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International Journal of Engineering and Technology Volume 4 No.

12, December, 2014

Modeling of Non-isothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Adsorption Tower


(CSTAT) for Sulphur trioxide Hydration using Vanadium Catalyst
Goodhead, T.O. and Abowei, M.F.N
Department of Chemical/Petrochemical Engineering
Rivers State University of Science & Technology
Port Harcourt, Nigeria

ABSTRACT
This paper presents development of design equations to evaluate the performance of Non-isothermal continuous stirred tank
adsorption tower (CSTAT) for sulphuric acid production from sulphur trioxide hydration using vanadium catalyst. The
performance parameters as a function of kinetics data considered in this work include reactor volume, height, space velocity,
space time and heat duty. Model performance equation were developed to determine the functional parameters of the reactor.
The developed performance models were simulated using Matlab R2007B within the operational limits of conversion degree
and other kinetic parameters. The results of simulation demonstrated reproducible behavior as adsorption tower functional
dimensions have prefect correlation to each other.
Keywords: Modelling Non-Isothermal CSTAT Sulphuric Acid

1.

of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide in fixed bed catalytic


reactors (Charles 1977) and (Fogler 1994)

INTRODUCTION

Sulphuric acid is a very important commodity chemical and


indeed, a nations sulphuric acid production is a good indicator
of its industrial strength (Chenier, 1987). Hence the continue
search for the development of suitable design model to optimize
its production capacity (Austin 1984). Previous works of
Goodhead and Abowei (2014) focused, development of design
models for H2SO4 production based on semi batch, Isothermal
plug Flow (IPF) and Non isothermal plug flow (NIPF). The most
recent similar work of (Goodhead and Abowei 2014)
recommended further modification on the model equations. In
this present paper, we considered development of nonisothermal Continuous Stirred Tank adsorption tower (CSTAT)
primarily to evaluate the performance of the tower as a function
of kinetic parameters.

2. KINETICS EVALUATION

Great deal of work is reported on the kinetics aspect of H2SO4


Industrial scale production and it is dependent on the oxidation

The stoichiometric Chemistry for the production of sulphuric


acid is presented, thus;

S O2
SO2
SO2

O2
SO3
1

H 2O S O3
H 2 SO4
Through the years, several catalyst formulations have been
employed, but one of the traditional catalytic agents has been
Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) (Dueker and West 1975). Its
principal applications include; ore processing, fertilizer
manufacturing, oil refining, waste water processing, chemical
synthesis etc. [Faith, 1965].

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International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014
The general schematic presentation for the production of sulphuric acid is given below.

Air

Figure 1: Contact process for making sulfuric acid and Oleum from sulfur.

In the industrial chemical process, heterogeneous fluid-fluid


reactions are made to take place for one of three reasons. First,
the product of reaction may be a desired material. Such reactions
are numerous and can be found in practically all areas of the
chemical industry where organic and inorganic synthesis are
employed. Fluid-fluid reactions may also be made to take place
to facilitate the removal of an unwanted component from a fluid.
Thus the absorption of a solute gas by water may be accelerated
by adding a suitable material to the water which will react with
the solute being absorbed. The third reason for using fluid-fluid
systems is to obtain a vastly improved product distribution for
homogeneous multiple reactions than is possible by using the
single phase alon

that the irreversible biomolecular nature of the reaction have Hr


= -25kcal/mol at 250C.

The reaction mechanism as presented in equation (2.28) showed


chain reaction character is tics [Austin, 1984]. Gibney and
ferracid (1994) reported on the photo-catalysed oxidation of
SO32- by (dimethyl-glyoximato) (SO3)23- and its (Co(dimethylglyoximato) (SO3)32.

RA

Where

The work adopted inverse reaction for the kinetic data

CAo

Initial concentration of SO3 (moles/Vol)

CBo

Initial concentration of H2O ( moles/Vol)

XA

Fractional conversion of SO3

-RA

Rate of disappearance of SO3 (mole/ Vol/t)

generation, thus.

SO3 H 2O
H 2 SO4

is described as irreversible bimolecular chain reaction. Further


research into the works of Erikson, [1974] and Huie, et al
[1985] established the reaction as second order reaction with rate
constant K2 = 0.3 mole/sec. performed abinitio calculation and
determined the energetic barrier and established conclusively

Following the outcome of the work of Chenier [1987] as cited


above, the rate expression for the formation and production of
sulphuric acid is summarized as in equation (3).

-RA

= K2

SO3 H 2O

Hence from equation (2.33) the amount of SO3 and H2O that have
reacted at any time t can be presented as;

K2

A0

C A0 X A

Bo

C A0 X A

(%)

In this work, the rate expression (-RA) as in equation (4) will be


used to develop the hypothetical semi-batch reactor, continuous
stirred tank reactor and plug flow reactor design equations with
inculcation of the absorption coefficient factor as recommended
in the works of Coulson and Richardson (1978). This is achieved

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International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014
by modifying equation (4) as illustrated below. The hypothetical
concentration profile of the absorption of sulphur trioxide by
steam (H2O) is represented in figure.2

Concentration

Gas (SO3)

CAi

Inter face

Liquid film
Liquid (steam)

CBi

ZL

CBL

Gas Film
r
Distance normal to phase boundary
Figure 2: Absorption with chemical Reaction

Sulphur trioxide (A) is absorbed into the steam (B) by diffusion. Therefore the effective rate of reaction by absorption is defined by

RA

C Ai

rDL
ZL

C AL rK L (C Ai C AL )

Invoking the works of Krevelen and Hoftyzer, the factor r is related to C Ai, DL and KL to the concentration of steam B in the bulk liquid
CBL and to the second order reaction rate constant K2 for the absorption of SO3 in steam solution. Thus

K 2 DL C BL

KL

Substituting equation (5) into (6) results in


1

= (CA) CBL2 K 2 2

- RA

DL2 ..

Previous reports [ Octave levenspiel 1999] showed that the amount of SO 3 (CA) and steam (CBL) that have reacted in a bimolecular type
reaction
with conversion XA is CAO XA. Hence equation (7) can be rewritten as

K 2 2 D L2 C BO C AO X A 2 C A0 C A0 X A
1

- RA

=
1

K 2 2 DL2 C A0

(m X A )

(1 X A ) .

Where

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International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014

m=

CB0
C A0

=- The initial molar ratio of reactants

-RA

Rate of disappearance of SO3

K2

Absorption reaction rate constant

DL

Liquid phase diffusivity of SO 3.

KL

Overall liquid phase mass transfer coefficient

Ratio of effective film thickness for absorption with chemical reaction.

3.

MATERIALS AND METHOD

3.1

Development of Performance Model

3.1.1

Reactor Volume

For non-isothermal operation of the continuous stirred tank reactor, the reactor volume model is obtained from the auto-thermal balance
principle (Conlson & Richardson, 1979), which is expressed mathematically as:

Rate of heat

Rate of heat

Production

Rate of heat

Removal by out

By reaction

Flow of product

Removal by

Heat transfer

But,
rate of heat production by reaction = ( -HR) RAVR
rate of heat removal by out flow of product = G PCP (T-To)
rate of heat removal by heat transfer = UAt (T-Tc)

10
11
12

Equation (10- 12), Which upon substitution into equation (9) gives
( -HR) RAVR = GPCP (T-T0) + U At (T-Tc)

13

From which,
VR

GPCP T T0 UAt T Tc
H R RA

14

C A20 m X A

15

Recall that
- RA

2
2

DL

1 X A

Putting equation (15) into (14) yields


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International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014

VR
Where,
GP
CP
U
At
XA
T
T0
Tc
HR
CA0
K2
DL
m

3.1.2

G p C p T T0 UAt

H R

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

2
2

2
L

T Tc
1
m X A 2 1 X A

2
A0

16

Mass flow rate of product, (Kg/sec)


Specific heat of product, (KJ/Kg K)
Overall heat transfer coefficient of material, (KJ/Sec m3K).
Effective area of heat transfer, (m2)
Conversion degree
Operational temperature of reaction, (K)
Initial temperature of reaction, (K)
Temperature of cooling fluid, (K)
Heat of reaction, (KJ/mol)
Initial concentration not SO3, (mol/m3)
Absorption reaction rate constant, (1/sec)
Liquid phase diffusivity of SO 3,
(m2/sec)
Initial molar ratio of reactants.

Reactor Height
Considering a reactor with cylindrical shape we have
VR

r 2 h

17

VR
r 2

18

Putting equation (16) into equation (18) results in

G p C p T T0 UAt T Tc
h

3.1.3

r 2 H R K

2
2

C A20 m X A
3

2
L

1 X A

19

Space Time
The space time Ts is mathematically defined (octave levenspiel, 1986 and coulson & Richardson, 1979) as
Ts

Volume of reactor
Volumetric flow rate

Mass flow rate of reaction Mixture


Density of reaction mixture

VR
V0

20

But
V0

21

Putting equation (21) into (20) results in


Ts

p
Gp

VR

22

Substituting equation (16) into (22) gives


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International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014

Ts

3.1.4

p G pC p T T0 UAt T Tc

H R GP K

2
2

2
L

C A20 m X A
3

1 X A

23

Space Velocity
This is the reciprocal of the space time, T s and expressed mathematically as
Vs

1
V
0
Ts
VR

24

Then, from equation (23) it is possible that,

Vs

3.1.5

H R G p K

C A20 m X A

1 X A
p G pC p T T0 UAt T Tc
1

2
2

2
L

25

Heat Generation Per Reactor Volume


The steady state heat generation model for reactor is given (Rase, 1977) as
Q

(-Hr) FA0 XA

26

The heat generation per reactor volume is obtained by dividing both sides of equation (26) by the reactor volume, i.e
Rq

Q
VR

H R FA0

XA

27

VR

Putting equation (16) into (27) results in

Rq =

H R 2

FA0 X A K 22 D 22 C A20 m X A
G pCP T T0 UAt T Tc
1

1 X A

28

Figure 4 demostrates hypothetical non-isothermal continuous stirred tank adsorption tower(CSTAT) for sulphur trioxide hydration process.

Fig. 3 Hypothetical model of a Jacketed CSTAT

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International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014

The computation of the functional parameters of the reactor as


shown in figure
3.2

Computational Method

The developed models as presented in section 3.1 were


programmed using MATLAB, and the flow chart describing the

computational procedure is given in Fig 4 Performance


dimensions such as reactor volume, length, space time, space
velocity, heat generation per unit volume, and heat exchanger
functional parameters capable of maintaining non-isothermal
conditions were cleverly inculcated into the computer algorithm.
The equations of these performance measures were expressed as
a function of fractional conversions and characteristic
operational temperature.

START

READ
Gp, Cp, Tc, Vo, U, AT, T0, CAO,
HR, K2, DL, M, D1
INITIALIZE
XA = 0.95
T = 313

PRINT
T; XA; VR, h; Ts; Vs;
QG ; RQ
XA = XA + 0.01

No

XA. > 0.99


Yes

T = T + 10
T > 363
Yes
STOP
Figure:4 Flow chart Describing the computational procedure of non-Isothermal CSTAT performance dimension

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International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014
3.2.1

Input parameter Evaluation

The reactor performance models were evaluated with variables obtained from stoichiometric calculations from the reaction mechanism
presented in section 1 equation 2. Such functional variables inculcated into the computer algorithm for the purpose of simulation of the
performance dimensions include molar flow rate, concentration etc.

Table 4.1 Design functional variables


Quantity

Symbol

Value

Unit

Effective Heat Transfer Area

At

1.15

m2

Specific Heat of product (Conc H2SO4)

Cp

1.38

KJ/KgK

Specific Heat of cooling fluid

Cpc

4.2

KJ/KgK

Initial concentration of SO2

CA0

16,759

mol/m3

Fractional change in volume

-0.5

Product mass flow rate

Gp

0.3858

Kg/sec

Operational temperature of reaction

313 to 363

Initial temperature of reactants

T0

303

Initial temperature of cooling fluid

T0

298

Heat of reaction

HR

-88

Kj/mol

Overall Neat Transfer coefficient

6.945

Kj/Secm2

Product Density (H2SO4)

1.64x103

Kg/m3

Absorption reaction rate constant

K2

0.3

1/sec

Conversion degree

XA

0.95 - 0.99

Reactant molar flow rate

FA0

3.937

mol/sec

Cooling fluid density

1000

Kg/m3

Diameter of tubular reactor

Di

0.02 to 0.1

Molar ratio of reactants

1.0 to 1.5

Radius of CSTR and SBR

0.1 to1.0

Liquid phase diffusivity of SO3

DL

17

m2/Sec

Volumetric flow rate of reactants

V0

2.352 x10-4

m3/Sec

Specific heat capacity of H2O

Cpw

4.2

KJ/KgK

Viscosity of H2SO4 at 90oC

5 x 10-3

Kg/m.sec

Viscosity of H2O at 600C

5 x 10-4

Kg/m.sec

Kw

0.6

w/mK

Thermal conductivity of H2SO4 at 27 C

Ka

0.25

W/mK

Thermal conductivity of Hastelloy

KH

11.0

W/mK

Thermal conductivity of H2O at 200C


0

were designed with hastelloy because it has excellent corrosion


and sulphuric acid resistance properties.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Industrial reactors for the production of sulphuric acid over a
range of reaction time t = 60 to 1800 Sec, degree of conversion
XA = 0.95 to 0.99 and operating temperature T = 313 to 363K
have been investigated and designed. The reactors have a
capacity of 1.389x103 Kg/hr of sulphuric acid. These reactors

The reactors performance models developed in chapter three


were simulated with the aid of MATLAB R2007b. The results
provided information for the functional reactors parameters viz:
The reactor volume and the rate of heat generation per unit
volume of the continuous reactors and the semi-batch reactor.
The reactor length, space time, and space velocity for the

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International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014
continuous reactors, while the height of reactor were obtained for
the continuous stirred tank reactors and the semi-batch reactor.
Similarly, information for the pressure drop in the plug flow
reactor, whose diameter Di was varied from 0.02 to 0.1 m was
also obtained. Suitable heat exchangers were also designed for
the isothermal reactors and the semi-batch reactor to remove the
heat of reaction occasioned during the process. It is the purpose
of this section to present and discuss the results of the reactor
types and the heat exchangers and to compare their performance.
The functional parameters of the reactors are tabulated in figures
17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24. And appendix 1-2. The results
showed that the reactor volume is dependent on operating
temperature T and degree of conversion X A. The volume of the
reactor would tend to infinity at 100% conversion. The variation
of the reactor volume, as a result of sulphur trioxide addition to
water, with reaction time, operating temperature and degree of
conversion is illustrated in figures 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12.
From the results it was observed that volume of the reactors
increases with increasing degree of conversion and decreases
with increasing operating temperature. This characteristic
behavior was observed to be in agreement with the usual reactor
prototypes dependable features of performance parameters visavis the kinetic data (Abowei 1989).
Figures 11 and 12 illustrated the variation of heat generation per
unit volume of the reactors as a function of reaction time t,

operating temperature T and degree of conversion within the


limits t, T and XA as specified. A plot of heat generation RQ
versus operating temperature T was curvilinear and found to be
increasing with increasing operating temperature T within the
range of XA = 0.95 to 0.99. Similar plots were made RQ versus
XA within the range of T = 313 to 363K. The graphs were also
curvilinear with negative gradient. At fairly above 99%
conversion of sulphur trioxide, there was a sharp drop tending to
the abscissa of the graph. This behavior explains the infinity of
the rate of heat generation per unit reactor volume at 100%
degree of conversion of sulphur trioxide. Finally the rate of heat
generation per unit reactor volume decreases with increasing
reaction time and degree of conversion within the range of
temperature as specified.
Figures 5 to 10 illustrated the variation of space time with
operating temperature and degree of conversion X A as specified
within the range of T = 313 to 363K and XA = 0.95 to 0.99. The
plots were curvilinear as well within the range of T and XA
investigated. However, for the addition of sulphur trioxide to
water, the highest conversion was observed for the highest space
time with the lowest operating temperature.
The space time TS, was observed to be increasing with
increasing degree of conversion and decreases with increasing
operating temperature within the range specified.

-3

1.4

x 10

REACTOR VOLUME (m3)

1.2

xA=95
xA=96
xA=97
xA=98
xA=99

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
310

320

330

340
350
TEMPERATURE (K)

360

370

Figure 5: Plots of Reactor Volume against Temperature for Non-Isothermal CSTAT

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International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014
-4

1.8

x 10

313
323
333
343
353
363

1.6

REACTOR VOLUME (m3)

1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.94

0.95

0.96

0.97
0.98
CONVERSION DEGREE

0.99

Figure 6: plot of Reactor Volume against Conversion Degree for Non-Isothermal CSTAT

SPACE TIME (sec)

5
xA=95
xA=96
xA=97
xA=98
xA=99

0
310

320

330

340
350
TEMPERATURE (K)

360

370

Figure 7: Plots of Space Time against Temperature for Non-Isothermal CSTAT

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International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014

0.8
313
323
333
343
353
363

0.7

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0.94

0.95

0.96
0.97
0.98
CONVERSION DEGREE

0.99

Figure 8: Plot of Space Time against Conversion Degree for non-isothermal CSTAT

35

30

SPACE VELOCITY(sec-1)

SPACE TIME (sec)

0.6

xA=95
xA=96
xA=97
xA=98
xA=99

25

20

15

10

0
310

320

330

340
350
TEMPERATURE (K)

360

370

Figure 9: Plots of Space Velocity against Temperature for Non-Isothermal CSTAT

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International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014

35
313
323
333
343
353
363

SPACE VELOCITY (sec-1)

30

25

20

15

10

0
0.94

0.95

0.96
0.97
0.98
CONVERSION DEGREE

0.99

Figure 10: plot of Space Velocity against Conversion Degree for non-Isothermal CSTAT

HEAT GENERATED PER UNIT VOLUME(kJ/sec.m3)

4.5

x 10

xA=95
xA=96
xA=97
xA=98
xA=99

3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
310

320

330

340
350
TEMPERATURE (K)

360

370

Figure 11: Plots of Heat Generated per unit Volume against Temperature for Non-Isothermal CSTAT

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International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014
7

HEAT GENERATED PER UNIT VOLUME (kJ/sec.m3)

4.5

x 10

313
323
333
343
353
363

4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.94

0.95

0.96
0.97
0.98
CONVERSION DEGREE

0.99

Figure 12 plot of Heat Generated per Unit Volume against Conversion Degree for non-Isothermal CSTAT

The consideration of non-isothermity of the reactors is


a reasonable assumption as long as the operation of the
reactors is within the sonic limit. An observation
deduced from this work is that the operating
temperature tends to influence the reactor performance.
Generally the operation is favoured by low temperature.
This confirms the reason why heat exchangers should
be incorporated in the design. The consideration of the
optimum limit of degree of conversion X A from 0.95 to
0.99 is reasonable because at 100% conversion of
sulphur trioxide, the functional parameters of the
reactors will all tends to infinity. In this case the
dimensions of the reactors have no limit.
Work free days of 65 is allowed to produce the specified
quantity i.e. 1.389 x 103Kg/hr of sulphuric acid. Sulphur
trioxide, SO3 can be produced by catalytic oxidation of
sulphur dioxide using vanadium pentoxide as catalyst.
From the results of the computation for the nonisothermal CSTAT it was found that; if the degree of
conversion, XA was 0.95, the operational temperature,
T was 313K, the reactor volume, VR were 2.5957E05m3 and 7.8263E-06m3 when the reactant molar ratio,
m=1.0 and 1.5 respectively but increase of X A, and T
resulted in increase of the reactor volume up to
1.1432E-04 to 1.2781E-03m3 when m=1.0, T=363K
and XA= 0.95 to 0.99 and 3.4469E-05 to 1.7897E-04m3
when m=1.5.

Critical examination of the results of the reactor types


gives the following analysis:
a.

b.

At the same operating temperature, change in


degree of conversion, XA from 0.95 to.0.99
curvilinearly increases the reactor volume and
space time of the non-isothermal CSTAT, while
the rate of heat generation per reactor volume and
space velocity decreases by the same proportion.
At the same degree of conversion, change in
operating temperature from 313 to 363K linearly
increases the reactor volume and space time of the
non-isothermal CSTAT, while the rate of heat
generation per reactor volume and space velocity
decreases curvilinear by the same proportion.

5. CONCLUSION
RECOMMENDATION

AND

Model equation for the design of non-isothermal


CSTAT have been proposed for the production of
sulphuric acid via sulphur trioxide hydration process
using vanadium catalyst. Computer programs were
developed and utilized to simulate the performance
parameters over a temperature interval of T=313 to
363K, and conversion degree, XA=0.95 to 0.99. The
result of the performance evaluation parameters shows
the usual dependable characteristics of the kinetic data.
Further work need to be done to evaluate the
performance of the various adsorption towers as a

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International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014
function of the kinetic parameters with the aim of
establishing the optimum operational limit of
conversion and time frame.

Erikson, T. E. (1974), Chem Soc, Faraday Trans. I, 70,


203.
Faith, K. C. (1965), Industrial Chemistry, Third edition
pp. 747 -755, John Wiley 8 Sons New York.

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acid, Reinhold, New York.

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International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014
APPENDIX 1: NON- ISOTHRMAL CSTAT

VR (m3)

h (m)

Ts (sec)

Vs (sec-1)

Rq (kJ/sec.m3)

T
(K)

XA

313

0.95

2.5957e-005

1.3220e-002

1.1036e-001

9.0612e+000

1.2680e+007

323

0.95

4.3629e-005

2.2220e-002

1.8550e-001

5.3909e+000

7.5438e+006

333

0.95

6.1302e-005

3.1221e-002

2.6064e-001

3.8367e+000

5.3690e+006

343

0.95

7.8975e-005

4.0221e-002

3.3578e-001

2.9782e+000

4.1676e+006

353

0.95

9.6647e-005

4.9222e-002

4.1092e-001

2.4336e+000

3.4055e+006

363

0.95

1.1432e-004

5.8223e-002

4.8605e-001

2.0574e+000

2.8791e+006

313

0.96

3.6276e-005

1.8475e-002

1.5423e-001

6.4837e+000

9.1686e+006

323

0.96

6.0974e-005

3.1054e-002

2.5924e-001

3.8574e+000

5.4548e+006

333

0.96

8.5672e-005

4.3632e-002

3.6425e-001

2.7453e+000

3.8822e+006

343

0.96

1.1037e-004

5.6211e-002

4.6926e-001

2.1310e+000

3.0135e+006

353

0.96

1.3507e-004

6.8790e-002

5.7427e-001

1.7413e+000

2.4624e+006

363

0.96

1.5977e-004

8.1369e-002

6.7928e-001

1.4721e+000

2.0818e+006

313

0.97

5.5850e-005

2.8444e-002

2.3746e-001

4.2113e+000

6.0172e+006

323

0.97

9.3875e-005

4.7810e-002

3.9913e-001

2.5054e+000

3.5799e+006

333

0.97

1.3190e-004

6.7177e-002

5.6080e-001

1.7832e+000

2.5478e+006

343

0.97

1.6993e-004

8.6543e-002

7.2248e-001

1.3841e+000

1.9777e+006

353

0.97

2.0795e-004

1.0591e-001

8.8415e-001

1.1310e+000

1.6161e+006

363

0.97

2.4598e-004

1.2528e-001

1.0458e+000

9.5619e-001

1.3662e+006

313

0.98

1.0260e-004

5.2255e-002

4.3624e-001

2.2923e+000

3.3091e+006

323

0.98

1.7246e-004

8.7833e-002

7.3325e-001

1.3638e+000

1.9687e+006

333

0.98

2.4232e-004

1.2341e-001

1.0303e+000

9.7063e-001

1.4012e+006

343

0.98

3.1217e-004

1.5899e-001

1.3273e+000

7.5342e-001

1.0876e+006

353

0.98

3.8203e-004

1.9457e-001

1.6243e+000

6.1566e-001

8.8874e+005

363

0.98

4.5189e-004

2.3015e-001

1.9213e+000

5.2048e-001

7.5135e+005

ISSN: 2049-3444 2014 IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved.

723

International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014
313

0.99

2.9021e-004

1.4780e-001

1.2339e+000

8.1046e-001

1.1819e+006

323

0.99

4.8779e-004

2.4843e-001

2.0739e+000

4.8217e-001

7.0315e+005

333

0.99

6.8538e-004

3.4906e-001

2.9140e+000

3.4317e-001

5.0044e+005

343

0.99

8.8296e-004

4.4969e-001

3.7541e+000

2.6638e-001

3.8845e+005

353

0.99

1.0805e-003

5.5032e-001

4.5942e+000

2.1767e-001

3.1742e+005

363

0.99

1.2781e-003

6.5095e-001

5.4343e+000

1.8402e-001

2.6835e+005

APPENDIX 2: NON -ISOTHERMAL CSTAT


VR (m3)

h (m)

Ts (sec)

Vs (sec-1)

Rq (kJ/sec.m3)

T(K)

XA

313

0.95

1.5

7.8263e-006

3.9859e-003

3.3275e-002

3.0053e+001

4.2055e+007

323

0.95

1.5

1.3155e-005

6.6997e-003

5.5930e-002

1.7879e+001

2.5020e+007

333

0.95

1.5

1.8483e-005

9.4134e-003

7.8585e-002

1.2725e+001

1.7807e+007

343

0.95

1.5

2.3812e-005

1.2127e-002

1.0124e-001

9.8775e+000

1.3822e+007

353

0.95

1.5

2.9140e-005

1.4841e-002

1.2390e-001

8.0713e+000

1.1295e+007

363

0.95

1.5

3.4469e-005

1.7555e-002

1.4655e-001

6.8236e+000

9.5487e+006

313

0.96

1.5

9.8730e-006

5.0283e-003

4.1977e-002

2.3823e+001

3.3688e+007

323

0.96

1.5

1.6595e-005

8.4518e-003

7.0557e-002

1.4173e+001

2.0042e+007

333

0.96

1.5

2.3317e-005

1.1875e-002

9.9137e-002

1.0087e+001

1.4264e+007

343

0.96

1.5

3.0039e-005

1.5299e-002

1.2772e-001

7.8298e+000

1.1072e+007

353

0.96

1.5

3.6761e-005

1.8722e-002

1.5630e-001

6.3981e+000

9.0476e+006

363

0.96

1.5

4.3483e-005

2.2146e-002

1.8488e-001

5.4090e+000

7.6489e+006

313

0.97

1.5

1.3288e-005

6.7673e-003

5.6495e-002

1.7701e+001

2.5291e+007

323

0.97

1.5

2.2334e-005

1.1375e-002

9.4959e-002

1.0531e+001

1.5047e+007

333

0.97

1.5

3.1381e-005

1.5982e-002

1.3342e-001

7.4949e+000

1.0709e+007

343

0.97

1.5

4.0428e-005

2.0590e-002

1.7189e-001

5.8177e+000

8.3126e+006

353

0.97

1.5

4.9475e-005

2.5197e-002

2.1035e-001

4.7539e+000

6.7926e+006

ISSN: 2049-3444 2014 IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved.

724

International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Volume 4 No. 12, December, 2014
363

0.97

1.5

5.8522e-005

2.9805e-002

2.4882e-001

4.0190e+000

5.7425e+006

313

0.98

1.5

2.0122e-005

1.0248e-002

8.5553e-002

1.1689e+001

1.6873e+007

323

0.98

1.5

3.3822e-005

1.7226e-002

1.4380e-001

6.9540e+000

1.0039e+007

333

0.98

1.5

4.7522e-005

2.4203e-002

2.0205e-001

4.9492e+000

7.1446e+006

343

0.98

1.5

6.1223e-005

3.1180e-002

2.6030e-001

3.8417e+000

5.5458e+006

353

0.98

1.5

7.4923e-005

3.8158e-002

3.1855e-001

3.1392e+000

4.5317e+006

363

0.98

1.5

8.8623e-005

4.5135e-002

3.7680e-001

2.6539e+000

3.8311e+006

313

0.99

1.5

4.0637e-005

2.0696e-002

1.7278e-001

5.7878e+000

8.4404e+006

323

0.99

1.5

6.8304e-005

3.4787e-002

2.9041e-001

3.4434e+000

5.0215e+006

333

0.99

1.5

9.5972e-005

4.8878e-002

4.0804e-001

2.4507e+000

3.5739e+006

343

0.99

1.5

1.2364e-004

6.2969e-002

5.2568e-001

1.9023e+000

2.7741e+006

353

0.99

1.5

1.5131e-004

7.7060e-002

6.4331e-001

1.5545e+000

2.2669e+006

363

0.99

1.5

1.7897e-004

9.1151e-002

7.6095e-001

1.3142e+000

1.9164e+006

ISSN: 2049-3444 2014 IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved.

725