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History

Present/Future

Anaesthesia has been said to be used


since 3400 BCE in which the Sumerians
farmed and collected opium from poppy
seeds. Over many years, the drug's formula
exchanged hand and it was reported that in
650 BC, many people knew about its
eects. Meanwhile, Ancient Egyptians had
found other methods by using mandrake
fruit. They had also started farming other
drugs with similar eects to anaesthesia.
Meanwhile in China, new methods involving
jasmine, proved more eective and was
named Mafeisannowadays called
cannabis.From 1200 1500, there was an
eective method of pain removal during
surgery named Dwale (consisting of bile,
opium and lettuce). Until the 18th century
there was no huge breakthroughs in the
western hemisphere until Joseph Priestley
and discovered Nitrous Oxide (laughing
gas) as a new way of bypassing pain.

During the past few centuries, there have


been many major breakthroughs including
the use of anaesthesia in endoscopy. In
1934 the first intravenous version was
created by Ernest Volwele and until the
20th century both intravenous and
inhalation methods caused damage until
laryngoscopy was used in a much more
eective way. It caused damage by
harming the trachea but needed to be done
to take a look at the voice box.

During the 21st Century new digital


methods mean video laryngoscopy can ve
used. Also, xenon is now being used as a
substitute for anaesthesia. In the future,
more digital methods will be used with
anaesthesia via microchips and the viewing
of internal organs by clearer video.
Bibliography

Interesting Fact #3

http://www.bupa.co.uk/health-information/
directory/l/ laryngoscopy

There are three types of anaesthesia:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anesthetic

General - The drug puts you in an artificial coma, so


no pain is felt any where in the body and you do not
move as you are unconscious

http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/
anestheticgeneral-inhalation-route-parenteralroute-rectal-route/ description/drg-20069931

Local - The drug only aects the restricted ares of


the body

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/anaesthesia/Pages/
Introduction.aspx http://www.histansoc.org.uk/
timeline.html

Topical - A local anaesthetic with is used to numb


the surface of the body.

All websites accessed on 10/12/15 at 14:50

ANAESTHESIA
BY ROHAN MEHRA

What is it?

Anaesthetics are drugs which induce


insensitivity to pain. They are normally given
during operations or surgery in which a lot of
pain is likely to be felt. The drug prevents this
from occurring and therefore allows it to be
carried out.

How do they work?


They work by essentially stopping impulses
from the pain receptors reaching the nervous
system ; which stops it from recognising pain.
This enables the patient to feel no pain in the
area administered. After a certain time, the
eect wears o and the path taken by the

Why are they important?


They are of incredible value to the NHS ,who
without anaesthesia would be forced to place
patients under extreme distress. Furthermore,
without the drug, the immense pain in some
operations an also cause harm to patients
with some dying from the pain they receive.

Who administers them?

A specialist doctor, the Anaesthetist,


administers the drug. They decide the
concentrations to be given depending on
age, gender, general health, the condition of
your respiratory system, any known allergies
and previous exposure to the drug.

Interesting Fact #1

Interesting Fact #2

Anaesthesiologists often
tell their patients they will
be put to sleep, but the
truth is theyre being put
in a reversible coma.

Patients under
anaesthesia can wake up
during surgery. This rare
condition occurs when
patients are able to recall
their surroundings during
the operation.

What is it made from?


A common anaesthetic, lidocaine is given
the name

2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6dimethylphenyl)acetamide

It has the molecular structure C14H22N2O


and is commonly used to stabilise and
control the heart rate as well as being a
local anaesthetic. It has a basic structure,
but this can be varied for dierent
methods of treatment. Other variations
include: Lidocaine Carbonate, Lidocaine
Hydrochloride and Lignocaine. These all
have similar structures but slightly dierent
functional groups.

How is it made?

Lidocaine is made by synthesising: 2,6dimethylaniline and 2-chloroacetyl chloride and


diethyl amine together. By mixing the first two
reactants together a precipitate is formed after
adding sodium acetate. The liquid is removed
with vacuum filtration with the liquid being
removed. The solid product left is then purified
by adding the diethyl amine and heating at 140
degrees whilst using a condenser. The mushy
lump is left and filtered again using the
vacuum. After adding hexane, the product with
a 46% yield is left.