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Experiment 1

Objectives
1

To compare the time constant at different type of temperature measuring devices

which reference to mercury filled thermometer.


To understand the relationship between resistance and temperature.

Theory
Temperature is a measure of hotness. Together with a measure of thermal mass of a
body it gives an indication of the total thermodynamics energy that body contains. There are
many scales for the comparison of temperatures, the most important is with their
corresponding values for melting ice and boiling water (which are common reference
temperatures) being given in the table below.

Scale
Celsius (or

Melting Ice
0 0C

Boiling Water
100 0C

Centigrade)
Fahrenheit
Kelvin (Absolute

32 0F
273 K

212 0F
373 K

Scale)

Apparatus Setup
0

A = Type-K Thermocouple
B = Pt 100 Thermocouple
C = mV meter
D = Mains Switch 240V AC
E = ELCB/ MCB
F = Heater switch
G = Blower switch and speed controller
H = Pt 100 temperature meter
I = Type-K temperature meter
J = Bi- metallic thermometer
K = Vapor compression thermometer
L = Vacuum Flask
M = Hot Water pot
N = Whirling Psychrometer
O = Thermistor temperature meter
P = Mercury Filled thermometer
Q = Spirit Filled thermometer
Equipment
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Type-K thermocouple
Pt 100 Thermocouple
mV meter
Main switch 240V /AV
ELCB/MCB
Heater switch
Blower switch and speed controller
Pt 100 temperature meter
Type K temperature meter
Bi-metallic thermometer
Vacuum flask
Hot water pot Whirling psychrometer
Thermistor temperature meter
1

14 Mercury filled thermometer


15 Spirit filled thermometer

Procedure
1

The 3 pin plug was plug in to 220V AC main power supply. Power supply was

2
3
4
5
6
7

switched on
The MCB/ELCB was switched on.
The switch for the apparatus was switched on.
Hot water was poured into the pot.
The small cap on top of the pot was removed.
The temperature was recorded as the time increases every two minutes.
Step 6 was repeated until water boils.

Data, Observation and Results


Table 1
Time (s)

Mercury

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

type
27
29.5
34.5
40.5
45.3
51
58
63
67.5
71.5
74

Bi-metallic
23
26
27
31
36
42
46
51
57
62.5
66

Thermistor
24
27.8
32.3
37.3
44.5
50.5
54.6
61.1
66.7
69.8
72.9

PT-100
20.1
23.4
26.6
32.6
38.5
43.2
49
54.8
59
64.3
67.2

Graph 1

Type-K

Vapor

25.8
28.8
33.3
38.9
46.2
51
56.7
62.5
67
70
73.5

Pressure
30
31
34
38
44
49
56
60
65
68
73

Mercury temperature (c) vs Time (s)


f(x) = 2.54x + 25.63
R = 0.99

Linear ()

= 14.77 mins (Time Constant for mercury temperature)

Graph 2

Bi- metallic temperature(c) vs Time(s)


f(x) = 2.28x + 19.73
R = 0.99

Linear ()

= 19.09 mins (Time Constant for Bi-metallic temperature)

Graph 3

Thermistor temperature (c) vs Time (s)


f(x) = 2.61x + 23.16
R = 0.99

Linear ()

= 15.36 mins (Time Constant for Thermistor temperature).

Graph 4

Pt-100 temperature(c) vs Time (s)


f(x) = 2.51x + 18.46
R = 1
Linear ()

= 17.86 mins (Time Constant for Pt-100 temperature)

Graph 5

Type-K temperature (c) vs Time (s)


f(x) = 2.56x + 24.79
R = 0.99

Linear ()

= 15.03 mins (Time Constant for Type-K temperature)

Graph 6

Vapour pressure temperature (c) vs Time (s)


f(x) = 2.33x + 26.55
R = 0.99

Linear ()

= 15.75 mins (Time Constant for Vapour Pressure temperature)

Sample Calculations
Temperature when the time constant falls is at 63.2% of 100%.which means 63.2 oC.
Take vapour pressure as example. From graph 6, y = 2.3272x + 26.545 where y is 63.2

Vapour pressure temperature (c) vs Time (s)


f(x) = 2.33x + 26.55
R = 0.99

Linear ()

0 = 2.3272x + 26.545 63.2


x = 15.75
therefore the time constant for vapour pressure temperature is

= 17.75 mins

Analysis & Discussions


From the data , we can see that all the reading is not same . It can be conclude , as the
time increase the temperature also increase . Thermometer mercury type shows that it has the
highest value of measurement which is 74 oC , Thermometer Bi-metallic shows that the lowest
value of measurement at 20 minutes which is 66 oC ,
During the experiment conduct, there was parallax error while taking the measurement value ,
certain temperature devices , where it did not touch the heated water precisely during the test is
conducted which causes lack of accuracy in the reading.

Conclusions
As a conclusion , all the purposes in this experiment has been fulfilled* which is to
compare each time constant of different type of temperature measuring devices based on mercury
thermometer. Moreover, we have learned the theory of resistance thermometer RTD and
thermometer using the PT100 and NTC probes . The relationship between resistance
thermometer and thermistor has also been determine. A graph of temperature against time for
each thermometer was plotted. Lastly, the result that has been obtained is that mercury type is the
most sensitive because of the time constant is the lowest, meanwhile the bi-metallic is less
sensitive because the time constant is the highest.

Experiment 2

Objectives
1. To investigate the working principle of Type K Thermocouple.
2. To find the sensitivity of the type K thermocouple.
3. To investigate the relation between voltage output and temperature.

Theory
Thermistors consist of semi-conducting polycrystalline material. In the production of
temperature sensors copper dioxide (CuO2) is preferred. It demonstrates a sever (non-linear)
drop in resistance for an increase in temperature. It possesses a negative temperature coefficient,
which is the reason why these sensors are called NTC resistors.
The effect of NTCs, whereby the resistance lowers as the temperature increases, is
explained by the semiconductor mechanism. In semi-conductors (as opposed to metal
conductors) the valency electrons have relatively strong bonds to the atomic nuclei of the crystal
lattice. A rise in temperature loosens this bond and more and more electrons enter into the
conduction band, where they are available for charge transport (i.e. for increased current), thus
reducing the ohmic resistance.

Equipment
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Type-K thermocouple
mV meter
Main switch 240V /AV
ELCB/MCB
Heater switch

Procedure
1. The 3 pin plug was plug in to 220V AC main power supply. Power supply was switched
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

on
The MCB/ELCB was switched on.
The switch for the apparatus was switched on.
Hot water was poured into the pot.
The small cap on top of the pot was removed.
The temperature and the mV was recorded as the time increases every two minutes.
Step 6 was repeated until water boils.

Data, Observation and Results

Table 2

10

Time (mins)
0

Voltage (v)
0.159

Temperature
25.8

Sensitivity (Mv/C)

2
4
6
8
10
12
14

0.290
0.516
0.811
1.17
1.425
1.698
2.029

28.8
33.3
38.9
46.2
51
56.7
62.5

0.0101
0.0155
0.0209
0.0253
0.0279
0.0299
0.0325

6.163 x 103

Graph 6

Voltage (v) vs Temperature (c)


f(x) = 19.66x + 23
R = 1
Linear ()

Graph 7

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Temperature (c) vs Time (s)


f(x) = 2.72x + 23.87
R = 0.99
Linear ()

Sample Calculations

Sensitivity of Thermocouple;
mV
0.159
3
( = 25.8 =6.163 x 10
mV/C

Analysis and Discussions

12

1) We observed that , as the temperature increase against time, there also changes in voltage
value measured by Type K thermometer .
2) The graph of temperature against time is increasing when time increase. The graph of voltage
against temperature also same,when temperature increase,the voltage also increase.
3) There is some error in the analysis that may occur while the experiment is conducted.
4) The voltage changes from 0.159 v at the start and turns into 2.029 v at the end of experiment.

Conclusions
From the experiment , we have understand on how the thermocouple type K works , and also ,
we already learned on how the temperature is increasing due to time and voltage changes due to
increase of temperature . It can be concluded that the changes of voltage is due to the changes of
temperature

Experiment 3
Objective
13

1. Understanding of whirling pyschorometer (hygrometer).


2. Understanding of wet and dry bulb thermometer
3. Measurement of ambient humidity using dry and wet bulb.

Theory
In a psychrometer, there are two thermometers, one with a dry bulb and the other with a
wet bulb. Evaporation from the wet bulb lowers the temperature, so that the wet-bulb
thermometer usually shows a lower temperature than that of the dry-bulb thermometer, which
measures dry-bulb temperature. When the air temperature is below freezing, however, the wet
bulb is covered with a thin coating of ice and yet may be warmer than the dry bulb. Relative
humidity is computed from the ambient temperature as shown by the dry-bulb thermometer and
the difference in temperatures as shown by the wet-bulb and dry-bulb thermometers. Relative
humidity can also be determined by locating the intersection of the wet- and dry-bulb
temperatures on a psychrometric chart. One device that uses the wet/dry bulb method is the sling
psychrometer, where the thermometers are attached to a handle or length of rope and spun
around in the air for a few minutes.

Procedure
1. The handle of the hygrometer was pulled out and was hold in perpendicular to the
ground.
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2. A small amount of water was filled into a transparent plastic container located at the end
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

of the hygrometer.
The cloth around the bulb of the wet bulb thermometer was made sure was wet.
The initial wet and dry bulb temperature was recorded.
The hygrometer was whirled for a minute.
The final wet and dry bulb reading was recorded after 1 minute.
The humidity shown in the room hydrometer dial gauge water recorded.
The humidity with the final wet and dry bulb temperature was found using the
psychrometric chart.

Data, Observation and Results

Table 3

Initial reading
Final reading
From psychometric chart
Humidity reading from

Wet bulb
Dry bulb
22.25
26.75
22
26
78%
71%

dail gauge

Analysis and Discussions


As we compare the humidity dial gauge and humidity from psychrometric chart, we can
see that humidity reading from dial gauge is higher than humidity from psychrometric chart. The
reading for humidity reading from dial gauge is 71% meanwhile the reading from psychrometric
chart is 78%. This difference may due to the wrong calibration of the psychrometer.

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Error Analysis
1. Faulty calibration of the humidity dial gauge could also give wrong relative humidity
reading.
2. Mistake in finding accurate values from the psychrometric chart is possibly a source of
analysis error.
3. Since both methods, involve reading data from scales, parallax error could be one of the main
factor that contributes to error in the experiment. For, instance, reading the scales of wet bulb
and dry bulb thermometer, and the scale of dial gauge.

Conclusion
The conclusion is the whirling psychrometer now can be handle correctly and the
principle was understood. The ambient of humidity using dry and wet bulb also can be
determine. The wet bulb shows that the temperature is lower that the dry bulb. Thus, the
humidity can be obtain from the psychrometric chart which is 71%.

ENGINEERING MEASUREMENT
16

MESB 333
(FORMAL REPORT)
EXP III: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
SECTION:

GROUP:

LAB INSTRUCTOR :
Author :

DATE PERFORMED: 18/7/2016


25/7/2016

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DATE SUBMITTED: