noun or pronoun.

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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Some examples.
White, red, black, green, purple, yellow, orange, brown, and black are adjectives
because they mention the colour of noun or pronoun.
Beautiful, pretty, ugly, thin, slim, fat, tall, and short are adjectives and they
describe physical characteristic of a noun or pronoun.
Intelligent, brave, courageous, determined, exuberant and diligent are adjective
and they describe the personal traits of a noun or pronoun.

Use of adjective in sentence.


Adjective is used in sentence at two places depending upon the structure of
sentence.
Before noun
After some verbs (After stative verbs like seem, look, be (when used as stative
verb), feel etc)

Use of adjective before noun (Examples)

He ate a delicious mango.


She bought a red car.
A fat man was running in the street.
I saw a cute baby.
I dont like hot tea.
They live in a small home.
Poor cant afford expensive clothes.
Severe headache and fever are symptoms of malaria.
He is facing a difficult problem.

Use of adjective after verbs.


Adjectives may be used after stative verbs (i.e. seem, look, sound, taste,
appear, feel, be). Adjective are used after such verbs which behaves like
stative verbs.
For example, Iron is hot

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Hot is adjective in the above sentence which comes after is and is


behaves like a stative verb in this sentence. Hot after verb is but it tells
us about the noun (subject) iron
Examples.
Your problem seems difficult.
That book was good.
This pizza tastes delicious.
The story sounds interesting.
He is stupid.
The man became angry.
She looks attractive.

Degrees of Adjectives and their use.

There are three degrees of adjectives.


1. Positive Adjective

2. Comparative Adjective

3. Superlative Adjective

Some Examples:
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Big

Bigger

Biggest

Great

Greater

Greatest

Short

Shorter

Shortest

Old

Older

Oldest

Large

Larger

Largest

Happy

Happier

Happiest

Lucky

Luckier

Luckiest

Heavy

Heavier

Heaviest

Beautiful

More beautiful

Most beautiful

Horrible

More horrible

Most horrible

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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Good

Better

Best

Bad

Worse

Worst

Little

Less

Least

Many

More

Most

Use of comparative adjective.

Comparative adjectives are used to express characteristic of one thing in


comparison to another thing (one thing). It makes comparison between two
things (only two things not more than two).

Word than is mostly used after comparative adjective but sometimes other
words to may be used after comparative adjective. See the following examples.

Examples.
She is taller than Mary.
A cup is smaller than a glass.
He is junior to me.
Chinese is more difficult than English.
Paris is more beautiful than New York.

Use of Superlative adjective.

Comparative adjectives are used to express characteristic of one thing in


comparison to other things (many things). It makes comparison among things
more than two. Superlative is the highest degree of a thing in comparison to
other things. A superlative adjective means that a object is surpassing all others
(things in comparison) in quality or characteristic. For example, John is the most
intelligent student in his class. It means John is surpassing all other students in
his class and no other student in his class is as intelligent as John.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Article the is used before superlative degree. In or of etc is used after the
superlative and modifying noun in sentence.
Examples.
Bills Gate is the richest person in world.
Brunel is the most beautiful hotel in England.
Mount Everest is the highest mountain in world.
She is the tallest girl in class.
Our generation is the most modern.
His house is the biggest in the street.
The winter is the coldest time of year.

Adverb

Adverb is a word which modifies (gives more information about) a verb or


adjective or other adverb.

For example,
He replied.
He replied quickly.

The word quickly is an adverb which gives more information about verb reply
in the above example. The adverb quickly in above example tells us about the
verb reply that the reply was given quickly or with no time delay.
Similarly an adverb may also modify adjective or other adverb or other part of
speech except the noun.

Examples (adverbs modifying verbs).


He was driving carelessly.
John can speak French fluently.
They live happily.
Marry is laughing loudly.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

He goes to school daily.


We sometimes get confused.
He met me yesterday.
Guests will come here.

Examples (adverbs modifying adjectives).


Note: The bold words (in following examples) are adverbs and the underlined
words are adjectives.
It is a very difficult problem.
He is seriously ill.
This book is really nice.
The story of crazy man was truly funny.
You are too weak to walk.

Examples (adverbs modifying other adverbs).


Note: The bold word (in following examples) is an adverb and underlined word is
the other adverb.
John drives very slowly.
He was talking too much angrily.
He ran fast enough to catch the bus.
They live very happily.

Formation of adverb
1. Most of adverbs are formed by adding -ly to adjectives. For example, happily,
easily, quickly, angrily, correctly, fluently, proudly, loudly, rapidly, immediately etc
1. A few adverbs exists without -ly. For example, fast, slow, deep, far, hard, high,
wrong, right, low, well, tight, straight, there, here, close, late, very, too, not

Examples.

Adverbs of Manner

Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of Time

Adverbs of Frequency

Happily

Here

Now

Sometimes

Sadly

There

Then

Often

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Easily

Near

Yesterday

Usually

Rudely

Somewhere

Today

Seldom

Loudly

Outside

Tomorrow

Frequently

Fluently

Inside

Late

Daily

Rapidly

Ahead

Early

Generally

Angrily

High

Again

Occasionally

Greedily

Top

Tonight

Again and again

Wildly

Bottom

Soon

Never

Types/Kinds of Adverb

Adverb modifies verb by giving us the following information.


How the action occurs
Where the action occurs
How many times action occur
At which time the action occurs
Intensity of action
Adverbs are categorized on the basis of it information it gives, into the following
categories.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Adverbs of manner
Adverb of place
Adverb of time
Adverb of frequency

Types of Adverb

Adverb modifies verb by giving us the following information.

1.
2.
3.
4.

How the action occurs


Where the action occurs
How many times action occur
At which time the action occurs

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

5. Intensity of action

Adverbs are categorized on the basis of it information it gives, into the following
categories.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Adverbs of manner
Adverb of place
Adverb of time
Adverb of frequency

Adverbs of Manner
These adverbs tell us that in which manner the action occurs or how the action
occurs or occurred or will occur.
Examples.
She speaks loudly.
He was driving slowly.
You replied correctly.
He runs fast.
They solved the problem easily.
Listen to me carefully.

Adverb of Place.
Adverb of place tells us about the place of action or where action
occurs/occurred/will occur.
e.g. here, there, near, somewhere, outside, ahead, on the top, at some place.
Examples.
He will come here.
The children are playing outside.
He was standing near the wall.
They were flying kites on the top of hill.
He lives somewhere in New York.
She went upstairs.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Adverb of time
These adverbs tell us about the time of action. e.g. now, then, soon, tomorrow,
yesterday, today, tonight, again, early, yesterday.
Examples.
I will buy a computer tomorrow.
The guest came yesterday.
Do it now.
She is still waiting for her brother.
He got up early in the morning.

Adverb of frequency
Adverbs of frequency tell us how many times the action occurs or occurred or will
occur.
e.g. daily, sometimes, often, seldom, usually, frequently, always, ever, generally,
rarely, monthly, yearly.
Examples.
He goes to school daily.
She never smokes.
He is always late for class.
They always come in time.
Barking dogs seldom bite.
The employees are paid monthly.
The employees are paid every month.

Pronoun

Pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun, e.g. he, she, it, they, his, her,
him its etc.
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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Example.
John is an intelligent student. He goes to school daily. He studies a lot. He is
making preparation for examination. He will get high marks examination.
In the above paragraph pronoun he is used instead of noun John. If we do not
use pronoun in above paragraph we will have to use the noun John again and
again in each sentence. So, the purpose of pronoun is to avoid the
repetition of a noun.

Examples. He, she, it, they, you, I, we, who, him, her, them, me, us, whom, his,
its, their, your, mine, our and whose, myself, himself, herself , yourself, which,
this, that these, those, are the pronouns which are mostly used.
Pronoun can be divided into following groups.

Personal Pronouns: e.g. I, you, He, she, it, they, who, me, him, her, them, whom
Possessive Pronouns: e.g. yours, mine, his, hers, ours, theirs,
Reflexive Pronouns: e.g. myself, himself, herself, itself, yourself, ourselves,
themselves
Reciprocal Pronoun: e.g. each other, one another
Relative Pronouns: e.g. who, whom, whose, which, that
Demonstrative Pronoun: e.g. this, these, that, those

Types of Pronoun

There five types of pronoun


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Personal Pronoun
Possessive Pronoun
Reflixive Pronoun
Relative Pronoun
Demonstrative Pronoun

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Personal Pronouns.
Personal pronoun describes a particular person or thing or group.
Personal pronoun describes the person speaking (I, me, we, us), the person
spoken to (you), or the person or thing spoken about (he, she, it, they, him, her,
them).
Examples.

He helps poor.
The pronoun he in above sentence describes a person who helps poor.

Use of Personal Pronouns.

Namber

Singular

Plural

Person

Personal Pronoun
Subject

Object

1st Person

Me

2nd Person

You

You

3rd Person

He, She, It

Him, Her, It

1st Person

We

Us

2nd Person

You

You

3rd Person

They

Them

Examples.
She is intelligent
They are playing chess.
He sent me a letter.
It is raining.
We love our country.
The teacher appreciated them.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

I met him yesterday.


He gave her a gift.
Did you go to home?

Possessive Pronouns
Possessive Pronoun indicates close possession or ownership or relationship of a
thing/person to another thing/person.
e.g. yours, mine, his, hers, ours, theirs, hers,

Example.
This book is mine.
The pronoun mine describes the relationship between book and a person (me)
who possesses this book or who is the owner of this book.

Namber

Singular

Plural

Person

Possessive Pronoun

1st Person

Mine

2nd Person

Yours

3rd Person

Hers, his, its

1st Person

Ours

2nd Person

Yours

3rd Person

Theirs

Examples.
That car is hers.
Your book is old. Mine is new.
The pen on the table is mine.
The smallest cup is yours.
The voice is hers.
The car is ours not theirs.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

I have lost my camera. May I use yours?


They received your letter. Did you received theirs.

Note: Possessive adjectives (my, her, your) may be confused with possessive
pronouns. Possessive adjective modifies noun in terms of possession. Both
possessive adjective and possessive show possession or ownership, but
possessive adjective is used (with noun) to modify the noun while Possessive
pronoun is used instead (in place of) a noun.
Examples.

This is my book. (Possessive adjective: my modifies the noun book)


This book is mine. (Possessive pronoun: mine is used instead of noun to whom
the book belongs)

Reflexive Pronoun.

Reflexive pronoun describes noun when subjects action affects the subject itself.
e.g himself, yourself, herself, ourselves, themselves, itself are reflexive
pronouns.

Reflexive pronouns always act as objects not subjects, and they require an
interaction between the subject and an object.

Namber

Person

Subject

Reflive Pronoun

Singular

1st Person

Myself

2nd Person

You

Yourself

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Plural

3rd Person

He, she, it

Himself, Herself, Itself

1st Person

We

Ourselves

2nd Person

You

Yourselves

3rd Person

They

Themselves

Examples.
I looked at myself in the mirror.
You should think about yourself.
They prepared themselves for completion.
She pleases herself by think that she will win the prize.
He bought a car for himself.
He locked himself in the room.
He who loves only himself is a selfish.

Note: Reflexive noun can also be used to give more emphasis on subject or
object. If a reflexive pronoun is used to give more emphasis on a subject or an
object, it is called Intensive Pronoun. Usage and function of intensive
pronoun are different from that of reflexive pronoun.

For example, she herself started to think about herself.

In the above sentence the first herself is used as intensive pronoun while the
second herself is used as reflexive pronoun.
See the following examples of intensive pronouns.

Examples. (Intensive Pronouns)


I did it myself. OR. I myself did it.
She herself washed the clothes.
He himself decided to go to New York.
She herself told me.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Reciprocal Pronouns.

Reciprocal Pronouns are used when each of two or more subjects reciprocate to
the other.
or
Reciprocal pronouns are used when two subjects act in same way towards each
other, or, more subjects act in same way to one another.
For example, A loves B and B love A. we can say that A and B loves each other.
There are two reciprocal pronouns

Each other
One another.

Examples.
John and Marry are talking to each other.
The students gave cards to one another.
The people helped one another in hospital.
Two boys were pushing each other.
The car and the bus collided with each other.
The students in the class greeted one another.

Relative Pronouns.
Relative Pronoun describes a noun which is mentioned before and more
information is to be given about it.
Or
Relative pronoun is a pronoun which joins relative clauses and relative sentences.

For example, It is the person, who helped her.


In this sentence the word who is a relative pronoun which refers to the noun
(the person) which is already mentioned in beginning of sentence (It is the
person) and more information (he helped her) is given after using a relative
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

pronoun (who) for the noun (the person).


Similarly, in above sentence the pronoun who joins two clauses which are it is
the person and who helped her.

Examples. The most commonly used five relative pronouns are, who, whom,
whose, which, that.
Who is for subject and whom is used for object. who and whom are used
for people. Whose is used to show possession and can be used for both people
and things. Which is used for things. That is used for people and things.

Examples.
It is the girl who got first position in class.
Adjective is a word that modifies noun.
The man whom I met yesterday is a nice person.
It is the planning that makes succeed.
The boy who is laughing is my friend.
It is the boy whose father is doctor.
The car which I like is red.

Demonstrative Pronouns.
Demonstrative pronoun is a pronoun that points to a thing or things.
e.g. this, that, these, those, none, neither
These pronouns point to thing or things in short distance/time or long
distance/time.
Short distance or time: This, these.
Long distance or time: That, those.
Demonstrative pronouns this and that are used for singular thing while these
or those are used for plural things.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Examples
This is black.
That is heavy.
Can you see these?
Do you like this?
John brought these.
Those look attractive.
Have you tried this.

Preposition

Preposition is a word that shows relation between noun or pronoun and the other
words in sentence.

e.g. in, on, at, to, with, under, above, into, by, of etc

Preposition is always used before a noun or pronoun and shows the relation of
the noun or pronoun to the other words in sentence. The following examples will
help in better understanding.
Example.

Subject + Verb

Preposition

Noun

The cat was sleeping

on

table

He lives

in

Paris

She looked

at

Stranger.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

He will come

in

January.

Wedding ceremony will be held

on

20th December.

I was waiting

for

you

Someone is knocking

at

The door.

She came

by

bus.

Prepositions show many relations (for different nouns) in sentence. On the basis
of relation they show, preposition may be divided into following categories.

Preposition for time e.g. in, on, at, etc.


Preposition for place e.g. in, on, at, etc
Preposition for direction e.g. to, towards, into, through etc.
Preposition for agent e.g. by
Preposition for device, instrument or machines. e.g. on, by, with, etc.
Prepositions used after verbs to make prepositional verb. e.g. look at, look after,
laugh at

Types of Preposition

The types of preposition are as follows:


Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Preposition for Time


Preposition for Place
Preposition for Direction
Preposition for Agent
Preposition for Instrument
Prepositional Phrase

Prepositions for Time. (in, on, at)


Prepositions used for time of different natures are in, on at etc.

Preposition

Time Nature

In

1. Month or Year.
e.g. in January, in 1985
2. Particular time of day or month or year
e.g. in morning, in evening, in first week of January, in summer,
in winter
3. Century or specific time in past etc
e.g. in 21st century, in stone age, in past, in future, in present

On

1. Day
e.g. on Monday
2. Date
e.g. on 5th of March, March 5
3. Particular day
e.g. on Independence Day, on my birthday,

At

1. Time of clock
e.g. at 5 Oclock, at 7:30 PM

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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

2. Short and precise time


e.g. at noon, at sunset, at lunch time, at bed time, at the
moment, at the same time

Examples.
He was born in 1945.
She will go to New York on 25th of March.
The concert will begin at 7 Oclock.
He gets up early in the morning.
We enjoyed a lot in the summer.
The president will deliver speech to public on Independence Day.
She received a lot gifts on her birthday.
Where were you at the lunchtime?
I will call you at 12 A.M

Preposition for Place. (in, on, at)


Prepositions in, on or at are usually used for different places.

In is usually used for place which have some boundary (boundary may physical
or virtual).

On is used for surface


At is used for specific place.

Preposition

Place Nature

In

Place having some boundary (physical or virtual


boundary)
Examples.
In hall
In school
In a building
In a box
In a car

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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

In
In
In
In
In

library
garden
America
room
cupboard

On

Surface of something.
Examples.
On a table
On blackboard
On a page
On the wall
On the roof
On a map

At

Specific Place.
Examples.
At the entrance
At the bottom of glass
At front of the chair
At bus stop
At the edge of roof

Examples
She lives in New York.
Students study in library.
The wedding ceremony will be held in the hall.
There are some books on the table.
The teacher wrote a sentence on blackboard.
He was flying kite on the roof.
Her parents were waiting for her at the entrance of school
There was a huge gathering at bus stop.
His house is at the end of street.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Preposition for Direction. (to, toward, through, into)


Prepositions like to, towards, through, into are used to describe the direction.
Following examples will help in better understanding.
Examples.
She went to the library.
He jumped into the river.
He ran away when he felt that someone was coming toward him.

Preposition for Agent. (by)


Preposition for agent is used for a thing which is cause of another thing in the
sentence. Such prepositions are by, with etc. Following examples will help in
better understanding.
Examples.
This book is written by Shakespeare.
The work was completed by him.
The room was decorated by her.
The tub is filled with water.

Preposition for device, instrument or machine.


Different preposition are used by different devices, instruments or machines. e.g.
by, with, on etc. Following examples will help in better understanding.
Examples.
She comes by bus daily.
He opened the lock with key.

Prepositional Verb

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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
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University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
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A prepositional phrase is a combination of a verb and a preposition. It is just a


verb followed by a preposition.

Prepositional Phrase = Verb + Preposition

Some verbs need particular prepositions to be used after them in sentences


having a direct object. Such a verb with its required preposition is called a
prepositional phrase.

For example
He knocks at the door.

In above sentence knock at is prepositional phrase which contains a verb


knock and a preposition at. Without the use of correct preposition after a
prepositional verb in a sentence, the sentence is considered to be grammatically
wrong. For example if we say, he knocks the door, it is wrong because it lacks
the required preposition at. So the correct sentence is he knocks at the
door.

Prepositional Verbs are transitive and they have a direct object in sentence. Some
of the frequently used preposition verb are, laugh at, knock at, listen to, look
at, look for, look after, wait for, agree to, agree with, talk about, talked
to

Examples.
She is listening to music.
She looked at the blackboard.
We believe in God.
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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

They were waiting for the teacher.


Do you agree with me?
Do you agree to my proposal?
Someone is knocking at the door.
You should not rely on her.

Conjunction

Conjunction is a word that connects words, phrases, clauses or sentences. e.g.


and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so, although, because, since, unless, when, while,
where are some conjunctions.
Examples.
She tried but did not succeed.
He does not go to school because he is ill.
John and Marry went to the cinema.
He thought for a moment and kicked the ball.
I waited for him but he didnt come.
You will be ill unless you quit smoking.
We didnt go to the market because it was raining outside.
Single word Conjunction: Conjunction having one word
e.g. and, but, yet, because etc.
Compound Conjunction: Conjunction having two or more words
e.g. as long as, as far as, as well as, in order that, even if, so that etc

Types of Conjunction.

There are three types of conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunction
Subordinate Conjunction
Correlative Conjunction

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History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Coordinating Conjunction.
Coordinating conjunction (called coordinators) joins words, phrases (which are
similar in importance and grammatical structure) or independent clauses.
Coordinating conjunctions are short words i.e. and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet.
Coordination conjunction joins two equal parts of a sentence,
Word + word
Phrase + phrase
Clause + clause
Independent clause + independent clause.
Examples.

Word + word: She likes tea and coffee.


Phrase + phrase: He may be in the room or on the roof.
Clauses + clause: What you eat and what you drink affect your health.
Independent clause + independent clause: The cat jumped over the
mouse and
the mouse ran away.
In the following examples, coordinating conjunctions join two words of same
importance.
She likes pizza and cake.
(pizza and cake)
I bought a table and a chair.
(table and chair)
He may come by bus or car.
(bus or car)
In the following examples, conjunction joins two independent clauses.
Independent clause is a clause which can stand alone as a sentence and have
complete thought on its own.
I called him but he didnt pick up the phone.
I advised him to quit smoking, but he didnt act upon my advice.
He became ill, so he thought he should go to a doctor.
He shouted for help, but no body helped her.
He wants to become a doctor, so he is studying Biology.
Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they
join. A comma is used with conjunction if the clauses are long or not well
balanced.
If both clauses have same subjects, the subject of 2nd clause may not be written
again. See the following examples
She worked hard and succeeded.
The player stopped and kicked the ball.
He became ill but didnt go to doctor.
Marry opened the book and started to study.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Subordinating Conjunctions.
Subordinating conjunctions (called subordinators) join subordinate clause
(dependent clause) to main clause.
e.g. although, because, if, before, how, once, since, till, until, when, where,
whether, while, after, no matter how, provided that, as soon as, even if,
MAIN CLAUSE + SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
SUBORDINATE CLAUSE + MAIN CLAUSE
Subordinate clause is combination of words (subject and verb) which cannot
stand alone as a complete sentence. Subordinate clause is also called dependent
clause because it is dependent on main clause. Subordinate clause usually starts
with relative pronoun (which, who, that, whom etc). Subordinate clause gives
more information in relation to main clause to complete the thought.
Subordinating conjunction joins subordinate clause to main clause. Subordinating
conjunction always come before the subordinate clause, no matter the
subordinate clause is before main clause or after the main clause.
Examples.
He does not go to school because he is ill.
I will call you after I reach my home.
I bought some cookies while I was coming from my office.
They played football although it was raining.
Although it was raining, they played foot ball.
As far as I know, this exam is very difficult.
I have gone to every concert since I have lived in New York.
You can get high grades in exam provided that you work hard for it.

Correlative Conjunction.
These are paired conjunctions which join words, phrases or clauses which have
reciprocal or complementary relationship.
The most commonly used correlative conjunctions are as follows
Either or
Neither nor
Whether or
Both and
Not only but also
Examples.
Neither John nor Marry passed the exam.
Give me either a cup or a glass.
Both red and yellow are attractive colours.
I like neither tea nor coffee.
He will be either in the room or in the hall.
John can speak not only English but also French.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Interjection

Interjections are short words which show strong feeling or emotions.

e.g. oh, ah, wow, hurrah, alas, ouch, Oops, aha, hey, etc

Interjections are short exclamations which express strong or sudden feeling of


Joy
Sorrow
Wonder

Exclamation sign is used after interjections.

Examples.
Hurrah! We won the competition.
Ouch ! It hurts.
Wow! What a nice shirt.
Hey ! what are you doing?
Alas! My parents are dead.
Oh! I forgot to bring my purse.

Besides these specific interjections, a normal word can also be used as


interjection if it is used to express feeling or emotion.
No! Dont touch it, its hot.
What! I am selected for the job?
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Help! I am about to fall.


Well ! I will try my level best.

6 Tense
Tense

Definition: An aspect of verb which tells the time of an action is called tense.
Tenses have certain rules, according to which a sentence is made.
There are mainly three kinds of tenses.
1. Present tense
2. Past tense
3. Future tense

Each of present, past and future tense is further divided into four kinds.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Simple (Indifinite)
Continuous (progressive)
Perfect
Perfect Continuous (Perfect progressive)

In this way, there are 12 kinds of tense, which are explained in detail as below

Present Simple Tense

It is used to express an action in present time, habitual or usual actions or daily


event or universal fact. It is used to express an action in present time which is
usually done on a regular basis. For example a student says, I go to school. It is
a daily activity of a student to go to school, so such actions are expressed by
present simple tense. Another example is, I work in a factory. It tells about a
usual action of a person that he works in a factory on regular basis.

Rules. 1st form of verb or base verb is used as main verb in sentence.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Structure of sentence Rules

Positive Sentence
Subject + Main verb + Object
Subject + 1st form of verb (or base verb) + Object
Note: If the subject in a sentence is he, she, it, singular or proper noun then s
or es is added to the first form of verb or base form in the sentence.
Examples.
I write a letter.
He gets up early in the morning.
Sun rises in east.

Negative Sentences
Subject + auxiliary verb +NOT + Main verb +object
Subject + Do not/Does not + 1st form of verb (or base form) + object
Examples.
I do not write a letter.
He does not get up early in the morning.
Sun does not rise in east.

Note: In negative sentence auxiliary verb do or does along with not is used. If
the subject in a sentence is he, she, it, singular or proper noun, then Does not
is used after subject in sentence. If subject is I, we, they, you or plural then Do
not is used after subject in sentence. s or es is not added to main verb in
negative sentence

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Interrogative Sentence
Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb + Object
Do/Does + Subject + 1st for of verb (or base verb) + Object
Examples.
Do I write a letter?
Does he get up early in the morning?
Does sun rise in east?

Note: If the subject in a sentence is he, she, it, singular or proper noun the
sentence is started with Auxiliary verb Does. If the subject in a sentence is I,
we, they, you or plural the sentence is started with auxiliary verb Do. s or
es is not added to main verb in Interrogative sentence

More Examples
Positive Sentences
I sing a song.
He drinks water
They read lessons
Birds chirp
John reaches home in time.
Water maintains its surface level.
Negative Sentences
I do not sing a song
He does not drink water
They do not read lessons
Birds do not chirp
John does not reach home in time.
Water does not maintain its surface level.
Interrogative Sentences
Do I sing a song?
Does he drink water?
Do they read lessons?
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Do birds chirp?
Does John reach home in time?
Does water maintain its surface level?

Present Continuous Tense

It is used to express a continued or ongoing action at present time. It expresses


an action which is in progress at the time of speaking. For example, a person
says, I am writing a letter. It means that he is in the process of writing a letter
right now. Such actions which are happening at time of speaking are expressed
by present continuous tense. Present Continuous tense is also called Present
progressive tense.

Rules. Auxiliary verb am or is or are is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or


base verb + ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of sentence

Positive Sentence
Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object
Subject + am/is/are + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object
If the subject is I then auxiliary verb am is used after subject in sentence.
If the subject is He, She, It, singular or proper name then auxiliary verb is is
used after subject in sentence.
If subject is You, They or plural then auxiliary verb are is used after subject in
sentence.
The participle ing is added to the 1st form of verb i.e. going (go) writing (write)
Examples
I am playing cricket.
He is driving a car
They are reading their lessons.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Negative Sentence
Subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object
Subject + am/is/are + not + (1st form of verb + ing) + object
Rules for using auxiliary verbs (am or is or are) after subject in negative
sentences are same as mentioned above.
Examples.
I am not playing cricket.
He is not driving a car
They are not reading their lessons.
Interrogative Sentences

Auxiliary verb + Subject + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object


Am/is/are + Subject + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object
For making interrogative sentences, the sentence is started with auxiliary verb
rather than putting auxiliary verb inside the sentence. If the subject is I the
sentence starts with auxiliary verb am. If the subject is He, She, It, singular or
proper name the sentence starts with auxiliary verb is. If subject is You, They
or plural the sentence starts with auxiliary verb are.
Examples.
Am I playing cricket?
Is he driving a car?
Are they reading their lessons?

More Examples
Positive Sentences
I am listening to the news
You are washing your clothes
She is riding on horse

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

They are playing football.


It is raining
Negative Sentence
I am not listening to the news.
You are not washing your clothes.
She is not riding on a horse.
They are not playing football.
It is not raining.
Interrogative Sentences
Am I listening to the news?
Are you washing your clothes?
Is she riding on a horse?
Are they playing football?
Is it raining?

Present Perfect Tense

It is used to expressed an action which happened or completed in past but


usually the action which happened or completed at a short time before now (near
past) not a very long time before now. Specific time such as two years ago, last
week or that day is usually not used in the sentences of in this tense. It means
that this tense expresses the action whose time when it happened, is not exactly
specified but it sounds to refer to some action that happened or completed in
near past.

Rules: Auxiliary verb has or have is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb (past
participle) is used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of Sentence

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Positive Sentence
Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + Subject
Subject + has/have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + subject
If the subject is He, She, It, singular or proper name then auxiliary verb has is
used after subject in sentence.
If subject is You, They or plural then auxiliary verb have is used after subject
in sentence.
Examples
I have eaten meal
She has learnt a lesson

Negative Sentence
Subject + Auxiliary verb + NOT + main verb (past participle) + Subject
Subject + has/have + NOT + 3rd form of verb or past participle + subject
Rules for using auxiliary verb has or have in negative sentence are same as
mentioned above.
Examples
I have not eaten meal.
She has not learnt a lesson.

Interrogative Sentences
Auxiliary verb + Subject + main verb (past participle) + Subject
Has/have + Subject + 3rd form of verb or past participle + subject
Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb. If the subject is He, She, It,
singular or proper name then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb has.
If subject is You, They or plural then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb
have.
Examples
Have I eaten meal?
Has she learnt a lesson?
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

More Examples.
Positive Sentences
They have gone to school.
They have bought a new car.
I have started a job
It has rained.
The guests have arrived
John has left for home.
You have told a lie.
Negative Sentences
They have not gone to school.
They have not bought a new car.
I have not started a job
It has not rained.
The guests have not arrived.
John has not left for home.
You have not told a lie.
Negative Sentences
Have they gone to school?
Have they bought a new car?
Have I started a job?
Has it rained?
Have the guests arrived?
Has John left for home?
Have you told a lie?

Present Perfect Continuous tense

It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past and is


continued until now. There will be a time reference, such as since 1980, for three
hours etc from which the action has been started. A sense of time reference is
found in these sentences which gives an idea that action has been continued
from some time in past till now. Such time reference or sense of time reference is
the identity of Present perfect continuous tense because it tells that action has
started from a particular time in past. For example, He has been reading in this
school since 2005, so the it means that he has started his education in this
school in 2005 and he is studying in this school till now.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Note: If there is not time reference or sense of time reference then it is not
Present perfect continuous tense because there is no hint about the time of
action when it started in past and it seems just an ongoing action at present time
which resembles present Continuous tense. So the reference of time
differentiates between Present perfect continuous tense and Present continuous
tense.

Rules: An auxiliary verb has been or have been is used in sentence. 1st form
of verb (base verb) +ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence.
Since or for is used before the time reference in sentence. If the time
reference is exactly known such as 1995, 4 Oclock then since is used before
the time in sentence. If the time reference is not exactly known such as three
hours, six years, four days, then for is used before the time in sentence. Time
reference such as 3 hours or 5 days is not exactly known because we dont know
that about which three hours a day is told in sentence or about which 5 days in a
month is told in sentence. While the 1995 is exactly known time.

Structure of sentence.
Positive Sentence.
Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Object + Time
reference
Subject + has been/have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object
+ time reference
If the subject is He, She, It, singular or proper name then auxiliary verb has
been is used after subject in sentence.
If subject is You, They or plural then auxiliary verb have been is used after
subject in sentence.
Examples.
He has been watering the plants for two hours.
I have been studying since 3 Oclock

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Negative Sentence.
Subject +Not between the Auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) +
Object + Time reference
Subject + has not been/have not been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing)
+ object + time reference
To make negative sentence, the word not is written between the auxiliary
verbs, so it becomes like has not been or have not been. The rule for using
auxiliary verb has been or have been in negative sentences is as same as
mentioned above.
Examples.
He has not been watering the plants for two hours.
I have not been studying since 3 Oclock.

Interrogative Sentence.
Auxiliary verb + Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) +
object + time reference
Has/have + Subject + been + (1st form of verb or base verb+ing) + object +
time reference
Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb. If the subject is He, She, It,
singular or proper name then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb has and
auxiliary verb been is used after subject
If subject is You, They or plural then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb
have and been is used after subject
Examples.
Has he been watering the plants for two hours?
Have I been studying since 3 Oclock?

More examples.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Positive sentences
It has been raining for three days.
I have been living in America since 2003.
He has been playing cricket for two hours.
They have been watching television since 6 Oclock.
She has been working in this office since 2007.
Negative sentences
It has not been raining for three days.
I have not been living in America since 2003.
He has not been playing cricket for two hours.
They have not been watching television since 6 Oclock.
She has not been working in this office since 2007.
Positive sentences
Has it been raining for three days?
Have I been living in America since 2003?
Has he been playing cricket for two hours.
Have they been watching television since 6 Oclock?
Has she been working in this office since 2007?

Past Simple Tense

It is used to express an action that happened or completed in past, usually a very


little time before speaking, or action which is just completed. Time of action is not
specified in terms of long time ago or short ago but it make a sense that the
action has done a little time ago. For example, a person says, I watched a
movie, it means the speaker of this sentence watched a movie a little time ago
or little time ago in the same day.
Rules:2nd form of verb (past simple) is used as main verb in the positive
sentences and base form is used in negative and interrogative sentences.

Structure of sentences
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Positive Sentence
Subject + main verb (past simple) + object
Subject + 2nd form of verb (past simple) + object
Examples
I killed a snake
He ate a mango.
Negative sentences
Subject + (auxiliary verb + not) main verb (base form) + object
Subject + did not + 1st form of verb or base form + object
In negative sentence did not is written and the 1st form of verb (base verb) is
used instead of using 2nd form (or past simple verb).
Examples.
I did not kill a snake
He did not eat a mango
Interrogative sentences
Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (base verb) + object
Did + subject + 1st form of verb (or base verb) + object
Interrogative sentence starts with did and the 1st form of verb (base verb) is
used instead of using 2nd form (or past simple verb).
Examples
Did I kill a snake?
Did he eat a mango?

More Examples
Positive sentences
He gave me a gift
They went to cinema.
She wrote a letter to him.
I made a table.
You answered correctly.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Negative sentences
He did not give me a gift
They did not go to cinema.
She did not write a letter to him.
I did not make a table.
You did not answer correctly.
Interrogative sentences
Did he give me a gift?
Did they go to cinema?
Did she write a letter to him?
Did I make a table?
Did you answer correctly?

More Examples.
Positive Sentences
They have gone to school.
They have bought a new car.
I have started a job
It has rained.
The guests have arrived
John has left for home.
You have told a lie.
Negative Sentences
They have not gone to school.
They have not bought a new car.
I have not started a job
It has not rained.
The guests have not arrived.
John has not left for home.
You have not told a lie.
Negative Sentences
Have they gone to school?
Have they bought a new car?
Have I started a job?
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Has it rained?
Have the guests arrived?
Has John left for home?
Have you told a lie?

Past Continuous tense

It is used to express a continued or ongoing action in past, an ongoing action


which occurred in past and completed at some point in past. It expresses an
ongoing nature of an action in past. For example, he was laughing. This
sentence shows ongoing action (laughing) of a person which occurred in past.
Past continuous tense is also called past progressive.

Rules: Auxiliary verb was or were is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or base
verb + ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of sentence
Positive sentences
Subject + auxiliary verb + Main Verb (present participle) + object
Subject + was/were + (1st form of verb or base verb +ing) +object
If the subject is he, she, It, I, singular or proper noun then auxiliary verb was
is used. If subject is you, we, they or plural then auxiliary verb were is used.
Examples.
She was crying yesterday.
They were climbing on a hill.
Negative sentences
Subject + auxiliary verb + NOT + Main verb (present participle) + object
Subject + was/were + NOT + (1st form of verb or base verb +ing) +object
Rules for using auxiliary verb after subject are same as mentioned above.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Examples.
She was not crying yesterday.
They were not climbing on a hill.
Interrogative sentences
Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb (present participle) + object
Was/were + Subject + (1st form of verb or base verb +ing) +object
The interrogative sentence starts with the auxiliary verb. If the subject is he,
she, It, I, singular or proper noun then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb
was. If subject is you, we, they or plural then the sentence starts with
auxiliary verb were.
Examples.
Was she crying yesterday?
Were they climbing on a hill?

More Examples
Positive sentences
They were laughing at the joker.
He was taking exam last month
You waiting for him yesterday
She was working in a factory.
It was raining yesterday.
Negative sentences
They were not laughing at the joker.
He was not taking exam last month
You were not waiting for him yesterday
She was not working in a factory.
It was not raining yesterday.
Interrogative sentences
Were they laughing at the joker?
Was he taking exam last month?
Were you waiting for him yesterday?
Was she working in a factory?
Was it raining yesterday?

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Past perfect tense

It is used to express an action which has occurred in past (usually, a long time
ago) and action which has occurred in past before another action in past.

For example,
I had lived in America. (The sense of time in this sentence refers to a completed
action in past and especially a long time ago)

The students had gone before the teacher came. (The first part of sentence The
student has gone is sentence of past perfect tense, it says about an action
which occurred before another action in past which is the teacher came. The
second part the teacher came is sentence of past simple tense. So such a
sentence which express an action in past before another action in past comprises
two parts where the first part of sentence is past perfect tense)

Rules. Auxiliary verb had is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb (past participle)
is used as main verb in sentence

Structure of sentence.
Positive sentence
Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object
Subject + had + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object
Examples.
He had taken the exam last year
A thief had stolen my watch.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Negative sentence
Subject + auxiliary verb + NOT + main verb (past participle) + object
Subject + had + not + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object
Not is written after auxiliary verb in negative sentence.
Examples.
He had not taken the exam last year
A thief had not stolen my watch.
Interrogative sentence
Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (past participle) + object
Had + subject + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object
Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb had
Examples.
Had he taken the exam last year
Had a thief stolen my watch?

More Examples
Positive sentences
They had visited a doctor.
He had slept.
I had finished my work last year.
It had rained heavily last month.
The film had started before we reached cinema.
Negative sentences
They had not visited a doctor.
He had not slept.
I had not finished my work last year.
It had not rained heavily last month.
The film had not started before we reached cinema.
Interrogative sentences
Had they visited a doctor?
Had he slept?
Had I finished my work last year?
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Had it rained heavily last month?


Had the film started before we reached cinema.

Past Perfect continuous tense

It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past and


continued until sometime in past. (Remember, an ongoing action in past which
continued till some time in past) There will be a time reference, such as since
1980, for three hours etc from which the action had started. A sense of time
reference is found in these sentences which shows that action had started in past
and continued till some time in past. Such time reference or sense of reference is
the identity of Present perfect continuous tense because it tells that action has
started from a particular time in past or for some time period. For example, He
had been studying in this school since 2005, so the it means that he had started
his education in this school in 2005 and he studied in this school till sometime in
past.

Note: If there is not time reference or sense of time reference, then it is not Past
perfect continuous tense because there is no hint about the time of action when
it started in past or continued for some time period, so it seems just an ongoing
action in past which resembles past Continuous tense. So the reference of time
differentiates between Past perfect continuous tense and past continuous tense.

Rules: An auxiliary verb had been is used in sentence. 1st form of verb (base
verb) +ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence. Since or for
is used before the time reference in sentence. If the time reference is exactly
known such as 1995, 4 Oclock then since is used before the time in sentence.
If the time reference is not exactly known such as three hours, six years, four
days, then for is used before the time in sentence. Time reference such as 3
hours or 5 days is not exactly known because we dont know that about which
three hours a day is told in sentence or about which 5 days in a month is told in
sentence. While the 1995 is exactly known time.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Structure of sentence.
Positive Sentence.
Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Object + Time
reference
Subject + had been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time
reference
Examples.
I had been waiting for him for one hour.
She had been playing chess since 7 Oclock.

Negative Sentence.
Subject +Not between the Auxiliary verbs + main verb (present participle) +
Object + Time reference
Subject + had not been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time
reference
To make negative sentence, the word not is added inside auxiliary verb, so it
becomes had not been.
Examples.
I had not been waiting for him for one hour.
She had not been playing chess since 7 Oclock.

Interrogative Sentence.
Auxiliary verb+ Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) +
object + time reference
Had + Subject + been + (1st form of verb or base verb+ing) + object + time
reference
Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb had and auxiliary verb been
is used after subject in sentence.
Examples.
Had I been waiting for him for one hour?
Had she been playing chess 7 Oclock?
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

More examples.
Positive sentences
I had been living in America since 2003.
He had been playing cricket for two hours.
They had been watching television since 6 Oclock.
She had been working in this office since 2007.
It had been raining for three days.
Negative sentences
I had not been living in America since 2003.
He had not been playing cricket for two hours.
They had not been watching television since 6 Oclock.
She had not been working in this office since 2007.
It had not been raining for three days.
Positive
Had
Had
Had
Had
Had

sentences
I been living in America since 2003?
he been playing cricket for two hours.
they been watching television since 6 Oclock?
she been working in this office since 2007?
it been raining for three days?

Future simple tense

It is used to express an action which has not occurred yet and will occur after
saying or in future. For example, I will go to zoo tomorrow, in this sentence the
person intend for tomorrows visit to zoo. In short, these sentences express
actions which will be done in future.

Rules. Auxiliary verb will is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or base form is
used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of sentence
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Positive sentence
Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object
Subject + will + (1st form of verb or base form +ing) + object
Examples.
I will buy a computer tomorrow.
They will come here.
Negative sentence
Subject + auxiliary verb+ not + main verb (present participle) + object
Subject + will +not + (1st form of verb or base form +ing) + object
To make negative sentence not is written after auxiliary verb in sentence.
Examples.
I will not buy a computer tomorrow.
They will not come here.

Interrogative sentence
Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (present participle) + object
Will + subject + (1st form of verb or base form +ing) + object
Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb will
Examples.
Will I buy a computer tomorrow?
Will they come here?

More Examples
Positive sentences
He will start a business.
She will send me a letter.
I will give you a pen tomorrow
Students will take exams at the end of semester.
They will buy a new car.
The Pattern of exam will change next year.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Negative sentences
He will not start a business.
She will not send me a letter.
I will not give you a pen tomorrow
Students will not take exams at the end of semester.
They will not buy a new car.
The pattern of exam will not change next year.
Interrogative sentences
Will he start a business?
Will she send me a letter?
Will I give you a pen tomorrow?
Will students take exams at the end of semester?
Will they buy a new car?
Will the Pattern of exam change next year?

Future Continuous tense

It is used to express a continued or an ongoing action in future. For example, I


will be waiting for you tomorrow, it conveys ongoing nature of an action
(waiting) which will occur in future.

Rules. Auxiliary verb will be is used in sentence. 1st form of verb + ing
(present participle) is used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of sentence
Positive sentence
Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object
Subject + will be+ 1st form of verb or base form+ing (present participle) +
object
Examples.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

I will be waiting for you.


You will be feeling well tomorrow.

Negative sentence
Subject + not between auxiliary verbs+ not + main verb (present
participle)
+ object
Subject + will not be + 1st form of verb or base form+ing (present
participle)
+ object
To make negative sentence not is written between auxiliary verbs will and be
in sentence.
Examples.
I will not be waiting for you.
You will not be feeling well tomorrow.

Interrogative sentence
Auxiliary verb + subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) +
object
Will + subject + be+ 1st form of verb or base form+ing (present participle) +
object
Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb will and auxiliary verb be
comes after subject in interrogative sentence
Examples.
Will I be waiting for you?
Will you be feeling well tomorrow?

More Examples
Positive sentences
We will be shifting to a new home next year.
He will be flying a kite.
It will be raining tomorrow.
She will be enjoying her vacations.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

He will be expecting honesty from his employees.


She will be delivering a speech to people.
Negative sentences
We will not be shifting to a new home next year.
He will not be flying a kite.
It will not be raining tomorrow.
She will not be enjoying her vacations.
He will not be expecting honesty from his employees.
She will not be delivering a speech to people.
Interrogative sentence
Will we be shifting to a new home next year?
Will he be flying a kite?
Will it be raining tomorrow?
Will she be enjoying her vacations?
Will he be expecting honesty from his employees?
Will she be delivering a speech to people?

Future Perfect tense

It is used to express an action which will occur in future and is thought to be


completed in future. It expresses a sense of completion of an action which will
occur in future. For example, John will have gone tomorrow. It shows a sense of
completion of an action (go) which will occur in future (tomorrow).

Rules. Auxiliary verb will have is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb or past
participle form of verb is used as main verb in sentence.

Structure of sentence
Positive sentence
Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Subject + will have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object


Examples
She will have finished the work by Wednesday.
I will have left for home by the time he gets up.
You will have started a job.
Negative sentence
Subject + Not between auxiliary verbs + main verb (past participle) +
object
Subject + will not have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object
Examples
She will have finished the work by Wednesday.
I will have left for home by the time he gets up.
You will not have started a job.

Interrogative sentence
Auxiliary verb + Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) +
object
Will + Subject +have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object
Examples
Will she have finished the work by Wednesday?
Will I have left for home by the time he gets up?
Will you have started a job?

More Examples
Positive sentences
He will have finished his work.
You will have made a new chair.
She will have decorated her home.
I will have bought a computer.
They will have shifted to a new home.
Students will have passed the examination.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Negative sentences
He will not have finished his work.
You will not have made a new chair.
She will not have decorated her home.
I will not have bought a computer.
They will not have shifted to a new home.
Students will not have passed the examination.
Interrogative sentences
Will he have finished his work?
Will you have made a new chair?
Will she have decorated her home?
Will I have bought a computer?
Will they have shifted to a new home?
Will students have passed the examination?

Future Perfect Continuous tense


It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that will start in future and is
thought to be continued till sometime in future. (Remember, an ongoing action in
future which will continue till some time in future). There will be a time reference,
such as since 1980, for three hours from which the action will start in future
and will continue. A sense of time reference is found which gives an idea that
action will start at some time in future and will continue for some time. Such
time reference or sense of time reference is the identity of Future perfect
continuous tense because it tells that action will start at a particular time in
future. For example, He will have been studying in this school since 2005, so
the it means that he will start studying in this school in 2005 and will study in this
school till sometime in future.

Note: If there is not time reference or sense of time reference then it is not
future perfect continuous tense because there is no hint about the time of action
when it will start in future and it seems just an ongoing action in future which
resembles future Continuous tense. So the reference of time differentiates
between Future perfect continuous tense between future continuous tense.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Rules: An auxiliary verb will have been is used in sentence. 1st form of verb
(base verb) +ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence. Since or
for is used before the time reference in sentence. If the time reference is
exactly known such as 1995, 4 Oclock then since is used before the time in
sentence. If the time reference is not exactly known such as three hours, six
years, four days, then for is used before the time in sentence. Time reference
such as 3 hours or 5 days is not exactly known because we dont know that about
which three hours a day is told in sentence or about which 5 days in a month is
told in sentence. While the 1995 is exactly know time.

Structure of sentence.
Positive Sentence.
Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Object + Time
reference
Subject + will have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object +
time reference
Examples.
I will have been waiting for him for one hour.
She will have been playing football since 2015.

Negative Sentence.
Subject +Not inside Auxiliary verbs + main verb (present participle) + Object
+ Time reference
Subject + will not have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object +
Time reference
To make negative sentence, the word not is added inside auxiliary verb, so it
becomes will not have been.
Examples.
I will not have been waiting for him for one hour.
She will not have been playing football since 2015.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Interrogative Sentence.
Auxiliary verb + Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) +
object + time reference
Will + Subject + have been + (1st form of verb or base verb+ing) + object +
time reference
Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb will and auxiliary verb have
been is used after subject in sentence.
Examples.
Will I have been waiting for him for one hour?
Will she have been playing football since 2015?

More examples.
Positive sentences
I will have been living in America since 2003.
He will have been playing cricket for two hours.
They will have been watching television since 6 Oclock.
She will been working in this office since 2007.
It will have been raining for three days.
Negative sentences
I will not have been living in America since 2003.
He will not have been playing cricket for two hours.
They will not have been watching television since 6 Oclock?
She will have been working in this office since 2007.
It will not have been raining for three days.
Positive sentences
Will I have been living in America since 2003?
Will he have been playing cricket for two hours.
Will they have been watching television since 6 Oclock?
Will she have been working in this office since 2007?
Will it have been raining for three days?

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

7 Active and Passive Voice


There are two ways to express an action of a subject in relation to its object

Active voice
Passive voice

In active voice subject acts upon object, while in passive voice object is acted
upon by subject. It can also be said, in active voice subject does a work on
object, while in passive voice object is worked on by subject. The normal
structure of an active voice sentence is subject+verb+object but in passive the
normal structure of sentence is reversed according to certain rules and becomes
like object+verb+subject. The real meaning of a sentence does not change if
the sentence is expressed either by active voice or by passive voice. The active
voice is mostly used in writing because it gives a direct and more concise
meaning. Passive voice is used sometimes due to the following reasons.

1. When intentionally hiding the subject of sentence. For example, a student who
failed in exam might say, some chapters were not studied.
Another example. Women were not treated as equals
2. When passive voice better explain thought of sentence. For example, to say, cloth
is sold in yards, is more meaningful than to say, Shop keepers sell cloth in yards.
3. When passive voice better emphasizes the main though of the sentence. For
example, a man who is being teased by another person might say in anger, you
will be beaten by me
4. When subject is not exactly known. For example, His watch was stolen. It is not
known that who stole his watch, the subject (thief) is not exactly known so it is
better to use passive voice for such sentence.There are certain rules for
expressing a thought in passive voice or for changing a sentence from active voice
to passive voice.
Fundamental Rules for changing from active voice to passive voice
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

1. The places of subject and object are interchanged i.e. the object shifts to the place
of subject and subject shifts to the place of object in passive voice. Example.
Active voice: I write a letter.
Passive voice: I letter is written by me.
Subject (I) of sentence shifted to the place of object (letter) and object (letter)
shifted to the place of subject (I) in passive voice.
2. Sometimes subject of sentence is not used in passive voice. Subject of sentence
can be omitted in passive voice, if without subject it can give enough meaning in
passive voice.Examples.
Passive voice: cloth is sold in yards
3. 3rd form of verb (past participle) is always used as main verb in sentences of
passive voice for all tenses. Base form of verb or present participle will be never
used in passive voice.
The word by is used before subject in sentences in passive voice.Example.
Active voice: He sings a song.
Passive voice: A song is sung by him.
4. The word by is not always used before subject in passive voice. Sometimes
words with, to, etc may also be used before subject in passive voice.
Examples.
Active voice: The water fills the tub.
Passive voice: The tub is filled with water.
Active voice: He knows me.
Passive voice: I am known to him.
5. Auxiliary verbs are used passive voice according to the tense of sentence.
Note: First 5 rules are usually same for all tenses in passive voice. Rule No. 6 is
about the use of auxiliary verb in passive voice which differs for each tense. The
auxiliary verbs of passive voice are used according to tense of sentence of its
active voice form. The auxiliary verb for each tense is given in the following table
with explanation and examples. Click on the following links.

PASSIVE VOICE FOR ALL TENSES RULES

The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice.
3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice.
Auxiliary verbs for each tense are given below in the table.

Present Simple Tense (passive Voice)


Auxiliary verb in passive voice: am/is/are

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Active voice:
Passive voice:
He sings a song.
A song is sung by him.
He does not sing a song.Does he sing a A song is not sung by him.
song?
Is a song sung by him?

Present Continuous Tense (passive Voice)


Auxiliary verb in passive voice: am being/is being/are being

Active voice:
I am writing a letter
I am not writing a letter.
Am I writing a letter?

Passive voice:
A letter is being written by me.
A letter is not being written by me.
Is a letter being written by me?

Present Perfect Tense (passive Voice)


Auxiliary verb in passive voice: has been/have been

Active voice:
She has finished his work
She has not finished her work.
Has she finished her work?

Passive voice:
Her work has been finished by her.
Her work has not been finished by her.
Has her work been finished by her?

Past Simple Tense (passive Voice)


Auxiliary verb in passive voice: was/were

Active voice:
I killed a snake
I did not kill a snake.
Did I kill a snake?

Passive voice:
A snake was killed by me.
A snake was not killed by me.
Was a snake killed by me?

Past Continuous Tense (Passive Voice)


Auxiliary verb in passive voice: was being/were being

Active voice:

Passive voice:

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

He was driving a car.


He was not driving a car.
Was he driving a car?

A car was being driven by him.


A car was not being driven by him.
Was a car being driven by him?

Past Perfect Tense (Passive Voice)


Auxiliary verb in passive voice: had been

Active voice:
They had completed the
assignment.
They had not completed the
assignment.
Had they completed the
assignment?

Passive voice:
The assignment had been completed by
them.
The assignment had not been complete
by them.
Had the assignment been completed by
them?

Future Simple Tense (Passive Voice)


Auxiliary verb in passive voice: will be

Active voice:
She will buy a car.
She will not buy a car.
Will she buy a car?

Passive voice:
A car will be bought by her.
A car will not be bought by her.
Will a car be bought by her?

Future Perfect Tense (passive Voice)


Auxiliary verb in passive voice: will have been

Active voice:
You will have started the job.
You will have not started the job.
Will you have started the job?

Passive voice:
The job will have been started by you.
The job will not have been started by you.
Will the job have been started by you?

Note: The following tenses cannot be changed into passive voice.


Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Present perfect continuous tense


Past perfect continuous tense
Future continuous tense
Future perfect continuous tense
Sentence having Intransitive verbs

Fundamental Rules

The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice.
3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice.
Auxiliary verbs for each tense are given below in the table.

Passive voice for Present/Future Modals CAN, MAY,


MIGHT, SHOULD, MUST, OUGHT TO

The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice.
3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice.
To change sentences having present/future modal into passive voice, auxiliary
verb be is added after modal in sentence.

Passive voice for Present/Future Modals CAN, MAY, MIGHT, SHOULD, MUST,
OUGHT TO
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: be

Active voice: CAN


She can play a violin.

Passive voice: CAN BE

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

She cannot play a violin.


Can she play a violin?

A violin can be played by her.


A violin cannot be played by her.
Can a violin be played by her?

Active voice: MAY


I may buy the computer.
I may not buy the computer.
May I buy the computer?

Active voice: MAY BE


The computer may be bought by me.
The computer may not be bought by
me.
May the computer be bought by me?

Active voice: MIGHT


Guests might play chess.
Guests might not play chess.

Active voice: MIGHT BE


Chess might be played by guests.
Chess might not be played guests.

Active voice: SHOULD


Students should study all lessons.
Students should not study all lessons.
Should students study all lessons?

Active voice: SHOULD BE


All lessons should be studied by
students.
All lessons should not be studied by
students.
Should all lessons be studied by
students?

Active voice: MUST


You must learn the test-taking
strategies.
You must not learn the test-taking
strategies.

Active voice: MUST BE


Test-taking strategies must be learnt
by you.
Test-taking strategies must not be
learned by you.

Active voice: OUGHT TO


They ought to take the examination.

Active voice: OUGHT TO BE


The examination ought to be taken by
them.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Passive voice for Past Modals MAY HAVE, MIGHT HAVE,


SHOULD HAVE, MUST HAVE, OUGHT TO HAVE

The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice.
3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice.
To change sentences having past modal into passive voice, auxiliary verb been
is added after modal in sentence.

Passive voice for Present/Future Modals


MAY HAVE, MIGHT HAVE, SHOULD HAVE, MUST HAVE, OUGHT HAVE TO
Auxiliary verb in passive voice: been

Active voice: MAY HAVE BEEN


Active voice: MAY HAVE
The opportunity may have been
You may have availed the opportunity.
availed by you.
You may not have availed the
The opportunity may not have been
opportunity.
availed by you.

Active voice: MIGHT HAVE


He might have eaten meal.
He might not have eaten meal.

Active voice: MIGHT HAVE BEEN


Meal might have been eaten by him.
Meal might not have been eaten by
him.

Active voice: SHOULD HAVE


You should have studied the book.
You should not have studied the book.

Active voice: SHOULD HAVE BEEN


The book should have been studied by
you.
The book should have not been studied
by you.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Active voice: MUST HAVE


He must have started job.
He must not have started job.

Active voice: MUST HAVE BEEN


Job must have been started by you.
Job must not have been started by you.

Active voice: OUGHT TO HAVE


You ought to have helped him.

Active voice: OUGHT TO HAVE


BEEN
He ought to have been helped by you

Passive voice of imperative sentences (command and


request)

A sentence which expresses command or request or advice is called imperative


sentence.
For example,
Open the door.
Turn off the television.
Learn your lesson.
For changing these sentences in to passive voice, auxiliary verb be is used. The
word Let is added before sentence in passive voice. Auxiliary verb be is
added after object in sentence in passive voice. Main verb (base form) of
imperative sentence is changed to 3rd form of verb (past participle) in passive
voice. For best understand read the following examples.

Examples
Passive voice of Imperative Sentences
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Active Voice

Passive Voice

Open the door.

Let the door be opened.

Complete the work.

Let the worked be completed.

Turn off the television.

Let the television be tuned off.

Learn your lesson.

Let your lesson be learnt.

Kill the snake.

Let the snake be killed.

Punish him.

Let him be punished.

Speak the truth.

Let the truth be spoken.

Help the poor.

Let the poor be helped.

Revise your book.

Let your book be revised.

Clean your room.

Let your room be cleaned.

Sentences which cannot be changed into passive voice


Transitive and intransitive verb
A verb can be either transitive or intransitive. A transitive verb needs an object
(in sentence) to give complete meaning while intransitive verb does need an
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

object (in sentence) to give complete meaning.


For example,
Transitive verb.
He sent a letter.
(Send is a transitive verb and it needs an object i.e. letter to express full
meaning.)
Intransitive Verb.
He laughs.
(Laugh is an intransitive verb and it does not need object for expressing full
meaning.)
e.g. Sleep, go, reach, sit, die, are examples of intransitive verbs.

Intransitive verb cannot be changed into passive voice


The sentences having intransitive verbs (belonging to any tense) cannot be
changed into passive voice. The reason is that there is not any object in such
sentences and without object of sentence passive voice is not possible.
A sentence can be changed into passive voice if it has subject and object.
Sometimes subject may not be written in passive voice but it does not mean that
it has no subject. Such sentences have subject but the subject is so common or
familiar or known that if even it is not written in passive voice, it gives full
meaning.
For example
Cloth is sold in yards.

The following tenses can also not be changed into passive voice.
1. Present perfect continuous tense
2. Past perfect continuous tense
3. Future continuous tense
4. Future perfect continuous tense

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

8 Direct and indirect speech

Introduction
There two ways to convey a message of a person, or the words spoken by a
person to other person.

1. Direct speech
2. Indirect speech

Suppose your friend whose name is John tells you in school, I will give you a
pen. You come to home and you want to tell your brother what your friend told
you. There are two ways to tell him.
Direct speech: John said, I will give you a pen.
Indirect Speech: John said that he would give me a pen.
In direct speech the original words of person are narrated (no change is made)
and are enclosed in quotation mark. While in indirect speech some changes are
made in original words of the person because these words have been uttered in
past so the tense will change accordingly and pronoun may also be changed
accordingly. In indirect speech the statement of the person is not enclosed in
quotation marks, the word that may be used before the statement to show that
it is indirect speech. Indirect speech is also called reported speech because
reported speech refers to the second part of indirect speech in which something
has been told by a person.
Reporting verb: The verb first part of sentence (i.e. he said, she said, he says,
they said, she says,) before the statement of a person in sentence is called
reporting verb.
Examples. In all of the following example the reporting verb is said.
He said, I work in a factory

(Direct speech)

He said that he worked in a factory.

(Indirect speech)

They said, we are going to cinema

(Direct speech)

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

They said that they were going to cinema.

(Indirect speech)

Reported Speech. The second part of indirect speech in which something has
been told by a person (which is enclosed in quotation marks in direct speech) is
called reported speech. For example, a sentence of indirect speech is, He said
that he worked in a factory. In this sentence the second part he worked in a
factory is called reported speech and that is why the indirect speech as a whole
can also be called reported speech.

Fundamental rules for indirect speech.


1. Reported speech is not enclosed in quotation marks.
2. Use of word that: The word that is used as a conjunction between the
reporting verb and reported speech.
3. Change in pronoun: The pronoun (subject) of the reported speech is changed
according to the pronoun of reporting verb or object (person) of reporting verb
(first part of sentence). Sometimes the pronoun may not change.

In following example the pronoun of reported speech is I which will be changed


in indirect speech into the pronoun (Subject) of reporting verb that is he.
Example.
Direct speech: He said, I am happy
Indirect Speech: He said that he was happy.
Direct speech: I said to him, you are intelligent
Indirect Speech: I said him that he was intelligent. (You changed to he
the person of object of reporting verb)
1. Change in time: Time is changed according to certain rules like now to then,
today to that day, tomorrow to next day and yesterday to previous day.

Examples.
Direct speech: He said, I am happy today
Indirect Speech: He said that he was happy that day.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

1. Change in the tense of reported speech: If the first part of sentence


(reporting verb part) belongs to past tense the tense of reported speech will
change. If the first part of sentence (reporting verb part) belongs to present or
future tense, the tense of reported speech will not change.

Examples.
Direct speech: He said, I am happy
Indirect Speech: He said that he was happy. (Tense of reported speech
changed)
Direct speech: He says, I am happy
Indirect Speech: He said that he is happy. (Tense of reported speech didnt
change)

Table for change in tense of reported speech for all


TENSES.
TENSE CHANGE - IN - INDIRECT SPEECH
Present simple tense into Past simple
Present Continuous tense into Past continuous
Present Perfect tense into Pas perfect
Present Perfect Continuous into Past perfect continuous
Past simple into Past Perfect
Past Continuous into Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect into Past Perfect
Future simple, will into would
Future Continuous, will be into would be
Future Perfect, will have into would have

Examples.

DIRECT SPEECH

INDIRECT SPEECH

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

PRESENT TENSE
PRESENT SIMPLE changes into PAST SIMPLE
He said, I write a letter
She said, he goes to school daily
They said, we love our country
He said, he does not like computer

He said that he wrote a letter.


He said that she went to school daily.
They said that they loved their country
He said that he did not like computer.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS changes into PAST CONTINUOUS

He said, he is listening to the music


She said, I am washing my clothes
They said, we are enjoying the
weather
I said, it is raining
She said, I am not laughing

He said that he was listening to the


music.
She said that she was washing her
clothes.
They said that they were not enjoying
the weather.
She said that she was not laughing.

PRESENT PERFECT changes into PAST PERFECT

She said, he has finished his work


He said, I have started a job
I said, she have eaten the meal
They said, we have not gone to New
York.

She said that he had finished his work.


He said that he had started a job.
I said that she had eaten the meal.
They said that they had not gone to New
York.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS changes into PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

He said, I have been studying since 3


Oclock
She said, It has been raining for three
days.
I said, She has been working in this
office since 2007

He said that he had been studying


since 3 Oclock.
She said that it been raining for three
days.
I said that she had been working in this
office since 2007.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

PAST TENSE
PAST SIMPLE changes into PAST PERFECT

He said to me, you answered


correctly
John said, they went to cinema
He said, I made a table
She said, I didnt buy a car

He said to me that I had answered


correctly.
John said that they had gone to
cinema.
He said that he had made a table.
She said that she had not bought a car.

PAST CONTINUOUS changes into PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

They said, we were enjoying the


weather
He said to me, I was waiting for you
I said, It was raining
She said, I was not laughing

They said that they had been enjoying.


He said to me that he had been waiting
for me.
I said that it had been raining.
She said that she not been laughing.

PAST PERFECT changes into PAST PERFECT (tense does not change)

She said, She had visited a doctor


He said, I had started a business
I said, she had eaten the meal
They said, we had not gone to New
York.

She said that she had visited a doctor.


He said that he had started a business.
I said that she had eaten the meal.
They said they had not gone to New
York.

FUTURE TENSE
FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE
WILL changes into WOULD

He said, I will study the book


She said, I will buy a computer
They said to me, we will send you
gifts
I said, I will not take the exam

He said that he would study the book.


She said that she would buy a
computer.
They said to me that they would send
you gifts.
I said that I would not take the exam.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE


WILL BE changes into WOULD BE

I said to him that I would be waiting for


I said to him, I will be waiting for him him.
She said, I will be shifting to new
She said that she would be shifting to a
home
new home.
He said, I will be working hard
He said that he would be working hard.
He said, he will not be flying kite
She said that he would not be flying
kites.
FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
WILL HAVE changes into WOULD HAVE

He said that he would have finished the


He said, I will have finished the work
work.
She said, they will have passed the
She said that they would have passed
examination
the examination.
He said, I will have gone
He said that he would have gone.

Note: The tense of reported speech may not change if reported speech is a
universal truth though its reporting verb belongs to past tense.
Examples.
Direct speech: He said, Mathematics is a science
Indirect Speech: He said that mathematics is a science.
Direct speech: He said, Sun rises in east
Indirect Speech: He said that sun rises in east. (Tense didnt change
because reported speech is a universal truth thought its reporting verb belongs
to past tense)

Indirect speech for Interrogative (question) sentence.

For changing interrogative (question) sentence into indirect speech we have to


observe the nature of question and then change it into indirect speech according
to it rules for indirect speech. A question can be of two types. One type which can
be answered in only YES or NO and other type which needs a little bit explanation
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

for its answer and cannot be answered in only YES or NO.


Examples
Do you like music? (It can be answered in YES or NO)
How are you? (It cannot be answered in YES or NO but it needs a little bit
explanation i.e, I am fine.)

Questions which can be answered in YES/NO.


To change questions (which can be answered in yes or no) into indirect speech,
word if or whether is used before the question in indirect speech. Rules for
change in tense of question sentences are same as for change in normal tenses
in indirect speech but sentence will not start with the auxiliary verb of the tense.
The word that is not used between reporting verb and reported speech as
conjunction in indirect speech for question sentence. Question mark is not used
in indirect speech.
Examples.
Direct speech: He said to me, do you like music?
Indirect Speech: He asked me if I liked music. (Not, did I like music)
Or Indirect Speech: He asked me whether I liked music.
Direct speech: She said, Will he participate in the quiz competition?
Indirect Speech: She asked me if he would participate in quiz
competition.
Direct speech: I said to him, are you feeling well?
Indirect Speech: I asked him if he was feeling well.
Direct speech: They said to me, did u go to school?
Indirect Speech: They asked me if I had gone to school.
Direct speech: He said to me, Have you taken the breakfast?
Indirect Speech: He asked me if I had taken the breakfast

Question which cannot be answered in YES/NO.


Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

To change such questions into indirect speech, the words if or whether is not
used. The tense of the question is changed according to the rules for change in
normal tenses in indirect speech but sentence will not start with the auxiliary
verb of the tense. The word that is not used between reporting verb and
reported speech as conjunction, in indirect speech for question sentence.
Question mark is not used in indirect speech.
Examples.
Direct speech: He said to me, how are you?
Indirect speech: He asked me how I was. (Not, how was I)
Direct speech: Teacher said to him, what is your name?
Indirect speech: Teacher asked him what his name was.
Direct speech: She said to him, why did you come late?
Indirect speech: She asked him why he had come late.
Direct speech: He said, when will they come?
Indirect speech: He asked when they would come.
Direct speech: She asked his son, why are you crying?
Indirect speech: She asked her son why he was crying.

Indirect speech for sentence having MODALS, can, may,


must,

Present modals are changed to past modals

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

Indirect speech for sentence having MODALS,


can, may, must, should, ought to
CAN changes into COULD
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

He said, I can drive a car

He said that he could drive a car.

She said, he can play a violin.

She said that he could play a violin.

They said, we can climb on a hill

They said that they can climb on a hill.

MAY changes into MIGHT

He said, I may buy a computer

He said that he might buy a computer.

She said, he may visit a doctor.

She said that he might visit a doctor.

They said, they may go to zoo

They said that they might go to zoo.

MUST changes into HAD TO

He said, I must work hard

He said that he had to work hard.

She said, they must carry on their


work

She said that they had to carry on their


work.

I said to him, you must learn the test- I said to him that he had to learn the
taking strategies
test-taking strategies.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Indirect speech for sentence having MODALS, should,


ought to, might, would, and could
The modal will not change in indirect speech
Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

THESE MODALS DO NOT CHANGE


would, could, might, should, ought to
Would

They said, we would apply for a visa

They said that they would apply for


visa.

He said, I would start a business.

He said that he would start a business.

She said, I would appear in exam

She said that she would appear in the


exam.

Could

She said, she could play a piano

She said that she could play a violin.

They said, we couldnt learn the


lesson

They said they couldnt learn the


lesson.

He said, I could run faster

He said that he could run faster.

Might
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

He said, guests might come

He said that guest might come.

She said, it might rain

She said that it might rain.

John said, I might meet him

John said that he might meet him.

Should

He said that he should avail the


opportunity.

He said, I should avail the


opportunity

She said that she should help him.

She said, I should help a him


They said, we should take the exam

They said that they should take the


exam.

Ought to

He said to me, you ought to wait for


him

He said to me that I ought to wait for


him.

She said, I ought to learn method of


study

She said that she ought to learn


method of study.

They said, we ought to attend our


classes

They said that they ought to attend


their classes.

Indirect speech for exclamatory and imperative


sentences.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Indirect speech of imperative sentence.


A sentence which expresses command, request, advice or suggestion is called
imperative sentence.
For example,
Open the door.
Please help me.
Learn your lesson.
To change such sentences into indirect speech, the word ordered or
requested or advised or suggested or forbade or not to do is added to
reporting verb depending upon nature of imperative sentence in reported speech.
Examples.
Direct speech: He said to me, please help me
Indirect Speech: He requested me to help him.
Direct speech: She said to him, you should work hard for exam
Indirect Speech: He suggested him to work hard for exam.
Direct speech: They said to him, do not tell a lie
Indirect Speech: They said to him not to tell a lie.
Direct speech: He said, open the door
Indirect Speech: He ordered to open the door.
Direct speech: The teacher said to student, do not waste time
Indirect Speech: The teacher advised the students not to waste time.
Direct speech: He said, please give me glass of water
Indirect Speech: He requested to give him a glass of water.
Direct speech: Doctor said to me, Do not smoke
Indirect Speech: Doctor advised me not to smoke.
Direct speech: The teacher said to him, Get out
Indirect Speech: The teacher ordered him to get out.

Indirect speech of exclamatory sentences.


Sentence which expresses state of joy or sorrow or wonder is called exclamatory
sentence.
For example.
Hurrah! We won the match.
Alas! I failed the test.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Wow! What a nice shirt it is.


To change such sentences, the words exclaimed with joy or exclaimed with
sorrow or exclaimed with wonder is added in the reporting verb depending
upon the nature of exclamatory sentence in indirect speech.
Examples.
Direct speech: He said, Hurrah! I won a prize
Indirect Speech: He exclaimed with joy that he had won a prize.
Direct speech: She said, Alas! I failed in exam
Indirect Speech: She exclaimed with sorrow that she failed in the exam.
Direct speech: John said, Wow! What a nice shirt it is
Indirect Speech: John exclaimed with wonder that it was a nice shirt.
Direct speech: She said, Hurrah! I am selected for the job
Indirect Speech: She exclaimed with joy that she was selected for the job.
Direct speech: He said, Oh no! I missed the train
Indirect Speech: He exclaimed with sorrow that he had missed the train.
Direct speech: They said, Wow! What a pleasant weather it is
Indirect Speech: They exclaimed with wonder that it was a pleasant
weather.

Changes in pronoun in Indirect Speech.

The pronoun (subject) of the reported speech is changed according to the


pronoun of reporting verb or object (person) of reporting verb (first part of
sentence). Sometimes the pronoun may not change.
1. First person pronoun in reported speech i.e. I, we, me, us, mine, or our, is
changed according to the pronoun of reporting verb if pronoun in reporting
verb
is third person pronoun i.e. he, she, it, they, him, his, her, them or their.
Examples.
Direct speech: He said, I live in New York
Indirect speech: He said that he lived in New York.
Direct speech: They said, we love our country
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Indirect speech: They said that they loved their country


2. First person pronoun in reported speech i.e. I, we, me, us, mine, or our, is not
changed if the pronoun (Subject) of reporting is also first person pronoun i.e. I
or
we.
Examples.
Direct speech: I said, I write a letter
Indirect speech: I said that I wrote a letter.
Direct speech: We said, we completed our work
Indirect speech: We said that we completed our work.
3. Second person pronoun in reported speech i.e. you, yours is changed
according
to the person of object of reporting verb.
Examples.
Direct speech: She said to him, you are intelligent
Indirect speech: She said to him that he was intelligent.
Direct speech: He said to me, you are late for the party
Indirect speech: He said to me that I was late for the party.
4. Third person pronoun in reported speech i.e. he, she, it, they, him, his, her,
them
or their, is not changed in indirect speech.
Examples.
Direct speech: They said, he will come
Indirect speech: They said that he would come.
Direct speech: You said, they are waiting for the bus
Indirect speech: You said that they were waiting for the bus.

Changes in time and adverbs in indirect speech.


Time and adverbs are changed in indirect speech.
Examples.
Direct speech: He said, I will buy a book tomorrow
Indirect speech: He said that he would buy a book the next day.
Direct speech: She said, I am happy now
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Indirect speech: She said that she was happy then.


Direct speech: He said, I like this book
Indirect speech: He said that he liked that book.

Common Rules
Today changes to that day/the same day
Tomorrow changes to the next day/the following day
Yesterday changes to the day before/the previous day
Next week/month/year changes to the following week/month/year
Last week/month/year changes to the previous week/month/year
Now/just changes to then
Ago changes to before
Here changes to there
This changes to that

9 High Frequency Words


In order to learn how to speak and write Standard English you should learn the
High Frequency Words of English. These are the words which are highly used in
printed materials. Such High Frequency Words are also asked in exams. Here is
the list of High Frequency Words.

Abolish
Abrupt
Absolute
Absolution
Absolutism
Abstain
Abuse
Acquaint
Acquiesce
Acquiescence

Anticipate
Antithesis
Apathy
Appealing
Appeasement
Appoint
Apprehend
Apprehension
Apprise
Approve

Breed
Breed
Brink
Bureaucracy
Bureaucrat
Cabinet
Caliph
Casual
Cease
Censorship

Conspiracy
Conspire
Constitute
Constitution
Constraint
Contaminate
Contemplate
Contempt
Contiguous
Contingency

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Acquire
Acquisition
Adapt
Adequate
Adhere
Adolescence
Adolescent
Adopt
Adore
Adorn
Advocate (v)
Affinity
Affirmation
Affluent
Agglomerate
Aggravate
Aggravate
Agitate
Ailment
Align
Allegation
Alleged
Allegiance
Alleviate
Allied
Allude
Ally
Alternative
Amalgamated
Ambassador
Ambiguity
Ameliorate
Amicability
Ample
Animus
Annihilate
Annul
Anomaly

Apt
Aristocracy
Arrogance
Arsenal
Articulate
Assail
Assault
Assert
Assess
Assess
Assume
Assure
Astonish
Aura
Authentic
Autonomy
Avenue
Banish
Befitting
Belly
Beneficial
Benevolent
Bereavement
Bestow
Betray
Betray
Betrayal
Betterment
Beware
Bewitching
Bifurcate
Bilateral
Bizarre
Blaze
Blur
Blush
Boast
Bramble

Certain,
Certainty
Chore
Chronological
Civilian
Clamorous
Climate
Climax
Clue
Coerce
Cognitive
Cohabit
Collaborate
Collaboration
Commence
Commission (verb)
Commodity
Communism
Compel
Competence
Complementary
Compliance
Comply,
Concede
Conceive
Concern
Conclude
Concrete
Confer
Confess
Conform
Conformity
Confront
Connotation
Connote
Conscience
Conscious
Console

Contrary
Convalescence
Convene
Convention
Convict
Conviction
Coordinate
Cope
Cordial
Counsel
Crackle
Creak
Creed
Cripple
Crippled
Crisis
Criterion
Critic
Critical
Criticize
Crucial
Culminate
Culpable
Culprit
Curb
Curious
Cynical
Damp
Damsel
Dare
Dart poke
Deadlock
Dearth
Debate
Decay
Decency
Deceptive
Declaration

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Declare
Deem
Defecate
Deject
Delegation
Delegation
Deliberate
Delinquent
Delusion
Demarcate
Demeanour
Demolition
Depart
Depict
Deplete
Deplore
Deploy
Deprive
Deputation
Depute
Derange
Deregulation
Descent
Desert
Designate
Designate
Despotism
Destitute
Destruction
Deter
Deteriorate
Determine
Deviate
Devotion
Diction
Dignity
Dire
Disarmament
Disaster

Disrupt
Dissemination
Distinct
Distinction
Distress
Ditch
Divergent
Divine
Divisive
Doctrine
Dominate
Domineer
Dominion
Doodle
Doom
Dote
Dramatic
Drastic
Dual
Dualistic
Duck (v)
Egalitarian
Elaborate
Eliminate
Elusive
Emanate
Embark
Embark
Embarrass
Embitter
Embody
Embroidery
Eminent
Emphasis
Emphasize
Empower
Empowerment
Enchant
Encroach

Envisage
Equitable
Equity
Eradicate
Erupt
Essence
Establish
Esthetic
Evaluate
Evaluation
Evidence
Exacerbate
Exaggerate
Exalt
Exception
Exclusive
Execute
Executive
Exemplify
Exhaustion
Exotic
Expel
Explicit
Explicit
Exploit
Exploit
Fabulous
Facilitate
Facsimile
Factual
Fade
Faint
Fallacy
False dawn
Fancy
Fascinate
Fascinating
Fascism
Federation

Flick
Flinch
Flock
Fluctuate
Foliage
Forecast
Forsake
Fragrance
Frail
Frailty
Fraught
Frown
Frustrate
Full-fledged
Furnish
Fuzzy
Gasp
Glory
Goofy
Grab
Grant
Grip
Groan
Groping
Grudge
Hackneyed
Hang ups
Harass
Harbinger
Harp
Haunt
Heinous
Heritage
Hierarchal
Hitherto
Hostile
Hostility
Hue
Humiliate

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Discernible
Discrepancy
Discrete
Discretion
Discriminate
Disgust
Dispatch
Dispose
Disrupt

Immense
Immense
Impact
Impact
Impart
Impel
Imperious
Impetus
Implement
Implication
Implicit
Imply
Impose
Impotence
Impracticable
Improvise
Inclination
Incline
Inclusive
Incredible
Inculcate
Indigenous
Indigenous
Indigent
Indispensable
Ineffable
Inevitable

Encumbered
Endure
Enfeebling
Enforce
Enfranchisement
Ensure
Entwine
Enumerate
Enunciate
Integrate
Intend
Interpret
Intervene
Intervention
Intimacy
Intimate
Intrinsic
Inventiveness
Investigate
Invigorate
Isolate
Itch
Jeopardize
Jolt
Jurisprudence
Juvenile
Key factor
Knuckle
Labyrinth
Lamentation
Lapse
Launch
Lean
Legislation
Legitimate
Lest

Feeble
Ferment
Ferocious
Fervent
Feudalism
Fidelity
Flabbergast
Flap
Flaunt

Humility
Hymn
Hype
Integration
Illusion
Illusive
Illustration
Imbibe
Imbroglio

Mediocrity
Mellifluous
Mention
Merge
Metaphor
Moan
Monarchy
Monologue
Monopoly
Mop
Morbid
Multifaceted
Mutter
Navigation
Negate
Negotiate
Nevertheless
Nominate
Nostalgia
Novelty
Obligate
Obligation
Obligatory
Obscure
Obsessive
Omnipotent
Omniscient

Pattern
Pedigree
Penetrate
Perceive
Perish
Perpetuate
Perpetuation
Perquisite
Perquisites
Personnel
Perturb
Pervasive
Pervert
Pessimistic
Petite
Petition
Piety
Pivot
Pivotal
Placid
Plaintive
Plea
Pledge
Plight
Poise
Pompous
Portentous

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Infancy
Infant
Infer
Inferior
Infirm
Inflict
Influence
Infra-structure
Infuse
Ingenuity
Inherent
Initiate
Innovative
Insight
Insight
Insinuate
Insist
Insolence
Instigate
Instinct
Insulate

Lethal
Liberal
Liberate
Liberty
Likely
Liverpool
Loathsome
Loft, lofty
Luminous
Lurch
Lure
Lust
Magnificent
Maiden
Maintain
Maintenance
Malfunction
Maple
Marvelous
Maxim
Mediocre

Onslaught
Operate
Opine
Oppose
Oppress
Oppression
Opt
Optimistic
Opulent
Ordain
Orient
Originate
Overlook
Overturn
Overwhelming
Pact
Palliative
Pamphlet
Pang
Paramount
Patron

Portray
Potency
Pound (v)
Pragmatic
Pragmatic
Preach
Preamble
Precedent
Predict
Preservative
Prevail
Prime
Prime
Privilege
Profess
Profound
Proliferation
Prolong
Prominent
Promote
Protest

Provision
Provoke
Purgation
Pursuit
Puzzle
Queer
Rabid
Radical
Raid
Rapport
Rational
Realm
Rear
Rebel
Rebellious
Rebelliousness

Revive
Revolt
Righteous
Rival
Rivalry
Rock
Rut
Ruthless
Salient
Salutary
Salute
Sanctimonious
Satire
Savior
Scaffold
Scarcity

Sovereignty
Spade
Spatial
Sphere
Splash
Splendid
Sponsor
Spurn
Stagnation
Stake
Stance
Statute
Statutory
Stereotype
Stipend
Strategy

Tempt
Tenet
Tentative
Terminate
Terminus
Terribly
Terrify
Throb
Tilt
Tiresome
Toil
Tonic
Toss
Tragic
Trait
Trait, traitor

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Rebuke
Recommend
Reconcile
Reconciliation
Rectification
Rectify
Redemption
Reduce
Regime
Rehabilitate
Relentlessly
Relic
Relieve
Relish
Rely
Remedy
Remedy
Renaissance
Render
Repatriate
Repudiation
Repulse
Resign
Resolution
Resolve
Resonance
Resort
Restraint
Retain
Retrenchment
Reveal
Revert

Scenario
Scold
Scrupulous
Self-deception
Self-reliance
Semantic
Sentiment
Serfdom
Severe
Shamanistic
Shamble
Sheer
Shrew
Shudder
Sibling
Sigh
Slang
Slaughter
Slaughter
Sleek
Slight
Slightly
Slogan
Snap (v)
Sneer
Solace
Sole
Solely
Solidarity
Solitude
Sordid
Sovereign

Strengthen
Stringent
Stun
Sturdy
Subjugate
Sublime
Subordinate
Subservience
Subsidies
Subsidize
Substantial
Substitute
Subtle
Suburb
Suffer
Suffocate
Superb
Superior
Supervise
Supervision
Suppress
Surrender
Suspect
Sustain
Sustainable
Sustenance
Swirl
Symposium
Synchronize
Tackle
Tag
Tariff

Trance
Transcend
Transient
Treacheries
Tremendous
Trivial
Turmoil
Tyranny
Unbiased
Uncertainty
Underlie
Undermine
Undue
Unprecedented
Urinate
Utter
Vacillate
Vague
Vanish
Veil
Venerate
Venerate
Vent
Verge
Verily
Vest
Vicegerent
Vigil
Vigilance
Vigor
Vigor
Vigorous

10 How To Sharpen Brain

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Sharp mindedness means the quickness of a person to interpret, understand,


analyse, or pick up an idea adequately. It is a quality that enables you to find a
solution to a problem very quickly or answer a question very quickly or learn very
quickly. A person with sharp brain is a keen and quick observer. He has also a go
creativity power. He has good memory to remember things for long time. Sharp
mindedness is necessary in every sphere of life. Suppose you are a student, you
need to learn things quickly and properly to avoid wastage of time. Similarly in
exam you need to reproduce ideas (what you have learnt while your preparation)
in paper very quickly to complete the paper in time. A sharp minded student
takes comparatively less time to learn a chapter than a blunt minded student.

Some people have this quality as in-born quality while others have to develop
this
quality
by
practice.
There many ways to sharpen your brain, some of which are as follows

Use your brain more and more Brain Exercise


Like other parts, the brain also becomes more powerful by exercising brain.
Exercising brain means using it more and more. Generally brain is involved in
every work we do but there are some works in which we have to brain, thinking
power, mental analysing power and all our mental capabilities, such works can
contribute in exercising our brains. For instance, a product maker is in a situation
when he thinks how to minimise the cost of making a product as well as
maximise the quality of product. He will have to think more and more, use his
brain to find the solution which indirectly exercise his brain as well. Similarly we
can produce such situations or involve ourselves in such situations to exercise
our brain. In the beginning, we will face difficulties in such brain exercise but with
passage of time it will become very easy as we develop brains sharpness by
exercising our brain. Mental capability or thinking power can be enhanced by
using brain in the same way. Brain exercises sharpen our brain. Try mental
exercise daily. It sharpens your mind. It strengthens neural connections in your
brain. Now think what are a brain exercises or such situations which exercise our
situation? It can be a simple task like Essay writing on a topic, in which we have
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

use our brain to collect ideas about the topic and use brain to present ideas in a
proper way for the reader. We take a paper and write all the idea that we know
about the topic. We may know 10 to 15 topics very easily then we start thinking
(brain exercise) to find more and ideas about the topic. If we write such essays
daily, it can exercise our brain to sharpen it.
There are different activities which involve brain work and flourish the power of
your brain.

Playing games like chess, scrabble, and many others


Solving numerical problems, or puzzles and quizzes
Trying out tricky situations usually given in magazines and newspaper.
Making some difficult charts and tables, daily
Studying difficult topics and trying to learn it and gain command on it.
Writing essays on different topics, daily

The above activities are brain exercises. If you do such activities daily, it slowly
and gradually increases your mental capability. Brain sharpening is not possible
in one day. It needs daily brain exercise and within few days you feel the change.

Playing games like chess and scrabble are also very helpful in brain sharpening,
where you have to think about you every move as well as about the move of your
opponent player in these games. By these games you can improve power of your
brain. At the first time when you play a game you feel it very difficult but by
playing it again and again you become master of it because by constant brain
exercise your brain power is enhanced and you master it.

Critical thinking Adequate thinking approach to things.


When we hear something, read something or working on something, it is very
important that our thinking approach towards it should be adequate and precise,
which involves:

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Thinking about an idea at every angle.


Get into the depth of idea.
Serious thinking about an idea.
Alertness while work

Our thinking approach should not be only up to the surface of an idea, we should
think about it at every angle an go to the depth of the idea. Try to analyse ideas.
Have scientific mental approach to things. Some things need more heed so these
should not be taken light. Take things important things serious and think on its all
aspects as well as avoiding unnecessary aspects. Suppose you have to solve a
problem, you are asked to solve a problem, there will be many solutions the
problem but you have to choose the best one. So it is not only to think on about
what are the solutions to the problem but you should find the solution and
analyze each solution and consider the best one which yield more positive
consequences. Think on its all aspects. There will be many solutions to the
problem but you have to choose the best one. So it is not only to think on about
what are the solutions to the problem but you should find the solution and
analyze each solution and consider the best one which yield more positive
consequences.
Similarly if you are a student and you have a study a topic. There is a supporting
idea in the paragraph, which is true according to the author. You should think
over it whether it is really true or not. Dont just accept it as true because the
author has told that it is true. You should analyze the idea, have also
contradictory assumption, and think on both. When you do so you come to know
about it in full and you learn it properly. Intelligent people have such thinking
approach. Study is an activity which requires more brain work because you
observe things and pick up them which is totally a brain work. While studying you
have use brain on each idea in order to learn it effective and gain command over
it.

Nutrients for brain.


Take nutrients which are rich in .good for brain. Nutrient having
antioxidant like vitamin C, and E and beta carotene, vitamins B, omega-3 fatty
acids and folic acid etc, are good for brain. Add 3 to 5 Almonds in one glass milk,
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

keep it for 5 to 6 minutes and drink it daily, it is good for mental health. Apple
juice is also good for sharpening brain.
Take physical exercise regularly.
Brain takes it nutrients from blood for functioning properly. Physical exercise
speeds up blood flow to brain and brain gets well nourished as well as brain gets
rid of waste products. Physical exercise is necessary for enhancing mental
capabilities.

Try to get full Sleep.


Sleep is essential for brain to function properly. Sleep helps our brain in two ways
While sleep our brain relaxes because our brain usage is minimized while sleep.
While sleep our brain involves in some important processes, i.e. working on
data we have worked on, memorization of things etc.

Our brain involves in activities we do all the day. Our brain gets tired by
constantly involving in activities we do all the daylong and the brain function is
affected. Thats why brain needs to take rest. When we sleep our brain relaxes
and become ready to function properly.
Besides relaxation of brain, our brain perform certain process while we sleep
which consist of working on data, storing data, strengthening neurons
connection and making space for new data.

To sharpen your brain you should know how to concentrate on a thing


and how to improve the power of your memory.

How to build concentration for study

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Concentration on work is important in all sphere of life. Effective study is only


possible if you study with full attention throwing off mind all the irrelevant
thoughts which interrupt in the process of learning. Concentration means to
throw off mind all unnecessary thoughts and converge all the mental capabilities
on a point. Normally the rays of sun do not burn a paper, because these rays are
dispersed but if the rays of sun are converged on paper with the help of lens, it
burns the paper at once. Similarly converging your mental capabilities enables
productive study the power of concentration.

These are the tips to improve power of concentration.

Try to get full sleep.


Take at least six hour rest for refreshment and relaxation of your mind. A fresh
mind can concentrate more easily.

Take regular exercise.


Brain takes its nutrients from blood for functioning properly. Physical exercise
speeds up blood circulation to brain and brain gets well nourished as well as
brain gets rid of waste products. Physical exercise is necessary for enhancing
power of concentration.

Study in a place with no or less distractions.


Your study place should be free from such things which may absorb your
attention, i.e television, music, changing color bulbs, maps etc. Similarly study in
quiet place free from sound distractions.

Avoid multi-tasking.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

While you study avoid playing with other things. Like you study as well as texting
to friends on cell phone or making hair styles or one eye on television and one
eye on book. Similarly study one subject in one time.

Have free mind.


Throw off your mind all the irrelevant thoughts while you study. If you are
obsessed by a certain idea, try to find a solution to your problem first. Stress
makes it difficult to concentrate.

Fixation of priorities.
Fixation of priorities, what should be done first and what should be done next, is
very important for having full concentration in your work. If you dont fix your
priorities and work haphazardly, it is more likely you start thinking while doing
one task shouldnt I do the other task first as that is more important. This
thought will not let you work with concentration. Make time-table for your subject
and follow it.

Take short breaks in long study.


If you study for a long time, you get bore and cant maintain concentration on
work. You should refresh your mind by taking short breaks to maintain your
concentration on study.

Have interest in your study.


Lack of motivation and interest leads to boredom and dividend attention so
develop your interest in your studies.

Have good breakfast.


Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Your breakfast should contain items with high protein content, carbohydrates and
low sugar content. When you get up from sleep, have good diet though normally
you should take light diet.

Dont take too much tea or coffee.


Tea or coffee has caffeine that gives you more strength for sometime
but soon leaves you sluggish.

Concentration Exercises.
There some exercises which improve your power of concentration i.e.
yoga, self-hypnosis, looking at a round spot on wall with full attention etc. There
are books on these things you can study.

How to improve your memory

Good memory is a necessary attribute brilliant student. Students have to learn as


well as memorize things to reproduce these things in their own words in
examination. It should be noted that by memorizing I never mean cramming.
Student should always avoid cramming because it puts end to creativity. He
should understand and learn in a way that he can use that learning himself. But
still a part of study needs to be memorized. A science student has to understand
scientific processes in their science books as well as make sketch of steps
involved in these steps. Such learning requires good memory. Let me tell you
how to improve your memory.

Associate one information with other information.


When you study and you pick a new information, associate it with another
formation, which you have already learnt. Making such relation between same
information will help you remember things easily.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Make image of data in your mind.


Try to make a sketch of information in your mind. When you read something,
think for a while draw its picture in your mind. In this way you transform data into
memorable
image.
For example, you study hydrologic cycle it process telling you how waters
re-cycle to soil. It is a lengthy process in which water; either directly from soil
surface or after plants absorbs through roots and transpires it into atmosphere,
converts to vapours. Vapours condense into clouds and come back to soil in form
of rain. You can keep this process by making a sketch (image) of this process in
you mind. It is just an example.

Make short formulae or short sentences for complex data.


It is a nice tactic if you have to memorize complex data or many steps
involved in a process in its sequence. In this way, you have to make a short word
or sentence contain first alphabets of each idea.
Example 1
Suppose you study trigonometry, there are complex formulae, which
can confuse you in exam if you dont memorize them. See these formulae given
below.
Sin = Perpendicular/Hypotenuse
Cos = Base/Hypotenuse
Tan = Perpendicular/Base
Make a sentence for it to memorize it easily, we make a sentence some people
have curly black hair through properly brushing
The first three words in this sentence are for first formula, next three words in
sentence are for second formula and last three words in sentence are for last
formula.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

See first three words of sentence


Some People have: first alphabets of these three words are S, P H. where S
stand for Sin, P for perpendicular and H for Hypotenuse.. it make first
formula,
Sin = Perpendicular/Hypotenuse
Next three words.
Curly black hair: first alphabets of these three words are C, B, H. where C
stands Cos, B for base and H for hypotenuse and it makes 2nd formula
Cos = Base/Hypotenuse
Last three words.
Through Properly brushing: It give us three alphabets T, P and B. where T
stands for Tan, P stands for perpendicular and B for base. It make the 3rd
formula
Tan = Perpendicular/Base
Example 2
you have to memorize the name of four phases of MITOSIS (cell
division process) in its right sequence which are1-Prophase, 2-Metaphase, 3Anaphase, and 4-Telophase. Make a word or two words like PMA Test (a test
for army selection). From this word P stands for Prophase, M stands for
Metaphase and T (first alphabet of test) stands for Telophase.

Reviewing.
If you study a topic and forget this topic after some days. Dont worry it is
common. You should review your study again and again to remember it for long
time. If you study in morning, it is good to you review it in night. You should at
least review a topic after every week.

Reading aloud and writing.


Some students remember things by reading aloud or writing the study stuff.
Practice it, it can help you.
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

Mental Exercise.
Try mental exercise daily. It sharpens your mind. It strengthens neural
connections in your brain. There are different activities by which you can exercise
your brain. Like doing difficult arithmetic calculations with help of your mind,
puzzle games, solving a questionnaire where you have to use your brain. The
more you use your brain the better it is.

Nutrients for brain.


Take nutrients which are rich in .good for brain. Nutrient having antioxidant
like vitamin C, and E and beta carotene, vitamins B, omega-3 fatty acids and folic
acid etc, are good for brain. Add 3 to 5 Almonds in one glass milk, keep it for 5 to
6 minutes and drink it daily, it is good for mental health. Apple juice is also good
for sharpening brain.

Think and accept you can remember.


Never say you cant remember. You can remember only if you say that you can
remember and accept this mentally.

Try to get full sleep.


Take at least six hour rest for refreshment and relaxation of your mind so that
your mind can work more efficiently.

Take regular exercise.


Brain takes it nutrients from blood for functioning properly. Physical exercise
speeds up blood flow to brain and brain gets well nourished as well as brain gets
Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt

rid of waste products. Physical exercise is necessary for enhancing memory


power.

Prepared & Selected By Iftikhar Ali Msc Economics (AIOU), Certification in Chinese
History & Political Economy Howard University, Behavioral Economics (Toronto
University), Globalization (Howard University), American Capitalism (Cornell
University), Student of CMA (Certified Management Accountant) Institute of Cost &
Management Accountancy Pakistan. Teaching at Punjab College of excellence in
Commerce Kamra Cantt