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Entropy and Unavailable Energy (Lost

Work by Another Name)

Consider a system consisting of a heat reservoir at
atmosphere) at

in surroundings (the

. The surroundings are equivalent to a second reservoir

. For an amount of heat,

, transferred from the reservoir, the

maximum work we could derive is

times the thermal efficiency of a Carnot
cycle operated between these two temperatures:

Only part of the heat transferred can be turned into work, in other words only
part of the heat energy is available to be used as work.
Suppose we transferred the same amount of heat from the
reservoir directly to another reservoir at a temperature
maximum work available from the quantity of heat,
the reservoir at

. The

, before the transfer to


The maximum amount of work available after the transfer to the reservoir


There is an amount of energy that could have been converted to work prior to
the irreversible heat transfer process of magnitude



is the entropy gain of the reservoir at

and (

) is the

entropy decrease of the reservoir at

. The amount of energy,
, that
could have been converted to work (but now cannot be) can therefore be
written in terms of entropy changes and the temperature of the surroundings

Engine Formulas
Cylinder Swept Volume (Vc):

Vc= cylinder swept volume [cm3 (cc) or L]
Ac = cylinder area [cm2 or cm2/100]
dc = cylinder diameter [cm or cm/10]
L = stroke length (the distance between the TDC and BDC) [cm or cm/10]
BDC = Bottom Dead Center
TDC = Top Dead Center

* Increase the diameter or the stroke length will increase the cylinder volume, the
ratio between the cylinder diameter/cylinder stroke called bore/stroke ratio.
- bore/stroke >1 is called over square engine, and is used in automotive engines
- bore/stroke =1 is called square engine
- bore/stoke <1 is called= under square engine, and is used in tractor engine

Engine Swept Volume (Ve):

Ve = engine swept volume [cm3 (cc) or L]
n = number of cylinders
Vc = cylinder swept volume [cm3 (cc) or L]
Ac = cylinder area [cm2 or cm2/100]
dc = cylinder diameter [cm or cm/10]
* The units of cylinder swept volume is measured in (cm3, cubic centimeter (cc), or
- Ve for small engines, 4 cylinder engines is (750 cc:1300 cc)
- Ve for big engine, 8 cylinder engines is (1600 cc:2500 cc)

Compression Ratio (r):

r = compression ratio
Vs = cylinder swept volume (combustion chamber volume) [cc, L, or m 3]
Vc = cylinder volume [cc, L, or m3]
* Increase the compression ratio increase engine power

- r (gasoline engine) = 7:12, the upper limit is engine pre ignition

- r (diesel engine) = 10:18, the upper limit is the stresses on engine parts

Engine Volumetric Efficiency (v):


V = volumetric efficiency
Vair = volume of air taken into cylinder [cc, L, or m 3]
Vc = cylinder swept volume [cc, L, or m3]

* Increase the engine volumetric efficiency increase engine power

- Engine of normal aspiration has a volumetric efficiency of 80% to 90%
- Engine volumetric efficiency can be increased by using:
(turbo and supper charger can increase the volumetric efficiency by 50%)

Engine Indicated Torque (Ti):

Ti = engine indicated torque [Nm]
imep = indicated mean effective pressure [N/m2]
Ac = cylinder area [m2]
L = stroke length [m]
z = 1 (for 2 stroke engines), 2 (for 4 stroke engines)
n = number of cylinders
= crank shaft angle [1/s]

Engine Indicated Power (Pi):

imep = is the indicated mean effective pressure [N/m2]
Ac = cylinder area [m2]
L = stroke length [m]
n = number of cylinders
N = engine speed [rpm]
z = 1 (for 2 stroke engines), 2 (for 4 stroke engines)
Vc = cylinder swept volume [m3]
Ve = engine swept volume [m3]
Ti = engine indicated torque [Nm]
= engine angular speed [1/s]

Engine Mechanical Efficiency (m):


m = mechanical efficiency
Pb = engine brake power [kW]
Pi = engine indicated power [kW]
Pf = engine friction power [kW]

Engine Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC):

SFC = specific fuel consumption [(kg/h)/kW, kg/(3600 s x kW), kg/(3600 kJ)]
FC = fuel consumption [kg/h]
Pb = brake power [kW]

Engine Thermal Efficiency (th):


th = thermal efficiency
Pb = brake power [kW]
FC = fuel consumption [kg/h = (fuel consumption in L/h) x ( in kg/L)]
CV = calorific value of kilogram fuel [kJ/kg]
= relative density of fuel [kg/L]

Thermal EfficiencyThermal efficiency is the measure of the effi-ciency and completeness of

combustion of thefuel, or, more specifically, the ratio of the out-put or work done by the working substance
in thecylinder in a given time to the input or heat energyof the fuel supplied during the same time. Twokinds
of thermal efficiency are generally con-sidered for an engine: indicated thermal efficiencyand overall
thermal efficiency.Since the work done by the gases in thecylinder is called indicated work, the
thermalefficiency determined by its use is often called IN-DICATED THERMAL EFFICIENCY (ite). If allthe
potential heat in the fuel could be deliveredas work, the thermal efficiency would be 100%.Because of
the various losses, however, this per-cent is not possible in actual installations.If the amount of fuel injected
is known, thetotal heat content of the injected fuel can be deter-mined from the heating value, or Btu per
pound,of the fuel; and the thermal efficiencies for theengine can then be calculated. From
themechanical equivalent of heat (778 foot-poundsequal 1 Btu and 2545 Btu equal 1 hp-hr), thenumber
of foot-pounds of work contained in thefuel can be computed. If the amount of fuelinjected is
measured over a period of time, therate at which the heat is put into the engine canbe converted into
potential power. Then, if theihp developed by the engine is calculated, aspreviously explained, the
indicated thermal effi-ciency can be computed by the followingexpression:ite =hp 2545 Btu per hr
per hpRate of heat input of fuel in Btu per hr 100For example, assume that the same engineused as an
example in computing ihp consumes360 pounds (approximately 50 gallons) of fuel perhour, and that the fuel
has a value of 19,200 Btuper pound. What is the ite of the engine?The work done per hour when 1343 ihp
aredeveloped is 1343 2545 or 3,417,935 Btu. Theheat input for the same time is 360 19,200
or6,912,000 Btu. Then, by the above expression, theindicated thermal efficiency is as follows:The other
type of thermal efficiencyOVERALL THERMAL EFFICIENCYconsidered for an engine is a ratio
similar to ite,except that the useful or shaft work (bhp) isused. Therefore, overall efficiency (often
calledbrake thermal efficiency) is computed by thefollowing expression:Overall thermal efficiency

=bhpHeat input of fuel 100Converting these factors into the same units(Btu), the expression is written as
power outputin Btu divided by fuel input in Btu.For example, if the engine used in thepreceding problem
delivers 900 bhp (determinedby the manufacturer) what is the overall thermalefficiency of the engine?1
hp-hr = 2545 Btu900 bhp 2545 Btu per hp-hr =2,290,500 Btu output per hrSubstituting factors
already known, overallthermal efficiency is computed as follows:Overall thermal efficiency