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Other requests shall be referred to
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"'A8REPORT
READ INSTRUCTIONS
ENATONAG
_BEFORE
NUMBER
COMPLETING
FORM
3.
5.
SAFWALTR833048
4,
Final Report
September 1975September
7.
AUTHOR(,)
R.
9.
D.
Finck
1977
6.
B.
F3361576C3061
PERFORMING ORGANIZATION
10.
82190110
12.
(AFWAL/FIGC)
Ohio
REPORT DATE
April 1978
13.
NUMBER OF PAGES
15.
45433
__1200
Unclassified
15a.
16.
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT
17.
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract entered in Block 20, It different from Report)
18,
SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
K19.
KZY WORDS (Continue on reverse side ;f necessary and iden'61y by block tlumber)
Prediction Methods
*
DD
1'""
J
1473
."
,_ .
...
.
UNCLAS SIFIED
..
~ .
'

.m
.
1w

I . L$SSIFIED
SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(WhIn Data Entered)
20.
Abstract (continued)
given configuration and flight condition, a complete set of stability
and
control derivatives can be determined without resort to outside information.
A spectrum of methods is presented, ranging from very simple and easily
applied techniques to quite accurate and thorough procedures.
Comparatively
simple methods are presented in complete form, while the more complex methods are often handled by reference to separate treatments.
Tables which
compare calculated results with test data provide indications of method
accuracy.
Extensive references to related material are also included.
7

,.
..
,.
7 .,...
UNCLASSIFIED
SECURITY
Do(.
Entered)
AFWALTR833048
S*
ot
:
Distribution limited to U.S. Government agencies only; Official /Operational Use; March 1982.
Other requests for this document must be referred to AFWALIFIGC, WrightPatterson Air Force Base,
Ohio 45433.
:
S."4
. ...
NOTICE
When Gvernment drawings, specifications, or other data are used for any
purpose other than in connection with a definitely related Government procurement operation, the United States Government thereby incurs no responsibility
nor any obligation whatsoever; and the fact that the government may have formnulated, furnished, or in any way supplied the said drawings, specifications,
or other data is not to be regarded by implication or otherwise as in any
manner licensing the holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying
any rights, or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention
that may in any way be related thereto.
DONALD E. HOAK
Project Engineer
Control Dynamics Branch
approved
tor publication.
R. 0. ANDERSON, Chief
Control Dynamics Branch
Flight Control Division
...
..
.J
.
S
.
FOREWORD
The current volume entitled "USAF Stability and Control Datcom" has been
przpared by the Douglas Aircraft Division of the McDonnell Douglas Corporation
F3361567Cl 156,
AF33(616)6460,
AF33(615)1605,
under
Contracts
F3361568C1260, F3361570C1087, F3361571C1298, F3361572C1348,
F3361573C3057, F3361574C3021, F3361575C3067, and F3361576C3061. (The term Datcom is a shorthand notation for data compendium.) This effort
is sponsored by the Control Criteria Branch of the Flight Control Division, Air Force
Flight Dynamics Laboratory, WrightPatterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. The
Air Force project engineers for this project were J. W. Carlson and D. E. Hoak. The
present volume has been published in order to replace the original work and tc
provide timely stability and flight control data and methods for the destgji of
manned aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles. It is anticipated that this volurmie will
be continuously revised and expanded to maintain its currency and utility.
Comments concerning this effort art invited; these should be addressed to the
"procuringagency,
K,
5,,
4
V
ii
 t
.
CONTRIBUTORS
DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT COMPANY, INC. 19601965
MCDONNELL DOUGLAS CORPORATION
DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT DIVISION 19671977
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS
R. D. FINCK (1971D. E. ELLISON (19621970)
L. V. MALTHAN (19581962)
PRINCIPAL COLLABORATORS
D. E. Ellison ............
R. B. Harris ............
D. E. Drake .................
"M.J. Abzug .................
C. S. Thorndike ..............
Technical Director
Technical Advisor
Technical Advisor
Technical Advisor
Technical Editor, 2.1,
Sample Problems & Illustrations
4.6, 4.7, 5.2, 5.3, 5.6
6.,."6
4, 374.3, 5, 6644.264, 548.1
8.2
496Sample Problems
Graphs & Illustrations
Graphs & Illustrations
R. A. Berg .................
G. L. Huggins .............
R. M. Seplak ................
"A.C. Blaschke ...............
P. J. Buce .................
M. S. Caln .................
J. W. Gresham ...............
N. H. Buckingham ............
W. H. Rudderow .............
C. 0. White .................
J. L. Lundry ................
D. P. Marsh .................
J. L. Woodworh .............
J. Hebert ...................
M. G. Brislawn ...............
W. B. Fisher .................
H. B. Dietrick ...............
R. C. Leeds .... ............
S. L. Fallon .................
I.
iv
I.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section 1
Section 2
2.1
2.2
"2.2:1
2,2.2
2.3
Section 3
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.2
3.2.
3.2.1.1
3.2.1.2
3.2.1.3
"3.2.2
3.2.3
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
r
3.4
3.5
3.6
"Section4
4.1
4.1.1
4.11.1
4.1.1.2
4o1.1.3
4.1.1.4
4.1.2.1
4.1.2.2
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
4.1.3.1
4.1.3.2
4.1.3.3
4.1.3.4
4.1.2
4.1.3
 .
4.1.4
4.1.4.1
"4.1.4.2
*Subjects for Future Additions
I,"
4.1.4.3
Wing Drag
4.1.5
,.1.5.1
"4.1.5.2
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.1.1
4.2.1.2
4.2.1.3
4.2.2
4.2.2.1
4.2.2.2
4.2.2.3
4.2.3
4.2.3.1
4.3.1.1
4.3.1.2
4.3.1.3
4.2.3.2
..
4.3
"4.3.1
4.3.1.4
4.3.2
4.3.2.1
4.3.2
4.3.2.3
4.3.2.4
4.3.3
4.3.3.1
4.3.3.2
4.4
4.4.1
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.1.1
4.5.1.2
4.5.1.3
4.5.2
4.5.2.1
4.5.2.2
4.5.3
4.5.3.1
4.5.3.2
4,6
WingBodyTail
WingBodyTail
WingBodyTail
WingBodyTail
WingBodyTail
*WingBodyTail
LiftCurve Slope
Lift in the Nonlinear AngleofAttack Range
Maximum Lift
Pitching Monent
PitchingMomentCurve Slope
Pitching Moment in the Nonlinear AngleofAttack Range
WingBodyTail Drag
WingBodyTail ZeroLi ft Drag
WingBodyTail Drag at Angle of Attack
Power Effects at Angle of Attack
Power Effects on Lift Variation with Angle of Attack
Power Effects on Maximum Lift
Power Effects on PitchingMoment Variation with Angle of Attack
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
vi
.
.
 
. 
4.6.4
4.7
4.7,1
4,7.2
4,7.3
4.7.4
4.8.1
4.8.1.1
4.8.1.2
4.8.2.1
4.8.2.2
4.8
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.8.3.1
4.8.3.2
Section 5
CHARACTERISTICS IN SIDESLIP
5.1
Wings in Sideslip
Wing Sideslip Derivative Cy.
5.1.1
5.1.1.1
5.1.1.2
5.1.2.1
5.i.2.2
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.3.1
5.1.3.2
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.1.1
5.2.1.2
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.3.1
5.2.3.2
5.3
WingBody
*WingBody
WingBody
WingBody
WingBody
5.3.3.1
5.3.3.2
vii
+
.  .
, ' ,
.
5.4
5.5.1.2
5.5.2.1
5.4.1
5.5
5.5.1
5.5.1.1
5.5.2
5.5.2.2
5.5.3.1
5.5.3
5.5.3.2
5.6
5.6.1
5.6.1.1
5.6.1.2
5.6.2
5.6.2.1
5.6.2.2
5.6.3
5.6.3.1
5.6.3.2
Section 6
6.1
"Combinations
6.1.1
6.1.1.1
6.1.1.2
6.1.1.3
6.1.2
6.1.2.1
6.1.2.2
6.1.2.3
6.1.3
6.1.3.1
6.1.3.2
6.1.3.3
6.1.3.4
b. 1.4
6.1.4.1
6.1.4.2
6.1.4.3
:'
6.1.5
6.1.5.1
6.!..'.
6.1.6
Sectioii
Section
Section
Section
viii
4
6.1.6.1
6.1.6.2
6.1.7
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.1.1
6.2.1.2
6.2.2
6.2.2.1
6.2.3
6.2.3.1
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
*Inertial Controls
Aerodynamically Boosted ControlSurface Tabs
6.3.3
6.3.4
Section 7
7.1
7.1.1
7.1.1.1
7.1 .1.2
.71.1.3
7.1.2
DYNAMIC DERIVATIVES
Wing Dynamic Derivatives
Wing Pitching Derivatives
Wing
Wing Pitching
Pitchintg Derivative
Derivative CLq
Cmq
Wing Pitching Derivative CDq
Wing Rolling Derivatives
7.1.21
7.1.2.2
7.1.2.3
7.1.3
7.1.3
7.1.3.1
"7.1.3.2
"7.1.3.3
7.1.4
7.1.4.1
47.1.4.2
4
7.2.2
7.2.2.1
7.2.2.2
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.1.1
7.3.1.2
7.3.2
ix
I.7.
7.3.2.I
7.3.2.2
7.3.2.3
7.3.3
7.3.3.1
7.3.3.2
7.3.3.3
7.3
.3
7.3.4.2
7.3.4.2
7..47.4
7.4.1
7.4.1.1
7.4.1.1
7.4.2.3
7.4.2.1
7.4.2.2
7.4.2.3
7.4.3.2
7.4.3.1
7.4.3.2
7.43.3
7.4.4.2
7.4.4.1
7..4.2
WingBodyTail
WingBodyTail
WingBodyTail
WingBodyTail
WingBodyTail
Yawing Derivative C 1
Yawing Derivative C21
Yawing Derivative Cyr
Accelin Derivat
Div tiieo
CLA
Acceleration Derivative
DerivativesCm
7.4.4.3
7.4.4.4
WingBodyTail Derivative Cy
7.4.4.5
7.4.4.6
7.5
Section 8
8.1
8.2
Section 9
9.1
9.1.1
9.1.2
9.1.3
"9.2
9.2.1
9.2.2
9.2.3
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2
9.3.3
7.4.1.2
7.4.13
SECTION I
GUIDE TO DATCOM
Fundamentally, the purpose of the Datcom (Data Compendium) is to provide a systematic
summary of methods for estimating basic stability and control derivatives. The Datcom is organized
in such a way that it is selfsufficient. For any given flight condition and configuration the complete
set of derivatives can be determined without resort to outside information. The book is intended to
be used for preliminary design purposes before the acquisition of test data. The use of reliable test
data in lieu of the Datcom is always recommended. However, there are many cases where the
Datcom can be used to advanthge in conjunction with test data. For instance, if the liftcurve slope
of a wingbody combination is desired, the Datcom recommends that the liftcurve slopes of the
isolated wing and body, respectively, be estimated by methods presented and that appropriate
wingbody interference factors (also presented) be applied. If wingalone test data are available, it is
obvious that these test data should be substituted in place of the estimated wingalone
characteristics in determining the liftcurve slope of the combination. Also, if test data are available
on a configuration similar to a given configuration, the characteristics of the similar configuration
can be corrected to those for the given configuration by judiciously using the Datcom material.
The various sections of the Datcom have been numbered with a decimal system, which provides the
maximum degree of flexibility. A "section" as referred to in the Datcom contains information on a
single specific item, e.g., wing liftcurve slope. Sections can, in general, be deleted, added, or revised
with a minimum disturbance to the remainder of the volume. The numbering system used
throughout the Datcom follows the scheme outlined below:
Section:
Page:
The page number consists of the section number followed by a dash number.
Example: Page 4.1.3.24 is the 4th page of Section 4.1.3.2.
Figures:
Figure numbers L.re the same as the page number. This is a convenient system for
referencing purposes. For pages with more than one figure, a lower case letter
follows the figure number. Example: Figure 4.1.3.250b is the second figure on
Page 4.1.3.250. Where a related series of figures appears on more than one page,
the figure 'number is the same as the first page on which the series begins.
Example: Figure 4.1.3.256d may be found on Page 4.1.3.257 and is the 4th in a
series of charts. Figures are frequently referred to as "charts" in the text.
Tables:
Table numbers consist of the section number followed by an upper case dashed
letter. Example: Table 4.1.3.2A is the first table to appear in Section 4.1.3.2.
Equations: Equation numbers consist of the section number followed by a lower case dashed
letter. Example: 4.1.3.2b is the second equation (of importance) appearing in
Section 4.1.3.2. Repeated equations are numbered the same as for the first
appearance of the equation but are called out as follows: (Equation 4.1.3.2b).
II
The major classification of sections in the Datcom is according to type of stability and control
parameter. This classification is summarized below:
Section 1. Guide to Da.,om and Methods Summary (present discussion including the
Methods Summary)
Section 2.
General information
Section 3.
Section 4.
Section 5.
Characteristics in sideslip
Section 6.
Section 7.
Dynamic derivatives
Section 8.
Section 9.
The information in Section 2 consists of a complete listing of notation and definitions used in the
Datcom, including the sections in which each 'symbol is used. It should be noted that definitions are
also trequently given in each section where they appear. Insofar as possible, NASA notation has
been used. Thus the notation from original source material has frequently been modified for
purposes of consistency. Also included in Section 2 is general information used repeatedly by the
engineer, such as geometric parameters, airfoil notation, wettedarea charts, etc.
Seciions 4 and 5 are for configurations with flaps and control surfaces neutral. Flap and control
"characteristics are given in Section 6 for both symmetric and asymmetric deflections. Section 4
includes effects of engine power and ground plane on the angleofattack parameters.
The Datcom presents less information on the dynamic derivatives (Section 7) than on the static
derivatives, primarily because of the relative scarcity c data, but partly because of the complexities
of the theories. Furthermore, the dynamic derivatives are frequently less important than the static
derivatives and need not be determined to as great a degree of accuracy. However, the Datcom does
present test data, from over a hundred sources, for a great variety of configurations (Table 7A).
If more than preliminarydesign information on, mass and inertia (Section 8) is needed, a
weightsandbalance engineer should be consulted.
Section 9 is a unified section covering aerodynamic characteristics of VTOLSTOL aircraft, with the
exception of groundeffect machines and helicopters. The Datcom presents less information in this
area than that presented for conventional configurations because of the scarcity of data, the
complexities of the theories, and the large number of variables involved. In most cases the Datcom
methods of this section are based on theory and/or experimental data such that their use is
12
Subsonic Paragraph
Introductory Material
Specific Methods
Sample Problems
B.
Transonic Paragraph
Introductory Material
Specific Methods
Sample Problems
C.
Supersonic Paragraph
Introductory Material
Specific Methods
Sample Problems
D.
Hypersonic Paragraph
Introductory Material
Specific Methods
Sample Problems
References
Tables
Working Charts
13
* =
" "
In geNeral, eacti section is organized according to speed regimes. However, Sections 6.3.1 and 6.3.2
are restricted to the hypersonic speed regime and Section 9 to the lowspeed transltionflight
regime. In a few sections, where applicable, material is included for the rarefiedgas regime as
paragraph E. Tihe material for each speed regime is further subdivided into an introductory
discussic., of the fundamentals of the problem at hand, a detailed outline of specific methods, and
sample problems illustrating the use of the methods presented. In the selection of specific methods,
an attempt has been made to survey all known existing generalized methods. All methods that give
reasonably accurate results and yet do not require undue labor or automatic computing
equipment have been included (at least this is the ultimate goal). Where feasible, the configurations
chosen for the sample problems are actual test configurations, and thus some substantiation of the
methods is afforded by comparison with the test results.
To facilitate the engineer's orientation to those Datcom sections that use a buildup of wing,
wingbody, and wingbodytail components, a Methods Summary has been included at the end of
this section. In addition, the methods of Sections 6.1 and 6.2 are also included in the Methods
Summary. The contents of the Methods Summary present the following: (1) the wing, wingbody,
and wingbodytail equations available in each speed regime, (2) the sections where the equation
components are obtained, (3) the limitations associated with the equations and their respective
components (limitations from design charts are not included), and (4) identification of the
"parameters that are bawed on exposed planform geometry that are not specified by the subscript e.
Sometimes tha senre limitntioiz, svch as "linearh'it range," may occur for more than one
component in an equation. To av,'id repetition, the same limitation is not repeated for each
component. The list of limitations should not be construed as effectively replacing the discussion
preceding each Datcom method. It remains essential to read the discussion, accompanying each
derivative to ensure an effective application of each method.
Proper use of the Methods Summary will enable the engineer to organize and plan his approach to
minimize the interruptions and the time needed to locate and calculate the independent parameters
used in the equation under consideration.
The Datcom methods provide derivatives in a stabilityaxis system unless otherwise noted.
Transformations of stability derivatives from one axis system to another are developed in many
standard mathematics and engineering texts. In FDLTDR6470, several coordinate systems are
defined and illustrated, and coordinate transformation relations are given.
All material presented in the Datcom has been referenced; plagiarizing has been specifically avoided.
In general, material that has not been referenced has been contributed by the authors.
In many of the sections, substantiation tables are presented that show a comparison of test results
with results calculated by the methods rccommended. Geometric and test variables are also
tabulated for convenience in comparing these results. Wherever possible, the limits of applicability
for a given method have been determined and are stated in the text.
jThe
working charts are presented on open grid, which in general constitute an inconvenience to the
user. However, with a few exceptions, the grids used are of two sizes only: centimeter and halfihth
grid sizes. This enables the engineer to use transparent grid paper to read the charts accurately.
Another set of documents similar in intent to the Datcom is the "Royal Aeronautical Society Data
14
4
Sheets," available from the Royal Aeronautical Society of Great Britain. These documents are
particularly useful from the standpoint that foreign source material is strongly represented in them;
whereas the Datcom emphasizes American information.
As stated in the introduction, the work on the Datcom will be expanded and revised over the years
to maintain an uptodate and useful document. In order to help achieve this goal, comments
concerning this work are invited and should be directed to the USAF Procuring Agency so that the
effort may be properly oriented.
METHODS SUMMARY OUTLINE
DERIVATIVE
CLa
PAGES
DERIVATIVE
. 06
PAGES
149 to
ht50
Cma
(.).
150
CLq
Acemax
150
CMq
CL
(Cm)
151
Cm&
Acm
1S1
Ch*
152
C1,
Ch
153
(h 1
CIyp
CLS
C,,
(CL )6
155
Cn
ACLmSX
156
Cr
145
Cir
Clio
Car
147
Chs
153
'S
..
. .
..
..
DERIVATIVE
PAGES
CD
159
159 through 161
C16
Cn
Cn6
162
Si
161
.4I
Ii
,,
16
._
".
<.t
.
DERIVATIVE
C
CONFIG.
SPEED
REGIME
SUBSONIC
LQU ATIO(I)atconr
C
2ir
A,1/
1F+4
C (CL.)theory
(C)]
4.1.3.2
4.1.3.2
TRANSONIC
SUPERSONIC
K
KNI
L [ (CN)bw
4.1.3.2
CN[(
S bw
W(c LE)bw +~
4.1.3.2
4.1.3.2
,) I + p
CNO)
4.1.3.2
HYPERSONIC
an2
(cN)
LE
I  2
WB
SUBSONIC
(a) ()
+ Kw(.)
+ KB(W)
4.3.1.2
4C
4.1
THODS SUMMARY
)R DERIVATIVE ESTIMATION
ion for components indicated)
Fig. 4.1.3.249
Eq. 4.1.3.2b
Method I
I2.
Method 2
I.
4.
6.
M=0.2
I.
2.
3
I.
2.
3.
Straighttapered wings
M>.4
Linearlift range
1.
2.
3.
4.
Linearlift range
I.
2.
3.
Curved planforms
1.0<M <3.0
Linearlift range
I.
2.
3.
4.
Straighttapered wings
Conventional wings of zerothickness
Twodimensional slenderairfoil theory
a
0
I.
2.
3.
4.
Straighttapered planforms
Wedge airfoils
Twodimensional slenderairfoil theory
aa0
5.
S
S+
4.1.3.2
C)
SE *
E 'Eq.
/Ew]IF
4.1.3.2h
4.13.2
Eq.4.1.3.2
Fig. 4.1.3.265
Se
<3.0
3W
delta or clippeddelta
Constantsectirn.
oiuatos(,
configurationts
(ArE = 0
0)
0.58 < A < 2.55
0< Q0.3
030
ALE < 800
2.
3.
look
No curved planlorms
M< 0.8. tI!c 0. I. iflrnked planlform% witlh
round LF
No curved planforms
M < 0.8, I/c < 0. 1. if cranked wings with
round LE
METHODS
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
SPEED
REGIME
CL
o d.) (C
we
Cnt
SUBSONIC
(b)
(Contd.)
Ikw)
(C)w BB
t)
(CL)
4.3.1.2
(C,)
K(wB) (CL)W
4.3.1.2 4.1.3.2
18
Se
kt
TRANSONIC
SUPERSONIC
4.1.3.2
IlARY
ATION
ted)
Eq. 4.3.1.2b
Eq. 4.3.1.2c
(b)
No curved planforms
M  0.8, t/c  0. 1, if cranked wings with
round LE
(C L)J
4.
S.
6.
(CL,)w
I.
distribution
2.
3.
A 4 3 if composite wings
a = 0
2A
4.
5.
6.
7.
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
SPE FI)
REGIME
CL
(Contd.)
WB
(Contd.)
SUPERSONIC
(Contd.)
WBT
SUBSONIC
CLa
4.1.3.2
CL=
'
4.1.3.2
IK:
4.3.1.2
METHODS SUMMARY
MlETHOI) LIMITArIONS ASSO(IA! LI) WITH
EQUATION COMPONUNTS
3.
4.
5.
I.
2.
3.
I.
"
'e(W)
St
so
(CL/
,
4.1.3.4.1.3.2
Kw()
q"S"Mehd
(w)
4.3.1.2
4.4.1
.4 .
4.4.1
Eq. 4.5. 1.1a
and (CL."
(CL)
No curved planforms
M 0.8, t/c < 0.1, if cranked planforms
round LE
KN (based on exposed wing geometry)
4.
5.
Bdies of revolution
Slenderbody theory
Linearlift range
6.
7.
8.
ae
Straighttapered wing
9.
af
predit:
10.
II.
method
q*
'
++ (CL.);
,4.1.3.2
KWiB+
K91w)
47 1.2
q0
S"
"
S' S"
+ (CLJW "(Y)
4.4.1"of
4.5.1.1
. .. . .., . .. . ......
.. ....
~
METHODS SUMMi
DERIVATIVE
CL
(Contd.)
CON FIG.
SPEED
REGIME
WBT
(Contd.)
TRANSONIC
SUPERSONIC
110
.~~
. ...
..
. . .
. .
PARY
,NIFTHOID L.IMITATIONS ASSO(. I.AI L)
I!ON
%II 1il
EQUATION COIPONrIN'TS
MW1hod I bw/h 11f > 1.5
(CL)
andt
1.
(CI..).
2.
3.
a = 0
4.
5.
6.
Straighttapered wings
Proportional to CL
q
9.
10.
ac/aa)
geometry)
Method I bw /bH
CN
>
1.5
and (CN)
ac8.
Straicglittap.'red wing%
4.
'..
prredition
..
1VAETHQDS
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
CL
(Contd.)
Cm
WBT
(Contd.)
I I7Nk
10tR.
I Q1
(I)atcniii ,,
SPE[l)
REGIME
SUPE,RSONIC
(Contd.)
SUBSONIC
Cm
Mc
nfl
4
4.1.4.2
TPMANSONWC
C
CLo
Cr/C
4.1.3.2
SSn
SUPERSONIC
4HYPIERSONIC
I) RIVAl
, , cImp.
LAJETHODS SUMMARY
)ATDW
OF)EIAIVE
ESTIMATION
NIV
I[I1OD L IMi rATIONS ASSOCIA( LI) W Ii1
EQUATION COMPONENTS
~t.
FOR DERIVAm
ed
10f coponents
,:
indicated)
q
q~.
IW
11I.
KN, K w, and CL
geometry)
1.
Eq. 4..4.2d
S2.
CL
La
3.
4.
No curved planforms
M < 0.8, t/c < 0.1, if cranked planforms wit
round LE
1.
2.
Straighttapered wings
Symmetric airfoil sections
3.
Linearlift range
4.
5.
a=
1.
Linearlift range
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.
2.
3.
Straighttapered wings
Conventional wings of zero thickness and wed
airfoils
Twodimensional slenderairfoil theory
CL
La
CN
a
4.
METHODS S
I
DERIVAT.E ICONFIG.
WB
SPEE.I)
REGIME
SUBSONI(C
("
nr
(n
...
(Contd.)
4.3.22
112
TRANSONIC
SUPERSONIC
4.3.1.2
DS SUMMARY
:.i"ATIVE ESTIMAlION
mponents indicated )
!,,1 4 1.4
l,
on .'N
'd
IHII
i ngg .c(Ji1ictJso
3.
4,
5.
6.
7.
Bod' . of revolution
Slenrbody thqory
8.
M <
1.
2.
CL
xai c.
based on exposed wing geometry)
(calculations
cr
1.
2.
4.
Straighttapered wings
Single wing with body (i.e., no ,,,uciform or
other multipanel arrangements)
Symmetric airfoils of conventional thickness
distribution
Linearlift range
5.
6.
Bodies of revolution
Slenderbody theory
3.
CL
7.
S(calculations
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
:.
7.
8.
Slenderbody theory
M 1.4 for straighttapered wings
M
3 for composite wings
1.2 < N
1.0
M<< 3 for Curved planforms
CN
4'
___i"______'______l _________________________________"__
"'__
_
_____
__ .. "__
....
."_.,_____________________________________________
METHODS SU
DERIVATIVE
Cm'
CONFIG.
REGIME
WBT
SUBSONIC
FOR DERIVATIVE ES
F.QUATIONS
SSPELlD
)IatcornS.c lion for components ii
Cm
...
JKN + KIFw )
;..
4.52.1
(Contd.)
xc.
"
KWI(
4.3.1.2
4312
r.],,
KBW
L 0 '"'
4 KwI3
)CI, j
T
4.t3.2
CL
q"
Se
S"
dcx/
3a
4.4, 4.4.
S"
/)
,,
'QJ(B~/
4..T 2
Tr
75 4.rl24.41.1
4.5.2.1
4.13.2
"S
"".9
x [N
4.5.2.1
x 1g, P,
+ K B w) + Kw (B
4.3.2
4.1.3.2
c(
) { [ K w," + K 8(w " ( CL a) " S" S'
"4.5.2 I
TRANSONIC
'4
43.1.2
4.1.3.2
4.4.1
METHODS SUMMARY
METJ0t1) LIMIIATIONS ASSOCIAE1) WITH
EQUATION COMPONENTS
S'
c( e
Method I I b~lBedy
/bl
4.1 3.2
J,36\.

4 1.3.2
2.
... .. ..
,
'
.5. 2 .1 A
Eq . 44c
S "
SIS
) iL 
q_
cI
3.
c"
4.4. 4.4.1
1.
multipanel arrangements)
M < 0.6; however, for swept wings with t/c < 0.(
application to higher Mach numbers is acceptable
KN (based on exposed wing geometry)
Bodies of revolution
5.
Slenderbody theory
6.
4.
No curved planforms
M < 0.8, tic < 0.1 if cranked planforins with
round LE
9.
10.
Straighttapered wing
Ottier limitations depend upon " prediction
ae
[oT,
,
:,'"ac
method
q
Valid only on the place 'of symmetry
Hi.
"":K W)
S;
S (\,
",[
/3
L
S,4.1.3.2

'.X
" S
CL
E.2
q
It
_S _S
4.4.1
413.2
+W
+~ ,L
x'
Xeg
1 w()KN
4.5.1.1
Method I
bhv/bi  I 5
X.
i"X
cg
.''i
,
I
*
2.
3.
"4,,'din.ribuftion
Linearlilt range
.'.'.4
I1
METHODS SUMMAI
II..TI10
EQUATIONS IW()R I)fRIVV E[]
I)taicom ,c't ion for comipoinent indicalted)
SPE.I 1)
DERIVATIVE
Cm
(Contd.)
CONFIG.
REGIME
W BT
(Contd.)
TRANSONIC(
(Contd.)
SUPERSONIC
114
*We
),..DDSSUMMARY
KRIVATIVE
ESTIMA]TION
Scomponents
I IIIONS
IAll.I
NSSUc I A.lI1)Slil
QUATION (OM PON l NI S
indicated
K
.
(lad
5.
Bodies of revolution
6i.
Slenderhody theory
C andC
7.
8.
Proportional to
9.
('L
q
q_
10.
KB(w.
and
(C 1,
CNand
5.
6.
7.
8.
(C
iaE
acee
10.
prediction
,.1
, '=
' = "
 ._
=, . . , ,
, .
" .
METHODS SUM
DERu
IVAT
IV
Cm
l)l.RVA IlC
R .;1GI+iE
CON IG.
',
"
PI RIIRSON W
('o(t,
tL ond.)
(('on d.)
CL
SUBSONIC
+2
4.1.4.2 4.1. 3. 2
1TRANSONIC
"SUPRS()NI('
C2(I
,UP
"I,
'
'l
_ :
_.
:
'
_' _
...
.2:_,. _
._._.....&
'. .
..
METHODS SUMMARY
[.1QI
T1IONS FOR
t)ERIvArI'VEL1STINtATION
%i11
11101) L Iu
%I
I)WOS.SO
VI II
LQUATHON (iO'tPONLNIS
Ij
on'
_______________________________________________geometry)
Eq. 7. 1.1I1a
c
I1.
MI
tic
I.
3.
4.
is acceptable
Line~arlift rangeC
No cuirved pla niornis
M <C(JAX,t/e  0.1, ii* cranked wings with
round LE
2.
St raigjitttapered wings
No camber
3.
I.
Straighttcapered wings
CL
1 '7 1
i.
(a)
(b
IiiiLcre:[toprain
< II
vinc
taypso
Su~personicIF..I (0icot A
>II
V lid oi~ll
\',t
I1\%ch liite' I ruil I F vI
5 1 urcmnisI NacI ~Ilt
Irii
tme~ititer in
wing
x
Li erIttii
,tip) nilt
METHODS SUMMA
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
S.PDI)
RE(IME
CLq
(Contd.)
SLJPERSONIC
(Contd.)
(Contd.)
4.3.1.2
7.1.1.1
7.21.1.1
S '[
(CL)w
K~wB8
(CLq)W
+(CLq),,
4.3.1.2 7.1.1 1
7.2.1.1
TRANSONIC
SUPERSONIC
()(+
II
I::"

':::rr
:
: "':
i:::
':
,...
......
:i_..
',
".
' .
..
..
....
'."SUMMARY
!'VE ESTIMATION
".,ents indicated,)
NI HI 1101
(N,
N1.1.4
I
q. 7.3.1.1a
. i(W ing
.Metlhod I[ b 'o' dialkllet Cl)
(se 4.3.1.2 Sketch (df8
p3ill) is
sniall
I.
No curved planl'olii,
2.
3.
Linearlift range
M
0.0, however, for swept vings with
Cc
0.04, application to higher Mach nubnher,;
is acceptable
4.
5.
Bodies of revolution
"Method 2
q. 7.3. I.lb
(C1
""
I.
2.
Straighttapered wings
No camber
3.
4.
Conventional thicki
.5
~(CLq)
jistribution
(CL),.
I.
2.
Straighttapered wings
iNt
14
i.ta r,lDt rang.
U1
METHODS SUMMA
r
*RIVATIVf
CL
qCnd
CONI16.
K I~ (
(Coiltd. )
SUPIRSONIC
((ofltd.)
WBT
SUBSONIC
Wu
C Lq
~I NI
(,WVUIONS FO
0R 1)L RI V All V LS I IMNiIA
):Iwomnwctioii for c nmpooejit ioldicaIC(I
I~
(t4wg+
7.3.
2 [w,)+
Ks~
~#.)(
4 .3.1.2
4.5.2.1
)(C~4
4.4.
4.13.
44
7 3.1.1
4TRANSON
IC
4,52.1
'1.
4 41
4.1 32
. ..
:L
,P.
I.THODS SUMMARY
!1%
i
I)R!VATIVi ESTIM AI"ION
;%,,ion for conmponents indicated)
6.
7.
CL 4
8.
Bodies of revolution
XC4 x
F,
4.5.2.1
.
C
4,4.1 4.1.3.2
Eq.
.4.1.1a
I.
Linearlift range
(based on exposed wing geometry)
No curved planforms
Lq),
2.
3.
4.
Bodies of revolution
M ,< 0.6; however, for swept wings
with
t/c < 0.04, application to higher Mach numbers
is acceptable
"round LE
q"
6.
7.
S( (
"12
4.4
(C
)LI.
o
4;.2 
.4,1.1b
(sayc l hltadtions a,
(t I
..
Sed
(ii
C\posed %kiilgP1uii
741
Method I
(L)
C(
_4
,0!,ih
I.S
i baswd
I.
2
S  
Method I abovue
Str.lighittapred w'ing,.
No cniiihet
C.
('ooveltioial
t
llu
knes, distribution
b o dl
.,s tI te
iltit
it(
l
117
METHODS SUMM,
SPU I 1)
D)ERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
RLGIME
CL
(C q
(Counid.)
WBT
(Contd.)
'RIN SNIC
oi td.)
SUPERSONIC
n
6
(
I
,
1 Q( A IIONS
OR [A.DlR
I, A I IVI.V ES I I*\I Al
Inr t'i ,,i i
llnl
<itcuLn t'tjol
0 MARY
"UlION
f101)
4I
LI.N11 I k IONS \VSO( I .1[1)
I
;'ldi'atdt'd
\ I Ili
IQUA1 Ik '(IPON I) NI S
"
8.
Method 2
Method I
1. Lineailitt range
(C.)JWB (based on exposed wing geometry)
2.
3.
4.
Straighttapered wings
Bodies o! revolution
MI.4
K0
(a)
(b)
7.
8.
t)
10i.
It rliu nvi mi, s flow field, lim ited to) tinirvis t wings
It
. . ou,lr, Iv
eld, .hlid only on iI.nc ,,I
'y iiinllle ht
(C'I.q)Wtb
geornetry I
and (I t
()w.i,
ii,s'd on exposed vong
METHODS SUMI
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
EgSll
IOR
I j)L
\I com
IO)NSset
indi,
ti,, I)I:RIVATIVI5
for comlVInnis
(1).1
SPEED
REGIMl
1 .I 7.1 1 1
Cm
S BSONC
wSUBSONIC
CraqW
~ (ina
"
1 ,0.22
, cos
0. 7
cos A.1
A + 2 cs,
. 4O
(A
244A
,
1.1
4. I.i.2
4.
(CA
3o
A4
A3 tan2 Acl,
m >0..1
0.
"+ 3
A+COSA
(nq
CLQ)M1
".4.1.3.2
"
"4
SUPI
 ,7.1,1.2
41.3.2
71..
7 12
(CLa)sder
7.1.1.1
7.1.1
=12
qIl)
m
7.1.1.2
~q
m.
m/
7.).1.2
"4
. 
, " .
, "
" ,
'
'
'
."F
".
"
*,,
"
_....."
"
METHODS SUMMARY
METIHOD LIM Ilk IONS ASSO.IT,%IFL)
EQUATION COMPONENTS
,1
I I!
7 . II. 1 7 . I . !
ta n' A,/
t _A'
~~ A"i~ LX
XTY
J s
X4,I~
Eq 71.I.a
2.
Linearlift range
SEq.
7.1.1.2b
:+3
1.2
(,X
7.1.1.2
7.1.1.2
Cm
1.
Eq. 7.1.1.2c
+.
distribution
'.:(
7.1.1.2
7. 1.2
1.
j M 1.2
"3.
Straighttapered wings
Subsonit LE (0 cot ALE K
<
(a)
4.
5.
(b)
Eq. 7.1..2d
(a)
(th
CL.q
.
..
m .
4.
5.
Straighttapered wings
M > 1.4
Linearlift range
i.
7.
..
 ...
  ,  .. 
:
: i 
? 
? .
? i
'
METHODS SUMMAR
DERIVATIVE
SPEED
CONFIG.
REGIME
WB
SUBSONIC
Cont
(Cmq)
=IKYi.
+ K((w
(Contd.)7.1.1.2
K(WB)(Cmw
4.3.1.2 7.1.1.2
TRANSONIC
I
I2
./
120
gl 
(.
7.2.1.2
(Cr)W
F '1I
2(c
. .
. .
7.2.1.2
Linearlift raige
(Cm q)c
2.
<i
0.6; however, for swept wings with
t/c < 0.04,:appiication to higher Mach iiumbers
is acceptable
3.
Bodies of revolution
Cmq
2.
3.
Straighttapered wings
Symmetric airfoils of conventional thickness
distribution
a = 0
Subsonic LE (0 cot ALE < I)
4.
(a)
5.
(b)
7.
8.
~(Ciq)jj
9.
tloll
METHODS SUMI
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
SPL)
REGIME
Cm
q
WB
(Conitd.)
(ot.
WBT
SUPF.RSON IC
SUBSONIC
Cmq
=(mw
7.3. 1.21
 2 K~~B
+ IKBW 1
(jIA
4.3.1.2
4.5.2.1
4.4.1 4.1.3.2
4s
2 (1,){Kw
,
rni
7.3.1.2
4 5. 2.1
+
4 3
k,~n,
<I()
44.1
'
4
"IETHODS
SUMMARY
,Method
' .
(a)
2. Straighttapered wings
3. M> 1.4
Subsonic LE (3 cot ALF. < I)
4.
(b)
Bodies of revoiution
" 2
"/"Eq.
. 4 ..
a
Mq,,
ethod
C i lw/b,
(based _on1.5
exposed wing geometry)
\lm
wB
I1.
2.
3.
Bodies of re%,olution
M < 0.6; how'ever, if a swept whig with
t/c < 0.04, application to higher Mach numbers
is acceptable
Linearlift range
4,
5.
6.
No curved planforms
KI < 0.8, 'c 4! 0.10, it cranKed planforms with
round L1,
q"
IS"\
+ Ka[:
vs
"\
~Method
.(L(
q. 7.4.1.2h
4.3.1.2
4.4.1
4.1.3.2
4.5.1.1
121
,... 
.
:
= .
 ... .
...

.'. 

, ".
.' .
METHODS SUMMAR
DERIVATIVE
Cm
CONFIG.
WB
SPilt)
REGIME
TRANSONRI
(Same as
TWi cqtaulionf)
(Contd.)
(Contd.).
4
!S
SUPERSONIC
122
r ,W
. W
'RY
,".ON
('
1.5
Jm H)w
(based Oil C.~posed wing geolnet vI
I . Stiaiglttapered wings
Sy'n1r11tic dirfoils of conventional thickness
(distribultion
2.
S4.
*1tI
3. Bodies of revolution
a= 0
Subsoni I.E (,. cot A1 <
(a)
"5.
6.
"(h)
7.
S~q
q
9.
10.
""
['j
"I"
.
Method 2 bw/bni
< 1.5
:'.

geometry)
Method I bw/b 1i > 1.5
(C
W (based on exposed wing geometry)
Straighttapered wings
Bodies of revolution
M> IA4
"4. Linearlift range
1KBW)
(based on exposed wing geOLmetry)
2.
3.
(a)
Subsonic LE (03cot A
<
IL 1)
5.
Mach tine fromn TE vertex may not intersect [ F
6.
Wingtip Maci lines may not intersect on wings nor
(b)
""
_TE
,
.,
'
L.
&
.t
t

.
....
L ...
METHODS SUMMA
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
SSPI.I)D
RFSPINE
REG INI FIa
Cm"
WBT
SUPERSONIC
(Contqd.)
(Contd.)
(Contd.)
CL.
SUBSONIC
).QUAT'
ION S FOR IDERIVATIVEf ESTINI Ate1
tcol Setio lo compnent indicated)
CL
1.5 (X)
CL
4.1.4.2 4.1.3.2
'rRANSONIC
SUPERSONIC
3 C1(g)
7.1.4.1
cL
2
3G,(0C)
F3 (N)
7,.1 .1 7A 4.1
+ 1"i()
FN) +
S,12 L:"(0C)
F1 (I
7.1.1.1 7.1.4
.
...
..
..
,'
METHODS SUMMARY
Ni HTHO(
.'ni
EQUATION (ONIPONENIS
1,1 [oW
o.remoVCt M ach 1ine0truflr either wiNg tip II0
ot Win)g
intrwct I*C:lOtC halt11
9.
10.
(CL
I 1.
, KBW) IaInd
(CM
geometry)
Gr
1.
2.
Triangular plaoforms
Linearlift range
3.
CL (g)
4.
0 </OA<4
",
'i"'(I
't
3.
Linearlift iangc
"4.
No caber
.~
i hrlbion
CL
ti
=
0 < iA <4
)
F2(N)
1 I."(1 3C)
7.1
I I
7.1.4.1
'q.
(i
M2r
*
FY N)
~..

~2.
7.1.1.1 7.1.4.1
.............................
S."3C
Method I
Straigittqip
Xil0
Subsonic 1I  ('3 cot At\ : <. I
4.
Wiii)
METHODS SUMMAF
DER
DEIV1IE 4JF~~.
StUP[RS(.N[W
(Colltd.)
(Contd.)
cL
Lent.
1.1)k
R[GIMI4
[AI)
mi
~~71.4.1
WB
SUBSONIC
(C1,)W
=K(
74.
KB()
(WL
B(H+
4.3. 1.2
4TRANSONIC
124
~(~)r
~(b(B
L
7.1.4.1
7.2.2.1
(')
)
:''MARY
' .IlON
]:
ll. llMOl
, IIt
.\l IONS NsOs
m
I I I Itw\IIl
I QI" A I ION ( O\l'ONIN I S
lip Mih Ii11cN r1.i,.rnot ilicrwe t on wingS nor
.nrig
retcrk,
Cv
t O
lilear.Ith
rmg.l,
le
rig tips
range
MCthod 2
I. . St r i Iz~ tl
f UII re'd A,it1i,
2.
(.,)
r,phl'i ewn
1 ricct
0_'S _ X<
11: vewrtex
mlay nII/)
InIC'tersct
LF
7.
(Cj
2
3.
4.
friangular planforrus
0<O3A <4
M < 0.6; however, itswept wing with t/c < 0.04,
application to higher Mach numbers is acceptable
5.
Bodies of reNolution
.Eq. 7.3.4 1b Method 2 ibody dnarneter)/( wing ,pan) is large with dr'Ita wing
c\tcrdirrg entire length of body
,tse Sketch (, 1 4. 1.1.2)
(,inie hInntation'S , Method I above)
thIAIT!(
r i AIng 'plitl) INi
(see Sketh (d) 4 3.1.2)
MNIl' tt I (1h1t0d,
I.
kti,w)
1111l1
(fmsc,
()1LXp'osed
ol
ing gcollwllh'l.
I1 ri.llrgril'rr plallrftillls
"
4
5.
,I
, rll)triitt l.c
0)
..
r M
nlttoils with .
4

I C)
c)ll
rtltl laI thrrlctlc,
METHODS SUMMARY
DERIVAT:F
CL.
(Contd.)
CON"G.
SPEED
REGIME
WB
TRANSONIC
(Contd.)
(Colntd.)
SUPERSONIC
'
'
equations)
qsusonc
(Same
'.
WBT
SUBSONIC
CL
7 3.4I.1
[Kw(jH)+
4.3. 1.
KB~w
\1"
4.5
4.4.1 4.4.14.13.2
METHODS SUMMARY
. ATIONS FOR DFRIVAI IVEi ESTlI &%TION
!halcom section (ur components indic, ted)
t),
Bodit. of re%0olution
Method 2 (b.ady diamneteriA wing spanl) i., ;arge with delta wing
extending entire length of body
(see Sketch (0) 4.3.1 .2)
(same limitations as Method I abu,.r)

3h)Supersonic LE
S.
6.
(CL,;)B
7,
Bodies of revolution
aa
7 4 4
. . .1a Method 1 1) /b
; 1 5
Io
.
ILinearli ft range
4.
5.
1,ilies ieiv(Ilfluion
.\l
Jo. h1) vcr it swept vig Withi t
U 04
q)Iptlik~llilol to higher MaichI nnrihvrs is mu.pt~lidl
it of ,ini
nvtrI
METHODS SUMMAI
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
Cl
WBT
(Contd.)
(Contd.)
SPEED
REGIME
SUBSONIC
(Contd.)
C1  =
)
73.41
l2(i
('L,
2
45 2.1
TRANSONIC
SUPERSONIC
"v)
4.5.1.
.,ARY
I()N
MI l1101) L.I
'1"
tQIUAHINC OM PONEUN I S
Eq. 7.4.4.1b
Method  b\ h . 1.5
(same hinitations as Itcws I through
and
('t
(d,WB
5 immediately above)
Method I hb'bl
bi
CL
iH
1.5
Linearlilt range
tbased on expo ,ed wing geometry)
2.
3.
Triangular plantorms
Symmetric airfoils with conwvcntional thickne.,s
4.
distribution
0 <A<
4
5.
Bodies of revolution
6.
M,,
M; 1.0
KB(Wi (based on exposed wing geometry)
q
q00
7.
8.
9.
Proportional to CL
au
L)e
10.
II.
a
0
Additional tail limitation is identical to Item 3
immediately above
(CL
and (Li
Method I bwIhH
1.
2.
6 immediately above)
_> 1.5
Straighttapcred wing
L.inearlit t range
d on
evxpoed wing geometry)
(a)
3.
l3odhivs ot rc\olution
Subsonic LE (03 cot ALE <
4.
5.
noir intrect
i Z :_ ;,
Mach line front 'I vrtcx may not intersect U.Winggtitp NIach linets may not inlere.t on wings
iopposite wing tips
..
: ':
: "":""
'".... ...=:..
. '
..
.....
METHODS SUP
SPELL)
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
[)i
AlItRSONIC
WMIT
CL
(('ontd.)
ot(Contd.)
(Con td)
SUBSONIC
Cm
C"
(&mC
7.1.4.2
TRANSONIC
.*
**.
I

SUPEROI
7.1.4.1
I)DFRIVATIVE ES]
se)aco
eion
ti
for components in4
METHODS SUMMARY
NI ELTI( ) LIMITA IONS ASSO'IAlLI Wt Ft
FQLJA[ION COMPONENTS
I)
Sut'erson ic L.E (0 cot AL,
(i. \:iid only it Matih lines Irom LI: vertex
i~tilcr
.'t
iL"
qQ0
8.
9.
10.
Straighttapered wings
1I.
12.
3e
pr
prediction
1.4
Fq
.1. 4 .2a
I.
4.
0<O3A< 4
M < 0.6: however, if swept wing willh t/c <_ 0.04,
application to higher Mach numbers is acceptable
Linearlift range
1.
?
TriangUlar planforms,
Svymmtric aifoils o1 con'ntioital thickniess
2.
3.
CIL.
distnriutimo
3.
4..
0{
NI
5.
Linearihft range
3A < 4
... I  I (?
Cni
(aG Subonic 1.
IT (:ot
2.
t?< ;
"
"
[7
=,
"
"
AtL
< I
t 1 1.
.
METHODS SUMMAF
DERIVATIVE
C
(Contd.)
CONFIG.
SPEED)EQUATIONS
REGIME
W
(Contd.)
SUPERSONIC
(Contd,)
WB
SUBSONIC
(C)w
+ K(Crn)
4.3,1.2
(Cm
128
~=(H)
(Cm)
4.3.1.2
7.1.4.2
5TRANSONIC
SUPERSONIC
+ (Cm)I
7.1.4.2
7.2.2.2
(SC(Q) +(C
7.2,2.2"
(~)()
IMARY
.IMATION
idicated)
(b)
4.
not
5.
6,
2
Eq. 7.3.4.2a
Straighttapered wings
Linearlift range
( '.
3.
4.
(CmJB
S.
Eq. 7.3.4.2b
O<A < 4
M < 0.6: however, if swept wing with t/c 5( 0.04,
application to higher Mach numbers is acceptable
Bodies of revolution
(j
0 <
O3A
5.
M~r C I ". I 0
Itt
.ic,
tit iA tilli
I00
"spa
Strl.ghtltapered s rigs
L.inma rift
range
ill
'
METHODS SUMMARY
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
CIA,;
WB
(Contd.)
(Contd.)
SPEED
REGIME
SUPERSONIC
(Contd.,
(Con(CL
WBT
SUBSONIC
Cm,,
(Cm)W
7.3.4.2
C,
(m
(C m6)
3 .
Ri
4.5.2.1
7.3.4,2
TRANSONIC
' ,
"
""
+ KB(w)I(~(s
2KW(8)

, .
_o 2 ....
"...
."
4.5.2.1
(c.o
.,,
4.5.1.1
$~
aTT 4.4.1
(
4.1.3.2
METHODS SUMMARY
METHOD LIMITATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH
"."4comn
EQUATION COMPONENTS
(b)
(CM)1
7.
Bodies of revolution
"I, S \/c__X\
a
4
Eq. 7.4.4.2aMehdIb
Method I bw/bH >' 1.5
q*x x2C
/
q)
E.74
T.2.14.4.1 4.1.3.2
I. Linearlift range
(Cm),ws (based on exposed wing geometry)
2.
3.
4.
5.
O<OA<4
Bodies of revolution
M < 0.6; however, if swept wing with t/c < 0.04,
application to higher Mach numbers is acceptable
6.
7.
Limitation,,
q"
qw
ace
'0e
IC)
1
"4.5.Cm
Lq. 7.4.4.2b
qlepend upon
1.btt <K1.5
Method 2
(same limitations as Items I through
*
and
Method I b''/bH
H)
1.5
Linearlift range
L
prediction method
5 immediately atove)
METHODS SUMMAR'
DERIVATIVE
Cm
(Contd,)
SPEW)
CONFIG.
REGIME
WBT
(Contd.)
TRANSONIC
(Contd,)
SUPERSONIC
. 0
" "
"i
 
'
. .
]MARY
I IONSA'ISO( I F1 1) h~ I I if
M1I11101) IiNIH A
[I
AT ON W.Nt PON I NI S
All AI ION
tcat1A)
(J
4
. 13\0
* odi
(baw d onl
K10
tue to
rovolutioil
I\,
)~cIfet
Ll
Conventional trapezoidal plin tormsl,
Vailid only on thie plane ot symnierv
7
8.
L.Proportional to CL.
(C'
10.
UI
ca0
6 immediately Ahove)
(samei
('1m&)W
1.
('111)
('L)"
an
Method I bw
03.
I .5
11 <
Hb
I
Straighttapered wings
Lin earlit t range
(baSed on ex pose.d wing ge~orneti
INHBodi; of r1evo'luition
(a)
Wichlir
1wromn TE srtex m'iy niot interweo LF
nnU winpN 001
WietpMach lines may not 0trirt
i i,,I:tipiisltec Wing fIi ,
(bh)
I)
SukrtmwC'dii
I1t. ii
6.
\'alil
I orcilk
K it~:sdrir
II VS
vis
'r n: n'Ic
>
'
ilL. iL
.otA
01
kf
inc
cit tC01r
I!'
itr%
111,1 niot
Irg
llt
SI iloy
Iw
\
ILIneC I)
ieldl. Vilid irii.v o11t11r2
METHODS SUMMAI
DSPEEI)
DERIVATIVE
C
CONIFIG.
WH[
(Coritd.)
T
ESTIMA IO
,\TION% t01< I)LRIVATIVE
(f
REGIME
jjl{jIVatcofleio'
SIUPFRSONIC
('ontd.)
(Contd.)
CYWSUBSONIC
C2
0.0001
16 tan A
(Low Speed)
cy"
(Subcritical)
M4 sin A,/4
000
In
lI'
57.3
 + 4 cos A,, 4 )
(A
4 cos
AB+4cosAc/ 4 \C./zbw
CL/M
5 1.1.1
TRANSONIC
(No method)
SUPERSONIC
C 9
0e:
2
1
8M 2
7AO32 57.3
0.0001 1l
a ,2
i"rr
,.":!'
o2
4 AM
A
1
2
2 Q((C)
(/ ') 57.3
0.0001

Ii
a 23
5.5 . 1.1
WB
SUBSONIC
SUPFRSONI{"
4?
CK,
(+d
(.1c',cAr~r
METHODS SUMMARY
LIONS FOiR DERIVATIVE IESTUNIA1 ION
Nl11IO1)
0DLIMIIIAIIONS ASS(MIAHI) D'Al1iI
i:QUAT ION (. 0IPOI NsI S
;corn
0.
Ca
11.
prvd
ictiori method
Nl :11.4
Method 2b.b 1
1.5
(saiie wint fit on', as 1k ms I through
(11)H
..
.0.0001
Frl
7 irrmediatelN abouse
on exposted WIn~g geofiletrVY
(r1h
tased
~)
1.
Constanthr
etwig
Linearlift range
I.
2
Rectangular planforms
Nlach number and aipeet iatio greater than that
for which the Mlicch line I ruin 11 oit tip %ecton
Eq. Sl
(As/"Ir2J(N)0l tFi)I.
I.
II
. r etnnL
t A k'l+(A
C saniiiiiaton
I
IJ
c IIIIIt.
l'sn.~bs
i
METHODS SUMMAR'
D)EKIVATIVE
cy
SPEEDI)
CONFIG.
REGIME
TO
SUBSONICJ*
+2
k (CI~)(
(Contd.)
.
i4 4.132
..
C 14H2Sl
Ok
y
53.1 I
5.3.1 7
s
.CY~)
A
(CL.),
SW
5.3.1.1 41 .3.2
S
5 3.1.1
TRANSONIC
7.271.
(No nethod)
SUPERSONIC
5.3
.1
4.1 3.2
(,(
HYPERSONIC
.*
S'y
&'iWL
~Lq.
F
5 3 1I lb
.W11,1
( UIP
I NISID
d~
ho(riio~ntal
of velitica! paniel
(~h:i'wd on t~posed verticalIjit geomontyi
( ).. C
tt(olitrihution
C1,
1.
round I.E.
Eq. 5 _3.1.I v
I(rtlihititin
3.
I
E~q. 5.3. 1. *t
0t horizontal fall
odtiesotot
t to6lUIn
(a)
Vecticatladt contrihIitinu
on expow~d veiti cttal vi
~otnctrv i
(C,
( h.med on ex ;u)i'cd etw.c
tltail
geomet iv)
~~K'
(bawed
4
5.
inntil~
i,I f.1 i la
______________________2.
Nih't
Not______
36
nii
\itinn01
...
METHODS SUMMP
SPLI.!)
DERIVATIVE~
CYTB
(Contd.)
(Contd.)
IAIONS
I
U0K DFRIV AI lyEL ES IM.\i1
I)a(c'om '.&clion for kompJonell Cs inidicated]
RG
1:II;FI EI
HYPFRSONIC (a)
(Conid.)
Ac
(cN
pN,
SA
5.3.1.1 4. 21 .1
42
cp
(M 2 
_________4
WBTr
SUBSONIC
Cy
5.21.1
C
(U),
I RA N SN I U
L4
++ I/T+i~
+62
(ol
1, +
ild
1)(d
6)21
5.3.T.
'
METHODS SUMMARY
METiOI LIMIT AIONS \SSOCIAThI) WITh
EQUATION COMPONENI S
(a)
I'.l. 5.3.1.1f
Verticaltail contnbution
,4~
4.
M>3
i/
(b)
, S
SW
S.
EqI. 5..
(Cv
Bodies of revolution
4
M
g
Horizonta!tail contribution
(M2  I
( +
)22.
Eq. 5.3.1.1h
Eq. 5.6.1.1a
Method 2
1.
Sharpedged sections
6 < I"< 1
Bodies of revolution
(ACY 0) V(WBH,
3.
Eq. 5.6.1.1a
(;O)WB
2.
Lq. 5.6.1.1b
Straighttapered planforms
Linearlift rarage
Bodies of revolution
3.
4.
M <
C.
t'c
rou.id I
133
METHODS SUMMA
DERIVATIVE
CY
(Contd.)
Ct
CONFIG.
SPEED
REGIME
(Con
td.)
WBT
SUPERSONIC
CJ3
C
,
( CyA
1p
Y)
(C (ot)5.2,1.1
nt.
 '5.3.1.1
SUBSONIC
C1
CL
IC,~
L)
5.1.2.1

,,,
[I
4 .1.3 .2
5.1.2.1
4.1.3.2
s,'
CL(
C
.1 2 1
5.1.2.1
5.1.2.1
5 .1.2 .1
5
134
+ 0 tan A,
5.1.2.1 5.1.2.1
5.1.2.1
.1.2.15 .21
CL[I 57.3
3 TX rY)
7V7
CL
.3541
+ fKM
L.),~ S
1 .3 ,2
~1
5 .1.2 .1
52
5 .1.2 .1
.
573 3 ;x
W+
~SW
.3 .2
[CL/
5
..
I.
Eq. 5.
.Ab
I.I
2.
3.
,CY)
Eq. 5. 1.2.1a

Bodies of lwvolution
(based on exposed verticaltail geometry)
4.
5.
6,
7.
I.
2.
Straighttapered wings
A  1.0
Uniform dihedral (alternate form is availahle to
account for dihedral)
M < 0.6
_5
3 < +50
Linearlift range
Eq..1.2./a3.
4.
5.
6.
4.
5.
Straighttapered wings
A < 1.0
Uniform diledral
M<0.6
5) ,<
f 5
6.
Linearlift range
I.
2.
I.
2.
3.
Eq. 5.1.2.1a'
3.
4.
5.
Eq. 5.1.2.1b
No twist
No dihedral
M<0.6
6.
50  3 < +50
7. Linearlift range
(C 1.) and ( L)
t/c < 0.10 if cranked wiigs with round LF
8.
,,
%~
1]
L.A
KMA
Sao
A, and A')
No tis,t
3.
.
No dihdral
M 0.6
5 K [j . [.i carhi U ,1gc
4.
5
512.1
1Lq. 5.1.2.1b
6.
7
(CL)
an
8.
""
(l,
t/c
___________________1."________________________________________________
00.
METHODS SUMP
QLTIONS FOR I)ERIVATWE ESTIM,
DEI VSPEED
D RIVA.
REGIME
C
(Contd.)
atcom
5.1.2
(Con td.)
)M
2
2) M4=. , 4
/.2 ,1
(c/o)
5.1 .2.15
=06J
AE
CN
SUPERSONIC
C1
 0.061 CN
I + X
4.1.3.2
4.1.3.2
4.1.3.2
M =0
I+ A
i +
M2 co
tan ALE
"'LE)
4A1.3.2
KL (
0.061
CN
ALE,
)osj
.3
Ap
"4.1.3.2 4.1.3.2
:JVK,
(CN)
:i
"0.061
,5
bw
7.3
+ X
(l + ALE b )
"
WB
S U BS O N IC
c't
CL
w +
( ((
+I
5.1..115.1

S.
21522 I
+)
METHODS SUMMARY
".'tAIONS FOR
.o
I +
Eq. 5.1.2.1c
4.
5.
6.
7.
2
A tan ALA.~ MCos
tanA
tan ALE
t1
Straighttapered w~ngs
4/
4/312.
Aings
/v%1,14
4.1..3
4.1.3.2
AJ
A
S+
Lt
"
,=0.6
j<
Straighttapered
0< 9z
Linearlift range
I.
2.
3.
3.
No twist
Uniform dihedral
4.
Linearlift range
5.
M> 1.4
6.
7.
,
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
CN
Eq. 5.1.2.1e
SI
J A
_ 9
"tan A
/tan AL
r.2 cos2 A
+LEs
,t
All+I
AsI
X4/3]
"w
CO
(CN)A
and (CN
7.
I + ' w I + A.L E
"'5
Lq.
~Ab..'
.',
: C
cos 2 AIF
l 1+ f'
5.1.2.1, 5.1..
K'
Ai
. 22I
++
5.1.2.!f
+0
22
9.
1.2 1'M , 3
8 M>1.4,
if A > A.
Ag ,
,9
.A(
t
">.1
I":. 5.
1 .
Strraihttwpenrd wings
4.
5
5" J <
1 nearlilt range
2.
.Ii
lA.4t
nif, rm d !h led
rd l
METHODS SUMMAI
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
S)U.
REGIME
C,
(Contd.)
WB
(Contd.)
SUBSONIC
((Contd.)
TRANSONIC5
5.2.2.1
~4.1,3.2
522.1
4.1.3.2
41.3.2
SUEROIC
c
. 01CNC(
4 .1.3 .2
.SUPESONIC
3 .5.1.2.1
W
5.3.1.1
TRANSONIC
SUPLRSONIC
136
.,
.
(No nethod)
(Same as subsonic equation)
4.1.3.2
At'/tan A~:
1 .4
.52.2.
5.2.2.1
4.1.3.2
c~"A
2
1
,q.
C/
Eq. 5.2.2.1ld
0.
I.
2.
3.
Straighttapered wings
Mfb < M < 1.4
_50 < g < +511
<
0.60_________
\CNM =1.4
4.
S.
6.
Uniform dihedral
7.
(CL.
8.
tan A
4
Linearlift range
f and ( C)
9.
I.
2.
3.
Straighttapered wings
M > 1.4
Linearlift range
4.
5.
C,
P
Eq. 5.2.2.1 e
6.
Eq. 5.3.2.1a
ACy
(A.y
1.
I.
)
2.
____
4"L
METHODS SUMMAiR
Ctd.
(Contd.)
TB
(Contd.)
SPELE!)
REGIME
[1)b
rorn ,,ection for components indicatcdl)
SUPERSONI(C
(Con td.)
HYPERSONIC
OZ aa
sin a
cos
O
5.3. 1.1
loc,)Y))
O')W
TR
i NOI2N
TRANSONI('
(No) nitthod)
5 3.J.1
,,..METHODS SUMMARY
"::)NIS FOR DJERIVATIVE ESTIMATION
~INIErri01
LINIFTATIONS ASSOCI.XIAI)
FQU ATION CONI PONFN] S
t
Eq. 5.3.2. I
4.
5.
0.
t\1
1.2
1.0
7.
Linearlift range
Method I
1.
1
WITH
1orizontal3
tal
( 5.v (bse
2.
cmpounted o
oizna
lnbdyormns
on expos
f17CLed
vriIplanfIgorm
ety
Linarpedt age
sin
rMethod 3
I.
(AC,
3.
UnHorm iz
2.
Uppe rag
(AC)
edraltalmutdo'
Of06roi
yo
Mc
ohrznl
~br
0133
zpadRP(ae
xoe
etuNe
emty
METHODS SU 1M
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
WBT
(Contd.)
AI
EQUATIONS FOR DERIVATIVE
i I)atcorn ,ectioI1 for componev;t undicale(
SPEED
REGIME
SUPERSONIC
(Contd.)
tnAJ
Cn
SUBSONIC
(Low Speed)
C2
(Subcritical)
+ 4 cos A, 4/4)
1
I
a2
1 4M
irA 2 p2
2A(1..a
+8M 2 X
(Clo)
SUBSONIC
S~5.3.
(ACn#)p
r A
30
3.23
32
1 6 F , I( )
7.1.1.2
5.1.3.1
KR
KN
5.2.3.1
TB
2
A 2 + 4A cos Ac/ 4  8 cos A,14
3
7.1.1.1
ALL SPEEDS
8 co
157.3
PL
)CE"
Fg(N) + (A
Q 2IM2
F1 1(N) +
a2
WB
(No method)
C.
SUPERSONIC
A2
8 cos A,, 4
A
2
= (A+4 cos A.
Luct ,AB
TRANSONIC
tan Ac14
,A(A + 4cosAAAc/4 )
4I._
57.3 j4A
5 7.'5.1.1.1
S
5.2.3.1
(ACY)
I.1
138
..............
,.................."
".
"
I.
I;es
II
rh! t r.,Lee
2.Straigehttapered %mIgs,
3.
4
S
(C\
snEq.
A..3.a
6.
I.
Linearlift range
I.
Rectangular planform
2.
A vM'
Eq. 5.1.3.1c
Eq. 5.1.3.1d
1.
X = 0
2.
T'E
at center of win z)
Line~srh f!ranpge
*I.
Eq.
2.3.1 a
Method I
(AC ) (based on exposed verticaltail geometry for
Method 3)
(Cy)p
N."
I
method
'IJ
"%C(Y.
predicluon
METHODS SU
DERIVATIVE
(od
"(C
o td.)n
CONFIG.
SPEED
REGIME
TB
(Contd.)
SUBSONIC
! .
lContd.)
AIoVNSI.OR DRIVATIVEE
1)a'orm %Cction for cimnponents
"
4A 2
'p +
I.
(c?
T
5.3.11
bw
(No method)
TRANSONIC
C.
SUBSONIC
WBT
C)
~j.
b.Z)
(.)(f
I
5.2.3.15
,iu!
.........................
!!
"
!!!!
....
IETHODS SUMMARY
I OR DERIVATIVE ESTIMATION
vc (ion for components indicated)
Method 2
Eq. 5.3.3.1h
(based onMethod
exposed3)verticaltail geometry lor
(ha'se
(ACY) P
C
I.
(xI C.)p
2.
3.
ephod3e
prediction
Method I
1.
Method 2
(same limitations as Method I above)
( AC)P (based on exposed verticaltail geometry)
Eq. 5.6.3.1.a
Method I
I.
(Cy)
Linearlift range
(based on exposed verticaltail geometry for (ACyt)hd
,PMtod 3)
2.
Eq. 5.6.3.1b
prediction
Method 2
I.
(Acy
2.
Linearlift range
prediction
139
METHODS SUMMAR'
DERIVATIVE
C,
(Contd.)
CY
SPEED
CONFIG.
REGIME
WBT
SUBSONIC
(Contd.)
(Contd.)
rRANSONIC
(No method)
SUPERSONIC
SUBSONIC
Cy
K
7.1.2.1
TRANSONIC
(AWYp)r
CL]I
7.1.2.1
7.1.2.1
(No method)
WB
WB
SUBSONIC
Cv
K [
7.1.2.1
140
C..O
\ CL/CLO
7.1.2.1
CL
(ACyr
/
7.1.2.1
3.
4.
Linearlift ranize
Method I
1.
(Cf,)Wl
Linearlift range
2.
5.
I.
2.
LCL/LO
M
Eq. 7.1.2.1a
3.
M < Mc,
I.
2.
1.
2.
3.
METHODS SUMN
DERIVATIVE
CY
P
(Contd.)
CONFIG.
SPEED
REGIME
WB
(Contd.)
2U BSON IC
(Contd.)
(No method)
TRANSONIC
SUPERSONIC
WtIST
SUBSONIC
Figure 7.1.2.140
(Cv)
zPJ
+ 2 [z
CY)
bw
573.1. 1
7.3.2.1
r 2zb
5.3.1.1
7.3.2.1
TRANSONIC
(No method)
SUPERSONIC
(No method)
41.3.3
C1
SUBSONIC
Cr
0C
7.1.2 2
TRANSONIC
(CL)
(
4.1 I12
7.
4.1
ACp
drag
7.
.2
(No melhod)
/
..
. ....
..
......
..... . .
...
. ....
..
. ....
.
. .
..
: ..
. ' . . ..
i : .  2
2.2
METHODS SUMMARY
FQLATIONS FOR DERIVATIVE ESTIMATION
SDalcom section for components indicated)
LL
M
4.
I.
M <Mcr
tips
2.
3.
,Y pV(
Eq. 7.4.2.1a
VBH)
5711,p
5.3".1.1
C')
Eq.
DIV(WOH)
1.
2.
a < %.u
3.
4.
M < Mc,
5.
5.3.1.1
.3.3
L LO (Cp) r
CL 0 (
.3.2
=0
7.1.2.2
A7
,,,,,
(+
CI..) C
7.122.2
(CL)
2.
Symmetric airfoils
3.
4.
Straighttatered wings
METHODS SUMM
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
W
(Contd.)
SPEED
REGIME
SUPERSONIC
C,
(Contd.)
theory
7.1...
7.1.2.2
4.1.3.3
WB
SUBSONIC
CI,,=
(i)('o),7
)c"
7.1.2.2
4.1.3.2
4.1.1.2
(c',)
ri
7.1.2.2
7.1.2.2
!F
TRANSONIC
(No method)
SUPERSONIC
w,
()
C,
w (p
(CPW(Clpd/
7.1.2.2
.,
WBT
SUBSONIC
CI
~)W
'4
CI
((
7.1.2.2
7".3.2..
T 1.22
LbJ
+
j
'.
Eq. 7.1.2.2d
I.
2.
Straighttapered wings
Wing tips parallel to free stream
3.
4.
Eq. 7.1.2.a
WITH
L.
2.
(CL) CL
3.
Symmetric airfoils
4.
< 15 x 106
based on MAC
(C L.) CL,'O
Eq. 7.3.2.2a
5.
Straighttapered wings
1.
2.
(C 1 )/
3.
4.
5.
"'.
31
Eq, 7.4.2.2a
""P
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
"l)
6.
and.. (ClP
Straig!ittapteid planforms
Symmetric .irloilm,
(Body diamei,r)Awig span) < 0.3
M<M
XI
V(WBiI)
Additional or identical tail limitations depend
on (CYj V(WH,) prediction method
METHODS SUMfI
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
SPIEI)
REGIMdE
C,
(Co td.)
WBT
(C on td.)
SUBSONIC
(C ,f)ntd. )
".'l
C ',
(No method)
SUPERSONIC
(No method)
SUBSONIC
(n
= C1
tan
S U P E R S O N IC
+I
0'
tan
(.
_
l
Qc
b od y
2
.
g.
ApIX
A( I
7.1.2.3
C
c.
. . .. .
. t'
1.
IpI
7 . 1 2 .3
7 . 1.2. .2
+2
7 .1.2 .3
7.1.3.3
7.1.2.2
A l
p"
L.~C,
j
I
1.2
tall
 ) , c
7.1 2.3
7p
71.2
(
7.1.2.1
Qii+
~abcoiy
a %is
SUBS(.NI(R,
(

(No method)
71.2.3
WB
C]
..
7.1.2.3 7.1.2.
7.1.2..
TRANSONIC
indica
7.1.2.2
7.1,2.2
TRANSONIC
t't
C' tan a
),
7 .2 .3
7 1.2 
7. 1 2 3
. I1.
7.1.2.2
('C.
,Fi'
":
i'
:..
..

. . .. . '...
,!
..
..
' .
. :'
METHODS SUMMARY
ML[11101) LIMIIA HONS ASSO(IAILID WITH
EQU ATION COMPONENTS
Iq(it
21+
P1
+S
I
(c
Eq. 7.4.2.2b Method 2 (vertic.id tail located diie tlly above, or above and
b'
/ V(I)w
.I. I
2 3
(O3j)
mLCL]
7 1
Cdrag
7.1.2.3
Eq. 7.1.2.3a
Cin
r.
'yI
7.121
7.1.2.2
3.
Straighttapered wings
4.
5.
Symmetric airfoils
1 x 106 < R < 15 x 106 based on MAC
C'nFq
7.1.3.3
2.
3.
4.
C,
p
S.
1
2tan A
Cy p
C72
7.1.2 1
c('
7.1.2.2
C
\
L *.",
('I
34
6f
..
C'

6.2
0.3
LN
7.1.2.3
:1.2 2
di"mleter()lj0(v r
Fq 7.1.2t3,,
n Pid)
P
h1')6. I
___________1________
I,
METHODS SUMMA
DERIVATIVE
C.
(Contd.)
CONFIG.
SPEED
REGIME
WB
TRANSONIC
(No method)
SUPERSONIC
Cp
(Contd.)
Ax).
body
axis
0,
"7.1. .3
C.p
C
a
of
a(I H
7.1.2.1
2x.C4
~~)o~y
A
~
+ .A0i + X)
7.1.2.2
tan
ALF]
2 x~
tan AE
)bo~dy
7.1.2.3
WBT
SUBSONIC
Cy p

7.1.2.1
(Cnp
C.=
7.1.3.3
Q Coso + z
sin)[
P]
Cp
7.1.2.2
(c)
7.3.2.33
C.)
Cf.
L0)
7.3.2.3
[Q~
co
+ ZP sin a
7.3.2.3
C.
nP
vl
P(
5731.1
+
7.3.2.3
144
1("C0);
Eq. 7.1.2.3c
Straighttapered wings
Streamwise wing tips
(Body diameter)/(wing span) < 0.3
Lift coefficients where C,, varies linearly
with CL
5.
C,
6.
Eq.
Eq. 7.4.2.3b
2.
3.
4.
Symmetric airfoils
(Body diameter)/(wing span) < 0.3
M < McT
5.
6.
7.
Eq.
.4.2.3c
Eq. 7.4.2.3d
)~
Test data
7.4k
METHODS SUM!N
QL'A"IIONS FOR DERIVATIVE [S1 [.INA
DERVATVEONFG. LI
D RV riL C N I.
WI3T
R FG INIE,
TRANSONIC
fj),itc(
(No method)
(Contd.)
(Contd.)
________
________
WB
WBT
StUBSONIC
(No method)
TRANSONIC
(No method)
SUPERSONIC
(No methled)
SUBSONIC
(No method)
TRANSONIC
(No method)
SUPERSONIC
(No method)
SUBSONIC
Cyr
(C1r
y
CY (',v
C1
rRANSONIC
(No method)
SUPERSONIC
(No method)
SUBSONIC
CI
CL
&
7162
TRA NSONIC
(No mcthcd)
SLPE.RS( N IC [(No
lilt
I hod)
(p
b
Cos a + zpsin
/t
ACY~/VW
2 (AC,)
~7)I
.3
7.1 3.2
0~~
7I
i4
METHODS SUMMARY
METHOD LIMIl ATIONS ASSOCIATED) WITH
EQLUATION COMPONENTS
.Y)W.,
I.
si a) (ACY)
5...
(c)
C
r)BH
2.
Test data
"(ACy )vtwB
Additional tail limitations depend on
(AC'
V(WBHi prediction method
3.
(Cyr
w and (ACn) ,
"'__1.
Test data
2
3.
No cturved planforms
No) Mxist ot (lihedral, d' n

4 .
,
O~.
5.
[.narlt't
rwrige.
M
',0.t
7.1.3.2
7.1.3)"3,
7. i
Eq.
0"
.1.3,2a
7.
'I
5"
<.
~n'straighttapured
METHODS SUMMAR
DERVATVE
ONFG.
CONFIC.
DERIVATIVE
CIr
(Contd.)
WB
REGIME
SPEED
SUBSONIC
FOR I)ERIVATIVE
EQUATIONS
Dlatcow section
for componentsESTIMATION
indicated I
C"+1'
=
L("r I L
Crc
7. 13.2
WBT
TRANSONIC
(No method)
SUPERSONIC
(No method)
SUBSONIC
C.
ICI),r
r wB
.
7.1.3.2
b,
32
7. 1.3.2
7.3.3.2
ct" =
C,
wB
p Cos0u + zp sin0a
" "bw
((.
(,
o)p
~~7.3.3.)
46
I~.1
V.
S.......5.3.!.1
TRANSCONIC
7.1.3.'
sin a) (CYA
~v (w
5.3.1.1
7.3.3.2
/r
(No method)
pAl
7K
4
UMMARY
D,%II H
METHOI) I.MITAI IONS ASSO(IA ]1I1)
QUJAI ION COMPONENI S
ESTIMATION
'Is indicated)
~AC.
K.
I(+
c
Eq. 7.1.3.2a
1.
2.
( T36a
7.1.3.2
5.
'6.
7.
AC~
Eq. 7.4.3.
V(i)
tuned plarifornis
No
6.1.1.1
4.
~W
8.
50 <
1.
2.
No curved planforms
(Cr)
i
5.3.1.1
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Linearlift range
8.
5
0f<
+50
13) V(WBH)
9.
Eq. 7.4.3.2b
W1
(A(c
1 ,)
I
(r)WB
/A
. ,"a
lfest data
1.cst data
METHODS SUMMA
DERIVATIVE
(Contd.)
CONFIG.
SPEED
REGIME
(Contd.)
SUPERSONIC
(No method)
C.
W
U,
SUBSONIC
CL
C2,
C1
C____
7.1.3.3
TRANSONIC
(No method)
SUPERSONIC
(No method)
() 'I)
7.1.3.3
C +
7,1.3,3
WIT
TRANSONIC
(No method)
"SUPERSONIC
(No method)
SU MONIC
C3 t
Cr) wB
n
7.13.3
2.
Q. coso +
sin o)2
ACy)
7.3.3.3
VO
BH)
5.3.1.1
b22
13 V (WEH)
7.3.3.3
__
__
d*
TRANSONIC
(No method)
SUPERSONIC
(No method)
__
S.31.1
__
!:I!ODS SUMMARY
METHOD LIMITATIONS ASSOCIATE)
.RIVATIVE ESTIMATION
"
WITH
EQUATION COMPONENTS
components indicated)
Eq.7.1.331.
E,
3
2.
Eq,. 7.13.3a
1.
2.
'tlcEq.
.4.33a1.
Y0V(W1lH)
'rWS
5.3.133
2.
3.
varies
linearly with CL
V.W]VHH
;~YO
4.
(AChe)p
1.
Test data
"147
. .,

1.
.,
,.
.
,.,..
..
.,'t
.
.,
,%
.4ir.t ,.
.. .,
W
7
7
,7
iMETHODS SUN
EQUATIONS FOR DERIVATIVE ESTI
'I)atcoli,Sction for components ndi
SPEEI)
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
REGIME
c4
SUBSONIC
and
(two dim)
c q
3c
(C2
( cQa) 6
6
Ac
,K
Cf
Ac2
Ac2
testdata 6.1.1.1
6
= C2
Cf
Cp
Ace =
6.Li.1~
cbs
6,1.Lii
fet
6.1.1.1
Ac2
= c 2
fc
6.1.1.1
__
6.1.1.1
6.1.1.1 6.1.1.1_
4.1.1.2 6.1.1.1]
ACV
Ifl
+k(i)
6.1.1.1
7IS
LANK
5C.(c2
kt(t
6.1.1.1
6.1.
I*HODS SUMMARY
DERIVATIVE ESTIMATION
for coniponet,s indicated)
.Eq. 6.1..11a
Linearlift range
2.
Eq. 6.1.1.1b
1.
2.
Linearlift range
Other limitations depend upon type of flap
(see Equations c through j below)
1.
2,
3.
1
Eq. 6.I1.1.e
'
f 6
Eq. 6. 1. 1. 1h
)c
(a)
Singleslotted flaps
(b)
Fowler flaps
I.
2.
(a)
(b)
Singleslotted flaps
Fowlet flaps
I.
2.
Doubleslotted flaps
;2:6.1.1.1
c5
1+
"3'.i.1
6.1.1.1
Eq. 6.1.1.1 i
Cca
6f2
c
_
I,+ kt
)]
5j c
'

6i
S.
6.1.1.1
1.
Split flaps
1.0
Eq. 6.l..Aj
I. Doubleslotted flaps7
2.
6.1.1.1 6.1.1.1
p.A
6.1.1.1
Eq. 6. 1. 1.l1k
2.
3.
No trailingedge separation
4.
5.
No augmentorwing concept
Not valid for low values of C
METHODS SUMI
,DERIVATIVE
CONFIG
SW
(two dim)
(Contd.)
"SPEED
REGIME
SUBSONIC
(Contd.)
Ace
c2 6
6..
(Contd.)
C
ef
Acz
ce
Aa's
4.1.1.2 6.1.1.1
~(t wo(tWo
d i ra)
SUBSONIC
c% (
4.1.1.2
SUSOI
(e
(Cf.) 0
I + k,( d
(c
.
C,)
"
6.!1.
2 inaxk
A~mXbs
6.1.1.3
C~
6c. .. 1 2
SUBSONIC
~1
),0~a
(ce) (CR)
(ttxwo
Q max
Cc
(tWO
.so
50
):...=.:.:.,:._
. ......
",,'_:,_
.._.....:,
..:,
.....,_....:.r
._. : ' _.,_,_
..,'.. j.
F..=
SSUMMARY
''AlIVE ESTIMATION
W.
iponents indicated)
.
2.
Eq. 0. 1. 1.1 C
1.
Thinairfoil theory
Krueger flaps
(b)
Eq. 6.1.1. 1n
,ction
Eq. 6.1.1. 2 a
leadingcdwg flaps
1 hinairfoil theory
Leadingedge slats
I.
2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
No separated flow
slats
Eq. 6. 1. .2b
2.
3.
4.
5.
I.
2.
Spoilers
ot>0
3.
ce <0
Eq. 6.1.1.3a
I.
Trailingedge flaps
Eq. 6.1.1.3b
1,
(a)
(b)
Thinairfoil theory
Leadingedge flaps
2.
No Krueger flaps
3.
5ft < 30l
Leadingedge slats
4.
5 < 200
METHODS SUMI
SPEED
"DERIVATIVE
Ac
CONFIG.
W
(twodim)
SUBSONIC
sect;,,i
Itol for cornporVents indicM
(a
REGIME
Ac
p.
V
c, .
6.1.2o
.1.1.1
Figure 6.1.2.1 35h
AC
rMf
C....
Ac2
6.1.1.1
6.1.2.1
ACm = (Acm)
+ ACM +(ACm)
+ c,
[(
4.1.2.1
+(AcM)
'LE
6.1.2.1
(em,)s
W
(two dim)
SUBSONIC
(Cm)
(ACm)
W
(two din)
1
SUBSONIC
Ac 4 x 2 + Acre4
Figure 6.1.2.33
6.1.2.1
6.1.2.1
(Cm).
6.1 2.1
Ac.
6.1.2.1
6.1.2.1
SODS SUMMARY
.IRIVATIVE ESTIMATION
r components indicated)
lq
1. 2. 1..a
M uthiod I
I. Plain, split, and multislotted trailingedge flaps
2. Linearlift range
ACQ (depends upon type ot flap)
+ 0.75
cr
(9
\)c
..1.2.1
. ."
Method 2
I.
Plain trailingedge flaps
2
Subcritical Mach numbers
3. Linearlift range
 I
4.1 . I,
4.1.1.2
i.
2.
Thinaiioil theory
"Eq.6.1.2.1b
Eq. 6.1.2.1c
!.
"ted sections)
Fl. 6.1.2.1k
Ac
r7.
2.
I.
4.
5.
1.
2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
I.
METHODS SI
SPEDI)
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
cW
(two dim)
REGINI.F
SUHSONIC
)a lcoTm
':b
a
'
th +v
6.1.3. 1
(eoryI
6.1.3.1
(aNotheory
'9
S.E.3,1I
4.1'. 1.24.+.1,
6.1.3.1
6.1.3.1
TRANSONIC
(No method)
SUPERSONIC
ch
+ C
C
6.1.3,1
2IP
6.1.3.1
theory
.'
SSUMMARY
NITIIOI) LIMITATIONS ASSO(IA I LI) WITH
ESTIMATION
WIVE
",nents indicated)
q. 6.1.3.1a
_

Eq. 6.1.3.1b
Eq. 6.1.3.1c
Eq. 6.1.3.1 e
.
2.
3.
4.
I.
2.
3.
4.
1.
2.
3.
4.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
i.
2.
3.
4.
5.
0.
7.
t/c
Cb
METHODS SUIV
"
EI
ISPEED
[DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
ch
8
(two dim)
REGIME
SUBSONIC
}0QtI,.\1'ONS
c

thcory
the),ryJ
o.1.3.2
o.1.3.Z
6.1,3.2
(No method)
SUPERSONIC
ch
CI
+ C2
an
6.1.1.1
6.1.1.1
6.1.3.2
TRANSONIC
[heor
+ 2 cQ
Ch
Ch
6.1.3.2
rTE
6.1.3.2 6.1.3.2
6.1.3.2
SUBSONIC
h),
'.:2j
a~)~
ac
VTIL61 t
V,
6.1.3.1
})1j)Vf
86J
/f
,f
,1t61.
oq/r t , f
ft
STI
11d,
d
IODS SUMMARY
: )ERIVAIIVE ESTIMATION
or components indicated)
Eq. o. 1.3.2a
'n
OTE
Eq. 6.1.3.2b
Eq. 6.1.3.2c
I.
2.
3.
4.
t/c
I
2.
3.
=t/c
4.
Low speeds
1.
Eq. 6.1.3.2<d
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
'=
Eq.
f
.1.3.3a
2.
controlsurface
S3.
4.
I..q
METHODS SI
DERIVATIVE
SPFED
REGIME
CONFIG.
5f
(two din,)
q = Fa6]
 )
6f~,
. ...
tC 6
(at
4.1.3.2
(Cc
WSYN
C
SUBSONIC
ACL
Ac
(a .
6.1.4.1
6.1.4.1
[
AC
AC
=Ac
=
, at~h
LK
4.1.1.2
6.1.1.1
6t~a~t
2C]
Ace
Sw
6,1:1,i
r
ACE
6.1.4.1
irAt + 2C'
+ 2.01 C;
4ird0
TRANSONIC
6
6.1.4.16.
1 1
.6
".
: :,: "
Jeff SWf
57.3
"
_t....
'
..........
e
....
'_
. ..
.
......
..
.
..
...
tIMARY
i
,ATdON
.icated)
I.
Eq. 6.1.3.4 a
Eq. 6.1.4.1a
180
6~
18
2.
3.
Low speeds
"4.
CL
1.
2.
Mechanical flaps
Straighttapered wings
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Eq. 6.1.4.1e
CL
M 0.6
I . Straighttapered wings
C M =0.6
2.
3.
4.
5.
0.
7.
C1
8.
METHODS SU
CONFIG.
SPEDI)
REGMIE
C,5
SUPERSONIC
(Contd.)
(Contd.)
DERIVATIVE
(Cl~a)6
I  
CL
0,1
TW
CI
6. 1.4. !
SUBSONIC
(CL.)S
(CL,
(CL
(Cl.)
(L60.
6.1.4,1
4.1.3.2
[(~
(C)
(CL)
)~
+!L)
4.1.3.2
= (CL
C
,{[K(AC,)
_,._
6.1.4.2
.".
.' ,, 'i
,':, ,.'.
i i .',
. ,
":2
... ,:,.= .
...:
6.1.4.2
a.
t
..........
4.1.3.2
I]j Kb57.3
+ 1.01 +
6.1.4.1
... .....
  .. ...
. . .................
HODS SUMMARY
METHOD LIMITATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH
EQUATION COMPONENTS
1.
Eq. 6.1.4.1f
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
I.
2.
eLA
(CL.).o
Eq. 6.1.4.2a
Eq. 6.1.4.2b
6.1.4.1
os ahir  1)
S2.
57.3
 

.
.
No curved planforms
4.
I.
2.
3.
4.
No curved planforms
M < 0.80, tIc ' 0.l,if cranked planform with round L
I.
Jet flaps
A>
2L. A)5

3.
3.
4.
5.
No curved planforms
M 4 0.80, t/c 0. 1, if cranked planform with
round LE
.
METHODS
"
'SP
"DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
EEl
comP,
REG.M
Z.
ACwLmax
FOR
IoNs
REGIMED
wf
SUBSONIC
ACt
KA
.a
mlax
0).1.1.3
=, :1.28
1:6.
6.1.4.3
,os2 Ac/
_k
Figure 6.1.4.3 12
SUBSONIC
ACmf =Cm +
"A
6.1.4.1
6.1.5.16.1.5.1
6.1.5.1
AC
,Ca j
6.1.5.1
[cm LE
XE)
SW
(LE
6.1.2
'
6,
+f~
.I~ltest
61data
6.1.5.
61.4.1
+ 7t
m
6.1.5.1
Cma
TRANSONIC
=
6.1.4.1
Vo."
15
6.1.4.3
4
6.1.5.1
c
+
6.1.5.1
LI75
6.1.5.1
IHODS SUMMARY
R DERIVATIVE ESTIMATION
in for components indicated)
Eq. 6.1.4.3a
I.
Eq. 6.1.4.3b
I.
I.
I.
Linearlift range
2. Ac/4 < 45
&CL (depends upon type of flap)
3.
Mechanical flaps
4. Straighttapered wings
I.
Eq. 6.1.5.1k
x/F
2.
3.
Linearlift range
Subcritical Mach rnumbers
1.
2.
3.
!.
2.
3.
No trailingedge separation
5.
Z? )2
1Cm
I
IQ
+ 0.75 C (C
0
\c
test
c
' c
test
6.1.5.1
data
Eq. 6.6I..1.5
SKk
S
O5.
Sw
6.1.5.1
CEq.
6.1.5.1
Z
6.1.5.1
.1.5.lu
Eq. 6.1.5.1w
4.
CLsaI.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Ii
No augmentorwing concept
Straighttapered wings
Plain trailingedge flaps with sealed gap
No beveled trailing edges
PA>2
A$ < 600
Symmetric airfoils with conventional thickness
distribution
No compressibility effects
0
METHODS SUn,
D E R I V A T IV E
FIG .
SUPERSO N IC
(Contd)
I.S
)I \1II0,ION S I)( I)I,.RIV,\ I
( I~ o):' , , w l i M 1 0,u Comon
l l
e ni tllls
1t'l
1
SP
spIu )I}I
R L GI NE;
t.
(Contd.)
,Ki
.,
K,
'

SW
/K
.. _.
=A+2cosAci
SUBSONIC
(oh)
baa
A cos Ac/4
Ch
6.1.3.1
TRANSONIC
(No method)
SUPERSONIC
(Ch,)
,,,,F)
C0
6. 1.0.
,I
A ,
6.1.6,1
h a) t
. 1
HODS SUMMARY
DERIVATIVE ESTIMATION
for components indicated I
C3
K
CL
" Sw
2.1.1 6.1.5.1
1.
Eq 6.1.5.!q
3.
6.1.4.1
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
co
9.
10.
I.
2.
Eq. 6.1.6.1.a
3.
4.
5.
No separated flow
6.
Low speeds
I.
2.
ch
Eq. 6.1.6.1b
3.
4.
:~~~~.....
....
? .. .
:,
,............,........
..
_.
.........
.+
METHODS
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
DQUATIONS
FOR I)ERIVT\
REGIME
(Illco'
T
Ch.
(Contd)
W
(Contd.)
I.
SUPERSONIC
(Contd.)
tonpu
________'2
3C 1 (I + k) cos (ALr
section fotr
+
6.1.6.1
SUBSONIC
Ch
= cos A
cos AHL
6)batance +
6.1.3.2
TRANSONIC
6.1.1.1
(No method)
SUPERSONIC Ch
I/ C2
' OTE
C1
/ (
6C (\
6.1.6.2
Ch
C2
I
6.1.6.2
6I
0",an
Ch
6.1.6.2
")']
Xh[
l+ 2
6.1.6.2
6.1.3.1
SUMMARY
S
vi.'VE srI'I,IA lION
:lnen ts indicated)
Nl
I IiO1
I If
IQU
"/Ji
(
\1
~
k().
IA I IONS A
I ION
1O
AI I
MP(NI NI
I.
2.
6.q
1..
6. o.1.0.
1
with different
correction factor
'
2 Cos AV4
.. . . _+
. ..
A/'hI
E q . 6 .1.0 .2 ,a
A + 2 cos A,/4
"symmetry
S~Ch
Eq. 6.1.6.2b
3.
4.
5.
6.
No separated flow
Low speeds
I.
2.
4,
""
...
Eq. 6. 1 1.2h
withI different
correction factor
I.
2.
METHODS SUI
IOiiAIONS FOR I)tRIVAI IVE L:.S
I1); lnl Section fok t.Oh)olll lls
SPEED)
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
REGIME
CD
SUBSONIC
CD
++ I
+2
{bb
G,
G,
TRANSONIC
6.1.7 6.1.7
6.1.7 6.1.4.1
6.1.7
I
6.1.7 6.1,76.1.7
wv)=
(No method)
6..74.1
SUBSONIC
C16
TRASON
C,6
C (No
SI
I I6
6 .1.1
ethod)
..
5.1
C;
6.2.1.1
Au'
S)
. ler.lol.dUlector
( ( )'
62"...1.1
G,}
n1
6.1.7
(15,,l) B,,

V1
D
BknG
1~
("k
'kb k
( 1
nspoiler
6.2.1.1
sii
7!
DS SUMMARY
IVATIVE ESTIMATION
!omponents indicted)
1.
G~}
6.1,7
. V Gn} sinJ
No
separated flow
2.
Gik, (;
I.
2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
A0 < 600
M<0.6
5.
No separated flow
6.
7.
I.
2.
Eq. o. 1.7c
1.76.1.7
Eq. 6.1.7p
Eq. 6.1.7q
Eq. 6.2.1.1b
Ct
6
L,'
Eq. 6.2.1 . c
Ic
t, 3.
2.
3.
,Itplain
..
P I'
H
METHODS I
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
SPIl 1)
REGIME
A.
TRANSONIC
CisW
(Contd)
C,
(c)M=o6
('L.
(Contd,.)
=f.
4.1.3.
6.2.
SUPERSONIC
C,
I 
C2
E)
Ib\
Sr
C'

[b
6..
6.1.4.1
6.2.1.1
C)
Figure 6.2.1.130
SUBSONIC
=
1(,
((
/2)
7.
4.4.1
4.3.1.3
4.3.1.3
6.2.1
6
L160
...


HODS SUMMARY
METHOD LIMITATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH
EQUATION COMPONENTS
DERIVATIVE ESTIMATION
n for components indicated)
(Cd)M.0.
Eq. 6.2.1.1g
CLa
I.
2.
3.
(CLM)M O.6
4.
5.
6.2.1.1
SEq.
b C56
/b
11.
6.2.1.1h
2.
3.
1VL
6.1.4.1
4.
5.
6.
(H)
Sbw
S4
6.2. 1.2
yH SH
Sw
Eq. 6.2.1.2a
(LH)e
4.1i.3.2
a~
No curved planform
t/c < 0.10, if cranked planform with round LE
7.
Thin wings
8.
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Straighttapered wing
Other limitations depend upon
method
6.
No curved planforms
prediction
(L)
METHODS SUMI
"
DERIVATIVE
CONFIG.
CK8
(Contd.)
T
(Contd.)
SPEED
REGIME
TRANSONIC
SUPERSONIC
0.35
C,6
(L..)(,
iv
4.31.2
4.3.1.3 4,3,1.3
C0
SUBSONIC
CL
C
L2
2
6.2.2.1
6.2.1.1
(Cn)
spoilerslotdeflector =
k'(H
(kB) tk B(H
(Cn)plin spoiler
6.2.2.1
6.2.2.1
No
4.1.3.2
'WHODS SUMMARY
R DERIVATIVE ESTIMATION
.,.n for components indicated)
5
6.
Straighttapered wing
Proportional to CL
7,
8.
9.
t::.
,
F .,
4.3 .1.2
YH SH
1___V H Jw
6.2.1.2c
1.
M>1.0
(Same limitations as for M < 1.0 above except
those of a/aci)
1.
2.
IEq. Bodymounted horizontal tail
3.) No separated flow on horizontal tail
N 41H
Sw
4.1.3.2
Eq. 6.2.2.1a
4.
5.
6.
7.
I.
2.
3.
Ailerontype controls
No separated flow
Neglects contributions due to profile drag
4.
OA ; 2
5.
A < 60
6.
No beveled TE
I.
2.
3.
1.
Spoilerslotdeflector
ac4O
/8
= 10
'1
,Eq. 6.2.2.1 b
"2.
~3.
"."
(C )plain
f
4.
pj
pol r
METHODS!,
DERIVATIVE
SPEED
REGIME
CONFIG.
tL
C',
(Contd.)
W
(Contd.)
TRANSONIC
(C Om .0.6

T
6.2. 2.!
SUPERSONIC
Figure 6.2.2.113
Figure 6.2.2.114
Cn
162
il..
ALL SPEEDS
(No method)
4.1.3.2
SJETHODS
SUMMARY
(n)M =O0 6
(CflN
Eq. 6.2.2.1c
I.
2.
Ailerontype controls
3A2
3.
A < 600
4.
5.
6.
7.
No beveled I1.
No separated flow
No compressibility effects
Neglects contributions due to profile drag
CL.)M
(CL
=0.6
8.
Straighttapered wings
9.
CLa
10.
".
1.
Ailerontype controls
2.
1.
A complete summary and definition of all notation used in the Datcom is given in this section. The
summary is divided into upper and lower case English, uppe and lower case Greek, derivatives, and
abbreviations. In all cases a general alphabetical listing is used. Throughout the Datcom units are in
pounds, feet, seconds, and degrees unless otherwise specified.
"A.ENGLISH SYMBOLS
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
b2
A', A"
4.5.1.1
7.4.1.1
7.4.4.1
41.4.2
Several
AD
 c9
9.3
. 31
9.3.2
9.3.3
bH 2
Several
AHe
6.2.1.2
4.5.3.2
A1
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.3
AUe
Several
(A)v
geometric aspect ratio of isolated vertical panel, with span and area of panel measured
to body center line
Several
Ave
Several
(A)v (B)
Several
eH
Li
..
b1
AH
2.11
.
.A
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
Several
Several
A bw
Several
A,
Several
At A'
4.4.1
4.5,1.1
4.5.1,2
7.4.1.1
Aeff
4.4.1
5.3 1.1
5.6.1.1
Several
Aeff
4.5.1.1
:(Ae
4.3.2.2
(A)v (HB)
be 2
Sb
Am
f
14,
f2
aspect ratio of flap o. control surface,
 
6.1.6.1
6.1.6.2
Sf
6.2.11
Ag
S1.
PO
e4.1.5.2
4.1.3.2
5.1.2.1
4.6
4.6.1
Several
A.
4.1.5.1
A'0
aspect ratio of pianform formed by the two constructed outboard panels of wing
4.1.4.2
4.3.2.2
5.1.2.1
A5
6.1.5.1
At
1. aspect ratio of wing based on total wing area, including flap extension
6.1.4.1
2. aspect ratio of total wing based on extended wing chord, using the particular
section value for the chord
6.1.5.1
A 1 , A2
"2.12
"4)
(CL,
at Ma)
"6.1.4.2
4.1.3 2
4.1.3.2
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
3. distance from the quarterchord point of the MAC of the horizontal tail to the
SECTIONS
4.4 1
4.5.1.1
7A4.4.1
4.2.1.2
4,2.2.2
4.2.3.1
"L'
4.2.3.2
5. propeller inflow factor
4.6
4.6.4
4.2.2.1
7. linear acceleration
8.1
4.2.3.1
9. speed of sound
6.3.2
at
6.3.2
a0
9.1
Several
a.c.
Several
(a.c.)V
5.3.3.1
1.
a 1 , a2, a 3 ,
...
2
2
M cos Acf4
Several
4.7
4.7.1
9.1
9.1.1
9.1.3
1kn
6.1.7
6.1.7
4.3.3.2
6.1.6.1
6.1.6.2
vn
B , B,
B15
B2
2
1. difference in liftcurve slope, or (C Lat Mfb)
(CLQ at Mb)
4.1.3.2
Sevral
2. surface span
2. 13
", iJ
"%
"
"
"
"
'
"
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
4.2.1.2
4.2.2.2
4.2.3.1
4.2.3.2
6.3.2
bp
9.1
9.1.1
9.1.3
b', b"
Several
b'
9.1
9.1.1
bE
4.1.3.2
bH
Several
He
bue
6.2.1.2
Several
Several
Several
5.3.1.1
5.6.1.1
partial span of vertical panel for twin vertical panels (see Figure 5.3.1.124b)
4.5.1.1
4.5.1.2
5.3.1.1
"U
e
bV
bV
,.,
5,6.1.1
bye
Several
Several
sban of wing
Several
b'
4.7
4.7.1
bbw
4.1.3.2
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
"5.1.2.1
77.7 2.14
0
*1
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
be
SECTIONS
Several
b' b"
7.4.1
(be)i, (b),
4.3.2.2
4.3.3.1
bff
4.7
4.7.1
4.4.1
b?
eff
4.5.1.1
bf
total span of flaps or control surfaces, measured normal to the plane of symmetry
Several
bf
4.7
4.7.1
4.1.3.2
5.1.2.1
bi
2.2.2
4.1.4.2
'_
4.1.5.1
5.1.2.1
2. total span of a given portion of main surface immersed in propeller slir 'ream,
4.6
4.6.1
2
(zs
4.6.3
bkk
6.1.7
bmax
4.2.3.1
bo
Several
bo0
4.1.4.2
4.3.2.2
5.1.2.1
4.6
4.6.1
6.2.1.1
K'
,'11
s6.2.2.1
blat
6.1.4.3
bv
span of the wingtip vortices at a given longitudinal station behind a lifting surface
4.4.1
4.5.1.1
7.4.4.1
2.15
Li:'"SYMBOL
bpLTb
DIrespectively
NIiNSCIN
vortex spans at the forward and aft surfaces,
bvn
6.1.7
in spanloading calculation
6.1.7
bvv "pa.;ameter
SeverONl
span of completely rolled up wingtip vortices (at distances far downstream from
4.4.1
Iting surface)
7.4.4.1
4.1.3.2
bI, b 2 , b 3
vertical span ofa given region as defined inSketch (b) in Section 5.3.1.1
5.3.1.1
5.3.1.2
b 25
bl'
b2
50
0.25, 0.50,
9.1.1
9 .1.3
b/(29),
"
Several
4.1.3.3
4.1.3.4
8.2
(CLE)bw
4.1.3.2
(CLE)g
4.1.3.2
4.1.3.4
SCa,
8.1
1R
Cb, Cc
CO, C 1
C 1, C
...
4.3.2.1.
Several
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.4
Several
(.1+
C2
4 (M
21
2
2 (M
C3
2.16
.........................
1)
1)
4.1.4.3
4.1.3.4
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL.
1. transonic wing liftcurve slope at Msfo
4.1.3.2
Several
3. duct chord
93
9.3.1
9.312
9.3,3
CP
C' Cw
F, c"mean
C
i
C14
6.3.2
Several
6.1.6.1
6.1.6.2
Several
mean aerodyn, mic chord of the wing segment affected by the leadingedge device
(see Sketch (h), Section 6.1.5.1)
6.1.5.1
Several
2,2.2
4.1.3.2
chord at break
B span station
4.1.3.3
4.4.1
4.6
7.4.2.2
4,6.1
Cfe
4.5.3.1
CE
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
vertical tail chord at the distance zH above body center line (se: figure 5.3.1.122b)
Several
4.5.3.1
Cwe
4.5.3.1
Ca
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
6.1.1.1
tCa
Carea not
areap,
4.6
not4.
4.6.3
i'mmersed
Ca
5
6.1.5.1
Cb
6.1.3.1
6.1.3.2
6.1.6.1
6.1.6.2
6.1.6.1
Cb
quarterchord line
2.17
St......
.
!.
*.r
.
..
'
'
.....
..
..
.
''
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
nCtchord
of tab balance
t
'tuw
v'wX rwvw''L
SECTIONS
6.1.3.;6131..
6.1.3.2
6.1.3.3
6.1.3.4
4.1.5.1
6.3.4
Ccp
C.p.
6.1.5.1
Several
6.3.4
Ce$"
Cbw
4.3.3.1
7.4. 1.
7.4.1.2
7.4.4.1
7.4.4.2
"Cf
Several
Cf
6.1.6.1
Cf
6.1.7
chord
k
Cf
tinc
I..
Cf
of a particular
:': segment of a flap of n segments
c.,6.1,5.1
6.1.2.1
4.2.3.1
6 1.2.1
6.1.5.1
LE
Cf
6.1.6.1
Cf
6.1.6.1
6.1.2.1
6.1.5,1
4.6
Cf_, ICf.
.
f2
Cf
Cf,
C
LLE
Ci
4.61
4.6.3
Ci
(Ci),
il!
"o
(o
4.1.5.1
4.1.5.2
mean aerodynamic chords of exposed inboard and outboard panels, respectively, of wing
4.3.3.1
mean
aerodynamic
propeller
slipstream chord of that portion of auxiliary surface immersed in
4.6.3
4.1.5.1
4.1.5.2
0P
4.3.3.1
,.
4.5.3.1
Cr
Several
2.18
"..
rw
%"
f" ."
"fl
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
r? Crrt
C',
SECTIONS
4.5.2.1
...
5.1.31
7.1.1.1
7.1.4.2
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
5.i.2.1
4.1.3.2
Cre
Several
re ' t r
C'
4.5.1.2
7.4 . 1. 1
(C r e) H
5.3.1.2
4.3.2.2
C rB
C'"
"
6.1.5.1
4.1.3.2
5.1.2.1
8.1
4.1.4H
4.1.4.2
4.3.2.2
.Cr)
4.3.3.1
4.1.4.2
4.1.5.1
4 ,.3.13
4.1.4.2
Vg
0r S
Cr
h,0
4.3.2.2
'iV
SC r V
"C
C1r
,,"
8.1
lSe
t r2
C s chord
Several
anel
of nonstraighttapered wings
of spoiler
6.2.1.1
'6.2.2.1
Ct
SI
4.1.3.2
Several
6.1.3.1
6.1.3.2
6.1.3.3
6.1.3.4
6.3.4
4.3.2.2
S2.19
.~..
,,
SYMBOL
S~CtV
DEFINITIU N
tip chord of horizontal stabilizer
8.1
Cti
4.1.4.2
4.3.3.1
C
to
4.1.4.2
4.3.2.2
'"tip
:'':
SECTIONS
C
tH
tw5..1
(C)
W)(cr
.
C1
n,.,o
8.1
of wing
4.1.3.2
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
effective chords of airfoil with deflected extensibletype flap, at the inboard and
outboa edge, respectively, of the flap
C2
6.1.1.1
C 1 , C2 , C 3
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
Ac 1 , AC2 ,
Pnalogous to section
Ac 4,Ac 666.1.5.1terms
moments
moments
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
flap chord of the forwardflap segment; i.e., for a broken trailing edge the forwardflap segment is extended to form a complete airfoil (see Figure 6.1.i.146)
6.1.1.1
Ac 5i
C'l
the quarterchord point of the MAC of the vertical panel extending to body center line
50percentchord
O(/2)Ve
point of the MAC of exposed vertical panel
Several
5.3.2.1
5,3.3.1
.( 4 )w
Several
1. total drag
2.1
4.7
4.1.3.3
3. diameter of a hemisphere
8.2
4. propeller diameter
Several
5. drag force
4.1.3
D'
8.2
Do
D
body diametei
4.6.4
nozzleexit diameter
4.6.4
Several
'"
tan ATE
2.
6.1.6.1
2.110
S..
. . . ...
. =
..
:.::
"__"_"_"_"__"_"__"__________"_"___._"__.:.
.
.
__:. ,
,. .
.
.
'
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
8.1
8.2
8.2
4.2.2.1
4.2.3.1
7.2.1.1
'7.2.1,2
Several
4.2.3.1
7.1.1.1
7.1.1.2
7.1.4.2
5.2.1.1
d', d"
body diameteis at the midchord points of the MAC of the forward and aft
surfaces, respectively
4.4.1
4.5.1.1
4.5.1.2
7.4.1.1
dCB
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2
k:
I9.3,3
dH
6.2.1.2
dLE
6.3.1
6.3.2
da
8.2
db
Several
8.2
4.6.4
(db)equiv
4.2.3.1
dcyI
diameter of cylinder
4.2.1.2
4.2.2.1
8.1
Several
4.2.1.2
(dequiv) av
4.2.3.1
5.2.2.1
4d
4.6.4
dmax
4.3.3.1
equiv
4.5.3.1
,
................................
2.111
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
do
SECTIONS
4.2.3.1
4.2.3.1
6.1.4,1
dp
9.3
9.3.1
ds
Several
dt
do
6.3.2
8.2
6.3.1
d2
6.3.1
d3
distance from reference line to point of intersection of two lines tangent to pressure
curve (see Sketch (d), Page 6.3.19)
6.3.1
Several
4.3.2.1
d2 d...
3d
E'(0C)
4.13.3.3
4.1.3.4
Several
Several
2.
value of error
Several
e*
4.1.5.2
eH
4.5.3.2
1. general force
4.1.3
8.1
2. resultant force
F0
I. control force
4.7
9.2
6.3.2
6.3.4
F. 0
vacuum thrust
6.3.2
6.3.4
Fs
6.3.4
9.2
9.3
2.112
*.
SYMBOL
':?fiFw
Fw (IYi 0
DEFINITION
I),
SECTIONS
4.4.1
F(N)
Several
F 7 (N), F 8 (N),
"F9 (N), F,1 (N)
F/T
turustrecovery factor
9.2
9.2.1
9.2.3
Several
4.6
4.6.1
Several
4.2.3.2
Several
4.3.2.2
fN
4.2.3.1
fb
4.2.2.1
( 0 equiv
4.3.2.2
ff' (f)forebody
4.3.2.2
ffus
4.3.3.1
f"n' (fnose
4.3.2.2
Gc
6.3.4
Gmax
6.3.4
6.3.4
SfN
max
Gk' Gn Gv
6.1.7
Gtc
6.3.4
7.1.1.1
7.1.1.
G(PQC)
'
' '
"7.1.4.1
"C"
a
A
7.1.4.2
subsonic spanwise loading coefficient
6.1.5.1
6.1.7
6.1.5.1
2.113
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
6.1.7
6.1.5.1
tan ALE
6.1.6.1
g ,
distances parallel to the plane of symmetry from panel apex to the forward end of
4.5.2.1
height of the quarterchord point of the MAC of the wing above the ground plane
4.7
4.7.1
4.7.4
hinge
:c moment of main control surface
6.3.4
HH
height of the quarterchord point of the MAC of the auxiliary horizontal surface
above the ground plane
4.7
4.7.1
Htc
6.3.4
5.2.2.1
5.2.3.1
5.6.2.1
5.6.3.1
2. downward displacement of trailingvortex sheet from z 0 plane (in this application z = 0 is chosen at the quarterchord point of the MAC of the forward surface)
4.4.1
7.4.4.1
3. altitude
4.6
4.6.1
6.3.2
5. average height above the ground of the quarterchord point of wing chord of
75percent semispan and the threequarterchord point of the wing root chord (see
sketch on Figure 4.7.1.14)
4.?
4.7.1
height of aftsurface MAC quarterchord point above or below the forwardsurface root
chord, measured in plane of symmetry normal to extendedforwardsurface root chord,
positive for the aftsurface MAC above the plane of the root chord
height of the quarterchord point of the wing root chord above the ground
Several
hH
4.7
4.7.1
hd
distance of deflector lip below surface of wing, perpendicular to wing chord plane
6.2.1.1
hs
1. distance of spoiler lip above surface of wing, measured from and normal to the
airfoil mean line
6.1.1.1
6.2.1.1
6.2.2.1
6.3.2
distance of wing vortex above horizontal tail at tail center of pressure, measured
"normalto body axis
4.4.1
hv
e
2.114
"::e:i.,t~l~
:'"',*": :iv
....
...........................................................................
._
"SYMBOL
DEFINITION
h2
hI
SECTIONS
5.2.3.1
5.6.3.1
ratio of maximum canopy height measured from body centerline to body height at
the point of maximum canopy height
4,3.2.1
d
l
8.1
Ioy
8.1
Ioy IoxIoz
pitching, rolling, and yawing moments of inertia, respectively, about the centruidal
axis of the body
8.1
1sp
6.3.2
vortex interference factor for a lifting surface mounted on the body center line
6.2.1.2
I VB(W)
4.3.1.3
4.3.1.4
IVB(W,), Iv13(W")
interference factors for effects of body vortex on fore and aft panels, respectively
4.5.1.2
4.4.1
4.5.1. 1
4.5.1.2
.IV
S.
w '(W "1)
!it:7.4.1.1
I xxI
Ixx
yy'
zz
Iy, IX) I
moments of inertia of the vehicle about xx axis, yy axis, and zz axis, respectively
8.2
moments.of inertia of body component about xx axis, yy axis, and zz axis,
respectively
8.2
pitching, rolling, and yawing moments of inertia, respectively, about a remote axis
8.1
6.1.2.1
4.5.1.2
1t
ltxfg6
6.1.5.1
4.6.1
7.4.1.1
incidence of auxiliary horizontal surface, aft tail or canard, positive nose up
iH
H
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.3
4.7.1
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.4
iw
"Aiv
Several
5.3.1,2
5.6.1.2
5.3.1.2
5.6.1.2
2.115
?i._,. ...
L
..
..
7/ *.;:
. .*
7
:,
r. Y,.
2';7c
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
4.1.3.3
4.5.1.2
1. empirical factor for estimating the lift of wings at high angles of attack
r.'.....
V_
2. ductedpropeller advance ratio,
9.3
9.3.1
ndp
9.3.2
9.3.3
V,0
9.1
9.1.1
9.1.3
9.2
J'
OP
JOT
6.1.1.1
6.1.4.1
9.1
9.1
9.1.3
9.1
9.1.1
9.1.1
9.1.3
one section of a wing of n sections having constant sweep angles within its
boundary
4.1.3.2
4.6
4.6.2
6.2.1.1
4.7
4.7.1
4. factor accounting for the lift carryover due to flap deflection on wing sections
adjacent to flaps at subsonic speeds
6.1.5.1
6.1.5.1
transonic speeds
4.2.1.2
4.2.2.2
7. apparentmass factor
Several
6.3.2
8.2
4.1.5.2
11. ratio of extended wing chord, including extensions of both leadingedge and trailingedge flaps, to retracted wing chord, K =
6.1.21
6.1.5.1
2.116
,
.s0.~.,r
'* "'. 
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
13. constant factor for a given sharpnosed airfoil section
SECTIONS
4.1.5.1
"4.3.3.1
1'
4.1.3.2
6.2.2.1
6.2.2.1
7.1.2.1
K'
7.1.2.3
9.2
9.2.1
9.2.3
Several
2. flapspan factor
6.1.7
Several
KA
wingaspcctratio factor
4.4.1
6.2.1.2
K8B(W)
ratio of the lift of the body in the presence of the wing to that of the wing alone
Several
KD
4,6
4.6.4
KH
Several
2. hoiizontaltaillocation factor
4.4.1
6.2.1.2
KH (B)
apparentmass factor
Several
K11
4.1.3.2
5.1.2.1
KM r "
'
" "
8.2
5.1.2.1
5,2 2.1
 ,
KMA
5.6.2.1
compressibility correction to the sweep contribution used in estimating C(2
5.1.2.1
5.12.1
5.16.2.1
M
M
MAi'
KM
o
5.1.2.1
2.117
L ,
..
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
KN
4.3.1.2
4.3.1.3
4.3.1.4
4.5.1.2
4.6
4.6,1
4.2.3.1
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
KRQ
R(B)
Kv (BH U)
5.2.3.1
5.6.3.1
5.2.3.1
apparentmass factor of the upper vertical panel in the presence of the body
Several
apparentmass factor of the upper vertical panel in the presence of the body,
Several
apparentmass factor of the upper vertical panel in the presence of the body and
lower vertical panel
Several
KV (B W)
apparentmass factor of the upper vertical panel in the presence of the body and wing
5.3.1.1
Kv(BWH)
apparentmass factor of the upper vertical panel in the presence of the body, wing,
and horizontal tail
Several
KW (B)
1. ratio of the lift of the wing in the presence of the body to that of the wing alone
Several
Several
ratio of the lift of the wingbody combination to that of the wing alone
4.3.1.2
7.3.1.1
7.3.1.2
7.3.4.2
Several
Several
factor used in estimating the lift effectiveness of flaps and control surfaces at
subsonic speeds
6.1.4.1
6.1.4.2
6.1.5.1
6.1.7
values of the span factor for outboard and inboard ends, respectively, of the
kth wing section
6.1,5.1
K(WB)
KN' KW
K B(W)f
KW(B)"' K(
B(w)
Kb
Kbk, Kb
bk
b.
(b (value
Kb K
Kf
Ki
Km
2.118
6.1.4.1
6.1.4.2
5.2.2.1
5.6.2.1
5.6.1.1
4.1.4.3
DEFINITION
S'kMBOL
SECTIONS
5.2.3.1
2. Knudsen numoer
4.2.3.1
K.
6.3.2
Kn
(Kp)1i' (Kp)
So.and
SKt
2.2.
6.1o$.
value of K. due to a flap extending from the plane of symmetry to the inboard
outboard span stations, respectively, of the actual flap
6.1.5.Is
Kt
4.1.5.1
K,
4.2,1.2
Ka
factor accounting for the effect of controlsurface span in the estimation of the
parameter Ch
6.1.6.1
Ks
factor accounting for the effect of controlsurface span in the estimation of the
parameter Ch,
6.1.6.2
K0
4.2.1.2
4,2.2.2
KA
1. empirically derived correction factor accounting for the effects of the wing
planform
6.1.4.3
2. flapspan factor
6.1.5.1
value of KA due to a flap extending from the plane of symmetry to the inboard
and outboard span stations, respectively, of the actual flap
6.1.5.1
KA
wingtaperratio factor
4.4.1
6.2.1.2
5.3.1.2
5.6.1.2
crosscoupling
(PV interference factor of upper vertical surface
5.3.1.2
5.6".1.2
K1
factor accounting for the effect of nacelies and fuselage on wing lift due to
power effects
4.6
4.6.1
K1' K2, K 3
6.1.5.1
K 1 , K 2 3 K 3 ,'..
8.1
6.1.6.1
K (At, C's)
correction factor for blown flaps as a function of jet momentum and aspect ratio
6.1.4.2
1. surface.roughness height
Several
"2.factor used
6.1.6.1
(K
c'
(K
(' o
1, K 2,
oK
K 12
3. the number of the wing section, numbered from fuselage center line outboard
6.1.5.1
2.119
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
Several
6.1.7
2
2
4.3.2.2
6. factor used in determining the a.c. location of wingiift carryover on the body, d/b
7. tab spring effectiveness
6.3.4
kB(H)' ktl(E)
6.2.1.2
kB(W)
ratio of liftcurve slope of body in presence of wing to that of wing alone, fuselage at
zero angle of attack and wing incidence varying
4.2.1.1
4.3.1.2
4.3.1.3
4.3.1.2
4.3.1.3
wingbody interference factors for the forward and aft panels, respectively
4.5.1.2
6.1.1.1
6.1.1.2
kw()ratio
kw()
kB()
kw(B
k',
kt
6.1.4.1
k , Ic2, k3
empirical factors used in determining the maximum lift increment due to flap
deflection
6..1.3
6.1.4.3
(k 2  k 1 )
apparent mass factor used in determining the subsonic lift and moment of bodies
Several
k(a)
5.2.1.2
5.3.1.2
4.1.2
4.7
L.75
L
L
8.2
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2
CL q_ SD
4. airfoilthicknesslocation parameter
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
7.4.2.2
5. reference length
6.3.1
6.3.2
9.1
9.1.3
4.7
4.7.1
(LER)i, (LER)o
4.1.5.2
4.3.2.1
LER
C
2.120
F..
'. i . . ..,",
"
I,"
:i
"=
" ',.
. ,
..
.i
"\ .
.2
'
" X.
II
.. 
.
*:r r:
'?.;irp*'..
rr"r _ "
"
:.
ar... rr.,
..
_....
...
,.
::
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
21.
2. overall length from wing apex to most aft point on the trailing edge
2.2.2
4.1.3.2
4.1.5.2
4.3.3.2
6 1.4
TI
RN
Several
4.3.2 1
4.3.3.2
4.6.4
Several
RE
Several
SECTIONS
Several
reference. length
""2"distance
,,.:...
7.2.1.1
7.2.1.2
7.2.2.1
7.2.2.2
4.2.2.1
4.2.1.1
4.2,1.2
4.2.3.1
4.2.3.2
4.6.4
length of flare
4.2.3.2
Several
5.6.3.1
5.3.3.2
5.6.3.2
Several
4.32.1
4.3.2.2
4.3.3.2
4.2.3.1
distance to the center of pressure of the lower vertical stabilizer (ventral) measured
parallel to the body center line, from the moment reference center
Several
"distanceto the
Several
W(B)
distance to center of pressure of the winginduced body side force measured from tile
body nose, defined by Equations 5.2.3.2c, d
5.2.3.2
longitudinal distanceb from Zaxis to beginning and end stations of body component,
respectively
8.2
"lengthof boattail
4.2.2.1
8.2
4
RN
0
Lj
""
a'
_c.g.
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
8.1
distance measured parallel to the forwardsurface root chord, between the effectiveforwardsurface tip quartet chord point and the aftsuiface MAC quarterchord point
4.4.1
4.5.1.1
7.4.4.1
equiv
4.3.2.2
5.2.2.1
5.6.2.1
4.3.2.2
3. length of control
6.3.1
Qf
6.3.1
distance from intersection of wing trailing edge with fuselage and the quarterchord
point of the MAC of the horizontal tail
4.2.2.1
2..
1. longitudinal distance from nose of body to exposed root chord of the wing
5.2.2.1
5.2.3.2
4.3.2.2
8.1
Several
ceparation length
6.3.1
6.3.4
4.2.2.2
Q0
7.2.1.1
7.2.1.2
k1 ' V2
6.3.4
Several
distance measured parallel to the forwardsurface root chord, between the forwardsurface rootchord aft end and the aftsurface MAC quarterchord point
4.4.1
4.5.1.1
7.4.4.1
4.4.1
4.5.1.1
7.4.4.1
1. Mach number
Several
2. moment
2.1
4.2.3.1
9.3
Keff
9
p
P
9.3.1
2.122
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
V.
AM
Machnumber increment
4.1.3.2
(MAC)V
5.32.1
%tDwpeakAc/4
=/4n=4.5.3.1
4.1.5.1
MAC,,
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
4.3.3.1
peak
4.5.3.1
M a_
= 0.10
Mach number at which the numerical vatue of the slope of the curve of CD vs M
is0.10
4.1.5.1
4.1.5.1
4.2.3.1
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
)CL = const
MD
MD
Mach number for drag divergence for swept wing with Ac/4
Zn
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
4.5.3.1
MN
4.1.5.1
1. Mach number used in estimating transonic liftcurve slope (see Page 4.1.3.213),
Mfb + .07
4.1.3.2
6.1.6.1
Mach number used in estimating transonic liftcurve slope (see Page 4.1 3.213),
4.1.3.2
Mb
Mfb + .14
M,.
4.2.1.2
4.2.2,2
4.2.3.2
4.3.3.2
5.2.1.2
5.3.1.2
3. controlsurface moment
6.3.4
M cr
7.1.1.2
Me
6.3.2
4.1.3.2
4 !.4.2
5.2.2.1
7.1.1.2
4.1.3.2
(Mm)
A
Fi
4.1.4.2
2.123
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
(Mfb)
4.1.3.2
4.4.1
9.3.1
Mte
tabsurface moment
6.3.4
4.1.4.2
Ma
6.3.1
6.3.2
4.6.4
Several
4.1.3.3
upstream Mach number normal to the leading edge of wing at zero angle of attack
4.1.3.3
6.1.7
2. mass
8.1
4.4.1
2.2.2
m,
Snozzle
massflow rate
6.3.2
9.3
9.3.1
6.1.1.1
1. normal force
4.1.3
9.1
9.3
9.3.1
N1
normal force. acting at inlet of jet engine due to inclination of inlet to oncoming flow
4.6
Np
4.6
1. chordwise distance from the wing apex to the pitchingmoment reference center
measured in root chords, positive for reference center aft of apex
4.1.4
4.1.4.2
4.1.4.3
2. chordwise distance from wing apex to moment reference center measured in wing
mean aerotlynamic chords, positive aft
4.7
4.7.3
S 2.124
SECTIONS
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
3. number of engines
4.6
4.6.1
6.1.6.1
4.1.5.1
6. distance from the face of a given body segment to the desired moment reference
axis ol the conflAuration
4.2.2.1
7.2.1.1
7.2.1.2
6.1.7
9.1
9.3
9.3.1
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
load factor
4.6
4.6.4
6.3.4
ni
n ' n2
distance of the desired moment reference center behind the forward face of any
given body segment, positive for reference center aft of forward face
value of i at left and righthand wing tips of a swept wing, left cnd right as viewed
4.2.2.1
4.4,1
SP
pressure
6.3.1
6.1.6.1
"P
plateau pressure
6.3.1
nozzleexit pressure
6.3.2
6.3.1
Ps
separation vrpssure
1
6.3.1
6.3.1
6.3.2
P1
local pressure
6.3.2
6.3.1
P'
2. plateau pressure
6.3.2
6.3.2
P3
6.3.2
P4
6.3.2
2..
i)

~~
r7 .r""rd:
r"I
'
"
""i.
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
mw....r.
j::::
r.r r
;Jrr
SECTIONS
pressure
freestream
icc
6.3.1
6.3.2
1. static pressure
Several
2. crosssection perimeter
4.2.3.1
2.2.2
4.1.3.2
4.1.5.2
4.3.3.2
Several
6.1.5.1
p
4.6
4.6.1
Ap
eTe
4.6.1
Pb
base pressure
4.6.4
4.6.4
4.6.4
p_
4.6.1
4.6.4
1. dynanic pressure
Several
Several
9.2
qH
Several
qv
7.4.2.1
7.4.2.2
7.4.2.3
8.1.2
qp
4.5.3.1
qs
4.6
6.3.2
q,.
Several
q/pt, ((Its)re1
4.4.1
q/q_
Several
Hii
iq
2.126
.
rrr
.?7.
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
q'
SECTIONS
4.5.1.2
Several
4.4.1
q_
q
q
Aq
q11
"::':q*.
Seffective
4.7
4.7.3
AqH
ratio of the change in dynamic pressure at the horizontal tail
4.6.3
q**
4.6.1
4.6.3
""/ 0aq
4.4.1
"R
1. Reynolds number
Several
q.
Aqs
of revolution
4.6.1
4.2.1.2
4.2.2.2
.R
4. radius of hemisphere
8.2
5. propeller radius
Several
4.1.5.2
4.3.3.2
leadingedgesuction parameter that accounts for the portion of the inboard panel
4.1.5.2
k.']
RL
6.3.4
RL.S,
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
7.4.2.2
(L'S')H
(RL
4.5.3.1
4.3.3,1
4.5.3.1
(R
"0""
g"
"(RLS)p
(RL.S.)
2.127
.~..~
. :
 '
"
..,...
.
't'.
,"***..'
ur
h .
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
S(RL.S.Iv
(R.
4.5.3.1
(RL.S)
4.5.3.1
RwB
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
Rb
4.6.4
Rf0 s
9.1
9.1.3
Ri' R
4.1.5.2
R.
4.6
4.6.1
R' j
4.6
4.6.1
Reynolds number
Several
6.3.2
4.1.5.2
Reynolds numbers based on the leadingedge radius of the MAC of the inboard panel
and outboard panel, respectively, of the wing
4.1.5.2
RQMAC, RQ
Several
R f
4.3.3.1
S4
P..
,
"LER)
.3.3.2
(R)
fus
4.5.3.1
""Rls
6.3.2
IQ
6.3.1
6.3.2
B.
""1
2,128
R9i
Reynolds number at control hinge line, referred to local Reynolds number upstream
of interaction
6.3.1
6.3.1
""
SYMBOL
RQ
DEFINITION
"(R)t
SECTIONS
6.3.1
6.3.1
6.3.1
6.3.2
KR"
Ro
body radius
R'
propeller radius
,:.
4.6.4
Several
nozzleexit radius
4.6.4
R 75
9.1
9.1.3
".
'
4.3.1.3
Several
4 .2 .3 . 1
4.3.1.2
4.7
4.7.
4.7.4
6. radius
8.1
7. radial distance to propeller blade element
9.1
9.1.1
9.1.2
9.1.3
8. angular velocity in yaw
r
r',
r"
respectively
SLEb
+"
rb
W.
Several
5.3.1.2
6,2.1.2
6.1.6.1
4.1.5.2
8.1
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
average radius of the body at the wingbody juncture
body radius at point where flow ceases to be potential
4.3.3.1
4.3.3.2
2.129
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
r
SECTIONS
4.2.1.1
7.2.1.1
7.2.1.2
2. average body halfdepth in the region of the tail panel(s), measured from center line
Several
body halfwidth in the region of the tail panel(s), measured from center line
Several
4.3.1.3
4.5.1.2
br
"2average
r
bW
rI
Sratio
4.5.1.2
(r 1 /b)u
ratio of average body halfdepth in the region of the lower vertical panel to span of lower
vertical panel measured to body center line
Several
(r,/b)V
ratio of average body halfdepth in region of the upper vertical panel to span of upper
vertical panel measured to body center line
Several
Several
4.2.1.2
4.2.2.2
4.3.3.1
3. reference area
4.6
4.6.4
6.3.1
S, SW
wing area
Several
S'
4.2.3.1
Se, s"
Several
SB
Several
4.3.3.2
5.3.1.1
5.2.1.2
ref
S
0I
5.6.3.1
SD
5.2.3.1
2.130
9.3
9.3.1
9,.3.2
9.3.?
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
SE
4.1.3.2
SH
Several
"ASH
4.6.1
SHe
4.5.3.1
6.2.1.2
SHi
S1
.n
in slipstream
4.6.3
4.6
Si
6.1.5.1
6.1.6.1
Several
SS
Several
(SS)
Ste
exposed wetted area of body (isolated body minus surface area covered by wing at
wingbody juncture)
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
"SU
Several
SV
1. area of single vertical panel fo. configuration with twin vertical panels
5.3.1.1
5.6.1.1
Several
Several
wing area
Several
4.5.3.1
4.3.3.1
1. wing planform area including Pnd directly forward of flap area (flap area
not included) (ee Section 2.2.2)
4.6
4.6.4
ref
SWe
"SW
6.1.4.2
6.1.4.3
i12i
SW
Sbw
L
6.1.4.1
6.1.4.2
6.1.5.1
slipstream
wing planform area including and directly forward of flap area immersed in propeller
4.6.4
body
"Sb
Several
base area
4.1,3.2
"4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
5.1.2.1
2.131
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
SECTIONS
4.3.3.1
Sc
maincontrolsurface area
6.3A4
SSe
Several
2. area of elevator
6.3.4
(Sbw)
Se
de

FE
dCB 2
9.3.1
S~'Ss"
Several
(so)
4.3.2.2
Sf
6.1.4.1
6.1.5.1
6.2.1.1
Sg
4.1.3.2
5.1.2.1
Si
Several
Several
3. primqrysurface planform area forward of and including the flap area inside the
prinarysurface tip Mach cone (Figure 6.1.728b)
6.1.7
(Si)e, (So)
4.3.3.1
S.
4.1.3.2
4.1.3.3
Sk
6.1.5.1
Sni
primarysurface planform area forward of and including the flap area outside the
primarysurface tip Mach cone (Figure 6.1.728b)
6.1.7
Several
Several
4.1.4.2
'So
0
:,..
"S
p
5.! .2.1
1. body planform area
4.2.1.2
4.2.2.2
4.2.3.2
"4.3.3.2
2.
ip
Sef
r1f
2.132
reference area
Several
Several
SYMBOL
S
DEFINITION
total wing area, including increase in area due to flap extensions
controltab area
Swet
SECTIONS
6.1.4.1
6.1.4.2
6.3.4
wetted area
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
7.4.2.2
(Swet)
,."e
1 19wet
(Swetdi'(Swet)o0
Swet
r''
.
4.3.3.1
w4.5.3.1
wet wetted areas of exposed inboard and outboard panels, respectively, of wing
4.5.3.1
4.4...1.5.1
4.1.3.1
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
[wSwe)V
4.5.3.1
[(Sv,)]
4.5.3.1
Sx, S(X)
Several
4.1.3.2
5.1.2.1
areas on added vertical panel affected by Mach lines emanating from the intersection
of exposed leading and trailing edges of all other panels with the body
Sevelal
S2, S3
6.1.5.1
Sact/S.xt
Several
V.
1 S2
; "
S)
S2), S3 ,
determined by Mach lines emanating from leading and trailing edges of exposed
roct chord of the horizontal panel
Several
2. temperature
6.32
span
S2.133
4.7
4.7.1
4.7.4
8.1
9.1
9.1.2
9.2
Vur
v.
SYMBOL
r%rrr
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
6. ductedpropeller thrust
9.3.1
TR
transitionstrip indicator
T aw
4.3.2.1
4.3.3.2
6.3.1
Tc
T1
1. thrust coefficient based on freestream velocity and propeller disk area,
SqSp
9.1
9.1.2
9.1.3
qS
2T
2
PoV, SW
"F'c
T"c
T
propeller thrust coefficient based on slipstream velocity and propeller disk area, q"Sp
9.2
9.2.1
9.2.3
Several
9.2
9,2.1
9.2.3
Ti
9.3
9.3.1
Tnet
9.3
9.3.1
TO
1. freestream temperature
4.6.4
2. hovering thrust
9.3.1
4.6.4
propeller thrust
9.3.1
mw
wall temperature
6.3.1
6.3.1
freestream temperature
6.3.1
Several
tc
6.1.3.1
6.1.3.2
6.1.6.1
6.1.6.2
6.1.6.1
Several
6.1.1.1
6.1.1.2
6.1.4.1
c.P
t/c, (t/c) av
t
C
2.134
6.1.6.1
6.1.6.2
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
S~4.3.2.1
(t/c) bw
(tcff
(t/c)i,
(t/c) 0
"
"(t/c)
max
0t/0) p
(t/c)4.5.3.1
thickness ratio
of tail panel
V, VW
freestream velocity
"V
VB
VN
volume of nose
VT
verticaltail indicator
VC
441.3.4
4.5.3.1
4.7
4.7.1
Several
"2.nozzle
Vi
V
SWj
4.1.4.2
Several
7,3.1.1
4.321
9.3
9.3.1
exit velocity
3. equivalent airspeed
"*
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
~4.3.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.4
9.3
"9.3.1
9.3
4.6
4.6.1
46
4.6.1
Ve
exitvelocity ratio
9.3
".1.
9.3.2
9.393
6.1.7

9.3.1
"
2. induceddrag factor
4 1.5.2
"4.3.3.2
4
2.135
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
W
weight
4.6
4.6.4
6.3.4
8.2
8.1
wingiocation index
4.3.2.1
8.1
8.1
V~tW
8.1
W,
8.1
Wf
8.1
Wf
8.1
5.2.2.1
5.6.2.1
4.3.1.4
5.2.3.1
5.6.3.1
4.4.1
WL
'
SECTIONS
wP
3. factor used to determine the aownwash gradient at a particular point in the flow field
not close to the trailing edge of the wing
4. weight per unit length of element
8.2
4.1.5.2
4.3.3.2
7.1.1.2
War Wb
weights per unit length at beginning and end stations of body component, respectively
8.2
axial force
4.1.3
8.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
6.1.2.1
6.3.1
0.downwash,
2.136
2. distance between the moment center and the a.c. of the lifting surface afftcted by
positive when a.c. is ahead of moment center
4.5.1.1
4.7
4.7.1
*.I*g... ..
'
*.*,Ih
,'
"
,l
Ir*r r.'o
: ,
....
:,
7 ...
.:
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
4. distance of centroid of the area affected by jet power effects from moment
reference center, positive for area forward of reference centir
4.6.3
5. distance of the local center of pressure aft of the quarterchord of the MAC
(see Equation 6.1.5.1j)
6.1.5.1
6. longitudinal distance from the nose to quarterchord point of the MAC of the
exposed wing panel
4.3.1.3
Several
4.4.1
7.4.1,1
9.1
9.1.3
10. longitudinal distance from the body nose to midchord point of the MAC of
exposed vertical panel
5.3.1.2
5.6.1.2
11. distance of origin of moments from the 2/3 crB point of the basic triangular wing,
5.1.3.1
measured along the longitudinal axis, positive ahead of the 2/3 cl. point
7,1.1.1
12. distance of origin of moments from the wing midchord point, measured along the
longitudinal axis, positive ahead of midchord point
5,1.3.1
13. distance of center of loading of a conicalflow region from control hinge axis
measured normal to the hinge axis
6.1.6.1
SuI1
5.3.1.1
7.4.2.1
7.4.2.2
14. longitudinal distance measured from verticaltail leading edge to projected quarterchord of horizontaltail MAC on to root chord (see sketch, Figure 5.3.1.122b)
7.4.2.3
15. distance from body nose to quarterchord point of the MAC of exposed horizontal
tail in subsonic flow
6.2.1.2
16. distance from body nose to midchord point of the MAC of exposed horizontal
6.2.1.2
X
X
X,
4.2.3.2
4.3.3.1
6.1.7
2. the chordwise distance from the quarterchord point of the 75percentsemispan chord
to the threequarterchord point of the wing root chord, positive when the latter is aft
of the former (see Figure 4.7,114)
4.7
4.7.1
4.2.2.1
4.4.1
4.5.2.1
2.137

DEFINITION
SYMBOL
SECTIONS
X, Z'
4.4.1
7.4,1.1.
7.4.1.2
7.4.4.1
7.4 ,4 .2"
: ... ! ..
.
.1
8.2
3. chordwise distance between duct moment reference center and installed duct
9.3
:,...XLE
4.5.3.2
XH
distance from jet wake origin to the quarterchord point of the MAC of the horizontal
tail, parallel to the thrust axis
4.6
4.6.1
6.3.1
longitudinal distance between jet inlet and quarterchord point of wing MAC
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.3
""XLElongitudinaldistance
from aircraft referenceaxis origin to leading edge of mean aerodynamic chord of wing segment affected by leadingedge device
chordwise distance f..om apex to leading edge of MAC
2.2.2
XMRP
distance from the leading edge of MAC to the moment reference point, positive for
the moment reference point aft of the leading edge of the MAC
6.1.5.1
XR
6.3.1
6.3.2
Xw
4.6
4.6.3
. .
Xa
:. '.
6.1.5.1
XLE
"
9.3.2
?.f
XI
S.
Several
,. oXHL
.L
1. distance between a.c. and e.g., positive when c.g. is ahead of a.c.
6,1.2.1
1. distance between aerodynamic center and wing apex, parallel to the MACpositive
for a.c. aft of wing apex
Several
4.1.2.2
3. distance between aerodynamic center and airfoil leading edge, parallel to free stream,
for aerodynamic center aft of leading edge
6.1.2.1
SAXac
4.1.4.2
Xa.c.
4,3.2.2
4.5.2.1
Xa.c.
4.5.2.1
"(Xac.
4.3.2.2
5.3.3.1
5.6.3.1
,.
S""positive
.
X
a'c')P
2.138
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
(Xa..)v
a.c.Vcenter
5.3.3.1
Xc
1. axial distance from vertex of body rose to centroid of body plariform area
Several
6.3.1
6.3.4
6.3.4
Xc max
Xcentroid
distance of the centroid of area of a wing behind the wing apex, parallel to wing
MAC and plane of symmetry
2.2.2
Xc.g"
1. distance between center of gravity and quarterchord point of wing MAC, parallel
to MAC, positive for e.g. aft of MAC
4.5.2.1
4.6
5.3.3.1
7.1.3.3
2. distance from wing apex to center of gravity, parallel to MAC, positive for e.g.
"aftof wing apex
Sever,i
1. distance from wing apex to center of pressure, parallel to wing chord and plane of
symmetry, positive for c.p. aft of wing apex
4.1.4
4.3.2.2
4.2.2,]
5.2.3.2
3. disonce from airfoil leading edge to center of pressure of incremental load due to
flaps, i, arallel to wing chord, positive for center of pressure aft of leading edge
6.1.2.1
4. chordwise centerofpressure location aft o~f the leading edge for a flapped wing
section
6.1.5.1
6.3.2
6. chordwise distance from duct leading edge to center of pressure of unstalled duct,
positive aft of duct leading edge
9.3
Xc.p.
c .
Xcpb
c~p~ba
(Xp.
chordwise centerofpressure location aft of the leading edge for the basic loadiag of
plain flap
centerofpressure location of boattail, measured aft of the forward face of the
9.3.2
6.1.5.1
4.2.2.1
boattail
(Xp)
cp.ACN
6.3.1
Xcv
parameter accounting for relative positions of the horizontal and vertical tails
5.3,1.1
(XZ/4)V
5.3.3.1
6.3.2
distance from jet exit to the quarterchord point of the MAC of the horizontal
tail, parallel to the thrust axis
4.6
4.6.1
Xf
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
.f
X
ft
fX
X1 Xfi
centeroflift location of incremental load due to deflection of first, secord, and ith flap
segment, respectively, measured aft from airfoil leading edge parallel to free stream
8.1
6.1.2.]
6.1.5.1
2.139
SYMBOL
Xi(a)
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
distance to center of pressure of winginduced body side force from juncture of wing
leading edge and body at angle of attack
5.2.3.2
distance to center of pressure of winginduced body side force from juncture of wing
leading edge and body at =ero angle of attack
5.2.3.2
distance from airfoil leading edge, parallel to free stream, where total lift increment
due to jet efflux acts
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
longitudinal distance from jet wake origin to jet exit, usually cu,nsidered to be
4.6
4.6.1
AXk
longitudinal distance from moment reference center to chord for zero swetep, defined
in xm definition 4 below, for the kth wing segment
6.1.5.1
1. longitudinal distance from the body nose to the chosen moment center, positive aft
Several
2. chordwise distance from duct leading edge to moment reference center, positive aft
of duct leading edge
9.3
9.3.2
3. desired pitchingmoment reference point measured positive aft from basic airfoil
leading edge paraiiel to wing chora
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
4. distance from wing leading edge to uniuue unswept reference line so that the ratio
ot xm to local cnord is constant for straighttapered wings (see Sketch Qw), nection
6.1.5.1)
6.1.5.1
Several
4.4.1
0)
7X
Xi
X0
Xp
6.3.1
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.3
6.3.4
Xr
distance from foiward end of root chord to intersection of control hinge line with
root chord, parallel to wing root chord
6.1.6.1
AXr
distance from wing apex to desired moment reference cenier, measured positive aft
6.1.5.1
Xref
desired pltch:ngmoment reference point, measured positive aft from basic airfoil
leading edge parallel to wing chord
6.1.2.1
4.3.1.3
"5.3.1.2
5.6.1.2
6.2.1.2
__
2.140
2. distance from nose .f airfoil to spoiler lip, parallel to w,g chord (Figure 6.1.I.152b)
6.1.1.1
6.2.1.1
5.2.2.1
6.3.1
6.3.2
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL,
Xs
distance from wing leading edge to spoiler hinge line (see Sketch (g), Page 6,2,1.16)
6.2.1.1
1. chordwise
t position of airfoil maximum thickness
2.2.1
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
2. distance from forward end of tip chord to intersection of control hinge line with
tip chord,; parallel to root chord
6.1.6.1
3. transition distance
6.3.1
"X(yc)max
2.2.1
K1
dSX
1. body station where T first reaches its maximum negative value
Several
""
X1 ,
2X, x 3
X1,
X
2X,
2. distance from intersection of wing leading edge or trailing edge with fuselage and
the center of pressure of given body segment (see Sketch (a))
4.2.2.1
distance from intersection of wing leading edge with fuselage to forward face of body
segment adjacent to the intersection (see Sketch (a))
4.2.2.1
distance parameters used to define section thicknessratio factor for hexagonal airfoils
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
moment arms corresponding to section lift terms AcI, Ac2, Ac6, respectivcly
6.1.2,1
6.1.5.1
point of beginning of downstream pressure rise (see Sketch (a), Page 6.3.23)
6.3.2
point of peak downstream pressure rise (see Sketch (a), Page 6.3.23)
6.3.2
L.
X4
'
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
','
".
Cv5.6.L1.
5., 1
4.1.4.3
Xa.c.
Xa~c.
4.1.4.2
4.1.4.3
4.3.2.2
distance of aerodynamic center of wing aft of wing apex measured in root chords,
positive aft
Cr,
2
'"
. 
. ..
2.14 1
."
"
.,
.....
.
....
 ....
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
Axa.c.
SECTIONS
4.1.4.2
Cr
r,
x avalue
4.3.2.2
Cr /B(W)
4.1.4.3
L>=0
a.c.
distance of a.c. location of inboard panel of wing aft of apex of inboard panel
4.1.4.2
/N
(Xa.c.
I:
(ax.)measured
Xa.c.\
( 
Sr
4.3.2.2
distance of a.c. location of outboard panel of wing aft.of the apex of outboard panel,
in its root chords
4.1.4.2
distance of a.c. location of constructed outboard panel of wing aft of the apex of the
4.1.4.2
4.3.2.2
L/
)value
Sr /W(B)
"Xa.c.
4.3.2.2
4.3.2.2
distance of aerodynamic center of body in presence of the wing from apex of exposed
wing, measured in exposedwing root chords
4.3.2.2
distance of aerodynamic center of inboard panel of wing from apex of exposed wing,
4.3.2.2
Cr
Xa.
X
er /B(W)
Xa,c.
Xa
distance of aerodynamic center of body nose ahead of wingbody juncture from apex
of exposed wing, measured in exposedwing root chords
e.
2.142
4.3.2.2
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
"X
Xa.c.
W
C
Xc.p.
SECTIONS
4.3.2.2
distance of aerodynamic center of exposed wing in presence of the body from apex
of exposed wing, measured in exposedwing root chords
4.3.2.2
6.1.5.1
Cc.p.
/Xc'p"
atro
empirically derived factor of
\.ccp
xc'p'
cc.p.
6.1.5.1
Xc.p.
CX.
t.LCr
4.1.4.3
4,1.4.3
XC O
Cr,/CLO
(.,
rCL
4.1.4.3
""
/e
4.1.4.3
4.1,4.3
4.1.4.3
/ ref
Cr/i
AXc.p.)
r44
2.143
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
SXD. /location
6.1.5.1
6.1.5.1
X2D1
distance of the hinge axis behind wing leading edge measured in plane normal to
"controlhinge axis
6.1.6.1
6.1.6.2
/Xh
Y 90 , Y9
airfoil
,ii"
4.1.1.2
6.1.5.1
7.1.2.2
Y90' Y00
Ay
6.1.1.1
2.2.1
4.4.1
Several
Several
2. lateral distance from thrust axis of one propeller to blade element of another
9.1
9.1.3
4.1.4.2
4.3.2.2
k.
1/2 bi
y (x)
2.2.1
8.2
YB
2.2.2
*H1.
6.2.1.2
8.1
r.I
r.
2.144
K1
4
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
YMAC
2.2.2
YT
4.6
4.6.1
YW
8.1
lateral distance to wing mean aerodynamic chord from fuselage center line
6.1.4.2
6.1.5.1
yu
ri
SECTIONS
lateral dislance to
"YU
6.1.5.1
Y(x)
2.2.1
L(yd) max
2A
4.3.2.1
4.3.3.2
Y,
spanwise distance from center line to inboard edge of flap or control surface
6.1.6.1
6.1.6.2
6.2.1.1
6.2.2.1
y.io
4.4.1
Ymax
4.1.4.3
Yo
y. "o
yvt

Several
2. spanwise distance from center line to outboard edge of flap or control surface
6.1.6.1
6.1.6.2
6.2.1.1
6.2.2.1
8.2
body vortex lateral position at the vertical tail spans (defined by Equation 5.3.1.2")
5.3.1.2
Yv2
'
bv
by
5.6.1.2
Ay 1 .
Several
2.145
1~A
.*
.*
" .. ,
,
SYMBOL
m. *..,"
* ",
. 
 .
.S,
. t'
DEFINITION
S.
SLC I IUNb
4.5.3.2
1. vertical distance between e.g. and quarterchord point of wing MAC positive for
MAC below e.g.
7.1.3.2
2. vertical distance between e.g. and quarterchord point of wing root chord, positive
for quarterchord point of root chord below e.g.
7.1.2.1
7.1.2.2
7.3.2.1
7.3.2.2
4.4.1
4.5.1.1
4.5.1.2
AZ
4. vertical distance from the vortex sheet to the point of interest (usually the quarterchord point of the MAC of the horizontal tail)
4.4.1
7.4.1.1
7.4.4.1
7.4.2.1
7.4.2.2
7.4.2.3
6.1.5.1
vertical distance of the horizontal tail below the body center line
6.2.1.2
Z', 7
vertical distance between e.g. and quarterchord point of forward and aft panel MAC's,
respectively
4.5.2.1
8.2
ZH
Several
2. distance measured normal to the longitudinal axis between the horizontal tail c.p.
and the moment reference center, positive for c.p. above longitudinal axis
Several
5.3.3.2
5.6.3.2
4.5.1.3
ZHeff
point oftail
quarterchord
slipstream
line of4.613a),
propellerpositive
of center
vertical
distance
above horizontal
for from
slipstream
(see Figuie
tail MAC
horizontal
4.6
4.6.3
ZHL
distance of hinge line measured from and normal to the Xaxis, positive down
6.3.1
vertical distance from :,uarterchord point of horizontal tail to propeller thrust axis;
positive for quarterchord point above thrust axis (see Figure 4.613a)
4.6
4.6.3
ZT
vertical distance from propeller thrust axis to coordinate origin, positive for thrust
axis below origin (see Figure 4.613)
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.3
ZU
5.3.3.2
5.6.2.1
5.6.3.2
HT
2.146
'.,~
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
SECTIONS
Several
2. vertical centroidal distance of vertical stabilizer from root cho d (at fuselage)
8.I
1. vertical distance from the quarterchord poin of the wing M/AC, to tile coordinate
origin, positive for wing below the origin (see Fig:i,,, .5. I 3;
Several
2. vertical distance from body center line to quarterchord point of root chord,
positive for quarterchord point below center line
Several
4.4.1
4.5.1.1
4.5.1.2
7.4.1.1
Ze.g.
vertical distance between e.g. and Xaxist positive for e.g. below Xaxis
4.5.2.1
4.6
Azc.g"
vertical distance between e.g. and wing MAC quarterchord, positive above
quarterchord
6.1.5.1
6.3.1
distance from jet thrust axis to quarterchord point of horizontal tail perpendicular
to thrust axis, positive for quarterchord point above thrust axis
4.6
4.6.1
Several
distance normal to the longitudinal axis between the center of pressure of a vertical
panel and the moment reference center, positive for the panel above the body
vertical distance from Xaxis to propellerslipstreamn center lne at the quarterchord
of the wing MAC, positive for center line above Xaxis (see Figure 4.613a)
5.6.2.1
ZY
ZW
\Zc'P'CA
(
Z
Zp
Zs
4.6
4.6.1
4,6.3
)effective
(
2
I
Eleft
4.4.1
ef
value of parameter for forward panel
7.4.4.1
5,3.1.1
body vortex vertical positions at the vertical tail spans; defined by Equation 5.3.1.2f
5.3.1.2
ZH
,7
ZvI
Z2
bv
by
5.6.1.2
2.147
':i~iB.
GREEK SYMBOLS
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
UX.
Several
2. angular acceleration
8.1
6.3.1
4.1.3.3
8.1
0e
4.6.1
1+
a'
437
4.7.1
4.1.3.3
3. angle of inclination,
a2
f.2
Several
for 0 <
ci
of attack of aft panel,
2."angle
S~transonic similarity
aX
Several
parameter,
i
< sa
90e, and
le'  v180
a ra
+ei"
to
4.2.1.2S
4.2.2.2
4.2.3.2
4.1.5.2
4.5.! . 2
4.5.2.1
4.1.4.2
1. angle of attack at which section lift curve begins to deviate from linear variation
Several
4.1.3,3
Several
Aa
4.1.3.4
7.4.4.1
4.1.3.3
4.1.3.4
a
max
CL
max
*(Ca
CL
base
C1
)b,
2.148
[77,
4.5.1.2
"
.~
~q
wq .
SYMBOL
CLmax)
I.Oa
*
.1C
\Lmaxlwa
r '
r .
..
'","T
 
uangles of attack at maximum lift coefficients of exposed fontmird and aft panels,
respectively
4.1.5.2
4.5.1.2
4.3.1.4
4.3.1.4
4,5.1.3
angle of attack between duct axis and freestream direction
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2
9.3.3
OfFRP
4.3.1.3
(Ai)G
Increment in angle of attack at a constant lift coefflcier.. in the presence of the ground
4.7
4.7.1
4.6.3
4.7.1
6.3.4
4.7
4.7.1
"G
increment in angle of attack of the horizontal tail In the presence of the ground
.. L
6.1.5.1
a1
4.6
4.6.1
01V
4.6.3
4.6.4
6.3.4
Several
AaW
4.6.1
O!WB
a
4.5.3.2
.4break
4.1.3.3
4.1.1
4.1.4.3
"
""a
6.1.1
equivalent angle of attack for cambered wing
4.1.3.3
4.1.3.3
ai
Sdveral
""tn
9.1
(acL
,.
SECTIONS
OiD
(AH
.
 r =,g
DEFINITION
(
(
max
"9.1.3
2.149
7
a1
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
.
angle between jet thrust axis and local velocity at jet intake, aT + 'u
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.3
Ofp
4.6
angle between propell'r thrust axis and local velocity of propeller plane
4.6.1
4.6,4
as
6.3.4
Aa
61.1.1..
6.2.1.1
av
4.2.1.2
r..
Several
(0) 6 )L
6.1.4.1
6A.15.1
6.1.7
(as )
6.1.4.1
6.1.7
angle of attack at zero lift
Several
A00
4.1.3.1
4.3.2.1
(ao)W
4.3.2.1
(a0)WB
4.3.2.1
(cr0 6=O
4.1.3.1
4.1.4.3
freestream angle o! attack
01
dOin
dctyi
6.3.2
tan_
cos ALE
4.1.3.1
4.1.3.3
9.1.3
dca
Li
j3
2.150
7.4.4.1
7.4 4.2
I1 or
t/1M2
Several
Several
Several
4. boattail angle
4.6.4
6.3.4
"
SYMBOL
* ,'". :
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
(listed under C 1 )
Ka
hr
r"
F',
K
ii!i
ry
o
Several
dihedral angles of forward and aft surfaces, respectively, positive for wing tips up
4.5.1.1
4.4.1
4.4.1
7.4,1.1
r
4.3.1.4
4.5.1.2
6.2.1.2
drVWr
2
5.3.1.2
L2,V'rc.
nondimensional vortex strengths for the forward and aft panels, respectively
4.5.1.2
21r c5.6.1.2
yl~
b/2
Sva Scirculation
r yi
b/
Va b/2
71.
strength at Yi,o
44.1
4.4.1
Several
2. angle with origin at wing trailing edge, measured between the zeroangleofattack
line and the point under consideration
4.4.1
7.4,1.1
4.5,1.1
6.1.5.1
6.3.4
4.1,3.2
4.4.1
6.3.2
6
2. flap or control deflection angle (also f), elevators and flaps, positive trailing edge
down; ailerons, positive such as to give positive rolling moment; rudder, positive
trailing edge left
Several
5.3.1.1
4. boundarylayer thickness
6.3.1
4.4.1
5.3.1.2
"
5.6.1.2
6.1.5.1
2.
!51
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
SECTIONS
6.2.1.1
6.2.2.1
LE
4.4.1
6.2.1.1
6.2.2.1
o.2.2.1
6.3.4
6 aL Or
, aR
Sc
c mmaximum
max
mmaximum
emax
6.3.4
6.2. 1.1
6.2.2.1
1. elevator deflection
6.3.4
9.2
9.2.1
9.2.3
6.3.4
elevator defleation
6eff
effective nose wedge angle for sharpnosed airfoil (see Figure 4.1.3.36 1 b)
4.1.3.3
6effL
4.1.3.3
6f
Se,,eral
9.1
9.1.3
Sf
6f
1 2
's 2 ,
Il i2
,f
6.1.2.1
f
fLE
Several
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
LE
5.
if
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2
9.3.3
t
10
6
...
3
9.3
9.3.1
Several
Several
6.1.2.1
6.,4.
6.1.4.2
6.1.4.3
6.1.3
eff
Max
2.152
r.
...
.
r.
~r
r r.
v 
:
r, ,;...
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
:.
.,
4.4.1
so
6.3.1
8,
6,2.1.1
6.2.2.1
6.3.4
6.3.4
btt
6.3.4
8u
6.1.2.1
6.1.4,1
6.1.4.2
6.1.4.3
6.1.7
Several
6.1.5.1
6.2.1.1
Several
4.4.1
4.6
4.6.1
4.4.1
4.6
4.6.4
An
meaneffectivedownwash iacrement
4.6
4.6.1
(Ae)G
4.7
f .
eH
4.7.!
4.4.1
4.4.1
4.5.3.2
tcmax
vn
LHL
AEC1.
V
6.2.1.2
(AC)4.6.3
(Ac
4.6.3
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.3
4.6.4
.4
"power
Aff
4.6.3
Eu
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.3
Ezslip
Z i9.1.3
/1.
SECTIONS
Sn
p!
4.4 1
9.1
2.153
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
y
1. dimensionless span station, b/2
;
Several
2. ratio of the drag on a finite cylinder to the drag of a cylinder of infinite length
Kv~i
4..2.1.2
4.2.2.2
4.2.3.2
4.3.3.2
3. angle of sweep of the line intersecting conicalflow regions of wing at angle of attack
nIT
4. dimensionless span station, cos
.T
,
cos
6.1.6.1
6.1.7
6.1.7
.ontrolsurface efficiency
At7
.
6.3.4
6.1.4.1
6.1.5.1
Several
5.2.1.2
"6.1.5.1
5.3.1.2
7 W
taileffectiveness parameter
5.6.1.2
5.6.1.2
17Wt.V)
5.6.1.2
77F
6.1.5.'
6.2.1.2
'7f
dimensi,
17i
A.1 i, A17.o
6.2.1.1
6.2.1.1
6.1.5.1
6.1.1.3
Several
T/2
6.1.5.1
Several
b/2
1.ieff
oeff
, k 1
i" nax
surtace,
Yo

b/2
77,
2.154
6.1.1.1
6.1.4.3
6.1.5.1

r.,
.
r
. .
x.r'.r

"
  r "
.
"
SYMBOL
70(
'C
'
"V
'
DEFINITION
'"
SECTIONS
4 51.2
empirical factor accounting for changes in flap deflection from the optimum
deflection
6.1.1.3
6.1.5.1
771
6.1.1.1
172
6.1.1.1
f76
f.l2.
,07~1
2' 3
talefetvnssfco
6.2.1.2
2.2.1
2. linear angle of twist of wing tip with respect to root, negative for washout
Several
4.6.1
Several
5. shockwave angle
4.4.1
6.3.1
5, 1. 1.2
5.6.1.2
7.1.1.2
9.2
9.2.1
9.2.3
6.2.1.1
4.2.1.2
4.2.2.2
4.6.4
6.3.2
A0
9.2
9_2.1
angle between airfoil chord line and line connecting airfoil trailing edge with
maximum airfoil uppersurface ordinate (see Sketch (a), Section 4.1.4.3)
4.1.4.3
Ssurface
ON
f'"
"
4,2. 1.1
4.2.1.2
4.2.2.1
4.2.1.2
.4.2.3.1
cone angle
5.3.3.1
4.2.2.1
4.3.3.1
2.155
6
A7
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
slipstream turning angle adjusted to the condition of zero camber and zero incidence
9.2
9.2.1
01
5.3.1.2
s.6.1.2
0a 02 03,
4.2.2.1
Several
AlL
Several
4.6
4.6.3
ALE, ALEw, A
Several
4.,11
4.5.1.2
1.4.1.1
4.1,3.2
4.1.5.1
:4
AlE
AL .w
4.3,3.1
5.1.2.1
ALL
4.3.2.2
4.3.2.2
A,
4.1.3.2
5,1.2.1
ALE
4.5.3.1
8.1
ALES ALEA
sweepback angles of leading .dge of wing inboard and outboard panels, respectively
Several
4.1.4.2
4.3.2.2
ALE1
Several
Al.Fv
Several
4.1.3.2
ATE
Several
ATEhw
4.1.3.2
4,1.5.1
(ALE
LE.
ALE,
ALE 2
4.33.1
TEE
2.156
4.1.3.2
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
ATE, ATE
sweepback angles of trailing edge of wing inboard and outboard panels, respectively
TE
'
TE
4.1.3.2
4.1.4.2
"4.1.5.1
Ab
6.1.5.1
Ac
4.1.3.2
4.1.4o1
AC/( )
Several
AC/2 , AC/2w
Several
A,/2, AC/
4.5.1,1
7.4.1.1
4.4.1
4.3,2.2
3c/4
Ac/2e
ceffective
900  ALE
4.1.3.2
4.1.3
Ac/ 2 , Ac 2
c/0
4.1.3.2
4.1.3.3
4.1.4.2
5.1.2.1
Ac/2.
4.1.3.2
4.1.3.3
Ac/o
5.1.2,1
Ac/ 2
5.3.1.1
5.6.1.1
Ac/2
5.3.1.1
Ac/ 4 W, Ac/4
Several
APc/4,AC/4
4,5.1.1
7.4.4,.
AmAn
2.2.2
6.2.1.1
4.1.5.1
SAs
A
A(tlc)M&
...
4.3.3.1
4,5,3.1
A(t/C)maxi,
Spanels,
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
A(t/C)rSx
0
2.157
!ii
rrr .
 ".::
fl
. rr  .
'
rw nw
r
.
r
:r
:..
...
I
'17
"SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
r4tan A c/4
A#
Several
"tipchord
1. taper ratio,
Several
root chord
X :Ak"
k,
6.3.2
4.5.1.1
F
)H
7.4.1.1
7?.4.4.12
Several
6.2.1.2
taper ratio of lower vertical stabilizer, measured from fuselage center line
Several
Several
taper ratio of upper vertical stabilizer, measured from fuselage center line
Several
Several
Several
bw
Xe
4.1.3.2
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
5.1.2.1
Several
4.4.1
U
4ut.
i r
AVe
e
Xe
(1
or
(xi)
.7i
4.5.1.1
7.4.1.1
4.3.2.2
4.3.3.1
Xf
6.1.4.1
4.1.3.2
i.l..2,1
Xi) X0
Several
4.1.4.2
6.1.5.1
0ko
5.1.2.1
A1 , A2
e
2.158
4.1.312
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
A
PrandtlMeyer angle
SECTIONS
Several
4.4.1
5.3.1,2
5.6.1.2
AP
4.4.1
4.3.3.1
6.3.2
4.4.1
7.4.4.1
8.1
2. air density
4.6
6.3.2
Pp
8.2
PR
8.2
8.2
' Pyo, P
A

(1 + X) tan ALE
.4
S4.7.1
2.2.2
4.1.3.2
4.1.4.3
4.7
4.7.4
5.4.1
6.3.2
6.3.4
9.1
S"
9.1.1
9.1.3
,,'
"effectivepropeller
solidity
9.1
9.1.1
9,1.3
7'
,p
I4
[ " . .. . .
4.1,5,1
6.1.6.1
asgle of a ray in the conicalflow field which passes through the center of
pressure
6.1.6.1
6.1.1.1
S1.
SECT IONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
4.2.2.2
4.2.3.2
4.3.3.1
6.1.7
2. roll angle
1
3. angle of inclination normal to body center line, tan
Ci
TE
4.2.1.2
5.3.1.2
5.6.1.2
6.3.1
6.3.2
Several
6.1.4.1
6.1.5.1
6.1.6.1
6.2.1.1
OTE
Several
6.1.3.1
6.1.3.2
6.1.6.1
6.1.6.2
Y9 0  Y.10
TEupper
tan
6.1.1
0.10
On
nwf
spanloading angle calculated at spanwise station n, m+ 1
0,,.
6.1.7
vsr
2.160
6.1.7
mr+I
6.3.4
4.5.3.2
C.
SYMBOL
SECTIONS
6.3. I
AC A
CD
drag coefficient,
(CD )'
total drag coefficient of the forward panel and body, including wingbody
interference
4.5.2.1
(CD )"
4.5.2.1
AC D
9.2
9.2.3
CD (o)
4.2.3.2
4.3.3.2
[CD (ar) ] B
4.3.3.2
[CD ()
4.2.3.2
Several
4.2.3.1
CA
DA(C
A(NC)
coefficient of interference drag acting on the afterbody due to the nose and
cylindrical section
4.2.3.1
4.2.3.2
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
Several
4.3.3.1
drag
""
SCD A
ac
CD
CD
a) b
Several
qS
)B
F e
external duct drag coefficien',
Cn
e
CDf
q*S
9.3
9.3.1
Several
9.2
9.2.3
A(CDf
6.1.7
"CD)
4.2.3.1
4.3.3.1
2.161
!K
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
(CDt
SECTIONS
zerolift drag of body exclusive of the base drag, based on body base area
4.2.3.1
4.2.3,2
4.3.3.1
4.3,3.1
D
Cf H
4.5.3.1
(C D
DfrV
4.5.3.1
4.3.3.1
4.5,3,1
f/b
CD
fW
horizontaltail drag
drag coefficient of horizontal stabilizer,
qSH
)Hhorizontaltailbody
drag at stall angle of attack
4.5.3.2
4.6.2
4.5.1.3
max
C Di
induceddrag coefficient
6.1.7
CDL
Several
AC
4.1.5.2
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
4.7
4.7.4
4.3.3.2
4.3.3.2
6.1.7
6.1.7
6.1.7
4.2.3.1
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
DL
CD
(AC
DL)G
CD)
IC
\ WB
(CD
rain
ACD min
CD
flaps up
or
(C D min)e6
CDN
I.
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
ACDN
DN

DN2
CD
SECTIONS
4.2,3.1
4.3.3,_1.I
4.3.3,1
4.,.3.
9.2
d ra9
qS
.,
CD p
subsonic pressuredrag
,.Lcffcient
4.2.3.1
4.3.2 3, 1
4.5.3,1
CD
4.2.3,1
4.2 1.1
4.5.3.2
CD
4. I,.2
CD
Severa I
CD
wavedrag coefficient
6, .i
Cl
, p2,
P1
CD
Dp
3
"
rflrimn
6.1.7
(CDwave)
(C
D)
6.1.7
CDw)
4.3.3.1
CDCDB
4.7
4.7.4
wv 6 =0
or
SW
2.163
SYMBOL
SE("rONS
.FINITI(JN
CD)
4,3.3.2
(CD)
DB
4.7
4.7.4
(C'D)
4.5.3.1
= n
peakA
4.1.5.1
.3.3.1
c/4
CDwpak
Sw
peak
c4
A4.0
4.1.5.1
4.5.3.1
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
total dragcurve slope of the forward panel and body, including in terferences
4.5.2.1
total dragcurve slope of the aft panel and body, including interferences
4.5.2.1
6.1.7
(CD)6
6.1.7
C 0
Several
)
D)V
Dw
W
C D)
c,.
(CD)"
C D)
2.
ACD
7.1.3.2
7.1.3.3.
7.37"2.2
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
C D
"(AC
o)
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
4.6.4
flap
(AC
)
increment of zerohfl drag coefficient for the flap extended and immersed in
 flaps
the propeller slipstream
power on
.2164
4.6.4
"SYMBOL
CD
D
SO~i \C 0)0
(CD )
f.'i
4.5.3.1
4.5.3.2
4.1.5.1
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
4.5.3.1
4.5.3.1
4.6.4
4.6.4
4.5.3.1
4.5.3.2
4.3.3.1
zerolift drag
stabilizer
areacotfficient
CDo) H
0lifting
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
surface
(CD)
MD
AC
(ADOpower
on
(ACDO)s
C
V
CD
S)w
CD
(C )B
4.5.3.1
4.3.3.1
4.3.3.2
4.5.3.1
"4.5.3.2
"CDI1 CD2,
nC
4.2.3.1
controlforce coefficient
6.3.2
6.3.2
CD3,...
"CFc
C
CF
.x
. .
9.2
q ,S
9.3
9.3.2
9.3.3
2.6
'"
2. 16 5
VC.,.
S.
SYMBOL
F
S.
DEFINITION
wing arsa,
CF
.
92
9.2.3
F
planform area,
e
q_.SD
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.3
C1
6.1.4.1
6.1.4.2
6.1.4.3
6.1.5.1.
CI
6.1.4.1
6.1.4.2
lift
1. lift coefficient, q S
Several
lift
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2
q.SD
ACL
q"S
Xe
CL
SECT IONS
SI
4.1.3.2
4.1.4.3
4,1.3.3
6.1.4.1
6,1.5.1
U4
(CL)'
total lift coefficient of the forward panel and body, including wingbody
interference
tC
*CL
lift
4.5.2.1
7.4.1.1
9.2
9.2.1
"
qS
(CL )"
4.5.2.1
(CL)
4.2.1.2
CL
4.1.4.3
4.1.3.3
4.1.5.2
6.3.4
cornicalcam ber design lift coefficient for a M 1.0 design with tte designated camber
ray line intersecting the wing trailing edge at 0.3 b/2
4.3.2.1
93
Cl
ACL
CL
Ld
CL
9.3.1
5.3.2
(CL) e
4.5.1.2
2.166
.
.sa
, 
'.2...
p'.
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
ACL
SECTIONS
4.7
4.7.1
6.1.7
'647
wingbody lift coefficient including flap effects in absence of ground plane
empirical factor accounting for flap effects in the peseground
ACL flap
flap
47.1
7
4. ?.1
CL (g)
(ACL
G
7.2..1
7.3.4.1
increment in wing or horizontal tail lift due to the presence of the ground
plane
4.7
,.
horizontaltail lift
CL
LH
qSH
4,5.3.2
4.6.3
4.7.1
"6.3.4
(eC)increment
"H H
4.6
4.6.1
(ACL)
,H G
4.7
4.7.3
horizontaltailbody
"C
SCL
4.5.1.3
9.3
9.3.2
(C L
WB
CL
maximum lift
Several
max
qS
ACtL
max
"CL*
L max
Lm
base
L mC
a
(CL
4.3.1.2
s"
4.1.3.3
4.1,3.4
4.6
4,6.2
6.1.4.3
4.1.3.3
4.1.3.3
4.1.3.4
4.5.1.2
4.1.3,4
2.167
..
Lma)
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
,
4.1.5.2
4.1.5.2
4.3.1.4
It
(C L
m
a x) ,
(ACL)'
x
(ALmax)':
(CLm4,x)
W
/CL \ax
"
4.3.1.4
4.5.1.3
\mxWB
(C)
4.6
4.6.1
4,6.4
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.3
lift coefficient above point where the lift curve ceases to be linear
4.1.3.3
9.2
9.2.1
CLC
4.6
4.6.4
S)
4.6.1
4.6.1
Nj
ACL
CL
nonlinear
CL
o
CLpower
9.2.3
off
power
on
4.6.2
OcIL
CLq
(ACL)
pitching derivative,
Several
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.3
"CqLq
'nvaiue
of pitching
derivative referred to body axes with origin at wing
aerodynamic
center
.
7.1.1.1
7.1.1.2
"7.3.1.1
7.1.1.1
7.1.1.2
7.3.1.1
"I
CL
q
CL
"qB
'
7.4.1.1
2.168
.
 ..
'

(CL\
(CL
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL.
eC J,
7.3.1.!
7.3.1.2
7.3.tL.I
7,3.1.1
7.4.1.1
CL
6.3.4
(AC
increment in lift coefficient, accounting for the direct influence of the wing shock
4.4.1
)CLq
B
/WB
SE
(ACL)
expansion field
increment in lift coefficient due to angle of attack of thrust axis
ACL
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.4
6.3.4
AC Ltrim
4.5.3,2
LT
, .
7.4.1.1
SLv
6.3.4
C LW
Lw
4.6
6.3.4
4.5.3.2
4,7
4.7.3
ACL
W)G
CL
W, ()
4.7
4.7.3
contribution to the lift coefficient due to the effect of the forwardsurface vortices
on the aft surface
4.5.1.2
dCL
CLdae
liftcurve slope, rate ef change of lift coefficient with angle of attack, dCa
Several
ACLa
4.3.1.2
(ACL )A MW
increment in wing lift coefficient due to change in angle of attack induced by propeller
fnow field
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.3
CL =0
4.1.3.3
(CL.)
(CL)"
0
including interferences
4.5.2.1
4.5.1.2
7.4.4.1
4.52.1
4.5.1.2
2.169
2L
SYMBOL
DEFNITION
(CLA
SECTIONS
4.1.3.2
7.3.4.1
7.3.1.1
(CL)b
4.1.3.2
(CL)
4.1.4.3
4.3.2.2
4.5,2,1
4.5.3.2
(CL)B
"CLi)
c Bl(W)
or
CL
C(C
\LaJC
5.1.2.2
7.1,2.2
7.3,2.2
(%)
(CLX/
(CLe)'
CL)
C
'")liftcurve
Several
Several
4.1.3.2
Several
\liftcurve slope of the horizontal tail operating at the local Mach number of the flow in
CL
S (L"H)MH
4.5.1.2
CL
liftcurve slope of the isolated horizontal tail at the freestream Mach number
4.5.1.2
CL\
J'';i
4.!.4.2
5.1.2.1
(CL)
4.1.3.2
or
C""
(CL)
dl low
speed
4.4.1
Several
low
'"~~ "")
%.(
speed
L(C
)
72.
6.2.1.2
. M
2.170
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
4.4.A
7 1.1.2
Several
"CL
9.2.1
(CL)
4.1.4.2
5.1.2.1
5.3.1.1
4.1.3.2
4.1.3.2
liftcurve slope of isolated lower vertical panel mounted on a reflection plane (the
aspect ratio is taken as twice the aspect ratio defined by the average exposed span
Several
or
(C
(CL).N
CQ
JN
L o)
(CL)
.p
"",(CLe)r
pred
CLjL.theory
1
(CL)
arJU
fai
CLo
I . liftcurve slope of isolated upper vertical panel with effective aspect ratio defined
by Equation 5.3.1.1a
5.3.11.
5.6.1.1
2. liftcurve slope of isolated upper vertical panel mounted on a reflection plane (the
Several
aspect ratio is taken as twice the aspect ratio defined by the average exposed span
and exposed area)
(CLi
.)W
(L
,liftcurve
WB
C
4.3.1.2
4.3.1.3
4.3.3.2
4.2.2.1
4.3.1.2
4.7
4.7.1
of body
oW(B)
C L.We
~ (B
(B)
(vLa
)
CL)
4.32.2
4.5.2.1
liftcurve slope of the exposed wing in presence of body
4.3,1.2
coqtribution to the liftcurve slope due to the effect of the forwardsurface vortices
on the aft surface
Oiftcurve slopeJ of flapdeflected
6. wing
6.1.4.2
2.171
:',.
Z
,.

"
,
"
.,
DEFINITION
SYMBOL,
(CL)
6.1.4.2
(C"L)
C
6
SECTIONS
(CL)
4,1.3.2
4.1.4.3
4.1.3.2
Incremental increase in liftcurve slopes starting at CLI! and CLIII, respectively, (see
CL , 6CL
CII"i
l
al1 1 Sketch (b), Section 4,1.3.2)
(CL,)estC
4.1.3.2
C ;:;."L&
CL.)
Several
7.3.4.1
7.4.4.1
C .,value
., :oe
7.3.4.1
7,3.4.2
( CL.
7.4.4.1
(CL.)W
7.3.4.1
(CL)
7.3.4.1
.74.4.1
(CL.)I
7.1.4.1
CL6
rate of change of lift coefficient with wing flap deflection at constant angle of
6.1.4.1
6.,15.1
L&)WB
CLdCL
attack,
CL66,,,
' 6
6.1.4.1
6.1.5.1
6.2.1.1
.ACL)
( CLe
4.6
4.6.1
increment in lift due to inflow velocity of the flow surrounding the jet
"4.6.3
CL,
CL
4.1.3.2
CN
Sveral
2. normalforce coefficient,
9.1
N
4
2
Pn D
"2.172
. *.~.
4.1.4.3
"
.CN
6.3.1
4.6.1
':['CN
isFaClL'
@ C
SLCTIONS
DEFIN ITION
SYMBOL
"2.normalforce
x ,
4.1.3
CL
N
coefficient based on freestream velocity and propeller disk area,
ma~elerespectively
q Sp
4.1.3.4
7.4.1.1
9.1
4.5.1.2
/\
4.2.2.2
NT
(CNi
4.2.1.2
( Ni)
r)S
B
(CN )cone
4.2.1.2
4.2.2.2
4.2.1.2
4.2.3.2
cyl
coefficient for exposed wing
4.3.1.3
4.3.1.4
J.2.1.2
4.2.3.2
(CN) N
4.3.1.3
4.3.1.4
.(CNON
4.2.1.2
"CNNP
4.6
CN
pitching derivative,
CNq
ql
7.2.1,1
7.2.1.2
4.3.1.3
(CN),
OF
CN )W
4.6.4
7.2.1.1
CN,(
CN
d CN
d 
face
4.5.1.2
Several
Several
9,1.3
2.173
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
SECTIONS
AC
4.2.2.1
(CN)
5.2.1.1
7.3.1.1.I7.3.1.2
7.3.4.1
2. value of derivative for the body nose, based on nose frontal aree
4.3.2.2
4.3.2.2
(CN)
4.1.3.2
(CN)
4.1.3.2
S)NA
4.3.1.3
4.3.1.4
4.3.2.2
7.3.1.1
Several
4a32
4.3.2.2
N(W )
C ,
'nlfo
1J (
[(CNJdravtheory
t h e o r et ic al valu e o f d r v t e f o e x
sd
wi g4
[(N.)
(ACNo
.3 . 1.2
4,3,2.2
4.2.1.1
4.2.2.1
4.1.3,2
5.1.2.1
t.22.1.2
4.1.4.2
9.13
4.3,1.2
(CN)'
4.1.4.2
4,6.4.6.1I
C \a g
CN
H),
,(N)
CN'
in
CN.) N)43,2.2
N)P
/CN)p
4,6.4
2. normalforcecurve slope of isolated vertical panel mounted on a reflection plane
2.174
5,.' 1.1
V7
C(N
propeller
N0
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
W
~80.7
theoretitcl val
"Oftheory
4.6.1
Several
f derivative
1IN)theory
C N theoryo
4.3.2.2
theoretictl
value of normalforcecurve slope of inboard pane) of wing
wn
4.1.4.2
...
4.1.4.2
1r
e p s
4.3.2.2
spanwing
ICNJU
Several
(CN)
Several
4.3.2.2
4.1,3.2
9,1.3
.)V
CN
"WB)
(CN
("
(CNo)

CN
AC N
4.1.3.3
4.1.3.4
4.3.1.3
4.1.3.3
CN
4.1.3.3
4.1.3.3
increments in coefficient at
respectively
4.5.1.2
(Vol
'
cia
CN
e'
(Cae
nax
(ACN)'
4.5.1,2
incremental values of coefficient for exposed forward and aft panels, respectively
(AC N.V'
2.1el
''r1 altt,vil....
....
'
s''
'
 .....
..
..
.,
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
increment in coefficient at CL
(CNQcx)ref
[(CN
values of deuivastives at CL
SECTIONS
4.1.3.3
4.5.1.2
(CN)ret]
)]
CN
4.3.1.3
4.1.3.3
(ACNj WB
4.3.1.3
CN)
4.1.3.3
7.2.2.1
7.3.4.1
7.3.4.1
7.3.4.1
7.3.4.1
4.5.1.2
(CN
t
00)theory
90
C
N&
N(CN)
(CN,)e
(CN)
* I(CN 1
jCN Je)]e
(CN/')'
(C)"
CNpseudo
ee
4.5.1.2
(C
T
. '
99.1A
.1 I
9.1.3
2.176
*7
SYMBOL
DEFIN!TION
SECTIONS
CX
axialforce coefficient
4.2.3.2
(C) J.a 0
4.2,3.2
(CX )
(!'
=~
1800
axialforce coefficient at a
Cy
CYB
180
4.2.3.2
...
Several
5.2.1.2
5.2.3.2
Ssidetorce
"
5.3.1.2
~5.3.3.2
1.5
d f
"1f"
" ":
C Y~~HVU(B)5.
~
SC
Y~~HVU(WB)5..2
12
"dCy
Cy
rotary derivative,
pd
Several
p bS
(Cyp)
(C y P)w 'B
7A42.1
(ACy)
7.1.2.1
dCy
C
rotary derivative,
""r
(CV)
y
Cy
S/
CY
U(K,0)
CY
7.1.3.1
7.1.3.2
rb
(2V:)
""
.6.1.2
5 .6 .3 .2
ntg
dr
7.3,3.1
7.4.3.1
7.4.3.1
5.3.1.2
5.1.3.2
5.6.1.2
74
5.3,1.2
k
5.6,1.2
5.6.1.2
5.6.3.2
5.3.1,2
5.3.3.2
2.177
C
V(K,P)
CVBC
V(r
1 L
8)
CY
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL.
5.3.1.2
5.6.1.2
5.3.1.2
5.6.1.2
5.6.1.2
5.6.3.2
5.2.1.2
5.6.1.2
5.2.1.2
5.2.3.2
5.6.1.2
V( 17)
C
C
~WB
*W(B)
CY
WBHVU
dC
rate of change of side force with sideslip angle,
Y
(C(YO)B)
do
Several
5.2.1.1
5.3.1.1
5.6.1.1
(ACY#
X1H(BW)
increment in Cy due to the horizontal tall in the presence of the wing and
body
0
5.3.1.1
5.6.1.1
5.3.1.1
H(BWU)
AC
\p
increment inC
ACY OHV(BWU)
increment in
5.3.1.1
Several
Cy
Several
(ACY)
Several
(Cy)
(ACy)Vincrement in C
Several
Several
(Cy')
Veff
2.178
5.3.1.1
5.6.1.1
SYMBOL
(rACy
DEFINITION
VCwBH)
SECTIONS
Several
horizontal tail
(Cy)
Cy l
/WB
5.2.1.1
5.2.1.1
5.2.1.2
5.6.1.L
(ACy)
5.2.1.1
L!
Cf
Several
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
Cf
4.2.3.1
7.4.1.1
(Cf)H
4.5.3.1
4.1.5.1
4.2.3.1
in c
4.5.3.1
p
(Cf)
4.5.3.1
"(Cf)
4.3.3.1
4.3.3.1
vacuumthrust coefficient
6.3.2
(Cf)
"c
(Cf) , (Ct)
0
(f)
(Cf)
iCf
,'"Wii
SCf0
hinge moment
4.5.3.1
6.1.3.2
Ch
hingemoment coefficient,
Ch
6.3.4
6.3.4
6.1.6
6.1.6.1
qSfcf
,,
tC
Ch
4
"
dor
2.179
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
ACh
Ch
S )tc
6.1.6.1
6.1.6.1
\Ch)at/c0
6.1.6.1
Chs
6.1.6
6.1.6.2
of attack,
dS

6.1.6.2
C'h
6.1.6.2
C1
rollingnsoment coeffidient,
C1
rotary derivative
AC
rolling moment
qSb
~
Several
dC,
S
Clp
Several
p(b
\2V_ I
7.1.2.2
7.3,2.1
7.3.2.2
7.4.2.2
(AC1p)drag
7.1.2.2
C Ip)H
7.4.2.2
C)
(CPWB
7.4.2.2
7.1.2.2
SC
7.3.2.1
(p Pr
7.3.2.2
7.4.2.2
7.1.2.1
7.1.2.2
P)r=0
7.4.2.2
CL =0
(C)
7.1.2.2
7,4.2.2
2.180
'i
'nl
i ...
":
'J"
,
:aa,,,:....:

..........
)CL
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
.
7.1.2.2
dC
1
C1
rotary derivative,
d/rb
AC
~7A.3.2
7.1.3.2
(ACr)c
CL
AClrs
1,side
force
(Clr)WB
7.1.3.2
7.3.3.2
7..3.2
7.1.3.2
7.4.3.2
7.1.3.2
7.1.3.2
ACr
It
,AC
'1
dC1
rate of change of rolling moment with sideslip angle,
"AC
1
5.1,2.1
5.3.2.1
5.3.2.1
.P)
"4
,(C")aluc
C1 )
1
0) 7.
Several
C.
7.4.3.2
5.3.2.1
5.2.2.1
5.6.2.1
5.2.2.1
5.6.2.1
2.181
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
5.1.2.1
5.2.2.1
5.1.2.1
5.1.2.1
S.2.2.1
(C.1)
A
\I^c
5.1.2.2
L
S
U tan A
5.1.2.1
c/
4
5.6.1.2
5J.2.1
PCI
KU
5121
dC/
cl
0I
Cl
Several
6.1.5.1
6.2.1.1
6.2.1.1
11L
pitching moment
Several
1. pitchingmoment coefficient,
Cm
qSF
M
9,3
qSSDc
2.182
'2




r
SYMBOL
1n If
P ''
DEFINITION
AC m
.
SECTIONS
4.1.4.3
vortex
"2.increment
in pitchingmoment coefficient
S.
pitchingmoment coefficient of body having elliptical cross sections
Cma/b
,5
C
.4bdCm
pitchingmoment derivative,
mCL
dCL
6.1.5.1
6,3.1
4.2.2.2
4.1.4
4.1.4.2
4.3.2.2
#1
AC'6..1
Am
M
CL
6,1.5.1
rectangular wing
SdCm
4.1.4.2
k'LQ/heory
AC~n
Mf
(ACm)
47
47
4.7.4
Ua
(ACr)
4.6
4.6.1
4.7
4.7.3
HG
I(AC
1ACA
rm m)
"IfLI
J(ACm))L

increment inpitching moment about the hinge line due to axialforce increment
NACN
increment in ptching moment abov tile hinge line due to normalforce increment
6.3.1
6.3.1
(ACmH
' H q
4.6
4.6.1
"[C
4.5.1.3
4.6
propellerpdwer effects
4.6.1
4,6,3
4.6
ACr'
in' e
(ACm)L
4.6.3
C
6.1.5,1
2.183
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
(ACm
SECTIONS
6.3.1
increment in coefficient due to normal force acting at jet inlet due to inclination
of oncoming flow to thrust axis
4.6.3
4.6
MRP
(AC)N.
(ACm)N
)p
C(:
(g)
4.6.3
7.1.4.2
7.3.4.2
in 0
"A
( " 1)power
on
(ACm)q
rotary derivative,
Cm
iC
4.6.3
4.6
4.6.3
Several
1. value of derivative referred to body axis with origin at wing aerodynamnic center7.12
2. pitching derivative of body segment based on base area and base diameter
and referred to moment center at forward face of segment
value of derivative referred to body axis with origin at wing leadingedge vertex
7.2.1.2
'Cmq
7.3.1.2
7.4.1.2
(Cm q)
7.3.1.2
7.3.1.2
7.4.1.2
7.1.1.2
""qJB
i'
""mqle
(C\C
7.1.1.2
7,3.1.2
(C )
7.1.1.2
7.3.1.2
7.3.1.2
7.4.1.2
4.6
4.6.3
AC
4.5.3.2
Cm
Mvalue
(Cnq)M
, . Mcr
(Cmq)i
0:W
".
"W*
* ';ACmT
pitching moment
* ,
S" 2.184
qS8
4.5.3.2
..
1 71
"SYMBOL
DEFINITION
ACm)
4.7
4.7.3
4.5.1.3.
Several
(G
(C
w)
SECTIONS
Lmax
Cm
md
flap deflection,
do
Cma
[value
.(
mB
4,2.2.1
7.2.1.2
Cm&
7.3.1,2
4.3.2.1
a~c
7.3.4.2
Several
of attack,
"'
m&
"
(C m&A
~v
e r te x;
value of pitching derivative referred to body axis with origin at wing leadingedge
7.1.4.2
7.3.4.2
7.4 .4 .2
,aCm
(.Cm) ]contribution
7,.C
m&)'
7.3.4.2
7.4.4.2
7.3.4.2
(Cm)
7.3.4.2
"(Cm)
7.3.4.2
7.4.4.2
7.1.442
7.3.4.2
7.3.4,2
6.1.5.1
21 e
C
im6
".
"
Cm
in6
6.1.5.1
2.185
""m
.  "
"
P.
..
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
SECTIONS
(A m)
4.6.3
C fl
4.1.4.1
4.1.4.3
4.6.3
"
"
AC in0
44.4.1
Cln (g)
7.1.4.?
7.3.4,2.
4.6
4.6,3
"in
(Cmo0/area
not
immersed
(Cm
4.3.2.1
4.6
4.6.3
4.1.4.1
4.3.2.1
Cmo)
Cm)Otheory
(Cm
0)
Wa
Several
4.1.4.1
4.3.2.1
N.
yawingmoment coefficient, qSb
Several
ACn
6.2.2.1
C n.B
5.2.3.2
5.3.3.2
5.6.3.2
(Ci0W)
(C0wing
body
Cmo)
(Cmo)
S 
*(Cm
(BC
C
ni1YU(B)
*
C0
HVU(WB)
dCn
C~p,
rotary derivative,
Jpb\
d :
2.186
...................
....................
7.1.2.1
7.3.2.14
7.3.2.2
7.4.2.3
V
SE(CTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
(C ")
7.3.2.3
CI
7.4.2.3
supersonic yawing moment due to rolling referred to stability axes with origin at
the center of g'avitv
7.1.2.3
supersonic yawing moment due to rolling referred to body axes with origin at the
7.1.2,3
PWw
n__p
"Cnp'
wing apex
O)body
axis
.'

body axes
7.1.2.3
d C ni
[:d
~brotary
derivative,

7.1.3.3.
7.,3.3.
d2v( )
S( )
Cn)
F::::.
Cn
C D
7.4.3.3
7.4.3.3
7 ,1.3.3
nr
SC%
"
7.1.3.3
5.3.3.2
.'C
"W B "5.6.3
5.2.3.2
.2
'nWBHVU
5.6.3.2
C'n
CL 2
L
VU(lB)
"dCn
dP
increment
"Cn
Several
Several
(ACn)
ln'
nrement inCn for vertical panel
5.3.3.1
(Cn)
5.2.3.1
5.2.3.1
5.2 .3 .2"
B
C n)HjW
5.6.3.1
2.187
A.
qA
....................
,p..
n.
. m,
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
dCn
C
6.2.2.2
n6
d6
p  p.
""
pressure coefficient
Several
q_
ACp, AC
sums of the pressure coefficients acting on the two sides of a given surface
5.3.1.1
4.2.3.1
4.5.3.1
4.6.4
6.3.1
6.1.6.1
stagnationpressure coefficient
4.2.1.2
C
C
'inc
Po
(2
Pstag
4.2.2.2
(CP.)p
P
Uc incipient
( ]in c
6.3.1
6.3.1
,cessureupstream of interaction
6.3.1
(Cp,)
4.1.3.2
CP2
plateaupressure coefficient
6.3.2
6.3.1
6.3.1
6.3.1
(CP.)
6.3.1
Cx
drag coefficient
6.3.2
CXk
6.1.5.1
Several
C'St,
Several
Cp,
P
C,,)
*P
2.188
,NN
tbl
V.
.
 *
."
i'
,
SYMBOL
SECTIONS
Cd
dral
section drag coefficient,qC
Several
CCdc
Severnu
ACdf
6.1.7
Ch
6.1.3.2
6.1.3.1
(c\
6.1.3.2
(rh)
6.1.3.3
6.1.3.1
(Ch6f
6.1.3.4
(ht)8
6j.3.2
6.1.3.1
6.1.3.2
6.1.6.1
6.1.6.2
6.1,3.1
6.1.3.1
C at
tat
ih
Achhr
,ICa
6.1.6.1
6.1.6.2
C
6.1.3.1
6.1.6.1
6.1..3.1
6.1.3.1
6.1.3.1
6.1.3.1
ht
(Ch)b
(h.)
Cha)M
(Cheh
a6ory.6.1
V
2. 189
~1
17.V
P1
.
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
6.1.3.1
town"
ilch
d6
6.1.3.2
6.1.6.2
COh6
'
Ac
6.1.3.1
6.1.3.2
6.1.3.2
ha
6.1.3.2
6.1.6.2
Ch6)balance
6.1.3.2
6.1.6.2
6.1 3.2
(ChS)h8M
6.1,3.2
(Ch)theory
(h)hoy
6.1.3.2
6.1.6.2
6.1.3.1
As
'
t/C
hlit
Several
Several
C9imax
Several
AC
6,1.1
max6.1.1.3
Several
6.1.4.3
1 qtnax
increment in coefficient accounting for effect of camber for airfoils with maximum
thickness at 30% chord
4.1.1.4
4.1.3.3
A2 C maxa
increment in coefficient accounting for effec! of camber for airfoils with maximum
thickness at positions other than 30% chord
4.1.1.4
4.1.3.3
C
A A3Cmax
4.1.1,4
4.1.3.3
4.1.1.4
4.1.1A4
4ACR
~ max
*
S.
CQ
A5 C
max
2.190
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
4.1.1.4
4.1.3.3
(1Cgmaxo)bae
6.1.1.3
6.1.4.3
(Cm)e
4.1.5.2
IRU
1. section liftcurve slope, rate of change*of section lift coefficient with angle of
dc2
attack at constant flap deflection,
Several
Several
9.1.3
4.1.1.2
AC2
Sjetflap
"(C
2 )
(CQ
Stheory
Several
Several
Several
6.1.1.!
6.1.1.2
6.1.5.1
(C )
C2
e6
P~
6.1.1.2
rate of change of section lift with flap or control deflection at constant angle of
attack, dc2q
Several
d8
"CR
C26f
6a
*'
C 6f
C"
,C2 f2
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
6.1.2.1
6.1.4.1
theoretical
liftingefficiency
factors for first, second, and ith segments, respectively,
of trailingedge
flaps
6.1.1.1
6.1.2.1
6.1.1.1
S6.1,2.1
6.1.4.1
6.1.5.1
C2
S
6.1.1.3
, "_max
2.191
. .
Ce)
SECTIONS
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
theoretical value of derivative
Several
theory
(Cie8)a
6.1.1
6.1.5.1
value of derivative for control or flap deflection measured perpendicular to hinge line
6.1.6.2
6.1.5.1
incremental section lift coefficient as function of span station, referred to basic load line
6.1.5.1
Cm
6.1.2.1
Acm
6.1.2.1
6.1.2.2
6.1.2.3
6.1,5.1
dor/dce
6,1.2.2
Cmc/4
C9A
CRA
4.1.1
6.1.2.2
Ac mf
increment in section pitchingmoment coefficient at low angles of attack due to flaps and
controls
C
mdt
Acl,(
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
Cm6
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
dcm

6.1.2.1
6.1.2.2
Ch
6.1.2.1
6121".:
6.1.5.1
6.1.2.1
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
rate of change of pitchingmoment coefficient measured about the leading edge with
respect to the jet deflection
6.1,2.1
pitchingmoment increment due to jet sheet acting at an angle to trailingedge camber line
6.1.2.1
Cmf
AC
AmC
AC
M]
CI
&m6
(AC))
fLE
XIJ
C'
2.192
6.1.5.1
6.1.5.1
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
/,Cm0\
Cm0,
0 W
C
m Larea not
SECTIONS
4.1.1
4.1.2.1
4.1.4.1
4.3.2.1
section pitchingmoment coefficient for zero lift of the area not immersed in
4.6.3
propeller slipstream
immersed
(m)
4.1.4.1
4.1.4.1
AC
ACm
E.
SYMBOL
6.1.2.1
6.1.5.1
PARTIAL DERIVATIVES
DEFINITION
SECTIONS:
a CD
slope of curve ofCD vs M
aaM
4.3.3.1
4.5.3.1
Several
Several
4.2.2.1
aa'
aL
3a
4.5.1.1
w'
(average
4.4.1
speed
.
I 1downwash
4.4.1
4.4.1
4.5.1.1
7.4.4.1
2.193
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
*.
SECTIONS
4.4.1
4.5.1.1
7.4.4.1
1p
dezslip
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.4
Several
9.1.3
in
""
sidewash parameter
Schange
Several
6.1.3.3
6.1.3.3
,8
6,1.3,3
,6f
6.1.3.4
6t
6.1.3.4
(acsZ
t
I
chA
I I
"
%tCh
\a Co f
/ICh
\ f/Q, bt
t
hI
2.194
6.1.3.4
If
SYMBOL
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
Iac\
section liftcurve slope of a control surface at constant values of flap and tab
6.1.3.3
6.1.3.4
rate of change of angle of attack due to change in flap deflection at constant values
of lift and tab deflection
6.1.3.4
rate of change of angle of attack due to change in tab deflection at constant values
of lift and flap deflection
6.1.3.3
ace. .deflections
ip
'
tcR
.1
__
2.195
F.
SYMBOL
ABBREVIATIONS
DEFINITION
SECTIONS
a.c.
aerodynamic center
Several
av
average
Several
C.g.
center of gravity
Several
C.p.
center of pressure
Several
EBF
Several
FRP
4.5.2.1
fus
fuselage
9.1
9.1.3
HL
hinge line
Several
HM
hinge moment
6.3.1
IBF
Several
inc
incipient
6.3.1
LE
leading edge
Several
LER
leadingedge radius
Several
MAC
Several
max
maximum
Several
MRP
6.1.5.1
6.3.1
ref
reference
Several
SF
safety factor
6.3.2
slip
propeller slipstream
9.1
9.1.3
STOL
Several
TE
trailing edge
Several
Several
Several
N IOL
4.6
9
9.1
9.2
2.196
SECTION PARAMETERS
Airfoil section parameters that are useful in estimating aerodynamic data are presented in this Section. An airfoildesignation summary that has general utility throughout the Handbook is given. Figure 2.2.16 gives the trailingedge
angle for standard airfoils. This parameter is used in estimating section liftcurve slopes and control derivatives. Figure
"2.2.1.7 gives the leadingedge radius of standard airfoils. This parameter is not used in this Handbook
"extensively as a correlation parameter in the literature. It is presented for convenience only. The parameter
hut is used
that is used
in place of leadingedge radius in the Handbook is the Ay parameter (see definition on figure 2.2.18 ). This parameter
has been found to be highly successful in correlating data, e.g., see Section 4.1.3.4. It .is presented for standard airfoils
in figure 2.2.18 .
"
OR)
$DIGIT SERIES)
INVERTED CUBov
. T
 .
a . . .
.
STRAIGHT LINE
ZERO SLOPE
"L.E.
SERIES)
T.E.
: SYMMETRIC AIRFOIL
xL Omma
BASIC
"
",
ashp
a(X
.
YO)
position
znx
f.e
ln
of maximum camber
oti
i.e.r.
,.6TE
2.2.11
,
xt
I,
?(AJA
123
mma
Yc)
(XCHORD)
~Be*
I.c .r.
( 44 4 4 4 04 oko rd)
*i'
Tables
(ye)
max
t (% CHORD)
a dash plaoed after the standard notation) fre expree*ed only when L.e.r. and/or
I.c.r.
xt (X CHORD)
2
3
4
20
SO(Normall)
40
so
8bamp
j Normal
Normal
a
8x
Normal
a
6
NACA
(
:.
~vo
)
(%CHORD)
1.5
15
It
1.1
80
.161
S6TM
tn
max
ix(y)
CHORD)
'NHORD)
X,
(K CHORD)
I.
t
2.2.12
(X CHOORD)
(% CHORD) 
AIRFOIL
NACA
iis
N
(ktXCHORD)
"(actually ?0 of a
Max

game an for
4dimlt seitie
(Be
x( Y ' ax(CHORD/
o0)
Aft portion
of mesa
line
(0 indicates straight line)
(I indioates inavqoie oubio)
NACA I
Table)
e
Ier.
t (X CHORD)
BERIKS AIRFOILS
NACA
7Mesa
2
Indicates I 8epie
12
406.4
line to give
Mniturm
londing to
""Se,th4q
linos,
Sd.orvaeao
(if
X for mil. presesure
for basic symmettio
airfoil at sera lift
(in tenth.)
t (X
to t~e.
sepecified, aw 1,0)
CHORD)
NAACA 6 81gRIM
AIRIPOLLS
NACA
"
"
"
Indicates s series
2s
0.4
Mi.e "
lin
e to g iv e
int~v
Uniform
loading to
R I s, then linear
doore*&& to i.e.
(it unspeoified, a

k for hain
forobasic symmetric
pressure
CO
airfoil at Marc lift
1 (7
1.0)
CHORD)
(in tenths)
Design ift
ooeftilolnt
(o1i il tenths)
2.2.13
NACA
14 ,an
O.4
as before
asbe for*
NACA
64 a
ct
0.4
as before
as before
"improved
NACA
an before
T64
(212)
214
CL
0.4
_.J
as before
04
(912)
214
an before..
oriun!
and t
0. 4
before
new Oiland t
(lineorly Increased ordInates)
NIACA
64a
2 12
an before
ae
before
bqfore
Iladlatee
modified thlcknose ditributILon and
type Of mean line. Sections designated by
Letter A are subetantially stralght oh both
eurfaoee
to te.
Ireemuree
at
2.2.14
.
o.
,"
..
o.,e.
,Z
"",w
'
.
MACA
Indicates
i
t2
 series
t (percent chord)
t(eoc
hid
(also a Mellon)
x for favorable
pressure gradient on upper
nurface at design c
(in tenthe)
x for favorable
pte9Sats gradient 0n lower
urlsofe at desige
(is
ii tenntt)
mean 1n
teatl)s)
(6o)
(RB)
(60)
(M)
series number
(I denotes double wedge
2 denotes circular are)
Sunersomic
xt (pearont ohord
Upper aurftae)
X,
(peroent chord
lowet surface)
(percent chord
surface)
"lower
t (peroent chord
upper uortlaO*)
2.2.. 5
7J4
404
5244
00
S0
2216O
TNCNS
LEA6NG__O
000
'T
044
is
LEADINGRAIO
ItA icUS
..
17
is
so
M CORD
VRAINO
(KCIJ~aD)22.17
tVNDR
AINWT
HCN5
AI
Fmrm
F4
A.o
(X CIORD)
00
~TIICKNES8
FIGURE .2.9. 1.6
2. 18
.. 6.2
.13
0
*
RATIO
VARIATION Or LEADINGEDlON
AIhPIL`1. THICKNESS RATIO
it!
rip
P!~
Xcentroid
Cr
,.
Definitions
lA
0c
aspect r~tio  b2S
..
wing span
b/(2)
wingslenderness parameter
chord
Sc (parallel to axis of symmetry) at any given span station y
.c
mean aerodynamic
,Zb/2 chord (MAC)
.'c
c2
dy
ACr
root
rhord
2.2.2I
Si )9)
planformshape parameter
wing area'
Xcentroid
b/2
cdy
b/2
2
= 0
(+ +)dyC
Xcentroid * Tc

0
y
YMAC
b/2
cy dy
0
2. CONVENTIONAL, STRAIGHTTAPERED PLANFORM PARAMETERS
ALE
Am
n
cr
Ct
"
07
Definitions
2.2.22
"b
wing span
cr
root chord
ct
tip chord
m, n
SWf
YMAC
17
n7i, n7
0
taper ratio
ALE
ATE
Am, An
y/(b/2)
= ct/cr
Equations
b2
S

2
1+X+),2
3 r
I+x
2b
cr(l + X)
Swf
T (7  77j)c 12  (1 X)(ni
)]
j2
"Xcentroid
SCr
3
I+Xo)
I/
+
14b/2
tan AnA
/1+2X
1 1
YMAC
"
I A
tan Am
3 \l+
(nm)
2.2.23
.
tan ALE
**
=
7.
.*
..
0)
A
A
=(l+X)tanALE
ALE.
\j
"LEj
Xcentroid
Cr
ALEo
0t
Ct
aY
dO
Definitions
wing span
bi
bo
CB
Cr
root chord
ct
tip chorJ
Si
0SO
2.2.24

"""
kk .
_ . . ..
.:
. : .
, 
 ,
.
"
.
",
:ii
74
"
I'
..
Xcentroid
xLE
YB
YMAC
"
=Y,3/(b/2)
17B
ct/cr
Ai
=CB/Cr
No
 ct/cB
Subscripts
B
refers to span station wherp leading edges and/or trailing edges change sweep angles
i, o
Equations
b2
A 
A
.
 cr
M{xB
+Xi +x
=c~tIf~X+
2
C 2
?[2
.S
Si
2b
22
c 2 dy
iSi + oS
0
Si + So
s+ So
(b/2)Cr
I(X)7713+Xi + X'
LEZ/ 2
Xcentroid
Cr
Cr
YMAC
b/2
"0
B)
+ s
= _L _X

/2S
l~. ~Acr
)b~
X
2.2.25
" .1
'
."
 .. 7?
,i
.
i.
..
2.3
BODY PARAMETERS
Charts for estimating body volumes and surface areas for various families of profiles are presented in this Section.
S23.1
/ r UU,
.*.
16
14


CYLI~NDER

_//
...
1/ONE
as
~0
2
FINENESS RATIO.Im/d ORA/d
FIGURE 2.32 FOREBODY OR AFTEkBODY WETTED AREA
*2.32
..0
...
.6, .
200
I.
. 2
__
.o
12

d.__d
1.
10
2J.3
2a
.
S
. 7
1
b
.P
1.06
0'
(2
,
___
.2m
2J4_
FIGUR
2.4
VOUEOFBD
.FUTM
7
.. ,
.6



()
OGIVE
.4
i0
t. .....
o
"
4
RATIO,
SFINENESS
FIGURE 2.35
10
BODY VOLUME
2.3.5
April 1978
"3.
Effect
Effect
Effect
Effect
Effect
Effect
of External
of External
of External
of External
of External
of External
Stores
Stoies
Stores
Stores
Stores
Stores
on Aircraft
on Aircraft
on Aircraft
on Aircraft
on Aircraft
on Aircraft
Lift
Drag
Neutral Point
Side Force
Yawing Moment
Rolling Moment
No suitable general methods have been developed for predicting the effect of stores on aircraft
rolling moment, and therefore no Datcom methods have been provided in Section 3.6.
Methods for predicting effects of extenal stores can be grouped into theoretical, experimental, and
empirical, or combinations thereof. Numerous attempts have been made to develop analytical
methods for store effects. Reference 1 discusses many of the approaches and provides an extensive
bibliography of theoretical methods. The methods tend to be complex and often require elaborate
computer programs and extensive computations. Theoretical methods are basically in an early stage
of development. They often require simplifications and assumptions which do not lend their
application to be generalized over a wide range of loading configurations. Experimental methods
include those which utilize increments from flight, windtunnel, ballistics or other test data. Access
data and time required for its interpretation are the primary limitations of experimental
methods. Reference I discusses experimental approaches to computing store effects and provides a
"bibliography of methods and sources of data. Empirical methods have been developed and
documented (References 2 and 3) which seem to provide the best general approach for estimating
"externalstore effects. Empirical methods make use of testdata correlation and theoretical concepts
"toarrive at prediction equations. The Datcom methods are empirical in nature.
to
The Datcom methods are taken from Reference 3. Reference 3 is a very comprehensive effort that
collected, reviewed, and correlated methods and existing test data to develop generalized prediction
equations. Reference 3 also documents windtunnel tests which were designed specifically to
provide a data base for empirical equation development. A very extensive list of references is also
provided.
The Datcom methods in general require that the user provide only aircraft, store, and installation
hardware geometric information in order to compute the aerodynamic effects of the storeaircraft
combination. In some instances, the user is required to provide cleanaircraft data and isolatedstore
data. Because the methods are empirical in nature, the physical significance of some terms is not
explained. The user should consult References 2 and 3 for additional insight into the method
development
The methods are applicable for wing and fuselagemounted conventional stores which are
symmetrically or asymmetrically loaded, and are mounted on conventionaltype subsonic or
supersonic aircraft. This comprises nearly all conventional store configurations encountered. In
most instances the methods also account for multiple carriage, mixed and multiple loading cases,
and interference effects involving adjacent stores and the fuselage. The methods have not been
31
substantiated for tip or tangentmounted wing stores. Specific limitations and assumptions
"involving configuration, flight envelope, and data base for method development are discussed in
each of the individual sections.
Relatively little substantiation data is provided herein since the method substantiation is well
"documented in References 2 and 3. Expected accuracies of the methods are discussed in each
section.
NOTATION
,
For the purposes of this section, a store installation refers to all armamentassociated hardware
including stores at one drmament station and external to the clean aircraft. Installation hardware
may include pylon, pylon rack, store rack, special adapters and launchers, sway braces, and stores.
Typical installation hardware is illustrated in Sketch (a).
Wing
':
Pylon Rack
~Pylon ,
PylonStore
Rack
Store
SKETCH (a)
Stores are cartied in either a single or multiple carriage mode, and are either pylon or
tangentmounted. In a single carriage mode, the store is mounted directly on the pylon rack or
fuselage. The two multiple carriage modes considered by the Datcom methods are:
32
I[
TER: Stores are mounted on a tripleejector rack attached to the pylon rack or fuselage. This
rack carries a maximum of three stores.
MER: Stores are mounted on a multipleejector rack attached to the pylon rack or fuselage.
This rack carries a maximum of six stores.
A general notation list is included in this section for all sections included in Section 3. Since this
notation list is quite extensive and the major portion of it includes notation peculiar to the Datcom
Methods presented in Section 3, it is not integrated into the notation list presented as Section 2. 1.
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
. "Aw
A1
A2
a 1 ,a2 ,a 3
bmsicstoreinstallation
"M=0.9
BASC
.B,
BPSC
BN
IBP
1BR
SBsF
Bx
Bxx
By
33
,L
.
..
.y.
.:
1
qi'"
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
be
be
bF
bu
bw
b1 ,b2 ,b3
CD
SCDC0
C'
QL
(CL,)SB
(CL)
CL
as.
Sij
S(CL)B
4L
34
.
C,1
Cy
AC)
a CL
a C1 s
FS
yJ
r U.''
q
'
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
SiCLw
ACn
incremental change in Cn
AC
Cy
incremental change in Cy
c, ci, c1j
"c
gwing
.
ptop
cr
DB
IrvDE
DET
"DFLM
"DFLT
DF R
2
fuselagerack equivalentparasitedrag area (ft )
D1
DILlP
DIM R
"Dis
35
SYMBOL
Ds
%
DIT
DIT R
D.
DLPF
DM R F
DM SB
DR
DTS B
Dx
2
storetoaircraftinterference equivalentparasitedrag area (ft )
de
ds
dwA
dwL
dw
dwing
Eu
(FS)LE
fuselage station (in.) of the nose of the most forward store on the
installation or the fuselage station of the leading edge of the pylon for the
emptypylon case
(FS)ref
36
DEFINITION
...
..
7
"
7.
~
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
FR
F1 (M)
F1 (XsNij)
store longitudinalplacement
(pitching moment)
"
,
F1 ('SNij'F
F2M)
F 2 (MJ)
tangentmounted
F 2 1 (RiSNi
F 2 2 (2i)
F23 (FR)
F 2 3 (M)
F3
F(Mj)
hf
lhp
1is
KA WA
KCJK
KDD
KD
.J,
%2"
37
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
KD 3
KD
KD
KF
Kf
KH
KH F
KIF
KM
KNB
KN
D5
IFI
KpPCpylon
KD
KsD
(drag)
KS FA N
Ksi
3J
38
"SYMBOL
DEFINITION
KVF
Kw
KwIN G
Kx
emptypylon
SK
correlation ratio (drag)
Ky
K Yi
Kzi
KA
K1
K2
K3
LLE
LR
w
9
..
....
AFT
LA SC
kE.M
ET
39
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
moment arm (in.) from the moment reference point to the effective point
of application of the sideforce increment due to external stores (yawing
moment)
QM
m2
longitudinal distance (in.) from the store nose of the forward cluster to
the store nose of th6 aft cluster
Rn
RsB
longitudinal distance (in.) from the store nose to the intersection of the
storefin quarter chord and the storefin 50% semispan
SF
RsP
Slongitudinal
310
R]
Mach number
MER
multipleejector rack
MII
MIS
NAi
NF
tt**
SYMBOL
N1
q.
...lrr
Wrrr~..
E*EWI
WI
DEFINITION
total number of store installations on the aircraft
NP
"Ns
.M
Ns
Ns.
np
number of pylons
ST
RAM
RAT
RD
RF
FM
RF
T
Ri
R LC
RN EG
SRU
pylonundersideroughness factor
maximum fuselage frontal area (ft 2 )
311
DEFINITION
SYMBOL
SF
Sr
SP
Sw
Sw
SW
of both
wings (for
wingmounted
aB
aB
aF
S.
TA
TER
tripleejector rack
TI
TN
mmaximum
ttpnmax
312
U_
VX
XA

distance from the nose of the aftstore installation to the tail of the
leadstore installation (in.)
.
*.
(. KSYMBOL
.
DEFINITION
XF
absolute longitudinal distance (in.) from the nose of one store installation
to the nose of'the adjacent installation
Xo L
XA FT
longitudinal distance from the local wing trailing edge to the trailing edge
of the store installation (in.) (or pylon trailing edge for the empty pylon
case), positive in the aft direction
Xac.
XF w
longitudinal distance from the wing leading edge at the store location to
the store/pylon nose (in.), positive for store nose aft of the wing leading
edge
distance (in.) from the local wing leading edge to the point midway
between the pylon mounting lugs on installation i, positive in the aft
direction
ij
distance
SXs (in.) from the leading edge of the mean aerodynamic chord , to
the point midway between the mounting lugs of the installed store for
store j on installation i, positive in the aft direction
"XSN.
,
distance (in.) from the local wing leading edge to nose of store j on
installation i, positive in the aft direction
,xr
ratio of the distance between the aircraft nose and the store nose of the
most forward store to the aircraft fuselage length
Axn~p.
Ax
shift in neutral point due to lift transfer from the stores to the clean
aircraft, positive for aft shift (in.)
XM
VX
P1
Axn
shift in neutral point due to the interference effects on the wing flow
..
313
. .
. 
r,
,. . ,*
..
SYMBOL
YA
*.*
~~~~~:
. .
. ..   .
,, :  , r .
..
..
..
.T*
Pr
.
..
(Y1)
(Y )
value of YB
YOD
Ys
Yi
Yij
spanwise distance from the outboard edge of the fuselage to the location
of installation i
spanwise distance from fuselage centerline to centerline of store j on
installation i
314
. .
DEFINITION
sideforce contribution (ft 2 /deg) per degree sideslip due to interference
effects from a pair of adjacent externalstore installations
2 /deg) per degree sideslip due
basic
sideforce
contribution
to a
symmetrical
pair of
externalstore(ftinstallations
tYi
AY
maximum depth of the store installation (in.) measured from the bottom
surface of the wing
ratio of vertical distance between average wing lower surface and store
centerline to local wing chord
ze
distance (in.) from the wing lower surface to the centerline of store j on
installation i, positive in the downward direction
ZTi
.,.
..
*PI *4.
"SYMBOL
zw
17
**
I.
*.
..
DEFINITION
distance from the top of the fuselage to the midpoint of the wing
intersection with the fuselage (in.)
aircraft angle of attack
2
equivalentparasitedrag area (ft )
6si
" "n
I
REFERENCES
1.
Culley, R. J.: Store Interference Force Prediction Survey. Masters Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, 1975. (U)
2.
Gallagher, R. D., and ,iimenez, G.: Technique Development for Predicting External Store Aerodynamic Effects on Aircraft
Performance. AFFDLTR 7224, 1972. (C) Title Unclassified
3.
Gallagher, R. 0., Jimenez, G., Light, L. E., and Thames, F. C.: Technique for Predicting Aircraft Aerodynamic Effects Due to
External Stores Carriage. AFFDLTR7595, Volumes I and II, 1975. (U)
1321
315
April 197'8
EQ
The Datcom methods are applicable to aircraft of conventional design and essentially symmetrical
store shapes with no major shape protuberances. The methods are limited to the storeloading
configurations and Machnumber ranges presented in Table 3.1A. The methods are applicable to
mixed loading configurations obtained by combining two or more loadings specified in Table 3.1A.
Additional limitations are specifically noted in each of the sections.
TABLE 3.1A
LOADING AND MACHNUMBER LIMITATIONS
,,..
Maeh
Location
Mode
Mount/Loading Type
Range
Pylon  Empty
0 " 2.0
Single
Pylon  Store
Wing
Multiple
I_"
Pylon 
Empty TER
Pylon 
Full/Partial TER
+ 1.6
+ 2.0
Tangent
Single
Pylon  Empty
Pylon  Store
Tangent  Empty MER
0  1.6
"Pylon 
Empty TER
3.lI
For most configurations the addition of wingmounted stores reailts in a loss of aircraft lift in the
subsonicflight regime. The lift loss geneially increases substantially through the transonic speed
range, and often reverses to provide positivelift increments at the higher supersonic speeds
(M > 1.6).
REFERENCE
1.
Gallagher, R. D., Jimenez, G., Light, L. E., and Thames, F. C.: Technique for Predicting Aircraft Aerodynamic Effects Due to
External Stores Carriage. AFFDL.TR7595, Vo!umes I and II, 1975. (U)
31
S.
O_
3.12
April 197f
A method is presented in this .;.ection for estimating the aircraft liftcoefficient increment due to
wingmounted store installations. The method as presented is for estimating the increment due to a
pair of symmetric wing,nounted installations, The increment due to a single installation may also
be obtained by simply using half the increment due to the pair of symmetric installations.
For most configurations the addition of wingmounted stores results in a loss of aircraft lift in the
subsonic speed range. The lift loss generally increases substantially through the transonic speed
range, and often reverses to provide positive lift increments at the higher supersonic speeds.
The Datcom method is taken from Reference I and is empirical in nature. The method is applicable
to aircraft of conventional design and essentially ;ymmetricai store shapes with no major shape
protuherances. The limitations on configuration and Machnumber range are summarized in Table
3. 1A of the preceding section. Additional limitations arnd assumptions pertaining to the method are
listed below:
1.
2.
The method has been verified fcr a Machnumber range between M = 0.6 and M = 2.0
with a few exceptions. Caution should be used in extrapolating the empirical curves
beyond the given Machnumber range.
3.
The method has not been verified for configurations in which flaps, slats or other flow
disrupting devices are deployed.
4.
The method gives the best results for an angleofattack range from 0 to 80, although the
method can be used for higher angles of attack.
5.
The data base used in deriving the method relied heavily on sweptwing tacticalcombataircraft windtunnel data.
6,
7.
The loading configuration capabilities of the method are given in Table 3.1.1A. Each configvtration
is assigned a number which is referred to throughout the rn.thod. The method is applied separately
to each single store installation or symmetrical pair of store installations.
3.1.11
*.
..
... .
..
..  . .. 
..
.r r
.,,
TABLE 3.1.1A
STORE CONFIGURATION SUMMARY
Configuration
Mounting
Loading
Configuration
Number
None
Empty
Single
Single
Carriage
Pylon
Pylon
MER
Pylon
TER
Empty
Full
Empty
Partially Loaded
Full
A. SUBSONIC
DATCOM METHOD
The incremental lift coefficient, based on wing reference area, due to a pair of symmetric
wingmounted externalstore installations is given by Equation 3. 1. 1a. (For a sialgle installation, this
value should be divided by two.)
AC L WS
=S
3.1.1a
where
SW
2
is the wing reference area (ft ).
LR
3.1.12
...
:,
where
Sw
2(SW
3.1.1b
where
Sw
aF
SKETCH (a)
"Sw
ForxFWD
SW
',
"2. For
aB
0 andc>(RsP+XFWD):
XFWD >0
Sw
= (c
aB
3.
SW
'4
and cC<(2S
+ xFWD):
xFWD)dw
3.1.ld
ForxFwD <0andc<(RsP+XFWD):
Sw
4.
31.1c
spdw
cdw
3.1.1e
ForxFwD <0andc>(M
+ XFWD):
5N
(sP + XFw)dw
3.1.1f
3.1.13
where
W
XXFWD
d,
is the defined width (in,) of the store installation, not including protruding fins, given by
1.
2.
3.1. 1h
STORE
C
FWDPYLON
FT
 XA
SSTORE
xAF
QSP
SKETCH (b)
3.1.14
LLE
KAWA
"KKA
Kp
3.1.1i
l+K K K
HX
where
KH
WIsKx
Kw
Kf
Kf =KHF KF
3.1.1j
and
K11 F is a lateral storetofuselage clearance parameter obtained from Figure
"3.1.120b.
SKV
KVF
0.
is an effect due to aircraft angle of attack obtained from Figures 3.1.121a through
21h as a function of storeinstallation type, Mach number, and x FT/c.
3.1.15
 ,
. . . . .. .2
. . . . ... .. . . .
. .. .
Sample Problem
Given: A sweptwing subsonic fighter aircraft from Reference 2, symmetrically loaded as follows:
FRONT VIEW
Spanwise
Station
Inboard Wing
Outboard Wing
Mounting
Store
Type
No. of
Stores
Configuration
Number
(Table 3.1.1A)
TER
Pylon
500lb Bomb
Single
Pylon
500lb Bomb
Rack
Type
Aircraft Data:
SW
260 ft2
ALE
420
Stores Data:
2sP
ds= 12 in.
91.2 in.
Installation Data:
Location
3.1.16
*c
FWD
C
SP
Inboard Wing
25.6 in.
0.400
0.158
11.2 in.
91.2 in.
Jutboard Wing
12 in.
0.210
0.264
11.2 in.
91.2 in.
..
"
Additional Data:
80
M =0.8
is shown below.
"QSP+
7C=SP sp +
= 91.2 + (0.158)(121.5)
= 72.0 in.
= (QZ + xFWD)dw
+ xFWD
(Equation 3.1.10
= (72.0)(25.6)
WV
1843 in. 2
To compute Sw
2"
aF
, refer
 8.0
4.8
3.2
SW
computation.
3.1.17
sw
a F2
(3.2)
2
41 in.
SWa
=2
=
WS w S a
(Equation 3.1.1b)
2 (1843 + 41)
= 3768 in. 2
LR
= 4.7
0 (M 4 0.8)
LLE
if
KA
= 1.0
(Figure 3.1.118a)
KH
= 0.124
(Figure 3.1.118b)
Kx
0.30
(Figure 3.1.119a)
hp
11.2
25.6
0.438
Kw
= 1.145
=l1++K K Kw
=
(Figure 3.1.119b)
(Equation 3.1.1i)
1 + (0.124)(0.30)(1.145)
0.957
"3.1.1..8
KH F
=0,
Kf
L.
= 0.43
K FKvF
KV F = 0 (lowwing configuration)
= 0
(Equation 3.1.lj)
(Figure 3.1.121b)
Solution:
ACL
LR

(a4.O
(Equation3.1.1a)
"ComputeACL
wS
SP +XFWD
SP +
FWD
c
"=
91.2 + (0.264)(87.8)
68.0 in.
aB
,'
+ XFWD
FWD
+ xw)d
(68.0)(12.0)
(Equation 3.1.1)
= 816 in. 2
As in the case of the inboard installation, trapezoidal areas of 2 fins extend beyond the
projected store body area, Sw .B Since the stores are identical,
S
.7
2 Sw
=
74
+ Sw.')
2 (816 + 41)
"1714 in.2
L
4i
0.8
LLE
0 (Configuration 1)
KAWA
3.1.19
..
".K^=
1.0
(Figure 3.1.118a)
KH
=0.124
(Figure 3.1.118b)
Kx
0.68
(Figure 3 .1.119a)
hP
dw
11.2
= 0.93
T2.0
Kw
S=
= 0.175
Kp
(Figure 3.1.119b)
1+K 1 KxKw

I + (0.124)(0.68)(0.175)
0.985
i=
KH F
= KvF
Kf
KHFKvF
L wS
0.40
(lowwing configuration)
0
(Equation 3.1.1j)
(Figure 3.1.121b)
Solution:
AC
*CLws
1(+LL
Sw
R +LLEK
Il
)(KAK
+K)+
A
+
+
ws (L 4.0
(Equation 3.1.1a)
The calculated values of ACLWS at each wing station are combined with fuselagestore increments
in the sample problem of Section 3.1.3 to illustrate a complex loading configuration. Comparison of
the calculated results with test data is provided in that section.
B. TRANSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid in the transonic speed range. The
user is cautioned that the accuracy of the method is less than that expected in the subsonic speed
range, and test data should be used whenever possible.
3.1.110
C. SUPERSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid in the supersonic speed range. The
expected accuracy of the method is comparable to that in the subsonic range. The maximum Mach
number provided in the design figures indicates the level to which the method is substantiated.
Caution should be used when extrapolating the data beyond .%he Mach range provided in the
figures.
REFERENCES
1.
Gallagher, R. D., Jimenez, G., Light, L. E., and Thames, F. C.: Technique for Predicting Aircraft Aerodynamic Effects Due to
External Stores Carriage. AFFDLTR7595, Volumes I and II, 1975, (U)
2.
Watzke, R. E.: Aerodynamic Data for Model TA4F Operational Flight Trainer. McDonnell Douglas Corporation Report
DAC67425, 1968. (U)
3.1 .!i
C)
zC
UZC
~~~
CD(Z
:)0C)
.dlCl
 
"f
S.
...
00

.
V!
.<
,9_
cc
..
qll
.'
"*
02
:"
0r
i X1
<0
.
IzII
C
,cc
',
0'
,0,<
00
iSv
__._
0,
,..
04
3 ,1.I13
2'
K''..
Cl
"C
V
V
"C
z0
1
F
*2
z
C.'
C)
C)
..
F
F
11117.
II
iI
2'
f.L
F
0
x.

I
0
C)
Cl
C)
C)
.
C)
C)

Cl
31114
..............................................................
r.x.I
___00
~~~~~0

00
r~~~
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0.
;L C
__
rztz~L_
I
13A.116
Q.
zZ
_.
t0
I
J
Z

~L

'e'

 
,
0,.
o vo
'
0*J
3..,.I17
1.2

.4
0
20
40
AL E
60
80
(deg)
.0..
KI_0__
3.1.11
0
.8
0. t0
. 8
.6.20
.2
/c
4XAT
II
.
0,.8
.
 .2
2
KW
.
.2
4__
__8
.6__
\~
s ..
___
1.4___
~
h /dI
3.1.119
1.2

KVF
.8
KVF
.4
a=o
/@
STORE HEIGHT
0 04
10
STORE HEIGHT
40
30
020
(in.)
'
.16NOTE:

.12
KHF
.08 1
.04
LATERAL
.4
STORETOFUSELAGE
CLEARANCE, AY
12
16
.
20
24
,*
3.1.120
28

77T1rrr1
Cl

Cl
ci
0
.1
0H
H
C,.,
L1.
'1
H
0
Cl
__
C)
C)

I
<H 0
.
H
C.)
2

0
H
z
H
II
',
Cl
!
Cl
i. Cl
Cl
c)
Cl
r,
h
c/j
3.1.12 1
",.
,C
";74
a.,
I
2
. ,
3.1.122
.
"*
,.1'
ooCl
.I
I.:":.1
3.1.123
Ii..
\
...............
"
7z
CIO
3.1.124_
I
".124
I
K
1
m
U

I
Ip
.
4
3.1.125
.
(
!0
Ir
II1
,...F
,FN
0~
,3.1.12
:9.,..,.
.....
..
.'.'.'
....
".
April 1978
A method is presented in this section for estimating the aircraft liftcoefficient increment due to
fuselagemounted store installations. The method as presented is for estimating the ificrement due
to a pair of symmetric fuselagemounted installations. The increment due to a single installation
may also be obtained by using half the increment due to the pair of symmetric installations.
The Datcom Method is taken from Reference I and is empirical in nature. The method is applicable
to aircraft of conventional design and essentially symmetrical store shapes with no major shape
protuberance. The limitations on configuration and Machnumber range are summarized in
Table 3. IA. Additional limitations and assumptions pertaining to the method are listed below:
The method has not been validated for pylon heights greater than 10 inches.
2.
The method is limited to store installations which are riot mounted beyond 90 percent of
the fuselage semispan from the fuselage centerline.
3.
The method has been verified for a Machnumber range between M = 0.6 and M = 2.0
with a few exceptions. Caution should be used in extrapolating the empirical curves
beyond the given Machnumber range.
4.
The method has not been verified for configurations in which flaps, slats or other
flowdisrupting devices are deployed.
5.
The method gives the best results for an angleofattack range from 0 to 8o, although the
method can be used for higher angles of attack.
6.
The data base used in deriving the method relied heavily on sweptwing tacticalcombataircraft windtunnel data.
7.
8.
The loading configuration capabilities of the method are given in Table 3.1.2A. Each configuration
is assigned a number which is referred to throughout the method. The method is applied
separately to each single store installation or symmetrical pair of store installations.
3.1.21
TABLE 3.1.2A
Carriage
Loading
Configuration
Number
None
Single
Single
Empty
Single
Sir'le
1
1
1
MER
Empty
Partially Loaded
Full
Empty
Partially Loaded
2
2
2
2
2
Full
Empty
Partially Loaded
Full
Empty
Partially Loaded
Full
Tangent
Pylon
TER
Tangent
3
3
3
3
3
A. SUBSONiC
DATCOM METHOD
The increment'al lift coefficient, based on wing reference area, due to a pair of symmetric
fuselagemounted externalstore installations is given by Equation 3.1.2a, (For a single installation,
this value should be divided by two.)
iAC [L R KWINGKSPAN
+L
(ax4.0
3.1.2a
where
SW
".LR
arid Sw
a*
is the pseudo store installation planform area (in. 2 ) for both installa.
tions, and is given by
3.1.22
I..............;
"
'./
"
,
'";:"='''....

...
" "..'.~'
where
R
SKETCH (a)
dw
2.
3.1.2c
3.1.2d
is a parameter to account for the effect of wing location on the fuselage. This
parameter is obtained from Figure 3.1.2 6 as a function of zw /h where
zw
is the distance from the top of the fuselage to the midpoint of the wing
intersection with the fuselage (including canopy protuberances) (See
Figure 3.1.26).
hf
KSPAN
SPAN
is a parameter to account for the effect of lateral placement of the store installation.
The
parameter is obtained from Figure 3.1.2 7 and is available for
store
installations mounted within 90% of the fuselage semispan from the fuselage
centerline.
aFS
IL
" ,
, i
E

"
'.* . "..
'.
"*u
 b''.4
._t
*+_
...
..
+:.
" ".
*"
" "
::"."
"""c
rr""%+'.".'r."
L"+'
''r
Sample Problem
Given: A sweptwing subsonic fighter aircraft (Reference 2) loaded with a pylonmounted MER
containing five 500lb. bombs (two of the bombs are hidden in the front view) located
below the fuselage centerline.
17n
"FRONTVIEW
Aircraft Data:
Sw = 260 ft2
Zw/hlf
0.88
Stokes Data:
ds = 12 in.
Installation Data:
kill
dw = 33.6 in.
hP
11.2 in.
=sp
185.6 in.
Additional Data:
a
M = 0.8
It is noted from Table 3.1.2A that this is Configuration Number 2. Since the loading is not a
symmetrical pair of installations, the final result will be divided by 2 to obtain the increment
for a single installation.
Compute:
S
2Qspdw
S
(Equation 3.1.2b)
(2)(185.6)(33.6)
3.1.24
F
.j
"n
+ir
'v
q"
2
12,472 in.
LR
17.0
"Z"
/ht
0.88
(Given)
KWING
0.93
(Figure 3.1.26)
KSPAN
1.0
(Figure 3.1.2 7)
L. FS
0.15
(Figure 3.1.28
Solution:
Kw NC KSPAN
+L
(a
4.0
SAC
(Equation 3.1.2a)
S60
0.0585
(symmetrical pair)
ACL
AC . s
2
0.0585
2
0.02925
The calculated value of ACj, FS is combined with wingstore increments in the Sample Problem of
Section 3.1.3 to illustrate a complex loading configuration. Compaiison of the calculated results
with test data is provided in that section.
B. TRANSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid for transonic speeds. The user is
cautioned that the accuracy of the method is less than that expected in the subsonic speed range;
and test data should be used whenever possible.
C. SUPERSONIC
The metbod presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid for supersonic speeds. The
expected accuracy of the method is comparable to that in the subsonic range. The maximum Mach
"number provided in the design figures indicates the level to which the method is substantiated.
"Caution should be used when extrapolating the data beyond the Mach range provided in the
figures.
3.1.25
REFERENCES
1.
Gallagher, R. D., Jimenez, G., Light, L. E., and Thames, F. C.: Technique for Predicting Aircraft Aerodynamic Effects Due to
External Stores Carriage. AFFDLTR7595, Volumes I and II, 1975. (U)
2.
Watzke, R. E.: Aerodynamic Data for Model TA4F Operational Flight Trainer, McDonnell Douglas Corporation Rept,
DAC67425, 1968. (U)
rZ
wI
zw
._
,.2LI.._
hf
_.o
1.0
p.
K WING
.4
.2
.6
.4
.2
z*/hf
.
%
FIGURE 3.1.26
(S
.....
.
.....
WINGLOCATION PARAMETER
3.1.26
SL
.8
1.0
.........
        "::

. '
"
" V''
+
"
.'
,...""
.
'
"
1.2
~.8.
KSPAN
.4
20
40
60
80
100
FIGURE 3.1.2 7
"
F.

WING LOCATION

H IGH
(ft 2 Ideg)
,..tL.
Ln
....
~~~4.
p.
....
.6
.8
1.0
v,.z,
LOW
1.2
..
.
~~
3.1.28
Z
1.4
1.6
MACH NUMBER, M
1.8
2.0
April 1978
UI
k'

I 
.
1.
2.
The method has not been validated for fuselage installations with pylon heights greater
"than 10 inches.
3.
The method for fuselagemounted stores is limited to installations which are not mounted
beyond 90 percent of the fuselage semispan from the fuselage centerline.
4.
The method has been verified for a Machnumber range between M = 0.6 and M 2.0
with a few exceptions. Caution should be used in extrapolating the empirical curves
beyond the given Machnumber range.
"5. The method has not been verified for configurations in which flaps, slats or other
flowdisrupting devices are deployed.
6.
The method gives the best results for an angleofattack range from 0 to 8g, although the
method can be used for higher angles of attack.
7.
The data base used in deriving the method relied heali~y on sweptwing tacticalcombataircraft windtunnel data.
8.
9.
The procedure for computing the total liftcoefficient increment requires calculation of the
increments for wing and fuselage installations separately by the methods of Sections 3.1.1 and
3.1.2, respectively. The increments for each installation are then summed to obtain the total
increment.
A. SUBSONIC
DATCOM METHOD
The total aircraft 1iftcoefficient increment due to externalstore installations and based on wing
reference area, SW ,is given by
3.1.31
.Z.aL.l.ab,>''

{,'"
~ACL
N
NSi
(ACL~ +
NAj
>
'V
(AtCL
..
j=0
i=0
where
N
(ACL)i is the incremental lift coefficient due to a pair of symmetrical store installations
where:
For wingmounted installations
(ACL)i
3.1.3b
ACL
and ACL
LFS
3.1.3c
ACL
(ACL)J
3.1.3d
2 A(Lws
(ACL j =
L)
3.1.3e
F5
states that prediction errors for incremental lift are nominally 20 percent. This
Refere",e
general!y t.sults in an overall accuracy within 2 percent of total aircraft lift. Comparisons of test
and calculated results are presented in Reference I.
3.1.32
'_*m*
.**:a*
,
,..,,dt..
. " .....
'
'
'. A..a..I
"
.,_,.
_.L._n.IxZ..
,L.:_
\' I
 .
..
_, _,
Sample Problem
Given: A sweptwing subsonic fighter aircraft from Reference 2, loaded as follows: (This is a
combination of the configuration of the Sample Problems from Sections 3.1.1 and 3.1.2.)
FRONT VIEW
Spanwise
Station
Centerline
Rack
Type
Mounting
Store
Type
No. of
Stores
MER
Pylon
5OO4b Bomb
=500lb SomU
A Inboalhardri
WnER_
OubadWng
Snl
yon50.
Configuration
Number
2
3.1ad312)
NA
I (centerline installation)
(ACL )i for i
H(ACL)I
...
1,2:
ACL
LWS
(Equation 3.1.3b)
3.1.33
L.
 :L
where ACLws is evaluated at the outboardwing station and computed in the Sample Problem
of Section 3.1.1.
(ACL)=
AC
(ACL)
0.003 12
Ls
0 AC
(Lws
where ACL
Lws
(Equation 3.1.3b)
of Section 3.1.1.
1
(ACL.:
!:;,..(ACL~
=0.0107
forj= 1:
(AL)J
(ACL)l
01 2
(Equation 3.1.3e)
FS
where ACLF$
..
Solution:
NSi
N,
ACL
NA
(ACL)I +
i=0
3.1.3a)
(ALi(Equation
jO
2
ACL =
(AC)
(ACL)1
i=j=
=
0.0368
Calculated results at additional Mach numbers are shown in comparison to test data from
Reference 2 in Sketch (a).
3.1.34
S.
.
..
. .
. .
.. .
..
....
"
TEST VALUES
REF 2
CA LCULATED
ACL
"""
,
.01
"K
_'
.02 
l_
.6
.7
.8
.9
1.0
MACH NUMBER, M
SKETCH (a)
B. TRANSONIC
The method presented in Parapraph A of this section is also valid for transonic speeds. The user is
cautioned that the accuracy of the method is less than that expected in the subsonic speed range.
C. SUPERSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid for the supersonic speed range.
The maximum Mach number provided in the design figures indicates the level to which the method
is substantiated.
REFERENCES
1.
2;
Watzke, R. E.: Aerodynamic Data for Model TA4F Operational Flight Trainer. McDonnell
DAC67425, 1968. (U)
k,
'..1.3.5
,%"
April 1978
The total drag increment is the sum of the incremental, drag at zero lift and the incremental drag
due to lift. rhese components are computed in terms of equivalentparasitedrag area for each
installation by the methods of Sections 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 and are combined to obtain the
totaldragcoefficient increment by the method of Section 3.2.3.
The Datcom methods are applicable to aircraft of conventional design and essentially symmetrical
store shapes with no major shape protuberances. The methods are limited to the storeloading
,onfigurations and Machnumber ranges presented in Table 3.2A. The methods are applicable to
mixed loading configurations obtained by combining two or more loadings specified in Table 3,2A.
Additional limitations are specifically noted in each of the sections that follow.
!~3.2I
TABLE 3.2A
LOADING AND MACHNUMBER LIMITATIONS
Mounting
Location
Carriage
Mode
MachNumber
Range
Pylon  Empty
Single
0.6 
2.0
,Pylon
I
...
1,6
Fuselage
Single
Multiple
Multil
WiIg or
0.6 1.6
Tangent
0.60.9
Pylon  Empty
0.6 
2.0
0.6 1
.6
0.6 
0.9
Pylon 
0.6, 1.6
0.6 
0.6  1.6
1.2
Fuselage
REFERENCE
1.
32.2
Gallagher, R. D., Jimenez, G., Light, L. E., and Thames, F. C.: Technique for Predicting Aircraft Aerodynamic Effects Due to
External Stores Carriage. AFFDILTR7595, Volumes I and 11, 1975. (U)
,:
,
April 1978
1.
The empirical design curves used in the methods generally do not provide data below
M = 0.6, although the methods have been verified for some cases below this speed.
Caution should be used when extrapolating the curves beyond the given Mach range.
2.
3.
The methods have not been verified for configurations in which flaps, slats, or other
devices are deployed.
4.
5.
The data base used in deriving the methods relied heavily on sweptwing tacticalcombataircraft windtunnel data.
6.
The methods are applicable for sideslip angles less than 40.
flowdisrupting
Methods are presented for the following particular store installation type and loading configura'""tions:
iI
A. SUBSONIC
DATCOM METHODS
~The Dateom user should proceed directly to the method appropriate to thle particular store.2
DB= (B
D \B
)
+K
xx
XX
K4~
CJK
tKmax (
0.04 \cpt
)(0.35
2
c
+0.
where
Bx is an emptypylon drag factor obtained from Figure 3.2.l.120 as a function of Mach
number and Sp, the pylon frontal area obtained by measuring the maximum
crosssectional area of the isolated pylon.
K x
Mach number and xAFT./C. The value of xhAT is the longitudinal distance (in.) from
the local wing trailing edge to the trailing edge of the store installation (or pylon
trailing edge for the emptypylon case), positive in the aft direction. (See Sketch (a).)
The value of c is the local wing chord (in.) at the particular store or pylon station.
(See Sketch (a).)
SKETCH (a)
*KcjK
3.2.1.12
is the pylontopchord length (in.) at the wingpylon juncture. (See Sketch (a).)
cw
RU
4
3.2.1 . b
The zerolift equivalentparasitedrag area (ft 2 ) due to the basic installation is given by separate
equations at discrete Mach numbers. To obtain values at intermediate Mach numbers, interpolation
must be used.
For M
0.6:
DR
B+6
3.2.1.1c
where
1B
= DILP
+ DIS + DI
3.2. 1.1d
where
DILP is the equivalentparasitedrag area (ft 2 ) of the installed loaded pylon given by
DB in Equation 3.2. 1. 1a evaluated at M = 0.90 and RU = 3.
.:
DIs
0.90, given by
3.2.1.1e
where
S
3.2.1.13
CD
DI
3.2.1.1f
where
Dx is the equivalentparasitedrag area (ft 2 ) due to storetoaircraft
interference given by Figuie 3.2.1.122b as a function of XAFT/C,
where XAFT and c were previously defined for the wingmounted
emptypylck, case.
. i.
U
V
S
0.8:
For M
DB
B + 0.86
3.2.1.1g
3.2.1. 1h
0.9:
Ds
321.14
3._
3.2.1.1i
where
DILP
DMSB
DIMR
DIMR
where
is a MER forwardlongitudinalplacement term (ft 2 ) obtained from Figure
RF
3.2.1.127
asaftlongitudinalplacement
a function of XAFT/C andterm
2 ) obtained
Mach(ftnumber,
wherefrom
XAFr
is RAm
a MER
was
Figure
"previously defined for a WingMounted EmptyPylon Case. (See
Sketch (a).)
WingPylonMounted Fully Loaded MER
The zerolift equivalentparasitedrag area (ft 2 ) due to the basic installation is given by
DB =D
+6D +D
B
where
DEM
EM
Is
3.2.1.1k
IM
DIS
DIM
144
30
+ M1
3.2.1.12
where
M
S
..
.
,
..
1 ...
ze
dw
is the local wing chord (in.) at the particular store or pylon station. (See
Sketch (a).)
.00 d w
ed
r.
SKETCH (b)
0~MI
.
D DEM
3.2.1.16
(i
6TF)
+ DFLM
3.2. 1. 1mn
where
DEM
NSM
TF
1.00 forN
= 1,5 or 6 stores
"=1.0 for N M
3.2,1.1n
3.2.1.o
where
DILP
TSRB
DITR
RFT + RA
3 2
. .1.1p
where
"R
p..
RA
is a TER aftlongitudinalplacement
2
ET
+D3..11.ll
IT
is
where
KDET
K
D15
given by Equation
ITeqivalntaraiteragare
i th
0
D+T
+ T13.2.
1.r
where:
TI
is a storeTER.aircraftinterference
d,
Fully
LoadedMER Case.
T
te
quvaenpraitdagara
f2)du
sorTRirrat
ntrfrec
DET
sT
3.2.1.1s
where
DET
3.2.1.18
"NST
DFLT
is the zerolift equivalentparasitedrag area (ft 2 ) due to a fully ;oaded TER given by
D. in Equation 3.2.1.1q.
"FuselageTangentMounted Stores
(Two or More Single Stores)
The Datcom Method for this configuration is applicable only for 2 or 3 storerow installations
mounted on the fuselage bottom surface, and for a Machnumber range of from 0.6 to 0.9. The
"followingadditional limitations apply:
1.
2.
3.
Constant longitudinal space between all stores in tandem, for two or threerow
configurations.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Due to the nature of this method, the zerolift equivalentparasitedrag area, D. , is computed for all
stores taken together. In order to be consistent with the values of DB computed by other methods
in this section, the entire group of stores is considered to be one installation.
The zerolift equivalentparasitedrag area (ft 2 ) due to the basic installation is given by:
= n DFR +DIsKNI
SDB
3.2.1.1t
where
nr
DFR
"
DR
,DR
Ii
3.2.1.1u
ab 1 + a b (2 rows)
3.2.1.1v
alb 1 + a b2 + a3 b3 (3 rows)
3.2.1.1w
3.2.1.19
where
a, a2 , and a3 are storediameter correlation factors obtained from Figure
3.2.1.135 as a function of the maximum store diameter ds.
b1, b, and b are storerow Machcorrelation factors obtained from Figure
3.2.1.136 as a function of Mach number.
Ds
KN
KNI
D IK
2KD3
K
KD4KD5D6
K K K
3.2.1.1x
where
KD
KDI
(3S
KS M(I + SH3.2.1.1ly
where
Ks8
Ma
SIT
2
is the store maximumn crosssectional area (ft ).
SB
KD
isYOD'
a lateralspacing
obtainedlateral
from Figure
a function
the ratio of factor
the minimum
distance3.2.1.138b
(excluding asfins)
between of
stores to the nriximum store diameter.
KD5 and KD6 are storerows and storesperrow correlation factors respectively,
obtained by using Table 3.2.1.1 A.
S3.2.1.110


 ..
,
..
TABLE 3.2.1.1A
K0
AND KDoCOMPUTATION
No. of
Correlation
Factor
K1,0
""K"'
6
KD
1__
Figure 3.2.1.1 39
1.0
""1
Figure 3.2.1.140
Figu re 3.2.1.1 41 a
FFigure 3.2.1.1 41 b
D1
(0.35 + 0.2167RU)
tpx
K CJK2
DK0.04 (c
top
3.2.1. lz
Plow
where all of the above terms are defined in the WingMountedEmptyPylon Case.
FuselagePylonMounted Stores
(Two or More Single Stores)
r`4
,
'
The Datcom Method for this configuration is subject to the same limitations given for the
FuselageTangentMounted Stores Case. Due to the nature of the method, the zerolift equivalentparasitedrag area, D 1 is computed for all stores taken together. In order to be consistent with the
values of D computed by other methods in this section, the entire group of stores is considered to
be one instalation. The zerolift equivalentparasitedrag area (ft2 ) due to the basic installation is,
given by
D
"where
is the number of pylons.
nl
F3.2,1.11
.
3.2.1. 1aa
DLpF
n.
DER
KSD
KPD
where
h
d
ds3.2.
1.l1bb
KN
Dis
The zerolift equivalentparasitedrag area (ft 2 ) due to the basic installatiofi is given by
Dwr= (1 + K)
(DPR +D1 S)
3. 2 .1.1 cc
where
KIF
DPR
3.2.1.112
FuselageTangentMounted MER
(One Installation)
The Datcom Method for this configuration is limited to a single MER installation tangent mounted
on the bottom of the fuselage. The zerolift equivalentparasitedrag area (ft 2 ) due to the basic
installation is given by
B
3.2.1.1 dd
+ DMSB + DMRF)
where
Km
Ds
DMSB
SDMRF
DPR
DILP
"A
3.1 1.113

 t

FuselagePylonMounted MER
(One Installation)
"Ihe Datcom Methcd for this configuraticn has the same limitations as the previous case. The
zerolift equivalentparasitedrag area
DB
 j due
A
3.2.1.1ff
DMSB)
where
II
DR
P 
Ds
DLP
DMRF
,
[.
2
is the MERswaybrace equivalentparasitedrag area (ft ) obtained
from Figure
Sample Problem
Given: A sweptwing subsonic fighter aircraft (Reference 2) symmetrically loaded at the inboard
wing
rO
.
r.
00
3..11
"3.2.1.114
FRONT VIEW
CD
0.11
ds
12 in.
Installation Data:
Sp
=S
. 51.3 in.2
= 49.
=49.6 in.
SXAFT
tnPmax
FpD.w
XFWD
4.7 in.
10.4in.
Ptop
dc
66.9 in.
3.2 in.
dw
66.9 in.
25.6 in.
= 70.4 in.
Additional Data:
SM
= 0.6
,.
1.
Ba
3
= DED
DT
4 DF
Expand the above equation to identify the terms which need to be computed:
DET = DILP + DB + DIR
DFLT
DT + 3 DS +tDJr
(Equation 3.2.1.1o)
(Equation 3,2.1.1q)
Find D
XAgr
49.6
=
,
0,408
121.5
Bxx = 0. 106
(Figure 3.2.1.120)
(Figure
= 0.16
KcJK = 0.25
,1.121a)
(Figure 3.2.1.121b)
= 0.088 ft2
DP,
3 .2
(Figure 3.2.1.122a)
S~3.2.1.115
.
k
  

DILP
+ K
(B
.)[KCJK
+ 0.21 6 7 Ru
P(035
+ DPR
(4.7)
/51.3\
[0.106
=
+k(0.16~)J
{
144 ](0.25)+.8
(0.04)
(2)[0.35 (0.2167)31
(66.9 + 66.9)
2
0.160 ft
Find DTSB:
DrsB
0.180 ft2
(Figure 3.2.1.130)
Find DITR:
10.4
XFWD

c
R
RAT
.=0.0856
121.5
0
(Figure 3.2.1.131)
0.300
DITR
= RFT
(Figure 3.2.1.132)
+ RAT
0 + 0.300
0.300 ft 2
(Equation 3.2.1.1p)
Find DET:
DET
DI + DTSB +
DITR
(Equation 3.2.1.1o)
= 0.160+0.180+0.300

0.640 ft 2
Find D
DIS
S CD
(0.785)(0.11)
(Equation 3.2.1.1e)
iT
Find
DIT:
T
3.2.1.116
0.0864 ft 2
0.005
(Figure 3.2.1.133)
"dc 3,2
d . ds
=112
T
0.267
= 0.40
(Figure 3.2.1.134)
DIT =TIs
T""=e 144
I
1dw + TiI (Equation 3.2.1. 1r)
\144c
0
[(70.4)2(`25.6)
]
i.:"'.
,
15)
0.005
+0.40
. 0.386 ft 2
Find DFLT:
DET + 3D1
DFLT
(Equation 3.2.1.1q)
+DIT
Solution:
DB =DE
0.640
ET
Ni) +D
FLT
2l + 1.285
This result is used in the Sample Problem of Paragraph A of Section 3.2.3 as part of the
tota!dragincrement computation.
Sexception
B. TRANSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid for transonic speeds with the
of the following fuselagemounted configurations which are limited to M < 0.9:
I.
2.
The method presented in Paragraph A for the WingPylonMounted SingleStore Case requires
additional equations in the transonic speed range. Separate equations for DB are required at discrete
Mach numbers as in the subsonic case. To obtain values at intermediate Mach numbers,
interpolation must be used.
L.
L:
3.2.1.117
For M
0.9:
DB = B
where
B is given by Equation 3.2.1.1d.
For M  0.95:
= 0.77 [(B+TAS.)PBI +B
3 . 2 .1.1gg
where
B
TA
is the local wing chord at the local store or pylon station (in.). (See
Sketch (a).)
.P
C
=
*
D0
D0 at M = 1.05
CD at M = 0.6
3.2.1.4hh
"
where
L3.2.1.118

..
> ..
isfrom
the Section
cleanaircraft
4.5.3.1. zerolift drag coefficient from test data or estimated
"For M
1.05:
DB
(B+TASir
3.2.1.1ii
1.20:
DB
B+TASr
3.2.1.1jj
1.60 to M 2.00:
. .
1.
Gallagher, R. D., Jirnenez, G., Light, L. E., and Tharn.s, F. C.: Technique for Predicting Aircraft Aerodynamic Effects Due to
External Stores Carriage. AFFDLTR7595, Volumev I and II, 1975. (U)
2.
Data
S'
for Model TA4F Operational Flight Trainer. McDonnell Douglas Corporation Rept.
S~3.2.1.119
00
r~.r4
CA00
_.2.12
XA!FT/C
'
'0
 0.2
0.3
0.35
 0.40
40.45
":!3"
~Kxx
"
0.6
MAC
. 8. 6I
.5
,
''
 . _.
.6
.7
FIGURE 3.2.1.121
" 0"
.8
.9
MACH NUMBER, M
1.0
1.1
1.2
.60.6
EMPTYPYLON CORRELATION RATIO
. 5
.6.
SKCjK
.4/
.2
.6
1.4
1.0
1.8
2.2
MACH NUMBER, M
~FIGURE 3.2.1l.121 b
"2
["i
PYLON
3.2.1.121
0.16
0.12
//
DPR
0.08(ft
2)
0.04
0'
1.4
1.2
1.0
.8
.6
MACH NUMBER, M
FIGURE 3.2.1.1 22a PYLONRACK EQUIVALENTPARASITEDRAG AREA
1.0"
.8
x .6
(ft
__
__
__
_i
.4.
.2.20,
. 8
. 6
.4
. 2
.2
.4
.6
XAFT/C
71
,

::"':'.2
. 3
.2
.4
.6
.8
1.0
(ft)
.5
0\
.2
. 1
.1
.2
.3
.4
XAFT /C
p...
03
.02
(ft /in.)
.01
__
. 6_4
_
. 2
.2
.4
XAFT/C
01.2 
1.0'
.4
...
_.
1.2
. 8
(636t
()t2
3...24
.7
..
DMSB
WV
.....
(ft)
.3 ......
.2
..
.5
,0.6
.7
.8
.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
MACH NUMBER, M
ro
FIGURE 3.2.1.125
i,
.,,
_,
o.
. ,
.
..
tC
u
pe,C
1
0
z
0
cz
3.2.1.12
IT
I
I.
RI
.
[.
3 2
77
o
"z
!.,!
1

ci
3,2.!.27
0 i1
MIS.06

E~i
06
.02
.6

.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
MACH NUMBER, M
17' ,
SrOREMERAIRCRAFTINTERFERENCE MACHCORRELATION
21"" FIGURE 3.2.1.128 FACTOR
K
3.2.1.128
1.6
I
go
K'4
C4C
.. "
,.,"
'.
.
."
.
DTS13
(ft 2 )
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
MACH NUMBER, M
1.0
S!

1.1
'
1.2
II
c'J*
(~94
' 11
____i
___
t__
CI
:
,
I9
 "r.. .
iil"3.2.1.132
.

.3
.2
ST~s
.Is
.6
.
"
.7
.8
.9
MACH NUMBER, M
1.0
1.1
1.2
Si
3.2.1.133
S'
_Il !
/in,
00
C'R
//
I
3.2.1.134
"
. 0
. ,
. 

 .
.
. i
"
2.
,.,0
/a,
a3
1.6
a1, a2 ,a3
.~
.4
10
11
12
'1s (in,)
17
.*., .
L.
bpbVb 3
__A
__
__
__
__
I__
__
.2
bb
2 b3
0
.4
.5
.6
.7
MACH NUMBER, M
.8
.9
1.0
86
_
6
........
.
...
22
!..
"
. . . . ..
..
4 
_
.5
.6
.7
:~.MACH
.8
.9
1.0
NUMBER, M
ALE,
LOW
5
50
LOW
2 50
"HIGH
25
HIGH:
500
WING LOCATION
1.2
KD
.8
.4
5.
.6
.7
.8
.9
1.0
MACH NUMBER, M
FIGURE 3.2.1.137b WINGSWEEPANDLOCATION FACTOR
3.2.1.137
.. :,,.
2.0k*~~
M
.85
.90
go
.806
1.6
.60
.80
.60,
.85
K
S.90
.4
.2
.4
.6
.8
1.0
1.2
XOL
.4
.2
,4
.81.0
..
I
1,2
1.4
..
,.
.9
.7 
S.5

K"
.6
.7
1.8
.9
MACH NUMBER, M
FIGURE
3 . 2 .113 9
a
1.0
.8
KD
LK"')
. 66
.4
.6
.7
.8
.9
MACH NUMBER, M
rF771
77177v
777
1.4n,
5
1.2
1.0
1.o
4
Kt
3
2
.6
.8
.7
.9
MACH NUMBER, M
6
FIGURE 3.2,1.140
"
3.2,1.140
'
'V
'
~ ~1.4
1
...
rli
13
..
.8 
.6
.6
.7
.8
.9
MACH NUMBER, M
44
MACH NUMBER, M
..
.6
,
.
1.4
1.2
M
.90
'
.85
.8
.8
.7
.6
.5
.4
.3
.2
Xr
"1.6
I.60
1.2
K .8
.80
=.85

KSD
M
.70
.8
.4
KL
0,
.!.2
.3
XO L
,.
.4
.5
1.2
.85
()
"":
.60
I STORE/ROW
.70
KPD
.90
HOD
I ROW
.....I
1.2
1.6
.8
.6
.4
.2
1.0
.85/
.60
"".
STORES/RO
W
HOD
PYLONDEPTH FACTOR
STORE 3.2.1.143
3.2.1.143
.8
3ISTORE/OW
1.0
6.8
.2.
HoD
IO
KP
.8
.
8
M80
FIUR 3...14
.4.6NTD1.
1.(e)
~~~5 STORES/ROW_
.0P 

.90
81.
..
HOD
1.6
2OW
I STORE/ROW
1.20
KPD
.8
.4
3.2.1.145
1.2
KPHOD
.80
.70
00
HOD
1.61
FIGUE
3..1.143 (.4D
3.2.11.4
2.0
4 STORES/ROW
8.0
HOD
FIGUE
3..1.143 (1.0D
0_
3.2.1..1.84.
2.4
2 ROWS
5 STORE.S/ROW

2.0
KPD
.60
__
1.2
.4

.2
.6
.4
.8
HO
1.21
.80.0
HO
ODl
FIGURE 3.2.1.143 (CONTD)
K' 3.2.1.148
1.0
1.2
3 STORES/ROW
0
.
__

0
HOD
~3..1143WSND
FIGURE
1.214
~.90,
1.6
3 ROWS
1."602
.60
":
~.90
.8
*:"K
..
85
4 STORES/ROW
.2.44
.
,:0
.2
.4
.6
.8
1.0
HOD
,.
.
,,'.(0)
2.0U 3 Rows
SORES/ROW
1.60
..
_Ile
1.1
.60e5'
:%:"o
.707
==
.82"0
0 ,.
"
' 3.2.1.150
.4WO
2.m6,
OD
~~iA.
2~~~~~~(a)
_______________
IFI
STRAIGH'
z/(z
1
KIF
STAIH
1.0 12
FIUR
3.. 1. 1
fSELAGE BOTTOM
1SNLTR
.1
1.
NTLAINFCO
1341251.165
j
3.2.
(c)
M
M.9
K1
1IF
10
L
z/(z
h1 ,
z/(z
h)
FIGURE 3.2.1.1Si
~2.1.152
3.
(CONTD)
,,. . . .
..
. ..
..
..
'
i i
'
' "
" ..
 ? " '
" " . .
: 
L22
KIF
1.00
'
_""
FUSELAGE BOTTOM
0I
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
Z/(z
1.4
1.5
1.6
hp)
(f)
M =1.05
KIF

So0
1.1
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
z/(z  hp )
(g)
M
11.10+1.60
IFI
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
z/(z  h P)
FIGURE 3.2.1.151 (CONTD)
3.2.1.153
'4
s
xL
(a)
M
=.6
. 8
CURVED FUSELAGE BOTTOM
Kip
1.3
,1.1.
1.0
1.5
1.6
zi(z  hp)
(b)
,
ICURVED
FUSELAGE 30TTOM
BOTTOM,1
KUSLAG
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.61
z/(z  hp)
*1
(c)
SCUIVED FUSELAGE BOTTI'OM
K1 ~

1..1
1.2
1.3
z/(z
STRAGHTFUSELAGE BOTTOM


1.4
1.5
1.6
hp)
d)

FUSELAGE BOTF.M
z/(z  h)
Kt
[ # i
 "
" '':
"
..
. .
'
.'
'
(e)
2M =1.00
I
KF
0 t
1.0
1.1
FUSELAGE BOTTOM
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.5
1.6
z/(z  hp)
(f)
2
KIF
M =1,05
1
1.2
1.1
1.3
z/(z  h
K!F
1.4
i
M =1.I0h 1.60
K IF
CURVED FUSELAGE BOTTOM
STRAIGHT FUSELAGE BOTTOM
01.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
z/(z  hp)
p
1.4
1.5
09
rF4
__z
_
3.2).S
.4
.
TA
.2 
0
 1.0
. 8
. 6
. 4
. 20
(XFWD + xAFT)/C
1.2
.8
.4'
o
0
12
3
CD0
(a)
"M=1.60
LI
(ft)
F_.
01p
0
2
/
.B + TAS .
(ft 2 )
3 (b)
M
DB
2,00
1'
_____
0
i~~i
~B
12
+TAA Szr(f1
(ft 2 )
FIGURE 3.2.1.159
April 1978
__C0
PAI
IPAIR
3
PAIR 2
SKETCH (a)
The Datcom Method is taken from Reference I and is empirical in nature. The method is applicable
to aircraft of conventional design and essentially symmetrical store shapes with no major shape
protuberances. The limitations on configuration and Machnumber range are summarized in
Table 3.2A. Caution should be used when extrapolating the curves beyond the given Machnumber
range. The method has not been verified for configurations in which flaps, slats, or other
flowdisrupting devices zre deployed.
A. SUBSONIC
DATCOM METHOD
The zerolift equivalentparasitedrag area (ft2 ) due to the mutual interference of adjacent store
installations per' pair of adjacent store installations is given by D Is where
D
S"
is obtained from Figures.3.2.1.24a through 4c as a function of Mach number, Ys' dwL'
wA, TN, andAFT'
I1
F
'
. "
..  .  
 .  .

.
_.".
r:x.,.7
......
d
,r.wt..rw
<
.
;.
.
.
is the maximum width (in.) of the lead (most forward) store installation.
dw
TN
is the distance from the nose of the aftstore installation to the tail of the
leadstore installation (in.)
AFT
It is necessary to use interpolation for Mach numbers not presented in the figures.
~d~
WL
At A
'AFT
II
SKETCH (b)
Sample Problem
Given: A sweptwing aircraft symmetrically loaded as shown in Sketch (b).
Stores Data:
Ys
.1
10 in.
Additional Data:
M
3.2.1.22
'T.
0. 7
dwWL = 42 in.
d WANAF40 in.
TN
135 in.
,. . . ,
"
,' .
"
." ''

.
,
'
'
"
'
"
,'
Compute: Referring to Figures 3.2.1.24a through 4c, it can be seen that data are presented for
"M= 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2. It will, therefore, be necessary to obtain DI at each of the three
s
Mach numbers and interpolate to obtain the value at M = 0.7.
Compute the independent variables for Figures 3.2.1.24a through 4c:
YS
10

dw
+d
TN
0.122
42+40
135
=
0.659
Solution:
Ds = 0.075 ft2
(Figure 3.2.1.24a)
At M = 0.6
Dis = 0.407
(Figure 3.2.1.24)
At M= 0.9
0.460 ft2
1.2
0.265 ft2
(Figure 3.2.1.24c)
At M
At M
.6
fts
2
Interpolating the above three points at M = 0.7 yields Dis = 0.230 ft
B. TRANSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also applicable in the transonic speed range.
C. SUPERSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also applicable in the supersonic speed
range. Although no design curves are presented beyond M 1.2, the existing curves can be cross
plotted and extrapolated to M = 1.6 with reasonable success.
"
REFERENCE
1.
Gallagher, R. D., Jimenez, G., Light, L. E., and Thames, F. C.: Technique for Predicting Arcraft Aeredynan'c Effects Due to
External Stores Carricege.AFFDLTR7595, Volumes I and II, 1975. (U)
3'."
[3.
2. 1.23
.
T44
00
31
HE.
tro
"Itt
3.21.24
b.
r77:
C!l
.
*i
3212
00
,~00
'+
C"
:_+


__
&
",
',
It
. .

: ",":":::
.
": : 
::i
3 .2 .1.25
: .: , :.::, i..
_ ._: :
.
...t:i.:... L .t......
...
 : ...
: 
,,.
0

III
II
*1 Cl
zt
0'0
(NC
03.2.1.24
Airil 1978
Note that D
SKETCH (a)
Sample Problem
Given: A highwing aircraft with a pylonmounted single store as shown in Sketch (a).
M
0.75
AY= !2in.
=0.290 ft 2
(Figure 3.2.1.33)
Solution:
3.2.1.31
I"L
,
".".
B. TRANSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section can be applied in the transonic speed range up
to a Mach number of 0.95. Extrapolation of the data beyond this Mach number is not
recommended due to the uncertain nature of the interference effects.
C. SUPERSONIC
No method is presented to estimate the fuselageinterference effect on drag in the supersoaic speed
range.
REFERENCE
1.
Gallagher, R. D., Jimenez, G., Light, L. E., end Thames, F. C.: Technique for Predicting Aircraft Aerodynamic Effects Due to
External Stores Carriage. AFFDLTR7595, Volumes I and II, 1975. (U)
3.2.1.32
.. ,..
"
.
'
VI
IL
,7
/!ii
cia
_u
oz
C>Z
II
32.1.33z

cI 0
.i
C
April 197o
..
A method is presented in this section for estimating the liftinduced equivalentparasitedrag area
due to an externalstore installation. The method is applied separately to
each installation
(armament station). For all fuselagemounted store installations, the equivalentparasitedrag area
due to lift is considered to be negligible.
The Datcom Method is taken from Reference 1 and is empirical in nature. The method is applicable
to aircraft of conventional design and essentially symmetrical store shapes with no major shape
protubefaoces. The limitations on configuration and Machnumber range are summarized in
Table 3.2A. A.dditional limitations and assumptions pertaining to the method are listed below:
I.
The empirical design curves used in the method do not provide data below M = 0.6,
although the method has been verified for some cases below this speed. Caution should be
used when extrapolating the curves below the given Machnumber range.
2.
3.
The method has not been verified for configurations in which flaps, slats or other
flowdisrupting devices are deployed.
11*
4.
5.
The data base used in deriving the method relied heavily on sweptwing tacticalcombataircraft windtunnel data.
6.
A. SUBSONIC
DATCOM METHOD
The storeinstallation drag due to lift is a function of aircraft lift coefficient, wing aspect ratio, and
an empirical factor. This drag contribution is negative for all configurations for which the method is
applicable. For wingpylonmountedstore installations, the equivalentparasitedrag area (ft 2 ) due
to lift is given by
D.
46.875 C A R.
L
3.2.2a
where
obtained from test data or can be estimated using Sections 3.1.3 and 4.5.1.1.
Aw
Ri
is the normalized, incremental drag due to lift obtained from Figure 3.2.23 as a function
of z, dw, and Mach number where
3.2.21
"
isTthe.m ax im u m .r.
d...h.o fh s.
.,)..
is the maximum depth of the store installation (in.). (See Sketch (a).)
dwis the maximum width of the store installation (in.). (See Sketch (a).)
It is necessary to use interpolation for Mach numbers not presented in the figares.
wd
SKETCH (a)
Sample Problem
Given: A sweptwing subsonic fighter aircraft (Reference 2) symmetrically loaded at the
inboardwing stations with pylonmounted TER's, each containing two 500lb bombs. This
is
the
same
configuration
analyzed
in
the
Sample
Problem
of Paragraph A
of
Section 3.2.1. 1.
Additional Data:
M
0.6
a8'
CL
0.185
Aw=2,91
38.1 in.
d,,
25.6 in.
Compute:
z dw
144
R
(25.6)(38.1)2

144
 0.0025
= 6.77 ft 2
(Figure 3.2.23)
Solution:
9I
Di = 46.875 C Aw Ri
(Equation 3.2.2a)
This result is used in the Sample Problem of Paragraph A of Section 3.2.3 as part of the
totald"agincreneili coniputation.
3.2.22
B. TRANSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is applicable in the transonic speed range.
C. SUPERSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is applicable in the supersonic speed range up
to a Mach number of 1.6. The user should use caution in extrapolating the method beyond this
speed.
REFERENCES
1.
Gallagher, R. D., Jimenez, G., Light, L. E,, and Thames, F. C.: Technique for Predicting Aircraft Aerodynamic Effects Due to
External Stores Carriage. AFFDLTR.7595, Volumes I and II, 1975. (U)
2.
. 
.019
01
1.2
'.6
0
8
zd
12
16
(ft2 )
144
3.2.23
April 1978
The method has been verified for the Machnumber range given in Table 3.2A. The user
should use caution in extrapolating the empirical curves beyond the given Machnumber
range.
2.
3.
The method has not been verified for configurations in which flaps, slats, or other
flowdisrupting devices are deployed.
4.
5.
The data base used in deriving the method relied heavily on sweptwing tacticalcombataircraft windtunnel data.
6.
The procedure for computing the totaldragcoefficient increment is a summation process in which
equivalent.parasitedrag areas for each store installation (armament station) are added together and
divided by the wing reference area. Zeroliftdrag contributions are computed by the methods of
Section 3.2.1. These include contributions of the basic installation (computed in Section 3.2. 1. 1),
adjacentstore interference (computed in Section 3.2.1.2), and fuselage interference (computed in
Section 3.2,1.3). Dragduetolift contributions are computed in Section 3.2.2.
A. SUBSONIC
DATCOM METHOD
The totalaircraft dragcoefficient increment due to externalstore installations and based on wing
reference area, SW, is given by
NN
N1
SACn
Sw
(Dut)
j=2
! 11
IDkXZ
k=O
V=0
(D1)
]
(Di)j
3.2.3a
3=l
3.2.31
where
SW
N1
(DB)j
NP
is the total number of pairs of adjacentstore installations carried. (See Sketch (a).)
PAIR 1
F1
PAIR 3
SKETCH (a)
(D 1
DSk
NF
(Diz
(Di)m
Reference 1 states that prediction errors for store incrementaldrag are nominally 10 to 15 percent,
resulting in an overall accuracy within 5 percent of the totalaircraftdrag coefficient. A comparison
of test data With results calculated by this method is provided in Table 3.2.3A. Additional
comparisons of test and calculated results are found in Reference 1.
3.2.32
Sample Problem
'2
' '
Additional Characteristics:
Sw
0.6
260ft2
(Additional geometric data are providecd in the Sample Problems of Sections 3.2.1.1 and
3.2.2.)
DB
Di
= 0.063 ft 2 (1 side)
D f = 0 (lowwing configuration)
Compute:
= 2 (two store installations)
SNI
NP
NF
Solution:
AC 0D= S1DB)j
S
(DW +
j=
"
k.I
'=
(Di)N
(Equation 3.2.3a)
m=
0 anC (D1 )
k
(D f/2k
+
0,
+(Di)2
Sw
<'
S W
[2DB + 2Di
(symmetrical installations)
SW
[(2)(1.498) + (2)(0.063)I
0.0110
3.2.33
Values of ACD at other Mach numbers are shown in comparison to test data from Reference 2 in
Sketch (b).
.03"
TEST VALUES
.02
REF. 2
CALCULATED
_.
ACD
"

.01
1.
.9
.8
MACH NUMBER, M
.7
.6
SKETCH (b)
B. TRANSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid in the transonic speed range. The
user is cautioned that due to the difficulties of predicting drag in the transonic region (especially
interference effects), the method is generally less accurate than in the subsonic and supersonic speed
ranges.
C. SUPERSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid in the supersonic speed range up
to the Machnumber limits indicated in Table 3.2A. Caution should be used when extrapolating
data flom the figures beyond the given Machnumber range since the method has not been
substantiated beyond these limits.
REFERENCES
1.
Gallagher, R. D., Jimenez, G., Light, L. E., and Thames, F. C.: Technique for PredictingAircraft Aerodynamic Effects Due to
ternal Stores Carriage. AFFDLTR7595, Volumes I and I, 1975. (U)
2.
Witzke, R. E.: Aerodynamic Data for Model TA4F Operational Flight Trainer. McDonnell Douglas Corporation Rept.
DAC67425, 1968. (U)
3.
Bonine, W. J., at al.: Model F/R F48C Aerodynamic Derivatives. McDonnell Douglas Corporation Rept. 9842, 1964 (Rev.
1971). (U)
3,2.34
I.
=.
"
" .".
.. .
..
. .: . ..
". .
. .
'=
."
'.
" . !
TABLE 3.2.3A
SUBSONIC EXTERNALSTORE DRAG
DATA SUMMARY AND SUBSTANTIATION
I
,,
Ref
2
. 
AC
0
Loading Description
Wing Station Mounting
Left Inboard Pylon;
Empty
AC
5CD
calc
test
calctest
Cruise

0.6
0.8
0.9
0.95
0.00061
0.00066
0.00087
0.00113
0.00060
0.00071
0.00090
0.00105
0.00001
0.00005
0.00003
0.00008
Cruise
0.6
0.8
0.00044
0.00052
0.00061
0.00076
0.00017
0.00024
I'0.9
0.00067
0.00098
0.00031
0.95
0.00084
0.00117
0.00033
Cruise
0.6
0.8
0.9
0.00141
0.0139
0.00169
0.00090
0.00111
0.00195
0.00051
0.00028
0.00026
0.C
0.8
0.9
0.0110
0.01572
0.0195
0.0058
0.0076
0.0117
0.0052
0.0096
0.0078
0.6
0.00308
0.8
0,00446
0.95 10.00582
0.00270
0.00344
0.00605
0.00102
0.00023
0.6
000100
0.00003
j
Wing Station Mounting
Left Inboard PylonMounted Single:
500lb borrb
Cruise
Empty
Cruise
4 missiles
Average Error
0.00097
0.00038
CalcTeSt
0.00180
3r2
3.23
S .
.r
..
a. '
"
;7
'
 4 .
 "
.,
..
"
April 1978
The total neutralpoint shift is the sum of the shifts computed by the methods of Sections 3.3.1,
3.3.2, and 3.3.3.
The Datcom Methods are applicable to aircraft of conventional design and essentially symmetrical
store shapes with no major shape protuberances. The methods are limited to the storeloading
configurations and Machnumber range presented in Table 3.3A. The methods are applicable to
mixed loading configurations obtained by combining two or more loadings specified in Table 3.3A.
The methods are subject to additional limitations specifically noted in each of the sections that
follow.
TABLE 3.3A
LOADING AND FLIGHT CONDITION LIMITATIONS
Mounting
Carriage
Location
Mode
Mach
Number
Range
Carriage Rack
Single
Pylon
CL
Range
0.6  2.0
Multiple
SWing
0.6
* 1.6
0  0.2
Pylon

Single
Tangent Mounted
Fuselage
(Centerline)
Pylon + MER
Multiple
'Tangent MER
REFERENCE
I1.
Gallagher, R. D., Jimenez, G., Light, L. E., and Thames, F. C.: Technique for Predicting Aircraft Aerodynamic Effects Due to
External Stores Carriage. AFODLTR7595, Volumes I and II, 1975. (U)
3.31
"
,r*
" =
':'
t '':
'
'
_
~
April 1978
'
I.
2.
The method has been verified for the Machnumber range given in Table 3.3A. Caution
should be used in extrapolating the empirical curves beyond the given Machnumber
range.
3.
The method has not been verified for configurations in which flaps, slats or other
flowdisrupting devices are deployed.
4.
The method gives the best results for an angleofattack range from 0 to 80, although the
method can be used for higher angles of attack.
5.
The data base used in deriving the method relied heavily on sweptwing tacticalcombataircraft windtunnel data.
6.
7.
8.
9.
The effect due to a pair of symmetrical installations can be computed by doubling the effect of one
side.
A. SUBSONIC
DATCOM METHOD
The neutralpoint shift in inches, positive for aft shift, due to tile transfer of lift from the store
installations to the clean aircraft is given by
3.3.11
.
..
_..
,
, ...
.
,t
.~* 
p, _
? ,
, ...
,p,
,..  .
I,"
.",.
"
.'
,,
J.,e
,+ ,+, ..
+, .
''
"
I.
.
"::"'"i=l
,
.A
xn.p.1
j=1
=....
CL
' .si
NNIn~
3.3.1a
K
S++
where
NI
i
1,
'is
Sj
CL
CL,
La SB (KNB) + (CLa)S]
(per deg)
3.3.1b
I. "where
, ..
Sw
S(CL)
SB
KNB
1.0 for O
3.3.1c
<220
(O  22)
KNB
KNB
1.0 + 0.65
68
for 220<On
O <90
3.3.1<
where
n0is the storenose halfcone angle (deg).
.CL)
S
3"3
,0
3.3.12
SF
3.3.1e
.1
where
B,
OforbF.<ds
e= bF
3.3.1f
3.3.1g
d, for bF > (s
where bF and ds are the storefin span and maximum store diameter
(in.), respectively.
Xs
is the distance (in.) from the leading edge of the mean aerodynamic chord j, to the
point midway between the mounting lugs of the installed store for store j on
installation i, positive in the aft direction. (See Sketch (a).)
t I"
~i
I+ji
IXa
/C
SKETCH (a)
Xa.c.
3.3.13
[r,
CL
is the wingbody cleanaircraft liftcurve slope (per deg) obtained from test data or
OWB
Ks
1,
In this casen
K5
FR) + F 2 (~N
wr FK
1 SNiR)
where
FR)
zij FR
1, .
. . N1
3.3. 1h
XSN
XS
ii
i
ci
for j
3.3.1i
where
xSN
Ci
XsN
41 "xsN
stores 1,3
0
j on
_________
z
(STORES 1, 2)
(measured in
platform view
at semispan
location of
store J.)
(.STORES3,4)
SKETCH (b)
cij
3.3.14
FR
is given by
SI.,
FR
3.3.1j
where
F2 (SN
"F2
S1.
.Sp
2'
~jFR) is given by
SN
F(Z.) F2F(F )
'S
3.3.1k
where
F21(
"F22 ("ii)
zlij  z
forj = 1
3.3.1 k
where
Zij2.
4(See
Ci)
store
on store installation
i (in.). (See
"Sketch(b).)
F2 3 (FR)
2.
F I\(sN J + F 2 (MI j)
1, 2, 3
3.3.1rm
3.3.15
'
v.,'
;~
. i,:
"'

...
' ...
.~...
..
..
. ."
"
where
F (ISNi.)is a store longitudinaiplaceinent parameter for TER carriage
(X obtained from Figure 3.3.119b where XSN
is given by Equation
3.3. 1 i.
F2 (M, j)
FRONT VIEW
SKETCH (c)
3.
Ks..
3.3. 1n
where
we (XsN)
3.3.1 i.
F2('SN., zi, M) is given by
F 2 (XSN,
ij, M)
F 2 3 (M)
3.3.16
LL
t
 
3.3.1o
"F2 1 (S
"2
)is'
a MER store longitudinalplacement
obtained from Figures 3 .3.122a and 22b.
IJ/
F2
23
factor
SF
.
4'2;6
6 2 4
a La
315
3
513
TOP VIEW
SKETCH (d)
4.
..
1 and hencejI
3.3.17
,,
................
S.
3.3.1p
0.10
Ks
(M,j)]
(j
1,2,3,4,5,6)
3.3.1q
where j coincides with the MER station number defined by Sketch (d).
1,2
Forj
Forj
6.
1.0
3.3.1 r
3, 4, 5, 6
isj
F1 (M)
is a MER Macheffect factor for fuselagetangentmounted installations obtained from Figure 3.3.127b as a function of Mach number.
F 2 (M,j)
is a MER Mach and storestation effect parameter for fuselagetangentmounted installations obtained from Figures 3.3.1,28a
through 28d as a function of Mach number and MER station, j.
For j
Ksi= Is F, (M)
3.3.1s
where
3.3.18
isj
F1 (M)
2,
For j
K5
F1 (M)
3.3.1t
where
F1 (M)
Forj 4, 6
K = is [F,(M)+F
Ii
3.3.1u
2 (M,j)]
where
is defined for Configuration 5.
is
F1 (M)
Given: A sweptwing subsonic fighter aircraft from Reference 2, symmetrically loaded as follows:
~STORE
"NO. j
"..
INSTALLATION
111
NO. i
FRONT VIEW
3.3.19
I.
.Ouboad
Sto.rof
STore
Rack
TYPO
Spanwise
Station
MountingTpetoe
Centerline
MER
Pylon
500lb Bomb5
Inboard Wing
ing
TER
Pylon
5004lb Bomb2
Sigle
Pylon
5004lb Bomb
Aircraft Data'.
c.
129.6 in.
260 ft2
*Sw
Xac
(in.)
20
E
3.0317
AddtiorInsallDatio a: a
2,4
213
(inin(n)
82.73.7.8B8
.08.
11,7
Is
CL
33.05 in.
NuStation,
186 in.
3110.8
" " .
* q'
"q'.
q' ?
""1
qY
..  " "
*' . . . . . . 
. *. . . .
"
*.
. * "
 * "
"
Compute:
To identify the terms that need to be computed, expand Equation 3.3.1a for the N, store
installations and nsj stores on each installation. Since the aircraft is symmetrically loaded with
respect to the fuselage centerline, installations 1 and 5 are identical, as are 2 and 4. Therefore,
it is only necessary to compute the terms (in Equation 3.3.1a) for installations l and 2, and
"then double their values. The results are then added to the terms for installation 3. The indices
for the summation process are summarized in the table below:
n5 i
1,2
2,3,4,5,6
Note that for i = 2, station 3 is not loaded and for i 3, station 1 is not loaded. Therefore,
terms for these locations are sct equal to zero.
AX n.p. numerator (from Equation 3.3.1a):
1
NI
ns
i=1
j=1
(xsi
K S CL
+1(3I
K 22 CL.0S2
aS
+K CL
35
c$
(XS
XS2
I
xa.c)
xj,+ I(S2
S2 C,. 0 S 32 (X
X3
0 2  Xa~
xs33
(x,~ xaco)
KS34
+,
K5
$34
(x
5, xac.;.
36
SCLa
S
S
+
+
NI
N'
a si
Ksij
CL
*
.
3.3.111
+2
KCL
K s532KS33Cs3
1L~ 11
21L
K
+K
WB
+K
S34a L
]32
+KC
2CL1
S2CL21+K
s35
S3 4
21
aL
+
S3 5
S36 CL
2CLs22
s32CLas32
S3 6
xN
S
SF
FR
794
Z11I cli
FI(XSN,
F21 (SN
23.2
87.8
0.134
17.6.8
7.
FR)
0.264
0.200
0.035
(Equation 3.3.1j)
(Equation 3.3.1R)
(Figure 3.3.117)
1.70
(Figure 3.3.118a)
F2 2 ( 1 1 ) = 0
(Figure 3.3.118b)
F2 3 (FR) = 0.53
(Figure 3.3.119a)
F2 (XSNII,IFR)
F21 (xSN)F22(I)F23(FR)
(Equation 3.3.1k)
=(1.70)(0)(0.53) =0
Ks
(CL)SB
KNB
1.0
Be = bF
SF
3.3.112
(Equation 3.3.1h)
(Figure 3.3.116)
ds
2.70
(0,191)(10)
(CL)
ZllFR)
0.035 + 0 = 0.035
+ F2 (XSN
= (0.191 x 106)(2.7)2
CL
UL
~~375 [( '
S
C s
KNB + CL )
)
w
(Equation 3.3.1b)
SF
375
S2 1
9.
 0.182
c2 1
XS
XSN22
SNx
SN"22
FI (N21)
FI (XSN
30.0
0
0.270
cS22
z
=0.280 (centerline sta., j = 1)
]
(Figure 3.3.119b)
F 2 (M,j)
0 forj
(Figure
F 2 (M,j)
0 forj
(Figure 3.3.120b)
KS
FI(:SN)+F2 (M )
Ks
0.280 + 0
21
K22
21.7

3 3
. .120a)
(Equation
3 .3
.lm)
0.280
0.710+0 = 0.710
b.
Ks3j where j
2, 3, 4, 5, 6
"3.3.113
L..
,
, . ,
~ ~.
,
"
For j
F1 (M) = 0.45
(Figure 3.3.130b)
Ks
F1 (M)
KS32
For j
=0.45
3, 5
dwing
Cr
,0
 186
1
0 for j = 3, 5
(Figure 3.3.127a)
(Figure 3 .3,13,0a)
F,(M) = 0.042
Kbij
Is
I=
KS33
For j
F1 (M)
KS3
(OXO.042) = 0
4, 6
is
= 0 for j
 4,
(Figure 3.3.127a)
(Figure 3,3.130b)
F2 (M,j) = 0 for j = 4, 6
(Figure 3.3.131)
Ks
= Ks
(Equation 3.3.1u)
(0)[0.45+01 =0
n, i
2(0.035)(0.000233)(61.2  33.05)
(0.280)(0.000233)(31.7  3 3 .05)
 33.05)S(0.710)(0.000233)(31.7
3.3.114
+ (0.45)(0.000233)(22.4  33.05)
=
0.006896
NI
CL
B+
n$
fi
j1
+ (0.710)(0.000233)1 + (0.45)(0.000233)
"0.06055
Solution:
Numerator
= Denominator
0.006896
0.06055
0.114 in.
,Xn1
and Axn.
(computed in Sections
3.3.2 and 3.3.3, rFspectively) in the Sample Problem of Section 3.3.4 to obtain the total shift in
neutral point.
B. TRANSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid in the transonic specd range. The
expected accuracy of the method is less than that in the subsonic speed range.
C. 3UYERSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid in the supersonic speed range up
__
to a Mach number of 1.6 to 2.0 as indicated in Table 3.3A. The maximum Mach number provided
in the figures should indicate the level to which the method is substantiated. Caution should be used
when extrapolating the data beyond the Mach range provided in the figures.
REFERENCES
1.
Gallegher, R. .. J.imenez, G,, Light, L. E,, and Thames, F. C.: Technique for Predicting Aircraft Aerodynamic Effects Due to
External Stores Carriage. AFiDLTR7595, Volumes I and II, 1975. (U)
2.
Watzke, R. E.: Aerodyniamic Data for Model TA.4F Operational Flight Trainer. McDonnell Douglas Corporation Rapt.
DAC67425. 1968. (U)
3.3.115
I~.
\
c
ci
".
3,3.116
LQ
.
I'

LO
"p0
LLJ
CDc
3.3.117
41
"F
F 1 (SN)
2
.
.2
. 4
. 6
. 8
XSN
..
"
P..!
.2
".__ _
F22(Y ) .
..
.10
.12
.14
3,3118
.~
.16
I
.18
1.0
0.2
.4
.6
78
1.2
I..4
XS N
(a)
F 2 (M,J)
O

. 4
.6
.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.4
1.6
MACH NUMBER, M
(b)
.4
F 2 (Mj)
j2
0
. 4
1.2
1.0
.8
.6
MACH NUMBER, M
(c)
.4
(Mj)
___
.6
j=3
___
___
__


.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
MACH NUMBER, M
FIGURE 3.3.120
3.3.120
1.6
1.8_
SHOULDER STATIONS
~~~1.6
(j = 3,4,5,6)
___
_
1.2 .
SCENTERLINE STATIONS
.....(i =1,2)
S
I.4
,40
r0
0N
. 4..2
.6:
F.8
Xs N
;',.,
FIGURE 3.3.121
3.3.121
S,,
.
" "
,d , ,
. ..
...
...
...
. . .  :  T
" : 
: ? : r::. 7 C "
'
"T
.
..
..
...
..
'
"
"
" '
(a)
CENTERLINE STATIONS
F21(XSN..)

2/
. 4
.2
.4
.6
.2
.4
.6
3S N
2 (b)
SHOULDER STATIONS
F 2 1 (VsN)o_
0
.""4
. 2
xS N
FIGURE 3.3.122
3.31
" ,.
3.3'.122
,"..
..
'.i
..
..
'
.
.
,.
_.,2
 ..
..
CENTERLINE STATIONS
F22 (T~
.2
0
.20
.22Z.4.2
.6
_ _
.30
SHOULDER STATIONS

.4
.2
____
0
.14
FIGURE 3.3.123
.16
.18
.20
.22
.24d.
F23 (M)
(a)
CENTERLINE
STATIONS
1..
.8
.6
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.4
1.6
MACH NUMBER, M
(b)
SHOULDER STATIONS
I!
223(M)

0
.6
.8
1.0
!1.2
MACH NUMBER, M
FIGURE 3.3.124
33.124
~~~
:(Ml
j)
.6
.8
(b)
__
1,0
1.2
MACH NUMBER, M
__
__
1.4
1.6
.6.
101.2
1.41.
.84
F3 (M'') .
0.6
.8
1.01.1416
MACH NUMBER, M
FIGURE 3.3.125
(d)
j =4
F 3 (Mj)
. 4
.6.8
.0
.11.
F 3 (M.j)
1.4
1.6
1.4
1.6
MACH NUMBER, M
(e)
.8
1.2

.4
0.6
.8
1.0
1.2
MACH NUMBER, M
j6
F(MJ)
.
. 4
0
F1F
.6
.8
1.0
MACH NUMBER, M
FIGURE 3.3.125
3.3.126
(CONTD)
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.2
.8
__
.4
oI
.2
.4
dwing
.5
r/
..
:.
"
~ 1~~F
(M)
t.
.6
.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
MACH NUMBER, M
I ]
(a)____
.8
_ _
_ ____
2
/
F2 (M) .
0.6
.8
.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.4
1.6
MACH NUMBER, M
(b)
. 4
F 2 (M)
6
0
.6
.8
1.0
1.2
MACH NUMBER, M
FIGURE 3.3.128
3.3. i28
i.4
""
(c)_____
j
F 2 (M)
 W:.9
*',

,
:,
__
3,5
0
1.2
1.0
MACH NUMBER, M
.8
.6
1A
1.6
1.4
1.6
(d)
=
F 2 (M)
.
"4
4,6
.
.
"
.8
.6
1.0
1.2
MACH NUMBER, M
4
FIGURE 3.3.128
4I
(CONTD)
3.3.129
FA(M)
o
.
. 4
.6
.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.4
1.6
MACH NUMBER, M
(b)
.8
I2,4,6
.4
F, (M)

0 .6
.8
1.0
1.2
MACH NUMBER, M
,.
 .
 .
741,
.,
'.
. . , .


I!
F 2(M,
4,6
...
.4 .
_
0/
.6
.8
1. 03
1.1.4
1.6
MACIH NUMBER, M
.FIGm'IE 3.3.131
"FUSELAGEPYLONMOUNTED INSTALLATIONS
3.3.131
I
April 1978
2.
The method has been verified for the Maclinumber range given in Table 3.3A. Caution
should be used ill extrapolating the empirical curves beyond the given Machnumber
range.
3.
The method has not bcen verified for configurations in which flaps, slats or other
flowdisrupting devices are deployed.
4.
The method pves the best results for angleoattack range from 0 to 8), although the
method can be used fur higher angles of attack,
S5, The data base used il deriving the method relied heavily on sweptwing tacticalco11nbataircraft windtunnel data.
6.
7.
8,
9.
The eftect due to a pair of symmetrical installations can be computed by doubling the effect of one
side.
A. SUBSONIC
DATCOM METHOD
The neutralpoint shift in inches, positive tfo alt shift, due to wing flowfield interference effects is
given by
6s(x~~ 2
+K 1
3.3.2a
3.3.21
where
.. 4ig reference
area (ft 2 ).
Sw
is tl
NI
n~i
CL,
S,
S.i
1.
2.
3.
3.3.2b
3.3.2c
10
= 17.4
Ax'
/'
K2
'
1.
3.2(a).)
0e
3.3.22
a
SKETCH (a)
K3
Cts'
M =0.6
165 in.
bw/2
Installation No., i
XMLi/C
1,5
2,4
0.204
0.180
78.8
113.75
Y.
3
0.445
0
Compute:
Sw
NI
S=
260
52.0
260
5
Since all stores are identical and there are a total of I I stores,
N1
i=
1 j=
=1 CL
CL
S
Sij
=
(11)(0.000233)
0.00256 per deg
3.3.23
Since the wing installations I and 2 are symmetrical, only one side is calculated and the result
multiplied by 2.
a 1
6s
3
20
(Equation 3.3.2b)
= 10
(Equation 3.3.2c)
(Equation3.3.2d)
=17.4
= 0.03
(Figure 3.3.26a)
yi(bw/2)=
0.689
K1
"K2
K3
0.39
(Figure 3.3.211 a)
Ax n,.A'
0.02
yi/(bw/2)=
0.478
K1
0.37
(Figure 3.3.29b)
0.25
(Figure 3.3.211 b)
K2
K3
Ho
3.3.24
Ax'n'P.2
= 0.125
(Figure 3.3.26d)
K1
= 1.0
(Fuselagemounted installation)
K2
1.0
K3
N,
S+6~~Si AX'n.p.+
L; ,
1K2K3)i
K K K
iEquation
_.6s
26
Xn.p.
"52.
P2
K 1 K 2 3)i=
+ K K K
, n pP2K
+ KK 2 K
$3 (AXzn'P3
(third term of
3.3.2a)
i=2
=3
[="')('..[
;:"
WSi
An.p2
\ i
~~=1
="
(52.0)(0.002.56)(0.575)
L i
=
AX'n.,.
K1 K2 K 3
(Equation 3.3.2a)
0.077 in.
The calculated value of Axn.p. 2 is summed with AXn.p.1 and AXn.p. 3 (computed in Sections 3.3.1
and 3.3.3,respectively) in the Sample Problem of Section 3.3.4 to obtain the total shift in neutral
point.
B. T RANSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid in the transonic speed range. The
expected accuracy of the method is less than that in the subsonic speed range.
"C.SUPERSONIC
,'
K"
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid in the supersonic speed range up
to a Mach number of 1.6 to 2.0 as indicated in Table 3.3A. The maximum Mach number provided
in the figures should indicate the level to which the method is substantiated. Caution should be used
when extrapolating the data beyond the Machnumber range provided in the figures.
REFERENCES
4i
Effects Due to
1.
Gallaghor, R. D., Jimenez, G., Light, L. E., and Thames F. C.: Technique for Predicting Aircraft .erodynarnic
External Stores Carriage. AFFDLTR7595, Volumes I and II, 1975. (U)
2.
Watzke, R. E.: Aerodynamic Data for Model TA4F Operational Flight Trainer. McDonnell Douglas Corporation Rept.
1968. (U)
"DAC67425,
3.3.25
A!
HJ
co
_

00
777.
0
_._2
HI
3.3.26z
C)i
Q1
(b)
.
Ax'n.p. 2
.6
.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
MACH NUMBER, M
(c)____
WING
,x,.
____
___
MER CARRiAGE
o
,.6
.8
.....
1.0
1.2
MACH NUMBER, M
1.4
1.6
1.4
1.6
(d)
CENTERLINE CARRIAGE
AXnp,2
0.
.6
.8
1.0
1.2
MACH NUMBER, M
FIGURE 3.3.2 6
?.
(CONTD)
3.3.27
(a)
WING SINGLE CARRIAGE
K1
.1.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
Yi
bw/2
(b)
WIG TER CARRIAGE
0*.2
*
.4
.3
.5
.6
.5
.6
Yi
bw/2
"""WING
KI
.2
MER CARRIAGE
0
.3
.4
Yi
bw 2
FIGURE 3.3.28
3.3.28
.7
,.....
..S..... .,  
..
.
, :.
'.*.
.:,."i "':'7
".77
"
__
(a)
H_: ._
_____________
S~K2
1
.3
.2
.3
.4
SM L/c
3I
(b)
I
WING TER CARRIAGE
2
K2
.1
.1
XM
FIGURE 3.3.29
L /C
!'i.
', ..
..
....
.. _
>
....... '
. .....
"...
0 T
1
.2
.1
.3
XM4 L/C
(d)
__
0.1
.4
.2
XM L
FIGURE 3.3.29
3.3.210
(CONTD)
.8
.6
/0'
1.0
.4
CD
4!4
V.
".
U

_U
.U
.0
..
1.
MACH NUMBER, M
1 (d)__
_______
CENTERLINE CARRIAGE
K3
.8
.6
FIGURE 3.3.21
03.3.212
(CONTD)


1.2
1.0
MACH NUMBER, M
1.4
.6
April 1978
th
associated with the method. Caution Should be used in extrapolating the empirical curves
beyond the given Mabhyumber range.
2,The method has not been verified for configur~ations in which flaps, slats, or other
flowdisrupting devices are deployed.
A. SUBSONIC
DATCOM METHOD
The neutralpoint shift in inctes, positive for aft shft, due to the change in
store installations is given by
3ail
effectiveness from
NI

3.3.3a
Ki K
here
'"
"Ni
?.:Axn
,,_.
,.ll
.n.p.3
t~gx~.P.3nKypKz
3,3.31
[ii
.L
. ...
.Z
, . ..
".
..
. . . . ..
WING
T.T
HORIZONTALTAIL
MIDLINE PLANE
HORIZONTAL TAIL
""
bb /2
SKETCH (a)
is the horizontaltail spanlocation factor obtained from Figure 33,36a as a function
Yi
of where
Ky,
yi
KZi
zr. is the vertical distance from the wing lower surface at installation i to the
horizontaltail midline plane (illustrated in Sketch (a)).
Sample Problem
Given: A sweptwing subsonicfighter aircraft from Reference 2 described in the Sample Problem of
Paragraph A of Section 3.3.1. (See Pages 3.3.19 and 3.3.110 for identification of store
installations.)
r.
Additional Data:
Y1 =
*
Zr 1
*i
3.3.32
113.75 in..
=r
59.8 in.
Y2= Y4=
zr
=r=
78.8 in.
59.8 in.
bH/2
68in.
0.6
....

,
q
.   ,4

,
Compute:
Expand Equation 3.3.3a to identify the terms that need to be computed, recalling that the
wing installations are symmetrically loaded. Installation 3 is a fuselage mounted installation
and the contribution of that installation is zero.
"nP.3 =(A"'
Ax
\
,P"32
3
KY2
2(Axlp)
K 2 k,1z2
= 0,80
Xn'P'3)
YJ
K Y1K 1I
0.48
Ax ,P.3)
A
nP3 )I
113.75
=
1.07
bH
11
bH/268
T59.8
_ 0.88
b"bIQ) =68
v.
"Y2
b/2
b
78.8
7y:2
59.
68
!.,bl/2
KY,
68
0.8
0.57
(Figure 3.3.36a)
Referring to Figure 3.3.30a it is seen that y /(hbi /2) is beyond the range of the design chart.
This suggests that if the store installation is far enough outboard of the tip of the horizontal
tail, the increment in neutralpoint shift due to that particular installation is negligible. Therefore, for this configuration it is assumed that Ky1 = 0.
Referring to Figure 3.3.3.'b it is seen that zr i!(htl/2) for both Installations I and 2 are well
,
"beyond the range of the dcsign chart. It seems reasonable to assurne that the value of K,. will
asymptotically approach zero as the vertical distance between the store installation and the
horizontal tail is increased. Therefore, for this configuration it is assunied Ihat
Kzj = K2,
0.
Solution:
NI
Ax
X,'n
Kyz
(Ftluation 3.3.3a)
3,3.33
1,
Gallagher, R. D., Jimenez, G., Light, L. E., and Thames F. C.: T,chnique for Predicting Aircraft Aerodynamic Effects Due to
External Stores Carriage. AFFDLTR7595, Volumes I and II, 1975. (U)
2.
Watz.ke, A. E.: Aerodynamic Data for Model TA4F Operational Flirjbt Trainer. McDonnell Douglas Corporation Rapt.
DAC67425, 1968. (U)
3.334
(a)
 I .
SINGLE CARRIAGE
.6
18.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.4
1.6
MACH NUMBER, M
(b)
MULTIPLE CARRIAGE
0
2.6
.8
1.0
1.2
MACH NUMBER, M
FIGURE 3.3.3 5
.~3.3.3S
K.I

. . "
"
""
"
".
. "
"
..
'
'
:2
"
""
"
"
"K..
l
.2
.4
:2
.6
.8
1.0
1.2
Yi
bH/2
FIGURE 3.3.36a
2,
Kz
4
. 2
. 1
.1
ZTi
bH/
FIGURE 3.3.36 b
3.3.36
.2
1.4
rrt.
.S,
. 7..7,
.
.
..
q.r... ..
".
April 1978
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The method has been verified for the Machnumber range given in Table 3.3A. Caution
should be used in extrapolating the empirical curves beyond the given Machnumber
range.
6.
The method has not been verified for configurations in which flaps, slats, or other
flowdisrupting devices are deployed.
7.
The method gives the best results for an angleofattack range from 0 to 8g, although the
method can be used for higher angles of attack.
8.
The data base used in deriving the method relied heavily on sweptwing tacticalcombataircraft windtunnel data.
9.
The procedure for computing the total neutralpoint shift requires calculation of increments due to
lift transfer from stores to aircraft, interference effects on the wing flow field, and change in tail
effectiveness. These increments are computed by the methods of Sections 3.3.1, 3.3.2, and 3.3.3,
respectively. The increments are computed for the entire loading configuration and then summed
by the method of this section to obtain the total increment.
A. SUBSONIC
DATCOM METHOD
The total neutralpoint shift in inches, positive for aft shift, due to externalstore installations is
given by
=
* '" "'3.3P.4
Ax
+ Ax
1
3.3.4a
+ Axn.p.3
.3.4I
.i:i3
~...
1.p

~~..
..

where
AXnp.1
is the shift in neutral point due to lift transfer from the stores to the clean aircraft
(in.), obtained from Section 3.3.1.
AXn.p.2
is the shift in neutral point due to the interference effects on the wing flow field
(in.), obtained from Section 3.3.2.
AXn..
is the shift in neutral point due to the change in tail effectiveness caused by external
stores (in.), obtaincd from Section 3.3.3.
Reference 1 states that the prediction accuracies are such that the predicted values of neutralpoint
shift are nominally within about 1 inch of the test values 60 percent of the time, and within 4
inches 92 percent of the time.
Sample Problem
Given: A sweptwing subsonicfighter aircraft from Reference 2 loaded with externalstore installations described in the Sample Problem of Paragraph A of Section 3.3.1.
Compute:
AXn.p.1 = 0.114
in.
Ax
= 0.077 in.
A
0 0(Sample
Axn.p.
= AX
+AX
+ Ax
= 0.114 + 0.077 + 0
(Equation 3.3.4a)
0.037 in.
B. TRANSONIC
The method presented in Paragrnmh A of this section is also valid in the transonic speed range. The
expected accuracy of the method is less than that in the subsonic speed range.
C. SUPERSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid in the supersonic speed range. The
expected accuracy of the method is less than that in the subsonic speed range.
REFERENCES
1.
Gallagher, H. D., Jimenez, G., Light, L. E., and Thames, F. C.: Technique for Predicting Aircraft Aerodynamic Effocts Due to
External Stores Carriage. AFFDLTR7595, Volumes I and II, 1975. (U)
2.
Watzke, R. E.: Aerodynamic Data for Model TA4F Operational Flight Trainer. McDonnell Douglas Corporation Rept.
DAC67425, 1968. lU)
3.3.42
April 1978
"LOADINGAND
MACHNUMBER LIMITATIONS
Mach
Mounting
Locatior
Carriage
Mode
Mount/Loading Type
Pylon
Number
Range
Empty
Single
0.6 
2.0
0.6
1.6
0.6 
2.0
Pylon  Store
Pylon 
Wing
Empty MER
Pylon  Empty
6'Single
Pylon  Store
Tangent  Empty MER
Tangent  Fully Loaded MER
Fuselage
0.6tfg 1.6
Tangent  Fully Loaded TER
Pylon  Emrpty MER
Pylon  Fully Loaded MER
Pylon  Empty TER
.'.
',Pylon
3.41
kit7.
The prediction method was developed from data based on an angle of attack of 50, No method is
provided to account for the effect of angleofattack char,e on side force, but the method is
considered to be valid throughout the normal cruise angleofattack range.
The method is subject to the following additional limitations and assumptions:
1.
The method has been verified for the Machnumber ranges given in Table 3.4A. Caution
should be used in extrapolating the empirical curves beyond the given Machnumber
ranges.
2.
'The method has not been verified for configurations in which flaps, slats, or other
flowdisrupting devices are deployed.
3.
4.
The data base used in deriving the method relied heavily on sweptwing tacticalcombataircraft windtunnel data.
5.
6.
The sideforcederivative increment is composed of a basic contribution due to the store installations and a contribution due to interference between adjacent installations (when separation
distance is sufficiently small).
A. SUBSONIC
DATCOM METHOD
The increment in C,
ACyo
2
Li~l
YAf
BO
i
3.4a
j=l1
where
SW
3.42
5'
PAIR 3
PAIR I
SKETCH (a)
YA
ACy
sideslipindue
effects from
(ft 2installations,
/deg) per degree
is
the sideforce
calculated
Stepto2interference
below.
externalstore
a pair
of adjacentcontribution
1.
2.
3.
Compute ACY
Mounting
Carriage
._
Empty
WingPylon
Full
MER
Empty
TER
Full
TER
FuselageTangent
10
11
FuselagePylon
12
13
14
15
16
17
YB
where
Bp
Empty
MER
Single
(Bp +B
+BN + Bx
By) KM
3.4b
Kpc h P
S
"B3.4c
144
3.43
Ko.
I.::
,,
.,:,. , ._:,,,
_"
,__."
.',.
....
"*o
..
.. '
'
:.. ..
...
'
where
Configuration
711
12
13
14
15
16
17
Kpc
.10
.15
.14
.14
.12
.12
.10
.15
.14
.14
.12
.12
I bc
SKETCH (b)
BR is the rack contribution.
For Configurations 2, 7, and 13 the store contribution is included and
BR
where
KF
bF 2 (0.09) d2
+3.4d
Kp 144 B
144 KF
bF
is the storefin span (in.). (Total span measured tiptotip. For V fins, the total
span of the actual fin and its mirror image.)
Configuration
"a
R
S
3.44
7t
j13
6j6
a9j
.325.2.183.183.325
10 1f12
.325 .183
183 0
14
15
16
17
"0
"B
N is the store contribution
For Configurations 1, 3, 5: 8, 10, 12 ,14, and 16 BNN
0.
BN
wherebe
0.0666
2t
R D + 1)
3.4e
is the maximum vertical span (in.) of the side projection of the store cluster in
a vcrn.cal plane, x.. iding protruding fins. (See Sketch (b).)
RD) is v corclation (actoi given by Figure 3.412 for Configurations 4, 9, and 15.
R D = 0 for Configurations 6, 11, and 17. All other terms in Equation 3.4e
0.
Kwhere
+BN)(KXP  1)
3.4f
r"v
3.4g
where
L2
the trailing edge of pylon, rack, or store as appropriate (i.e., the most
aft component), positive in the aft direction. (See Sketch (c).)
'4
c
is the local wing chord at the store installation (in.). (See Sketch (c).)
3.45
ca
_xAFT.
SAFT
SINGLE STORE
MULTIPLE STORES
SKETCH. (c)
By
.1
By =0
For wingpylonmounted configurations (Configurations 16) on lowwing aircraft,
By
Ky
b'/2
0.350
3.4i
0.350
34i
where
KM
Ky
Yi
y'
is the spanwise distance from the outboard edge of the fuselage to the location
of installation i (illustrated in Sketch (d)).
be
3.46
*..
*....
.1
"..*?'
'
':
,**.
,.''
':
'IV
:.
:.:
?
,<
>.
.:
'
doV
be
Iii
2
y i
SKETCH (d)
Step 2. Compute
'VA
3 .4 k
(R
is obtained from Equation 3.4b for the first of the pair of instaliations.
wheIy{)
is obtained from Equation 3.4b for the second of the pair of installations.
2
2!
(YB
RHEG
"r,?.
XF
is the absolute longitudinal distance' from the nose of one store installation to
the nose of the adjacent installation. (See Sketch (e).)
3.47
4'i
_,. 2:
'..
,.,'';7'..''.

:.'
..
....
.""
"
...
".
XA
is the absolute longitudinal distance from the trailing edge of one store
installation to the trailing edge of the adjacent installation. (See Sketch (e).)
and R are the lengths of the two store installations. (See Sketch e).)
3.4R
kAr
V
i
n.
SKETCH (e)
Problem
Given: A sweptwing subsonicfighter aircraft from Reference 2 with one 300gal tank, pylon
mounted on each wing.
S3.48
"".
"I.
Aircraft Data:
Sw = 260 ftt
Lowwing configuration
Store Data:
20.5
in.
ds
.h : 35.06 In.
+ type tinl,
lIstadation Data:
ip
11.2 ill.
0,320
0.288
z
37.3 in.
Additional D)ata:
M
0.
Compute:
for each installation. (Since the installations are symnetrical, only one side
Step I. Compute Y
K'.
Kbr
(Table 3.4C)
=0.15
"PC
(0.15)(11.2)2
14
14
B3p,

K1
(Equation 3. 4 c)
(0.09)
BR
K, HR14
.
0.1307
.
(Equation 3.4d)
144
)2
6.S
(0.082)(35.06)2
(0.09)(26.5)2
144
144
1.1389
BN is included in the BR computation (Configuration 2)
A2
A
0.365
= 0.77
(Figure 3.413)
(Figure 3.414, single store)
(1Kxp
+ A2 )(A, ) (maximum value of 1.0)
(Equation 3.4g)
S3.49
tf
77
(I +0,365)(0.77)
Bx= (Bp +BR +BN)(KxP
1.05;use Kxe
(Equation 3.4f)
1)
1.0

1)
0
Ky
(Figure 3.415)
1.95
Yi'
."
Ky
b/2
(Equation 3.4i)
0.350
=
0.0585
(Figure 3.416)
= 1.0
(Equation 3.4b)
YB =(Be + BR + BN + Bx + By)KM
S~=
Step 2. Compute Y^ for each pair of adjacent installations. In this case ther are no adjacent
= 0.
installations, and Y
Step 3.
C
Compute ACy
W
Sw
SW
~~~260
..
(YB)+L(YA]
ii
(.211.
(Equation 3.4a)
0i
(2
Values of ACy, at other Mach numbers have been calculated and are shown in comparison to test
data from Reference 2 in Sketch (c).
3.410
REF 2
CALCULATED
ACYO
(per deg)
0.004
0.0080.6
..I
0.7
0.8
MACH NUMBER, M
0.9
.0
SKETCH (c)
B. TRANSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid in the transonic speed range. The
user is cautioned that the expected accuracy of the method is less than that expected in the
subsonic speed range. A comparison of test data with results calculated by this method at transonic
speed is presented in Table 3.4E.
C. SUPERSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid in the supersonic speed range up
to a Mach number of 1.6 to 2.0 as indicated in Table 3.4A. The maximum Mach number provided
in the figures should indicate the level to which the method is substantiated by Reference 1.
Caution should be used when extrapolating the data beyond the Machnumber range provided in the
figures. A comparison of test data with results calculated by this method at supersonic speeds is
presented in Table 3.4E.
REFERENCES
1.
Gallagher, R. D., Jimenez, G., Ligh!. L. E., and Thames, F. C.: Technique for Predicting Aircraft Aerodynamic Effects Due to
External Stores Carriage. AFFDLTR7595, Volumes I and II, 1975. (U)
2.
3.
Bonine, W. J., et al: Model F/RF.4BC Aerodynamic Derivatives. McDonnell Douglas Corporation Rept. 9842, 1964 (Rev.
1971). (U)
DAC67425,
"
Data for Model TA4F Operational Flight Trainer. McDonnell Douglas Corporation Rept.
3.411
TABLE 3.4E
SUBSONIC AND SUPERSONiC EXTERNALSTORE SIDE FORCE
DATA SUMMARY AND SUBSTANTIATION
Ref
Loading Description
(deg)
Station
Mounting
SWing
Left
Inboard
PylonMounted Single: Missile
Right Inboard PylonMounted Single; Missile1
5
5
5/
CyO
calc
(per deg)
ACyP
test
(per deg)
ACy"
calctest
(per deg)
0.6
0.8
0.0047
0.0044
0.0040
0.0046
0.0007
0.0002
0.9
0.95
0,0046
0.0048
0.0050
0.6
0.9
0.0004.
0.0051
0.0003
0.0035
0.0039
0.0015
0.0020
0.0020
0.0019
,2
0.0042
.
0.0014
16
0.0043
 0.0020
00023
0.0020
0.0002
00022

08
.6
.0
R\
.2
 .\... ..
.
8
10
14
12
ds (in.)
FIGURE 3.41 12
3.412
BASics'rORESCORRELATION FACTOR
16
18
.6
.4_
A/
"2 "
.2

00
10
20
30
40
ds (in.)
"FIGURE 3.413
3.413
*1
____
___
C
H
c/i
__

4

0
H

f.L.
z
0
__

c/i
.
z
U
0
z
H
__
'.0
__
__
40
I
J.
z
___
3.414
__
__
___
___

0
4>4
:1
* . .
:ii
____
_____
0
H
Q
o
Cl
N
4
H
c,1
II
Cl
.
H0
LI.)
3.415
.71
..O
o., .S2,
__
A/
.4 1

0"0
,.4.
1. , 3.416
:;
 , .,...
RNEG
. 2'9
0~.3
.4
.6
(XF + XA )/(Ql + v )
FIGURE 3.417
April 1978
A method is presented in this section for estimating the increment in aircraft yawing moment due
to externalstore installations. For symmetricallyloaded configurations, the increment is primarily
due to sideslip. The incremental yawing moment due to asymmetrical loading is composed of a
moment due to sideslip and a moment due to drag differential. The moment due to drag differential
can be estimated by multiplying the incremental drag coefficient due to the store installation
(which may be computed from Section 3.2) by the moment arm from the c.g. to the spanwise
location of the installation. The method presented in this section predicts an incremental change in
the yawingmomentduetosideslip derivative, AC. , which can be added to the clean aircraft Cn
to obtain the aircraftwithstores Cn.
The Datcom Method is taken from Reference 1 and is empirical in nature. The method requires that
the incremental sideforce data be provided by the user or computed by the method of Section 3.4.
The method is limited to the storeloading configurations and Machnumber ranges presented in
Table 3.5A.
The Datcom Method is applicable to mixed loading configurations obtained by combining two or
more loadings specified in Table 3.5A. The method was developed from symmetricallyloadedstores data and is therefore limited primarily to symmetricallyloaded configurations.
However, certain asymmetric configurations can be treated by the method.
The prediction method was developed from data based on an angle of attack of 50. No method is
provided to account for the effect of angleofattack change on yawing moment, but the method is
IVconsidered to be valid throughout the normal cruise angleofattack range.
TABLE 3.5A
LOADING AND MACHNUMBER
Carriage
Mode
Mounting
Location
LIMITATIONS
MachNumber
Range
Mount/Loading
Pylon 
Empty
Pylon 
Store
Pylon 
FullyLoaded MER
"Pylon 
FullyLoaded TER
0.6  2.0
Single
Wing
Oi
Multiple
0.6
1.6.
Tangent
0.6.2.0
Single
Pylon  Store
Fuselage
F
Multiple
0.6 . 1.6
The method has been verified for the Machnumber ranges given in Table 3.5A. Caution
should be used in extrapolating the empirical curves beyond the given Machnumber
ranges.
3.51
.
 ...
 
 
'.
%**
)
%U
*,r.
;t,,,*
, *..
,.**,
,, . 
% .
FJl'
V.~,
2.
The method has not been verified for configurations in which flaps, slats, or other
flowdisrupting devices are deployed.
3.
4.
The data base used in deriving the method relied heavily on sweptwing tacticalcombataircraft windtunnel data.
5.
6.
The method is based on the premise that yawing moment is the product of the side force and a
moment arm from the point of force application to a reference point. Lift and drag effects are
neglected. The method is applicable to asymmetric configurations for which the sidewash change
due to angle of attack is zero and fuselage effects are negligible.
installations and a contribution due to interference between adjacent installations (when separation
distance is small).
A. SUBSONIC
DATCOM METHOD
The increment in CnQ (based on wing reference area and span) due to external stores is given by
nS
=4
(2 12)
[+A4i
9]
3.5a
where
SW
bnw
N1
3.52
is the total number of pairs of adjacentstore installations carried. (See Sketch (a).)
,*,
. *
*.
PAIR I
PAIR 2
PAIR 3
SKETCH (a)
is
the asideforce
contribution (ft2 store
/deg) installations,
per degree sideslip
due from
to interference
effects
from
pair of adjacentexternal
obtained
Section 3.4,
This
YA
term should only be used for singlestore installations placed at approximately equal
distances below the wing, with minimum lateral separation of 25 to 60 inches
between store surfaces of adjacent installations.
'rn,
Ik 2
are moment arms (in.) from the moment reference point to the effective point of
application of the sideforce increment due to external stores, positive in the aft
direction. The moment arm for the first of the pair of adjacent installations is
the second of the pair is
. The value of~r is given by
1 '
M2
m  (FS)re  [(FS)LE + Q. I
3.5b
where
(FS)ref is the fuselage station (in.) of the moment reference point.
(FS)LE is the fuselage station (in.) of ,i e nose of the most forward store on the
installation or the leading edge of the pylon for the empty pylon case.
X
3.5c
p low
where
i'"
""
' "Plow
"
3.53
S.
......
.........
. ... ....
SKETCH (b)
3.5d
kSFBSF
Bp + BSB + BsF
where
RP
where c
Bp
3.5e
Plow
3.5f
where
h
.SB
ks8 =0.1s
where
k
SI
3.54
..
,..
z.
r
.
r,.
2
() 120.09
BsB
3.5h
where
ds
b1
SKETCH (c)
0.082
12
3.5i
3.5j
or
r4(b
)2
\12/
SBSF
where
bl"
(0,933) V B + 0.5
F2M
B + 0.325 + B
.,
BASC
+ASC
C
+ BAsc
3.5k

3.55
'
.
where
RP,
BP
REM
Rs
BFSc
BFSc = 0.0666 (b 2)
1
\ (b
3.59
where
is the maximum vertical span (in.) of the side
projection of the store cluster in a vertical plane,
excluding protruding fins. (See Sketch (b).)
0.5 2s + R,
3.5rn
where
Rn
RLc BsC
3.5n
where
BFSC is given by Equation 3.5.
RLC is
an
aftstorecluster
lateralclearance
factor
3.56
r.
"*
7"'r
'"
.
..
"
"Case
,,
where
is given by Equation 3.5e.
Bp,
BFSC arid
V
Q5
BSH +
3.5p
QSF BSF
Bs+ + BSF
where
Ss.
iAircraft
Data:
SSW',= 530 ft2
r4
bw
38.67 ft
(FS)re
317.0 in.
3.57
LL
S39.9 in.
"a
31.7 in.
69.2 in.
135.5 in.
145 in.
Store Data:
ds = 8in.
145 in.
s=
SF
QSF (AFT)
13.5.5 in.
Installation Data:
cpkO
= 113.8 in.
hP
18 in.
(FS)LE
182.0 in.
Additional Data:
M
0.6
= 50
Compute:
Find RX for each installation. (Only one side need be computed since the installations are
symmetrical.) For a wingpy!onmounted single store:
vp = 0.25 cp1
, = (0.25)(113.8)
28.45 in.
(Equation 3.5e)
2l\
=0.15
2
SB
Bs8
0.15 s
0.09
(1 2]
(0.15)
0.3375
(0.09)
0.0400
(Equation 3.5f
(Equation 35g).
(Equation 3.5h)
Since there are two sets of fins on this store, both sets are accounted for in the computation.
3.58
SF
BSF
j39
B
=(0.082)
 (0.082)
(Equation 35i
090
ft 2
399
13.5i)
.s
22
(0.082)
(0.082)
317
9. B~+ RBQSB
B
5 + SF BSF
B + BS + BSF
++ 0.33
0.040
x=
; 0.572
(Equation 3.5i)
(Equation 3.5d).
0.0 +S.57
L::0.338t
=81.2 in.
Find 9
R
(FS)r
317.0
(Equation 3.5b)
[(FS)LE + R, I
i182.0+81.2]
53.8 in.
and
Y. and Y
Since ACy
4A
Y
ii
(Equation 3.4a)
I+
3.59
___
Rclntt
=L(2)(Y
SP
YB
,Y
Sw ACya
(0.0015)(530)
=
Find ACn:
1C3
(Equation 3.5a)
+YAP(+mJ
M
i=
j=1
Since YA= 0, the second term in the above equation drops out. Since the store installations
are symmetrical, the above equation reduces to
= (2)
S.~
'i"
i.
SW bw
2
_
~12)
l(0.795)
(09
(53.8\/
k 12
(530)(38.67)
Additional values of ACn at other Mach numbers are shown in comparison to test data from
Reference 1 in Sketch (d).
,.0004
i"....
SACn
CALCULATED
. 0002
.6
.7
.8
.9
.0
MACH NUMBER, M
SKETCH (d)
3.510
B. TRANSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid in the transonic speed range. The
user is cautioned that the expected accuracy of the method is less than that expected in the
subsonic speed range. A comparison of test data with results calculated by this method at transonic
speeds is presented in Table 3.5B.
C. SUPERSONIC
The method presented in Paragraph A of this section is also valid in the supersonic speed range up
to a Mach number of 1.6 to 2.0 as indicated in Table 3.5A. The maximum Mach numbers provided
in the figures of Section 3.4 should indicate the leels to which the method is substantiated by
Reference 1. Caution should be used when extrapolating the data beyond the Machnumber range
provided in the figures. A comparison of test data with results calculated by this method at
supersonic speeds is presented in Table 3.5B.
REFERENCES
1.
Gallagher, R. D., Jimenez, G., Light, L. E., and Thames, F. C.: Technique for Predicting Aircraft Aerodynamic Effects Due to
External Stores Carriage. AFFDLTR7595, Volumes I and II, 1975. (U)
2.
Watzke, R. E.: Aerodynamic Data for Model TA4F Operational Flight Trainer, McDonnell Douglas Corporation Rept.
DAC67425, 1968. (U)
Bonine, W. J., et al: Model F/RF4BC Aerodynamic Derivatives. McDonnell Douglas Corporation Rept. 9842, 1964 (Rev.
1971). (U)
3.
TABLE 3.5B
SUBSONIC AND SUPERSONIC EXTERNALSTORE YAWING MOMENT
DATA SUMMARY AND SUBSTANTIATION
a
(deg)
Ref
Loading Description
0.6
0.8
0.9
0.95
0.6
0.8
0.9
0.95
I"
"1.2
1.6
2.0
calc
(per deg)
0.00048
0.00049
0.00053
0,00054
0.00017
0,00019
0.00023
0.00028
0.00032
0.00023
0.00023
test
(per deg)
calctest
(per dog)
0.00015
. 0.00015
0.00015
0.00035
000063
0.00064
0.00068
0.00089
0.0C.020
 U.00020
0.00023
0.00025
0.00045
0.00023
0.00023
0.00003
0.00001
U
0.00003
0.00013
0
0
3.51 i
RLC
.
.4
10
12
14
16
ds (in.)
FIGURE 3.512
3.512
18
"April 1978
3.6 EFFECT OF EXTERNAL STORES ON AIRCRAFT ROLLING MOMENT
No Datcom Method is provided to estimate the effect of external stores on aircraft rolling moment.
No suitable general methods have been developed which provide satisfactory results for a wide range
of loading configurations. The user may consult the references cited in Section 3 for available
information on prediction of rolling moments.
3.61
S....J
4.1
A greaL deal of theoretical and experimental work has been done toward the development of airfoil sections.
Theoretical airfoil design is hampered by the existence of viscous effects in the form of a "boundary
layer" of lowenergy air between the airfoil surface and the free stream. This boundary layer affects
chiefly the section drag and maximum lift characteristics but also has minor effects on liftcurve slope,
angle of attack for zero lift, and section pitchingmoment coefficient.
Since the boundary layer is influenced by surface roughness, surface curvature, pressure gradient, heat
transfer between the surface and the boundary layer, and viscous interaction with the free stream, it is
apparent that no simple theoretical considerations can accurately predict all the uirfoil characteristics.
For these reasons, experimental data are always preferable to theoretical calculationL.
Airfoils have been optimized for many specific characteristics, including: high maximum lift, low drag
at low lift coefficients, low drag at high lift coefficients, low pitching moments, low drag in the transonic
region, and favorable lift characteristics beyond the critical Mach number. Optimization of an airfoil in
one direction usually compromises it in another. Thus, lowdrag airfoils have poor highlift characteristics,
and highlift airfoils have low critical Mach numbers.
It is apparent from the above that any generalized charts for airfoil section characteristics, including the
ones in this handbook, must be wsed with caution.
Included in this Section are tabulated NACA experimental and theoretical data that are used and discussed
in detail in Sections 4.1.1.1, 4.1.1.2, 4.1.1.3, 4.1.1.4, 4.1.2.1,and 4.1.2.2.
Table 4.1.1A summaiizen experimental data for the NACA four and fivedigit airfoils. Table 4.1.1B
gives corresponding data for the NACA 6series airfoils. The data, from reference 1, are for smoothleadingedge conditions and 9 x 106 Reynolds number.
airfoil characteristics:
Information is presented on the following
1. angle of attack at zero lift, ao
2. liftcurve slope, ce
3. angle of attack at which the lift curve deviates from linear variation, x
4. maximum lift coefficient, c01 ax
5. angle of attack for maximum lift coefficient,
4.1.11
410

%x
ofrom
e~&
In
from
Section 4.1.1.4
Sectlo 4.1.1.4
&vamJetloa4. 1. 1.8
lotr
g
% I*=ii
soLtle 4.
I. 1.1
qthsertical
REFERENCES
1.
2.
Pinkerto.
3. M..
MACA Ti
624,
1646.
(U)
and GOoesbers. H.i Aerodynamio Chtaoteristlos of a Laege Number of Airfoils Tested in the
(U)
8.
Ja16bs. X. N.. and Abbott, 1. U.: Airfoil Seotion Data Obtained In the N.A.C.A. VazrbielDenalty Wind Tunnel
as Affected by support IJterference mad othe Corrooelous. NACA Til
Of, it65
(U)
4.
J.obe.
sad Glaemboro, N.
1.
Daley. S.
M..
Lnadsoo,
MIesels. F. W.,
S .1. 12
(U)
Vaiable
Airfoil Seations.
NACA
and DIsk. 3. Ls. Effect of Thlokasso,. Camber. and Thlobsess Distribution on Airfoil Charasterlstlos
3061. (1)
(U)
Aerodynasto Chstaoteriatlop of 24 NACA
AorddpmIsheo Profile.
O!doubours. Muniob.
1966.
(U)
IS.Series Airtoils at
VA
"TABLE 4. 3. 1A
EXIPRIMXNTAL LOW SPEED AIRUOIL SUCTION AERODYNAMIC CRAKACTUIRSTICS.
I N I x 100, Smooth Leadls Ude.
4 owd IDiilt Airfoils
(pAr des)
.108
.350
5.0
.00
0.p
.100
.960
1r.4
1.5L
11.4
. 038
.105
.250
14.0
I.A
.00
. 025
.10S
.310S
.241
.3J
14.9
10.2
1.50
1.5
O000
0005
14405
0.6
1410
1413
1.0
. 1
11.0
is.*
.,04T
.101
.241
36.#
1.65
5.6
3.0
2.1
1045
,060
100
. 105
.140
.41
16.4
14.0
1.65
1.47
10.0
10.0
3421
2434
3.4
1.3
. 040
. 040
.308
.006
.241
.251
16.0
16.0
I.4f
1.90
0.0
.4
4413
3.3
. 01S
. 105
.24T
34.0
1.67
V.6
4415
4431
4.8
3.3
. 055
. 085
.1 05
.3105
.41
.S4
15.0
14.0
1.64
3.54
S.0
1.3
4433
5.8
1.47
6.0
.100
.305
.355
16.0
.. 8
. 085
*.082
.108
4424
16.0
1.35
4.5
35013
1.4
. 014
10T
.347
11.0
3.76
12.0
35015
380so
1.0
.1,
. 0?
. 005
.10?
.304
.345
.24i
15.0
16.0
1.T7
1.40
10.0
I33.
.3105
.05?
..245
.3it
15.0
16.0
1.50
1.40
10.0
$.1
5033
5003O4
U
0.0
243I
3415
3433
I2.0
a
(dolt)
Its
(doeg)
(des)
'
0
0
1.3
o0.
Coeass to be Moset.
TABLE 4. 1. 18
EXP]FRIMNTAL LOW SPEND AIRFOIL SUCTION AUtODYNAIElC ORASACTURISTICS *
a 100, Smo0oth Ledli Edge
'2R5
$.Boris* Aitfoils
Pill
a.
Aifoi
(do)
0
00001
$A006
doe)
(dof)
L.
.00o
O
.313
.111
.23o
5.7
.358
10.0
11.0
,I1
1.15
to0.7
&204
50
3.5
3.4
. 021
. 085
.113
.110
.354
.202
10.0
33.0
1.06
1.4
230
1.3
. 085
.311
.Sol
14.1
1.58
6.0
30.6
8.5
0
. 085
. 05'1
.113
.114
.33IT
.
.366
.368
16.0 .33
14.0
14.1
35.0
1,45
1.5
35.5
11.4
5jst~
333
".433.35
'"'
(P
'"
2.0
"(Coul4,)

(dog)
all.
OI.
5001
215
. 050
. 060
. 108
1.0
2..
415
 1t5.6
;.015
. 081
. 044
. 09T
1.4
T
5.5
315
41852.
610
4%021
211
1.5
0
. 055
. 062
421
.9.
O8.4420
06.4490.
I&C20>0)
65(430)SiT
04000
.3
(o)
(deal
Cpor 4og)
.111
.1T1
14.5
L.A7
11.0
.110
.115
.
.26t
.252
.66
.11
15.0
15.0
15.0
1.50
1.58
L.OT
8.5
10.0
0.6
.115
.ST7I
.118
.115
. 118
.373
.33t
.2t1
15.
14.5
14.0
16.0
1.54
1.55
1.51
11.2
8.0
7.0
1.55
4.2
.113
.2T9
I7.0
1.88
9.0
.118
.130
.26s
.S3S
11.0
16.0
1.44
9.2
1.48
4.7
3.3
. 08t
.10
.236
14.0
1.42
7.6
2.4
 8.2
1.0
. 01T
. 065
. 0i4
.111
. 1i
.105
.236
.2T I
.354
11.0
14.0
16.0
1.5
a
1.2tg0.
1.00
5.0
.109
.$56
o.0
.8
1.2
. 110
.35g
31.0
1. 1
10.0
005
.0
. OtJ5
.110
.355
10.0
1.1
10.0
l11
 1.0
. 030
. 110
.361i
15.0
1. 4
10.0
100
1.0
. 040
.110
.201
13.0
1.40
5.n
0230
1.0
. 040
.It0
.21111
14.0
1.45
10.5
.111
.329
14.5
1.42
13.0
.1 5y
.110
.261
.252
14.0
14.0
1.S0
1.55
3.2
10.0
54 305
2048013
112
210
0.5
1.0
. 0o0
. 030
. O065
432
2o.6
%,0
12
215
1.5
415
2.5
333S
.257
15.0
1.57
5.0
.111
.252
15.0
1.45
15.0
. 020
.311
.252
15.0
1.,5
10.0
. 065
.115
.264
15.0
1.46
8.0
44Ol8
.004
.i11
.2:y
17.0
1.50
I2.O
335
!.5
,037
.15
.1
16.0
1.55
10.0
415
3.6
. 065
.116
.274
14.0
3.57
8.0
218
1.
. 021
.116
.ST8
16.0
1.5a8
.110
.274
14.0
1.50
.110
.110
.271
.275
15.0
14.0
1.52
1.80
5.4
60.4
.. 05
.21'e
13.0
.12
7.8
.107
.264
13.0
1.02
6.4
04
84021
043,01
os2oo
0..005
1.9
.3.
. 005
+.a
010
.0
5.0
10.3
060
1..
.081
.105
.254
11.0
1.06
5.0
205
1.3
. 0&1
.105
.280
12.0
1.50
30.0
230
1.5
. 0814
.108
.25
IS.0
1.40
5.6
55.400
3.5
. 0of
.112
.262
14.0
1.62
5.0
(Coutd.)
4.1.14
__
(per, dam)h
418
la
,
....
150 12
122
18.0
.266
.272
18.0
22.0
2.84
8.60
40.6
6.t.0t
.120
.2110
.11i
.Sao
.2
. 6
i0.s
20.0
20.0
1.68
l.56
LG
60.0
4.6
4.
4,5.2i.
,OT
4i
.6
2 10
1.61
6.0
.100
.120
.2I 26.,0
.260
10.0
1.80
1.06
80.0
20.0
2.0
0.
.084
. 012
.201
.110
.1.40
.2O2
..
22.0
1.24
0
10.0
0
.03
.102
.105
.26,
.274
14.0
26.5
1.20
1.46
31.4
22.0
.l02
28.0
20.
2.48
2.00
21.
4.0
20.0
L.ea
2.60
4.40
2..0
2.62
20.
0
08.8
.
2.2
4.8
. 2.4
.t
*.0.8.
226
206
.
4110
.
081
0.1827
.041
.I10
..
.86i
2.4
00
.206
.$4To
10.0
20
*..2
0
.0'0
.134
.2600
.202
.1T60
16.0
12.
. 068
.266
2.5
. 035
.108
.0
.008
s(,40.
to,O0e
. tt 2212
!4I 2209
A21
4125
41 6
VIA
I0
66g2 10~0
16816
42120
S210
4 IO
$4 A,212
l)% A218
"al t1
0
02
2.0
1.0
20
I.
i
11.2r
1.2
L$l
2.O
at whol
lift cu,
tts.
litA0
0
ce00p
.262
2.0
.260
G.o6
1.06
8.4
1.0
28.0
2.60
4.0
.121
14.0
1.48
20.0
.220
.215
22.0
1.26
2.2
. 0683
0140
.
.100
.00
.10
.106
.1001
.364
.290
.254
.22
.24
Is.0
1410
O4.0
16.0
1.0
6
1t4ii.0
2.O2
I.11:
1.00
2.0
IT0.0
2.60
11.6401
20.0
1.0
a:")
32.0
4.
3100
.
O
..031
. 0,l
002
0'~
1.t0
i
1.01
S.7
8.0
0.0
0
_00
.421
1400

,0T1.0
.104
1.
0
1.2
46,021
*0
1O
4218
41
620
1.
.248
.110
.108
6.)4
11.0
.00
. 042
. 081
1s
1.0
.01s
4.2
2.0
2.00
as,O0I
.00
W8,
. 08
. 08A
21'
5
5
421 a .8
684164.0
(dog);3
14.0
o.:
60
412
2.4
.011
.1
.272.028
0
02
63 l2
1
.2 T
.11!
.10
"'10
'0
3.8
0s1
.12 6_.04
a
111
.006
t0.0
.10i
. 110
,.t64
.tt
18.0
14.0
l.00
10.
.04
.
00l
.I0
.101
.2I
,2I0
lI,0
0I
,101
.2F3
12.0
1,I#
L,20
11,4at442.
1OO
00
. 040
.10S
,1100
.262
14.0
1.11
12.0
,125
11,0
LSOi
12.0
to bei
~~~~~~
0,11
11,01,
. 0: .4
,l
l05~O
~4
4.1041
5
I+ LO
TABY,
4. 1. 1C
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SUBSONIC AIRFOIL DATA
NOT93i
I.
2.
0.
Reference 1
CLARK
Ym6IS ,
i"014k004
vYh I43S
Yy*6
10
AS I
14?A416
RefereYtoOEING
T"
V.B
P
Reference 0
.A.C.A. 0012A
BOXAI
1
Y4
10S
is,
0080
2212
100
Y 2
2402
V.'Ote
CYH*
70* 0
.12
C.
2522
202
t4A2006
14A206
4212
64 AOOG
4506
4803
4532
04A009
04A0 12
*6A003
G4A604
4515
4818
Reture
NACA,
4 0 12
4A
45010
45012
461S
45212
16206
1431
022
l61018
421
4612
4612
47.12
1180
I0
16219
162 2
16
RA.F.
84
18
18
13652
so
Refe
rence4
52le
N.A.C.A.
04Be
lSA006
04*
4600
450
21A
97'
N. A.CA.
4523
a.T. AR.
V. 8A.
Referencc
__...
28006
23000
N ACA.
0Gd
G l*
N.A.C.A.
4408
4403
N.A.C.A.
2512
2535
28
~~22
0010
0018
0021
0025
3063
906j
BIKORSK5
N.A.C.A.
9N,
24
AC,A.
5
1400
1 00
6212
001268
606
oo001264
0201
16200
6I2
02'
200
26
1268
2901283
We
16.815
1432
C 50'
27
2801284
Sale
16409
280 12
60 2:
16l0 9
2 10 12
4 406
1 
24332
24012
:22l1
2 9i11 1
6409
6410
4 66418
16215
22012
8
20
4421I12
6306
18012
42000
$do
16100A
48012A
48021
N 22
"
N .A .C .A . 2 2 1 12
N40
NOR
Nq
 68
N
82012
63
Te
48'
8402
31.16
42012
0
N Ii"
GOTTINMON
887
440123
Sale102
sale
021
S8e5
SI8A
62021
01i000
6612
05'12
05003
42OAG
N.A.CA.
#180
s1ct9on
I
it
16621
62 52 0
140
12
260
iIS
ort
NAC, A000IT
metfefeaos
42940
414w
_02
600473
~65025
45021
S9SR
8083
"O'T
*isthin MoO*
11
00121l
9806
001ST
0018B
111
12
2220p
2R1 1 2
121
2402
0012F,
240..003200
2506
nfloxed skemo
in
modified TIIt.
A I
TABLE 4. 1. ID
THEORE'TICAL LOW SPEND AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS AIRFOIL MEAN LINES
Wean Li(d)
ac
d.
FourDigit Series
8d1ait
mean lioe,
62
0.
2.81
0.218
68
64
so
0.8
0.76
0.78
1.60
0.74
0
0. 124
0.187
0.187
66
0.76
0.74
0.222
0.80
.1.60
0.2,0
(A/6),
"60
... , (2/6),
Fivevigit Series
210
0.80
2.09
0.004
220
280
0.30
0.8 0
2.86
2.6
0.010
0.014
240
180
0.80
1.48
1 5,2
0.010
0 0 0
o.80
$.Bett
1.0
@ero8.
4.66
10
4.48
0,088
O,086
0 ,
1.0
8 ,. 4
1.0
. 4
,.0. 1 804
9 , 
0 . 12 18
0 Y
,
1. 0
2.0 O
0. 8
l.0
1 ,54
0.6
1.0
1.0
1. 0
0.00
0 t
0 . 1 f1.
00/
0 . 094
0/4
L e ., ( /8
9),(4/;
) (:
;/2),(1 /2 ).
0 .179
0. 20 2 ;
0.g22
.0. 950
0:
i,C
h!1,.lbte
hriepoii~o
1.17
4.1.1.1
"Reynolds number
Reference 1 shows
Up to khe critical Mach number the effect of compressibility on the zerolift angle of attack is negligible.
Above the critioal Much number, however, compress;bility effects can cause large changes in this parameter.
Hefertnce 2 presents Much number effects on some cambered sections.
For supersonic Mach numbers it is advisable to use. the method of characteristics or the generalized shock"expansion method (reference :). The charts and tables of this Section, however, are restricted to low
speeds.
HANDBOOK ME T40D
Experimental data from reference 4 on the zerolift angle of attack for NACA four and fivedigit and 6series
airoils are presented in tables 4.1.IA and 4.1. 1B, respectively. Date on many additional airfoils may be
located in the literature with the help of table 4.1.1C.
For airfoil series not included in this summary, the theoretical charcteristics tabulated in t..SIe 4.1.1D aiy
*
be used in conjutiction with the aforementioned experimental data to derive the zerolift angle of auack
according to the following method.
K( a1
a0
1. 1.1Ia
j)4.
g and aii are the design lift coefficient and angle of attack for the design lift coefficient, respectively. The factor K is empirical (reference 4) and depends upon the airfoil series. [or NACA airfoil sections the valuea are:
where
.41SAMPLE
Theoretical section design lift ,oefficients and corresponding angles of attack for NACA four and fivedigit and 6series airfoils are given in table 4.1.1D. For airfoils other than those included in table
4.1.11), the tabulatel values of ai and cli may be linearly scaled, as indicated in the sample problems
below and in table 4.'.1D. The zerolift angle of attack so obtained may he adjusted by judicious use and
comparison with the experimental data of related airfoils. Wherever possiblk, however, experimentai data
nhouid be used. The accuracy of this method as compared to experimental data is shown in table 4.1.1. IA.
PR OBLEM
1: Find the t1,eoretical L., for the NACA 2415 section. The calculation of the theoretical a.
,. "xaimpk
this secttoi should be based on the NACA 64 mea line, for which
for
*xi0.74 mad
*li .76
(Table 4.1.1D)
ai (.74) 2/6
0.250
c,
(.76) 2/6
0.25
From equatiom 4.1.1.(l)
aso  .93.(2
57.32
.25
 1.91
This result compares to a. a .2.00 experimestally.
Exwmple 2: Find the theaotical a. fat t"e NACA 65,
.4)
The NACA a  0.5 maan lime serves As a base is this cse, for ahich the tabulated data of table 4.1.1D iadicate
that ai  3.04* wh
 1.0. The Seuiid value of 0i fo ,I, g'n .
!
th"n
i  3.04 x 1.
1.0
* 1.22"
Substitution iato aqutic
4.1.1.1a yields
. 74
73x.4
1.22
TA3L
4.1.1.1 A
i. dse,
Cmouela
Airloli
(Eqiaelo
4. 1. 10)
.1 .
. 8 0 . 6
0.,1 to 40.4
44u
3M
8.8
. 1.2
0 to 40.5
0.4 to W0.S
fix  Ix
0.7T.0
ex  23.
1.0
2.0 to 1.0
ex
2.7
. 1.1 to 5.2
4.0
2
.3.
4.0 to 1.0
4.1
40x
Zx
Coxx
*mCu
Cu," Si't
tc,
@3X
amU.SI.7l
'+*.C
ax
.1.C
miu.n&& mmlmum v
mao
1,4
. O
1.O
%.0
Uzx
t0.8
to0.
. 2
'olpeamootsl
&I vige
Avefrose st3,
7l
A%. des
(Cale.  Teat)
des
Tests
1.0
IdlE
01Toe ma
e duomaly
0. 0.4
0.2 toO0
mto40.6
0.a to, 40.T
fw & to 40.4
0.4 to 0
4+1.1
+0'.,4
4"0.6
0.4
sotlomo,
aol atloe
toi tmlohym're
I.I
REFERENCES
1.
Loftin, L. K.,
M.:
Tests
tof
i6 Reit
C.A.:
Abbott. 1. H.,
vos Dooshoff.
6.
Pinkertos3.
t. M..
A. K..
MACA TR 4t1,
0814. (UJ
Jour. Ausr.
lci.,
April 1000.
(U)
NACA TM 03S.
1058.
(U)
k]
Ld
1..
H
4.1 1
where OTE is the total trailingedge angle in degrees. However, boundarylayer effects cause the actual
liftcurve slopes to fall considerably below the theoretical values.
On thin wings the loss in liftcurve slope due to Reynoldsnumber effects is approximately i5 percent at
RQ = j06. For thicker wings the losses are further aggravated by the adverse pressure gradient over the
rear oection due to thickness distribution. To a certain extent this can be correlated with trailingedge angle.
Very thin wings with leadingedge bubbletype separation also suffer additional liftcurveslope losses.
Reference I discusses viscous effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of wing sections.
The effects of leadingedge roughness on liftcurve slope can be very severe in some cases. Losses as large as
30 percent, due to the effects of the standard NACA leadingedge roughness, are show i in refeence 7.
Up to the critical Mach number of the airfoil section, liftcurve slope follows the Prandtl(;lauert compresibility rule. Beyond the critical Mach number, thick conventional sections suffer large liftslope changes due to
local shock formation on first the upper and then the lower airfoil surfaces. References 2, 3, and 4 show
these effects for a series of thick airfoils. An example of Machnumber effects on the liftcurve slope of a
thin airfoil is contained in reference 5. Certain airfoils, notably the NACA 8series (reference 6), are specifically designed to avoid these transonic effects.
Two methods are presented in this section for estimating the airfoil section liftcurve slope at speeds up to
the critical Mach number. One uses the large body of available experimental section data, while the other is
based on the semiempirical method of reference 8.
No specific methods are presented in the transonic and supersonic speed regimes. Transonic airfoil section
characteristics are highly variable with airfoil section, and it is suggested that reference be made to experimental data on the particular airfoil in question. At supersonic speeds theoretical pressure distribution about
an artitrary section can be calculated by generalized shockexpansion theory, secondorder theory, or the
method of characteristics (see reference 3 of Section 4.1. 11).
A. SUBSONIC
DATCGM METHODS
1. Method I
Experimental liftcurveslope data from reference 7 are presented in table 4. 1. IA for the NACA four and
fivedigit airfoils and in table 4.1. IB for the NACA 6series airfoils. The effect of the NACA standard rough"nesson these data is indicated in figure 4.1.1.27. The NACA standard roughness is obtained by the use of
0.011 inch carborundum grains applied over the first 8 percent of the 24inchchord test models. Experimental liftcurve slopes for many other airfoils may be found in the literature with the aid of table 4. 1. 1C.
Lowspeed values of c2
the critical Mach number by application of the PrandtlGlauert compressibility correction; i.e., (cVM
4.1.1.21
rr

.
C~
.
i: :.
. .
. .
C  : ? . :7 . :'
: .. '
2. Method 2
This method is basically the semiempirical method of reference 8. The method accounts for the development
of the boundary layer for airfoils with transition fixed at the leading edge and with maximum thickness less
than approximately 20 percent. The airfoil section liftcurve slope at Mach numbers up to the critical Mach
number is given by
ck
4.1.1.2a
3(cQ
where
.,F c)
(a.jaccounts
a theory
(C , )chot. y
theory
,
is the theoretical airfoil section liftcurve slope obtained from figure 4. 1.1.28b. The
values of (Ict).heory have been determined using the Kutta Joukow! ki hypothesis.
,"(Since
,
s
the upper limit of the method, has ibeen
value
of T, = 20', representing
angle,
chosena as
a constant
in'evaluating this parameter. Consequently, ( cQ C)theory,,i
/1  M2.
The constant 1.05 of equation 4.1.1.2a is an empirical correlation factor based on a large body of test
data.
The method is limited to attached flow conditions and must therefore be applied with caution to airfoils with
maximum thickness exceeding approximately 0.20c, airfoils with trailingedge angles great r than approxi"mately 200, and airfoils at high angles of attack.
Although the position of transition is important in determining the boundarylayer thickness at the trailing
edge, no attempt has been made to estimate the effect of variation of transition position. The available
experimental data do not clearly define the behavior of the transitionposition movement; consequently,
development of general design charts to predict the variation in section liftcurve slope with trinsitionposition movement does not appear feasible. The transition will occur at or n Ir the leading edge on both
the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil for most fullscale practical cases.
A comparison of test data with cQa calculated by this method is presented as table 4.1.1.2A.
Sample Problem
Method 2
Given: Airfoil tested in reference 9.
NACA 0006 airfoil
4.1.1.22
.4
M= 0.15;g= 0.99
4.5 x 106
t/c
0.0o
=0.720
0.130
L929
(Y in percent chord)
Compute:
tan 3 4OE
0.066
=lc
aC)theory
)
(C2heory
Solution:
i2
L~~~(R
PCR)y
(equation 4.1.1.2a)
R)theory
1.05
=
(0.880) (6.M)
~0
K:
0l7
1 per deg
This compares with a test value of 0. 103 per degree obtained from reference 9.
REFERENCES
I1.
Nonweller, T.R.: The Design of Wing Sections. Aircraft Engineering, Volume XXVIII, Number.320, July 1966. (U)
2.
Ladmon. C.L.: TwoDimensional Airfoil Characeristics of Four NACA 6A.SeiS Airfoils at Trefmls0oI
NACA RM L57F06, 1957. (U)
3.
4.
Gulistrand, T.R.: The Flow Over TwoOimmenaonl Aerof oils at I nckidec In the Transonic Speed Renos. ICTI Aero TN 27.
1952. (U)
5.
Holder. D.W.. *rnd Cash, R.F.: Experimen~ts vwth a Tvio.Olmenslonal Aeiofoli Designed to be Free from Turbulent BoundaryLover
Separation at Small Angles of Incidance for &lI Mach Numbers ARCR&M 3100.1060. (U)
G.
Graham, D.J.: The Development of Cwniberd Airfoil Sections Having Favoralble Lift Charactoristics at Suparcrltlcsi Mach Numbers.
NACA TA 947, 1949. (U)
7.
Abbott, I.H.. von Doenhoff, AG.E.end Stivers. L.S., Jr: Surmmery of Airfoil Data. NACA TA 824. 1945. (U)
S.
9.
Gemnbucci, J.B..: Section Chairacteristics of the 0006 Airfoil wvith Leedrng.dge end Trellnogidge Flaps. NACA TN 3197, 1966. (U)
Effects of Aspect
(U)
(Sweden),
4. 1.1.23
10.
11.
Loftln, L.K., Jr., and Smith, H4A,: Aerodymic Cheracterlsic of 15 NACA Airfoil Sections at Sa4wn Reynolds Numbers from
12.
13.
Cahill, J.F., and RNalo, S.F.: WindTunnel Inewatigetlon of Seven Thin NACA Airfoil Sections to Determine Optimum DoubleSlottedFlap Configurations. NACA TM 154, 1948. (U)
14.
Loftln, LK., Jr., and Cohen, K.S.: Aerodynamic Chrartarcistics of a Nunber of Modified NACA FourOlgitSarles Airfoil Sections.
NACA TN 1601, 1946. (U)
15.
Wnza,
C.J., nd Hrris, TA.: WindTunnel Investigation of N.A.C.A. 23012,23021, and 23030 Airfoils with Various Sizes of
Split Flap. NACA TR ,
1939. (U)
16.
WanW.
C.J., end Gauveln, W.E.: WindTunnel Investigation of en NA.C.A. 23012 Airfoil with a Slotted Flap and Thine Types of
Auxiliary Flap. NACA TR 679, 1939. (U)
17.
1L
19.
20.
Effects of Variations In Reynolds Number Between 3.0 x 106 and 25.0 x 106 Upon
Loftin, L.K., Jr., rod Bunnall, W.J.: Thoretcalt
t
AAedynenm', Cherecefltc of a Nuter of NACA 6.Seles Airfoil Sectlons. NACA TN 1773, 1V48. (U)
21.
Loftin, L.K. Jr.: Merodynamic Chsarcteristics of the NACA 64010 and 00101.10 40/1.061 Airfoil Section. at Mach Numbers
From 0.30 to 0.6 end RNenol NunteAs From 4.0 x 106 to 8.0 x 106. NACA TN 3244, 1954. (U)
22.
Gottlilb, S.M.: Tww Dimenelonal WindTunnel I nestigation of Two NACA 6Srlm Airfoils with LeadingEdge Slats. NACA RM LSK22,
1949. (U)
23,
Loftin, L.K., Jr., and Buannall, W.J.: The Effncts of Variations In RAsnodld Number Between 3.0 x 106 and 25.0 x 106 Upon til
Aerodynamic Characteristlc of a Numbe of NACA 6ores Airfoil Sections. NACA TA 964, 1960. (U)
24.
Loftin, L.K., Je'., and Smith, H.A.: TwoDimanalonal Aerodynamic Charactoristl of 34 Miscellaneous Airfoil Sections. NACA RM LSL06,
25.
Sogdonoff, S.M.: WindTunnel Investigation of a LowCrag Airfoil Section with a Double Slotted Flap. NACA WR L679. 1943. (U)
26.
Quinn. J.H., Jr.: WindTunnel Investigation of BoundaryLayer Control by Suction on the NACA 653418, a1.0 Airfoil Set;on with a
0.29AirfoilChord Double Slotted Fblp. NACA TN 1071, 1946. (U)
27.
Quinn, J.H.. Jr.: WindTunnel Inveatigaton of the NACA 684421 Airfoil Section with a Double Slotted Flap and BoundaryLayer
Control by Suction. NACA .N 1306,1947. (U)
2L.
Braulow, A.L: TwoDlienslond WindTunnel Investigation of Sealed 0,22 AirfoilChord Internally Balanced Ailerons of Different Contour
an an NACA 65o 12)213 Airfol. NACA TN 100, 1946. (U)
29.
Ugadow, A.L., and Loftin, L.K., Jr.: TwoDimensonal WindTunnel Investigation of an Approximately APercentThick NACA 66Serles
Type Airfoil Section with a Double Slotted Flap. NACA TN 1110, 1946. (U)
30.
Loftin, LK., Jr.: Theorotical and Experimental Dat fora Number of NACA BASerlis Airfoil Sectlons. NACATN 1368.1947. (U)
31.
Kelly, J.A., and Haytar, NL.F.: Lth and Pitching Moment at Low Speeds of the NACA SA010 Airfo;; Sectiong Equipped with Various
l Flop, Slit Flap, and Doublelotted FlAp. NACA TN 30072 1963. (U)
Choavanations of a LemdintEdn Slat, LMCdirA
32.
Summeri,
Chwtktks
33.
194. (U)
F; 4.l,1.24
J.L., and Troon, S.L.: The Effects of Anount end Type of Camber on the Variation witn Meca Number of the Aerodynamic
of an 10PorenThl<ck NACA GO4ASvries Airfoil Section. NACA TN 2006, 1950. WU)
12
A111 (Approx.) Airfoil with (.35Chord Slotted Flap at Reynolds Numbers up to 25 MIllion.
TABLE 4.1.1.2A
SUBSONIC AIRFOILSECTION LIFTCURVE SLOPE
DATA SUMMARY AND SUBSTANTIATION
METHOD 2
NACA
Airfoil
Section
Ref.
"9
"7
0006
M
0.15

RI
xx 106
/
0.99
1.00
4.5
9.0
0009
10
11
'10
12
0012
0015
0041.1
0010.1.1
1408
1410
1412
1410
2408
2412
2415
2418
4412
13
14
7
,
4
S4415
11
23012
15
16
17
11
4
<.I8
<0.15
i
0.105
0.130
1.090
0.200
o%8
4
4
15
7
18
,
23021
63006
63009
63208
63206
0.105
0.30
63209
63210
4.1
0.103
0.097
0.106
1.9
0
.1.9
1.556
0.26
0.097
0.095
2.1
1.00
9.0
0,965
0.175
0.220
6.0
1.447
1.207
0.955
1.450
1.810
2.170
1.465
1.825
1.455
0.270
0.98
1.00
0.108
0.107
0.106
0.107
0.107
0.106
0.105
0.102
0.107
0.102
0.102
0.102
0.102
0.096
0.109
0.108
0.108
0.106
0.106
0.205
0.106
0.103
0.108
0.105
0.107
0.1u
0.107
0.096
0102
0'.107
0.9
0.9
1.9
0.9
0.9
1.0
0.9
1.0
0.9
2.9
4.7
2.9
4.7
0
1.0
0
I1207
I.
9.0
0.99
1
0.99
9.0
6.0
3.5
1.0
3.0
63212
s18
*
63210
63p1012
631212
11
631412
632415
20
7
#
21
13
7
633018
64006
64009
64010
64208
64206
0.30
,
.0.107
0.335
0.106
0.105
0.106
0.107
0.107
0.104
0.105
0.9
1.9
1.9
,.9
0.500
0.050
0.080
0.020
0.025
0.097
0.111
0.112
0.108
0.108
0.097
0.112
0.111
0.106
0.110
0
0.9
0.9
1.9
1.8
8.9
6.0
1.00
1.00
0.9to
3.5
9.0
1
1.0
1.00
9.0
0
o.111
0.112
0.9
1.0
0.707
0.035
0.030
1
0.030
0,112
0.112
0.114
0.108
0.110
0.113
0.110
0.108
18
,..,
3.6
0
0.604
0.030
0.108
0.108
0.107
0.105
0.9
2.9
0.707
0.020
0.112
0.116
3.4
0.707
0.030
0,112
0.114
1.8
0.700
0.855
0.015
0.037
0.985
0.423
0.611
0.671
0.550
0.423
0.671
0.610
0.786
0.025
0.030
0.040
0.030
0.030
0.020
0.035
0.025
0.036
0.112
0.108
.112
0.114
0.115
0.110
0.111
0.112
0.111
0.110
0.111
0.A61,
0.107
0.117
0.116
0.114
0.114
0.116
0.109
0.110
0.120
0,114
0.110
0.110
0.106
0.105
4.3
6.9
1.8
0
0.9
0.9
0.9
6.7
2.6
0
0.9
2.8
1.9
.0.103
2.760
0.383
0.550
0.496
0.313
0.604
0.98
0.955
1.00
0.99
9.0
3.0
6.0
9.0
464.3210
11
19
.
64.409
64212
1.00

0.3
<0.18

<0.16
0.30
0.101
0.99

". 15
0.225
0.355
0.260
0.340
0.400
0.270
0.335
0,265
.
'
1.00
0.550
<
<0.18
3.9
0
0.9
0.097
0.103
0.108
0.109
0.101
0.097
0.104
1.815
10.015011
0.107
0.108
0.1
0.101
Percert
Error
0.280
0.330
0.110
23015
0.720
Test
(per dog)
1.448
1.810
0.622
<0.16
cla
Calc.
(per dcg)
3.0
2.76
1.0
S90I
13
19
Y99
2
%c
0.99
1.00
0.955
2.76
<0.15
0.30
Y9 0
2
%c
I
0.956
0.98
1.00
0.99
0.956
1.50
9.0
3.85
6.0
S.0
,
6.0
1.0
4.1.1.25
NACA
AW9folR
Usetfon
Rf.
11
22
641.212
641412
641.412
641412
641.212
11
.A
042419
64341 8
13
7
as
4,
65.006
Y~90
%C
0.66
1.00
6.0
9.0
0.96
1.00
6.0
0.736
0.706
0.734
0.782
0.736
0.035
0.050
0.035
0.030
0.036
M048
.110
1''
0.111
0.112
0.112
0.111
0.109
00035
0004 5
0.115
0.111
0.112
0.112
0.106
0.110
0.110
3.6
0.9
0
.0.9
0.9
0.111
0.10.
0.9.
0.:
0.040
0110
0.106
4.8
0.105
0.110
0.110
0.111
4.5
0.105
0.106
0.105
0.10.
0.105
0.102
0.110
0.10.
1.00
9.0
&30
9.0
S25,0
13
1t
7
06.9
200I
65 210
,
45.200
6.1
4&5212
651012
851212
.
<0.10
13
7
24
1I
29
3D
7
31
40.2
30
'
4.1.1.26
S
0.510
0.736
0.810
0.030
0.035
0040
0.110
0.110
0.110
.664
0.946
0.947
0z"44
0.030
0.050
0.050
0.0a0
0.112
1.0
0.9
0.9
4.8
3.8
1.9
0
1.0
2.9
0
1.9
0.946
0.050
1.141
0.060
0.106
0.106
1.9
s,.316
1.00
1.240
0.150
0.110
0.10
0.9
653.116
63.411
1.00
1.324
1.316
0.000
0.066
0.107
0.101
0.117
0.104
.6.
.2.9
65.3411
654.421
6.0
1.0
&
6.0
9.0
1.0
2.2
3.0
0.0
1.325
1.500
0.060
0.000
1.026
0.665
0.060
0.060
0.110
0.096
0.102
0.110
0.109
0.110
0.107
0.104
0.102
0.100
0
8.4
.1.9
7.8
0.01
I
0.6
0.96
1.053
0.o63
1,233
1.053
1.567
1.58
1.400
1.400
0.060
f
0.040
0.056
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.0(0
0.100
0.090
0.030
0.075
0.105
0.103
4,9
0.103
0.100
3.0
0.106
0.107
0.107
0103
0.101
0.103
0.105
0.106
0.103
0.006
0.10
0.107
0.110
0.100
0.097
0.097
0.105
0.114
0.108
0.009
0
0
2.7
3.0
4.1
6.2
0
7.9
4.6
1.0
0.108
0.106
1.0
1.
1.0 O
1.030
1.052
0.190
A.130
0.120
0.130
0.105
0.106
0.105
0.106
0.105
0.106
0.133
0.110
.0.9
0
4.9
1A
2.0
0.101
0.099
.1
7.0
&0
6..
0.106
0.102
0.105
0.105
0,107
0.9
29
25
13
0.111
0.107
1,0
&
6.0
8.9
4
6"(1121213
66.005
06600
0.200
209
6210
60&206
6212
0821v
6S211,01O
4215).216
860210)114
662416
1.00
0.109
24
10
3.0.l0e
1.0
Paras t
Error
0.06
2415
27
,'.4
'3
7
0.06
A
0.510
0.040
Toot
(per do)
<0.15
11
"7
0.738
Cbkc.
(er do@'
0.100
0.106
0.110
0.110
0.110
0.101
05 12 12
.9
23
,
CIh
x10"
6
<0.15 0
Clo
2
c
M
<0.18
<0.15

Y99g

.0
0.15

0.06
1.0
0.10
0.90
2.7
0,30
f
(0.13
1.00
9.0
0.966
1.0
0.<I
1.00
3.0
9.0
f
6.2
3.0

64
<Ms
0.06
"21SI214
63A01o
813A210
,MA10t0
1.00
,,A10
64A410
9.0
0.0
1.00
9.0
,
6.0
9.0
1
1.060
1.062
M120
0.125
0.107
0.106
1.9
0.106
4.7
0.111
3.6
.106
4.6
0.107
0.105
.1.9
2.9
Airfoil
Ref.
Section
32
64A310
NACA
R1
!9_0
99
x 10.6
%c
1.065
0.110
0.103
1.070
0.30
0.955
1.0
64A910
30
64 1 A212
33
7
S64
1.00
6.0
cot
cc
Ceat.
Talt
Percent
(per dea)
Error
0.102
1.0
0.125
0.103 S64A610
0.107
.3.7
1.036
0.110
0.103
0.103
1.260
0.150
0.104
0.104
(1r del)
642A215
9.0
1.550
0.170
0.106
0.101
5.0
65( 1 1 2)A111
5.9
1.125
0.165
0.106
0.106
.0.9
63A010
9.0
1.030
0.130
0.108
0.105
2.9
63A210
1.030
0.120
0.108
0.103
4.9
64A210
1.060
0.120
0.106
0.106
2.9
64A410
1.062
0.125
0.106
0.100
8.0
1 A212
1.260
0.150
0.107
0.100
7.0
642A216
1.550
0.170
0.106
0.095
11.6
Average Error
 2.4%
,'4
.
.02 I.I
"AC
. 01 .....
It6SERIES
(per deg)
4 AND 5
DIGIT
..........
0 
:4
AIRFOILS,,
""
" "::
AIRFOILS
12
16
20
''':":
24
28
LIFTCURVE SLOPE
4.1.1.27
.
S
n
Rg
4YV4s
t7
Y99
TE
0.09 c"
2
2
'
1TEin percent 9chordl
.90
.80
. 1
106t;
".
theory
.04
.12
.08
TAN
. .
7 .4 
.16
#'TE
7.27.0
(per rad)
6.6
""
~ ~6.4
6.2
0.
..
/I
.04
.8
12
.16
r.
4.1.1.28
.20
4.1.1.3
_'.2Flowseparation
of viscosity. These flow separation patterns can be classified into three types:
1. Separat~on near the trailing edge.
2. Separation of the shortbubble type near the leading edge.
3. Separation of the longbubble type near the leading edge.
A complete discussion of these types of flow separation, as they affect airfoil stall characteristics, is contained in reference 1. They are also discussed in Section 4.1.1.4 with respect to their effect on section maximum lift. Some of the more pertinent factors affecting these stall types are discussed below.
TrailingEdge Stall
Trailingedge stall occurs on wings of thicknesstuchord ratios of approximately 12 percent and greater. It
is characterized by a gradual sepation starting at the section trailing edge and progressing forward with
increasing angle of attack. When 'i, separation has moved forward to about the section midchord, maximum
lift is reached. The stall for these sections is mild, with a gradual rounding of the lift and moment curves
near cimax.
LeadingEdge Stall
Am
As the thickness ratio of airfoils decreases, the nose shape becomes progressively sharper. At some point
the increasingly severe adverse pressure gradients behind the nose pressure peak cause the lift of the airfoil to be limited by separation starting at the airfoil nose.
Local leadingadge separation on the airfoil upper surface may occur at angles of attack well below those
for maximum lift. At these lower angles, the separated laminar boundary layer changes to turbulent and
reattaches to the airfoil, leaving a bubble of trapped lowenergy air between the separated boundary layer
and the airfoil surface. The mechanism of the reattachment is discussed in references 2 and 3. Transition
of the boundary layer must precede reattachment, and for this reason the relative stability of the boundary
layer at separation is very important. If the boundarylayer Reynolds number based on the displacement
thickness is greater than about 450, then transition and reattschment take place in a very short distance,
giving rise to a "short bubble". If, on the other hand, the boundarylayer Reynolds number is laes than
450, transition and reattachment are considerably delayed, with a resulting "long bubble". The different
characteristics of these two bubbles and their effects on stali are discussed below.
..
The short bubble is characteristicslly one percent of the airfoil chord in length and decreases in size with
increasing angle of attack. Because of its small size, the bubble has little effect on the section pressure
distribution until at some angle of attack the flow abruptly ceases to reattach, thereby separating the flow
over the entire upper surface of the airfoil. For this airfoil the lift and pitchingmoment curves are quite
linear right up to stall. The stall itself in violent, with large changes in lift and pitching moment.
th um
Theshae
setino lft
ustbelw he
A.
McCullough. 0. a.. sad Gault. D. 11.1 anamples of Three Representative Types of AirfoilBaction Stall at Low Speed.
KACA TP 9602, 1851 (U)
2.
Crabtree. L. F.. and Weber. J.% go"a 11(tfeota, of Flow 11separation o. Thls Wipe* With Unewept Leading Rds...
Gt. Brit. TH Altur 240S. (U)
S.
Crabtree. L. P.s Often&& of LeadlSiasEat fieparstioins on This Wings In TwoDlmensioaal lacomproeanhle Flow.
Preprint 140. off. 1011T.
4.
Gault. D. B.1 A Correlation of LowSpeed. Airfolleoctlos Stalling Characteristics With Reynolds Number and A i~toii
(U)
Geometry. lVACA TN 111sa1,19111t
s.
Abbott. 1. U., van Doenhoff. A. B.. sandSilvers. L. S.. Jr.s Bummary of Airfoil Data. NACA ',R 624, 1646. (V)
*4.1.1.32
R.A.PE.
JAS
1. Trailingedge separation.
'ft. For
i
Reynolds number and freestream turbulence are asnlogous in their effects on section Lnaximum
thin airfoils an increase in Reynolds number or turbulence causes %uadarylayer treasition earlier, changing a longbubble to a shortbubble separation. This increases lift. Roughness, if it causes transition
early epough, has the same effect. For thicker airfoils roughness nmrely decrease* the euergy of the boundary layer, thus lowering maximum lift.
Mach number effects are very severe on thick airfoils. Maximum lift coefficient begins to drop, starting at
MZ0.2, as illustrated typically in figure 4.l.l.48b.
For supersonic speeds, maximum lift can be calculated by the nmthod of reference 2, which makes the
assumptions that the uppersurface limit pressure is 70 percent of vacuum and the louer"urface preasure
is a function of the total pressure behind a normal shock wave at the freestream Much number and the projected area of the lower surface perpendicular to the freestresm direction. Section maximumlift values
obtained by this procedure appear to be slightly low.
"HANDBOOK METHOD
In this Section two.dimensionalairfoil maximumlift information is presented u two foroms tabulazcd data
for specific NACA airfoils and generalized design charts from which the mraximum lift of .aonsftandard airfoils may be approximated. Actual test data should be used whenever possible, however.
Section data for maximum lift and eagle of attack for maximum lift for the NACA f(ur and fivedigit airfoils are presented in table 4.1.1A for smoothleadinedge conditions, a Reynolds number of 9 x 106,
and
low speeds. Corresponding information for the NACA 6series airfoils is presented in table 4.1.1B.
Additional
airfoils may be located in the
literature with the aid of table
4.1.1C.
The generalized design charts of this Section are empirically derived from experimental data of references
3, 4, Sand 6. The section maximum lift coefficient is determined by the equation
Clmjx 0
(Clax)bae* &IC/mex
c
A2 CaU=
4.1.1.4a
+ACjIelm
A,
CImax
* Ascj max
, the "camber"
t"
their maximum thickness at 30percent chord, muste modified for airfoils having their maximum
thickness at some other position. This increment is obtained from figure 4.1.1.47a. (If the
maximum thickness is at 30percent chord, Agcjmax is zero).
4. AgcgjV, presented in figure 4.1.1.4.7b , gives the lift increment due to Reynolds number for
ReynLd, numbers other tgn 9 x 106.
5. 6J,lm
4
ness in
applied
effects.
, shown in figure 4.1.1.48a , gives the lift increment due to roughness. The roughhis case is the standard NACA roughness and is represented by 0.011inch grit
over the first 8percent chord. This curve is given only as an indication of roughness
Actual airplane roughnesses vary considerably and their effects may be quite different
from those shown in figure 4.1.1.48a.
6. Aimcj
is a correction for Mach numbers greater then approximately 0.2. No generalized charts
are pre ated for Mach number effects. The lift increment due to Mach number should be obtained trom test data of similar airfoils when available. Figure 4.1.1.48b shows representative
effects on particualar airfoils.
Table 4.1.1.4A compares experimental data with results obtained by the use of this method.
4.11.42
:"
:,+.
SAMPLE PROBLEM
"Given;
Compute:
R  6 x 106
M  .10
A cmax
A2 cImai
A&c ma,
A 4 Cmx
no
AI CImGX
Solution:
mxbase
+AI Imax 4
olmal
Cimax
dImax
Aimax
G
 1.56
rLm"
4.1.1,43
. ._
_..
TABLE 4.1.1.4A
AIRFOIL SECTION MAXIMUM LIFT
DATA SUMMARY AND SUBSTANTIATION
of max.
ord)
(x
1,8ogwox,
!of
AY
10rol
1;0
!
(Xchord)
Foeeaut
ma
ax'
b1ase
(IohI)
Cale.
Telt
Eror1
(x chord,
.0
000
so
1.
....
.......
1.86
1.
1410
2416
441 s
so
s0
s0
1.0
9.0
4.0
40
40
40
2.80
8.80
l.0*
5.0
8.0
8.0
1.46
1.9?
1.99
.11
,01
..
.......
....
....
1.9
1.40
1.62
2.IS
1.0
1.40
1.92
4.0
0
4.6
4918
4t21
4.0
4.0
1.0
6.0
80
s0
8.0
5.94
.0
6.0
1.60
1.19
1.40
a.$$
6.0
9.0
.0 1
*.05
.64
.48
,00
. 09
s0
s0
I.I?
1.41
1.02
1.84
.......
.....
604
301
s0
s0
9o0
so0
.....
.....
. O
 .01
1.6a
2.To
LOT
1.96
2.66
2.7T
4.2
9.6
1.2
0
9
29012
8021
80
80
1.8
2.1
19
2
9.08
.4
9.0
,0
1.99
1.41
.06
0
..
.....
2,67
.....
2.
2.10
6.,
. 0
49012
63012
s0
so
8,7
I.4
to
is
8.08
1.0
1.0
IM
.6
.14
. 24
.....
1.01
0
0
1.12
1.1
1.84
12.4
8.9
.. 6
: 11009
&so#
0
I,1
....
s0
.05
.II
.06
.06
2.26
1.49
1.29
1.96
.
1.46
.....
.....
.08
12.4
1.41
s0
'I.o
21.0
96.0
2I.2
...
1 I
2.00
8.00
3.66
9.6
1.90
1.80
$a,912
so
as
95
so
1.46
.08
.01
.05
2.66
1.64
2.4
8.6
6.0
1.2
*%1412
a&
1.46
1.46.
1.46
.06
1.40
1.44
1.44
IT
.....
.11
.02
.04
.....
.0o
1.T9
1.4
04I
40
40
40
40
9.0
S.0
1.0
5.0
6.0
0.0
8.0
.....
$6t0o
64,hl
64,0294
644.016
60
.....
so0
50
s0
.
50
s0
80
"s0
.00
89
9.9
0
.8
.66
.69
0
1.1
3469
616026
.....
.....
1.28
2.6.
1.44
1,11
s.2
8.9
2.9
24.4
9.9
4.0
2.3
6.0
.0
8.0
5.0
2.44
2.44
1.44
1.44
.o0
.21
..
.1
. 01
0
O
.11
.....
.04
.04
.04
..
.06
I.?T
12.64
12,AT
,I9
1. 0
1.90
1.90
1.&9
1,II
1.5s
.2.4
12.6
1.61
2.66
2.96
1.49
1.&
0.4
0.7
7.8
1.66
2.69
$.o
8.9
0.0
6.0
1.0
9.0
1.04
1,04
L.$$
.....
.01
.....
.....
.30
1.01
2.06
2.2?
1.0
&.&
0.
2.88
.19
.08
2.66
s2.013
Combe
Poito
....
*44418
64,SI1
sa.0 II
61,4.1$
40
40
40
.9
8.8
0
2.8
66006
66.909
$%*1$
0%430
49
46
46
0
2.2
0
.
60
.....
49
8.3
go
40
4.1.1.44
9.9
I.I
1.,0
8.82
.79
.7
8.15
$.T,
9.,0
.
3.60
.0
.
.
1..
.....
.....
.....
. 0
. 10
.....
...
...
.....
1.3ST
11.4
9....
2.66
v,.
p...
A.
.REFERENCES
2.
I..a.
(U)
Mayor, J. P.: A Limit Pressure Coefficient and an REtimtation of Limit Forces on Airfoils at 8uperwonic Speeds.
MACA RN LSF33, 1945. (U)
Pinkerton, R. M., and Greenberg, H.: Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Large Number of Ai rfoils Tested in th,
VariableDennity Wind Tunnel,
Abbott, I. ft., and von Doonhoff, A. X.. and Stilvers, L. S., Jr.:
4.
Jacobs, S. N., ad Abbott, 1. H.: Airfoil Section Data Obtained In the MACA VsriableDensity Tunnel as Affected
by Support Interfereunce and other Corrections. MACA TR $6S, 1980. (U)
6.
7.
Jacobs, Z. N., Ward, K. 9,. sandPinkerton, R. N.: The Characteristic* of 76 Re: ated Airfoil Ssooioue from Tests
In the Variable. Density Wiad Tunnel. NACA ltH 460, 1S'8. (U)
S.
Loftin, L. K.. Jr., and Burenail, W. J.: The Effect& of Variations in Reynolds Number between 8.0 x 10 en d
2 X to$0upon the Aerodimanic Characteristics of a Number of MACA 68eries Airfoil Sections. MACA TN 177$.
148. (U)
P01JO
1.2
(ma)base
PREDOMINANT
PREDONINANT
+
(LONGO 13SUDLZ)
TRAILINOEO
L3ADiNOKEDOR STALL
(SHORT RUBBLE)
0I2
AY (T CHORD)
(U)
4.
~FIGURE
4.1. 1.46
FA
  II }MA'X.CAMRB=
K:;:
AT15CHR
~~~~~~~CAM3HR(WCHORD1)1
Ay(
CHORD)
(bJ
CkaURER (4 CHORD)
too.
.sift"
.44
Op~azn3
(.x CHORD)
0
(m CHORD,)
V.r
I
,.
1.
C`AM6BER (% CHORlD)
olm.K
Ay
FIGURE
4.1. 1.46
(Cont'd)
CHORD)
MAXIMUM
CABHORD)01
FIGURE
COR
(
~~
~~~~OITO
O
OIINO
AXMMTICN
ON SECTIONMMAXTHUMKLIFT
OF..aRFC
A0
FIOUR 41.
EFFEC
OF
OFRCPTNOSITINU3 OFMAXIMUM
MAXICUKN LIF
ON SECTON M.XIUM.LIF
*i.
.
VV/
,,''
! !//:/,9"2
',
A41
8DIGIT]I AMDP'IL
KIN

F7Ay (y CHORD)
FIGURE
4.1.1.4Sa
rFFUCT OF
SMO;OTHLEADINGEDGE CONDITION
4.1.1.48
4
AJrOL
appreciable changes in zerolift pitching moment may be present because of compressibility effects'.
Additional section data may be located in the literature with the aid of table 4.1,1C.
The theoretical pitchingmoment coefficients of the various airfoil man livem at the design lift coefficients are proportional to the section design lift coefficient or meanline ordinate (camber) and may lic
scaled up or down as shown in the sample problem below or in table 4.1.1D. Since the thecreticsl thinairfoil aerodynamic center is at the quarterchord point, the theoretical zerolift pitching moment is identical to the theoretical pitching
mnent about the quarterchord point at the design lift coefficient, shown
is table 4.1.1D,
(3)
:"
Sample Problems,
"Example 1:
Find the theoretical c% about the quarterchcwd point for the 2415 airfoil. Using the 64
"mean line amsa base, for which cm% 0. 157(table 4.1.1D), the required pitchingmoment
coefficient is
cS.157 x 2/6
* .0,5:'
""em
 . 139 x .2
. 028
4.1.2.11
3',m
wq7.1.
.7
_n
4.1.2.2
A, SUBSONIC
The aerodynamic center of thin airfoil sections is theoretically located at the quarterchord point. Experinatatally, the aerodynauinccet.er location is a function of section thickness ratio and trailingedge angle.
Experimental data should always be used in preference to the theory.
The summary of experimental aerodynamic characteristics of various NACA four and fivedigit and 6series
airfoil sections given in tables 4.1.1A and 4.1.1B includes aerodynaniccenter location.
Figure 4.1.2.23 presents the generalized aerodynamic center for the useful range of airfoil thickness ratios
and trailingedge angles. Trailingedge angles, as defined on figure 4.1.2.23 are given for standard
NACA airfoils in Section 2.2.1.
Sshown in table 4.1.2.2A.
B. SUPERSONIC
Section pitchingmoment variation with lift at supersonic speeds is primarily a function of section thickness,
thickness distribution, and camber. For conditions where there is no flow separation, shockexansion
"theory given results that are in good agreement with experimental data.
At the higher angles of attack, enpecially for the thicker sections, flow separation takes place on the upper
rear portion of the airfoil. Under these circumstances the experimental center of pressure ia farther forward
than that predicted by theory.
At very high angles of attack, the shock detaches from the section leading edge. The center of pressure
then teds toward the S0percuntchord point as thc angle of attack increases toward 90
Figure4.1.2.24 gives the position of the center of pressure for three airfoil sections as a function of Mach
number, angle of attack, and thickness ratio. These results are calculated from shockexpansion theory
(reference 1) and are strictly applicable only when the flow is everywhere attached.
REFERENCE
1.
1i>.Xff.LL~
Tlandbook of Supersouni
(U)
4.1.2.21
t
n~kj.
TABUR 4.134A
AIUFOIL.SCIMON AK6RODYNAUIC.CENTEI POSITON
DATA S!IMMARY AND SURSTANflATION
(cakcTew'
A~r________TedQ
vs
J61
MY7
234%
31.4
.231
.3
441S
19.6
.24
AS4
4415
4421
4424
2u.
27.5
31.4
ms4
.24
in
M?270
.30
in
0
M6
J24
+.002
.7
in
ITS
.271
3X27
. 001
+.001
+MO
221
63&415
4A8
632418
63.031
63.3
"6AOI0
6A6
10"
.2"
Z38
M24
A38
64,A21S
15.3
msI
I2
64,A212
136
ms5
251
. 001
644)009
3.3
.210
362
+Am*
64.012
64,015
4Z9
5.8
.659+j"
AR6
Al0
0
A.
64j4021
&.1
.273
372
.001
65.00
65.415
65.2110.1
29
7.2
.2636
in
.26S
.W
"16.06
5.6
66oM1
23024
.20.69
. 001
355
3
22
M26
.603
130
.175
.265
. 010
31.4
7.9
.231
.25
.22+.001
.24
. 001
1412
157
.2w0
23012
15.7
24
2303I
23.
.21
.241
23021
27.5
IN3
.23
+.003
2302
31.5S2
.231
4.00@
S66.415
9.3
%0006
C12.2
. 06
M2
Am0
+.007
23+.001
SUBSONIC SPE(EDS
SECTION AERODYNAMIC CENTER
OTR ,TRAILING9D0E
FIOUN3R 4..4,
AN4OLE,
(dtil)
4.1.2.23
SUPERSONIC SPEEDS
SECTION CENTER OF PRESSURE
aa
2
CEXNTEROFP33881114
PRSSR
LOCATION
(O1 CHORD)
MACHl NUMBER
CENTEROFI
ELOCATION
40
4
(S CHORD)
SHOMCK
r
so
CENTEROF
LOCATION
r_
NUMBCHEN
(A CHORD)
SHOCK
80
.
ORTArHENKT
MACH NUMBER
1101131 4.1.2.24
4.1.2.24
~a
In the lif axis system, the force vector F is resolved into components perpendicular and parallel to the free streuri.
These components are called hit and drag, respectively. In the normalforce axis system, the force vector is resolved
into components perpendicular to and parallel to the wing chord, called the normal force and the chord force, respectively.
The equations relating the lift, drag, normal~force, and chordforce coefficients are
C,
CX
CL cos a + CD sin

CD COSa + CL Sin a
4.1.3a
4.13b
CL
co
CNI0
4.1.3c
C,
C.\ Sin a
'. COS
4.1.3d
If the resultant force vector is nearly normal to the wing surface, tni! 'hoidwise
F z=N
X zO
CL ZC\ csa4.1.3c
Cb Z
sN
in a
The resultant force vector is nearly normal to the wing surface for all
wings at angles of attack beyond 'he stall at subsonic speeds. It is also
at supersonic speeds, However, for h igh aspect ratio wings at angles of
is more nearly perpcndicular to the freestrearn direction than normal to
4.1.3 f
low aspect ratio wings and for high aspect ratio
nearly normal to the wing surface for all .aings
attack below the stall, tile resultant force vector
the wing surface.
For purposes of continuity thrnugh the ccmrrplete spee~d and angleofattack envelope it is convenient to introduce a
pseudonormal force C..', defined by the equafion
4.1.31
S ...
"
.
. .
. ,.
. *" '
C.
.
. y'..*
COS al
, *
"
'
.
4.1.3g
As indicated by the discussion above, this C.' is essentially the true normal force for all situations except that of high.
aspectratio wings at angles of attack below the stall.
In the following Sections C%'
between experimental CN
several configurations.
4,1.32
,f
is used for C.
CL values for
" "t .
 ..
77 ,7.
The method presented in this section is restricted to subsonic speeds. In the transonic and supersonic speed
regimes it is suggested that reference be made to experimental data.
A. SUBSONIC
"F>
The effect of planform geometry on the zerolift angle of attack of untwisted, constantsection wings is
relatively small. Therefore, the method applied to such planforms is based on airfoil section properties.
For untwisted, constantsection wings the zerolift angle of attack, taken from reference 1, is
cli
. 0

la
4.1.3.1a
(degrees)
where clj, aj, and c1 are the section design lift coefficient, angle of attack for design lift coefficient, and
section liftcurve slope, respectively. These data may be obtained from Section 4.1. 1.
Equation 4.1.3.1a is applicable to swept wings if the airfoils are defined parallel to the free stream.
If definition of the airfoil section parallel to the free stream is not available for a particular swept wing,
then co may be approximated by
(a',
= tan,
tan0)
Iea
cos A
(degrees)
4.1.3.1b
A,0
where
A
(a0)
A0
For wings with constant airfoil sections and linear twist, liftingline theory may be used as in reference 2 to
obtain ako as a function of planform geometry. This method uses the equation
ca0
.
(6IA
0)
(degrees)
4.1.3.1c
4.1.3.11
r' r 77.~~u
7r7'.
,',.
'
rrrrMa
r..
*r
'
'
ra
,71
where
(%)
0is the zerolift angle of attack of the untwisted, constantsection wing, given by equation
no 4.1.3,1
is the change in wing zerolift angle of attack due to a unit chbnge in linear wing twist. This
parameter is obtained from figure 4.1.3.144.
S0
0i'
the twist of the wing tip with respect to the root section, in degrees (negative for washout).
8.is
"Alinear spanwise twist distribution is assumed (all constantpercent points of the local
chords lie in straight lines along the span).
Test data have indicated that if the airfoil is cambered the zerolift angle of attack varies with Mach
number, particularly above the critical Mach number. A Mach number correction to be applied to cambered
airfoils is presented as figure 4.1.3.14 5. This chart gives the ratio of the zerolift angle of attack at any
subsonic Mach number to the corresponding value at M = 0.3. This chart is based on the data of references
3, 4, and 5 and is to be considered as a firstorder approximation only.
Unfortunately, there are not enough data to substantiate the theoretical results as applied to either
untwisted or twisted wings. Consequently, experimental data should be used whenever possible.
A0 /4 =6.340
6.0
0.50
Y9 0
Y99
1.455
0.265
1.0
Compute:
*@
(table 4.1.1D)
%::.0.30
* 'i!i.5
1
tan 2
4.1.3.12
'E
Y9 0
y 99
2
9T9
1.455  0.265
0.132
',.'
:.. :::
:.i
((cl
theory
(N 0 )
thcoqy
0.760
(figure 4.1.1.28a)
1.5[
(figure 4.1.1.2Eb)
C,
C(
1.05
)theory
(equation 4.1.1.2a)
L  "' "otheory

1.05
1.0 [0.7601 (6.89)
ai
Solution:
(o
QI
'e
quation 4,1.3.1a)
1.651.5 0.30
0.096
1.48 deg
REFERENCES
"
1.
Abbott, I. H.. von Doenhoff. A. E., and Stiveus. L. S., Jr.: Summwy of Airfi Data. NACA TR 824, 1946. (U)
2.
DeYoung, J., and Harper, C. W.: Theoretical Symmetric Spen Loading at Suboeonic Speeds for Wings Having Arbitrary Plan Form. NACA
TR 921,1948. (U)
3.
Granam, D. J.: The Development of Censored Airfoil Sections Having Favorable Lift Characterstica at Supercritical Mach Numbers.
NACA TR 947, 1949. (U)
4.
StacK, J., and von Doennotf, A. E.: Tests of 16 Related Airfoils at High SpeM. NACA TH 492, 1934. (U)
5.
Johnson, B. H., Jr., and Shibeta, H. H.: Characteristics Througncut the Subsonic Speed Range of a Plane Wing and of a Cambered and
Twisted Wing, Both Having 450 of Swepbeck. NACA RM A51D27, 1961. (U)
4.1.3.13
r .
',.
, , .7r~ i
"v
..
.,
,
..
.,..

,
;..r. .
.
..
. . _
"
'
"
V'
(a) ) =0
",_ASPECT RATIO
. 38
. 34
. 32
. 30
"
10
20
30
40
QUARTERCHORD SWEEP ANGLE, Af
50
(dog)
60
. 2 (b) A . 0.5
. 420
; 
.4
A S PECT RA TIO
"  ,. .
. 36"
;:.2.36
........
10
20
30
.
.
40
50
60
(deg)
4.1.3.14
(c)W?  1.0
:;
"
RATIO
ASPECT
":'"
. 402
38.
.
60
50
40
30
20
10
(ao)m__
0(a)M 3
10 (% CHORD)
.4
114
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
1.0
M cos A,/4
4.1.3.15
The lift on a wing at angle of attack results from the distributed pressures over the surf,ce oif the
wing, At subsonic speeds, most of the lift on a wing is derived from a region of low pressure on the
upper surface near the leading edge. The magnitude and distribution of this pressure field is such
that its integrated value over the wing surface results in a force vector that is very nearly
perpendicular to the freestream direction. This is the wellknown jiftforce vector. The rate of
change of this vector with angle of attack is the liftcurve slope dCL Ida, usually written as CL .
At supersonic speeds the pressure distribution over the wing is quite different. The pressure
integration results in a force vector that is more nearly perpendicular to the wingchord plane rather
than to the freestream direction. This is called the normal force and its variation with angle of
attack in coefficient form is dCN/dK, or CNa.
"For small angles of attack, CL, is interchangeable with CN,. At higher angles of attack the
distinction is important.
For finite, threedimensional wings, tile freestream direction with reference to the wing localairfoil
sections is determined by the freestream angle of attack decreased by the local induced angle of
attack. The lift vector is tilted back by an angle equal to the local induced angle. This force vector
can be resolved into two components  one perpendicular to and one parallel to the freestream
direction.
For highaspectratio wings there is a certain justification in using CL, as CN , below stall angles,
since the induced angle is small. For angles of attack beyond the stall, the totalforce vector is
essentially normal to the wing chord. For very lowaspectratio wings at high angles of attack, the
induced effects are large and the localforce vector is tilted back through a large angle.
A. SUBSONIC
Theories for calculating tile subsonic lift on threedimensional wings fall into two general classes,
liftingsurface theories and liftingline theories. Liftingsurface theories, such as those of
References I and 2, give highly accurate results for both wing lift and pitching moment. Since they
are rather difficult to apply, however, they are usually reserved for detailed analyses of specific
wings, particularly lowaspectratio wings, where the inducedcamber and inducedangleofattack
effects are important.
Liftingline theories are widely used for calculating the liftcurve slopes of highaspectratio wings,
where chordloading effects are less important. Certain modified liftingline theories (References 3
and 4) give liftcurve slopes (but not pitching moments) that are quite accurate, even for very low
aspect ratios. The explanation foi this unexpected ,ccuracy is given in Reference 5.
At subsonic speeds methods are presented for determining the liftcurve slope of the following two
classes of wing planfomls:
StraightTapered Wings (conventional, fixed trapezoidal wings)
S4.1.3.21
NonStraightTapered Wings
Doubledelta wings (composite wings with A  3 or less)
Cranked wings (composite wings with A  3 or greater)
Curved (Gothic and ogee) wings
(a), and their
These three general categories of nonstraighttapered wings are illustrated in Sketch
winggeometry parameters are presented in Section 2.2.2.
Gothic
Ogee
Double delta
Cranked
Curved
SKETCH (a)
Two separate methods are presented for straighttapered wings. Method 1, taken from Reference 3,
is applicable to the majority of configurations. In this method, the wing taper ratio has been
eliminated as a parameter by the use of the midchord sweep angle rather than the conventional
quarterchord or leadingedge sweep angle. This permits a considerable simplification in the
presentation of wingliftcurveslope information. Because of this simplification, the method of
Reference 3 has been chosen for presentation in this section for estimating the liftcurve slope of
straighttapered wings. It gives results that agree with slenderwing theory (Reference 6) at very low
aspect ratios and with twodimensional section data at infinite aspect ratios.
*
Method 2, taken from Reference 7, is applicable only at M = 0.2 for highly swept, constantsection, lowaspectratio, delta or clippeddelta configurations with large thickness ratios; i.e.,
0.10 < t/c < 0.30. The unique feature of this method is its consideration of the vortexinduced lift.
In contrast to the conventional constant liftcurve slope, this method allows for one or two breaks
in the liftcurve slope to account more accurately for the vortexinduced lift contribution.
The liftcurve slopes of nonstraighttapered wings are treated in Reference 8. The planforms
investigated include double delta, cranked, and curved (Gothic and ogee). Methods for predicting
the liftcurve slope near zero lift for these planforms are based on the work of Spencer in
Reference 9. This work consists of an extension of the results presented foi conventional wings in
Reference 3 to include wings having variation in sweep along the span. Since lift curves of
doubledelta and curved wings are considered nonlinear throughout the lift range, the liftcurve
slope near zero lift is of little significance by itself. On the other hand, experimental results show
*.
4.1.3.22
'4
"that the lift curves for cranked wings (defined as composite wings with aspect ratios approximately
three or greater) exhibit a linear range up to approximately eight degiees angle of attack.
Consequently, the method of Reference 9, as modified by an empirical correlation factor, is used
for the prediction of CL for cranked wings with roundnosed airfoils.
"DATCOMMETHODS
StraightTapered Wings
Method I
The threedimensional liftcurve slope of conventional wings is presented in Figure 4.1.3.249 as a
function of wing aspect ratio, midchord sweep angle, Mach number, and section (defined parallel to
the free stream) liftcurve slope. The factor K of Figure 4.1.3.249 is the ratio of the
twodimensional liftcurve slope (per radian) at the appropriate Math number to 21r/f3; i.e., (c )u /
(27r/0). Section liftcurve slope (per degree) is obtained from Section 4.1.1.2.
A sweepconversion formula is given in Section 2.2.2, from which the midchord sweep for any
straighttapered wing may be determined.
Application
of of
thethis
method
is illustrated
sampleproblems
problem following
following the
the straighttaperedwing
nonstraighttaperedwing methods
paragraph,
and in inthethesample
methods for transonic speeds in Paragraph B.
Method 2
This semiempirical method is taken from Reference 7, ignoring the small wingplanform noseradius
effects. The semiempirical method was developed by using the test results of Reference 7,
correlated with the theoretical predictions based on liftingsurface theory. Because of its
semiempirical nature, the method should be restricted to M = 0.2 conditions for highly swept,
constantsection, lowaspectratio, delta or clippeddelta configurations with the following geometric characteristics:
0.58 <A C 2.55
<X
C
<
63 0
0.3
C ALE
80 0
The determination of the breaks in the liftcurve slope (CL 1 and CL111 in Sketch (b)), is contingent
upon the availability of section uppersurface pressure data for the particular airfoil section being
considered. In the method formulation of Reference 7, the pressure data were derived by means of
a computerprogram solution for the potential flow equations for twodimensional incompressible
flow, by the method of conformal transformation according to Imai (Reference 10). However, test
data from Reference 11 or any other source of valid experimental data will satisfy the requirement.
4.1.3.23
CL
/
al
/l
//
CL
CL
all
CL1
ANGLE OF ATTACKI
ACL
a (deg)
SKETCH (b)
(CLhe
8 tan

where
4.1.3.24
ALE
4.1.312a
WUU
0
Step 2.
.q 7,rr
,Wrj
t~r
7.
7.
7.
.7.
Determine the lowliftregion liftcurve slope, based on the wing planform area, by
correcting the theoretical value in Step 1 for thickness effects.
t'C"
K_,; basic
(CL,)'to' tlw
CL
4.1.3.2b
t'heoury
where
is from Step I above.
(L.)h~r
!
\ CL
Step 3.
CLO
Cis
theory
Plot the maximum negative uppersurface section pressure coefficient CPU and its
corresponding section lift coefficient cQ on Figure 4.1.3.250b for three or four
different section lift coefficients. These pressure data are supplied by the user ard
may be theoretical or taken from a source of experimental data such as
Reference 11. When a sufficient number of points have been plotted, fair a smooth
line through the points. Now determine where the fairec line intersects the value of
S( C
)thY
the value of
(L
is the
lift coefficient where the vortex lift component necessitates the first change in the
liftcurve slope (see Sketch (b)). The point of intersection also defines the maximum
negative uppersurface section pressure coefficient CPU used in the next step.
Step 4.
Plot the maximum negative uppersurface section pressure coefficient CPU versus its
corresponding nondimensional chordwise location x/c. (These pressure data are
supplied by the user as above in Step 3.) Read the chordwise location x/c
corresponding to the value of Cp determined in Step 3.
Step 5.
Determine the value of CLill from Figure 4.1.3.251 as a function of taper ratio,
sweep, thickness ratio, and the chordw ise location of Cpu. The value for Ct1 I is the
lift coefficient where the vortex lift component necessitates a second change in the
liftcurve slope (see Sketch (b)).
Step 6.
((1Lt4) limit
4.1.3.2c
14 (per deg)
where
is the complement of the leadingedge sweep angle ALE: i.e., Ac
,.
90
A
4.1.3.25
Step 7.
(C1.'"CL
1,) Limit
Step B.
Then
0.0067 per deg
C~L,~aj >0.0067;
6CL.1
6CLO 1
(L)basic'CL
6CL.11
_ (CL.)tLimit
ba(sic)b.
Determine the total liftcurve slope in the region between CL11 and CL I1 using
CL,
4.1.3.2d
(C6)+ CL)
where
S(CL.)
O(CL),,
Step 9.
is from Step 7.
CL,
(CL)
Then
ba
(CL.)
 (CL.)bai
(CL)
.(c
0.012;
<o0.012;
)b
),ai
(CL.)
(8c 1 .).
(
(CL.)btC
.)
Step 10. Determine the total liftcurve slope in the region beyond CL111 using
(CL,) il
= (CL.)basic
*
+
where
(CL)as
is from Stop 2.
4.1.3.26
(8CLa) ii!
4.1.3.2a
::._
.
. , ,
 . : ,:
i :
+ + .
.   .....:
..
The entire liftcurve slope may now be c'onstructed as shown in Sketch (b). (Note that the wing
zerolift angle of attack a0 is determined by using Section 4.1.3. 1.)
No substantiation of this methold is possible because of the lack of lowaspectratio test data having
wing thickness ratios of 0.10 t/c < 0.30. Application of this method is illustrated in the sample
problem on Page 4. 1.3.2.8.
NonStraightTapered Wings
DoubleDelta Wings
Although the liftcurve slope near zero lift of doubledelta wings is of little significance by itself,
this CL, is used in the correlation of nonlinear lift of doubledelta wings at subsonic speeds in
Section 4.1,3.3.
This method, taken from Reference 9, consists of an extension of the method of Reference 3 by use
of an effective value of cos AC
which is defined as the areaweighted average of the local value of
cos A,/2'
The subsonic liftcurve slope of doubledelta wings is obtained from the procedure outlined in the
following steps:
Step 1.
Divide the wing into n sections, each section being assumed to have constant sweep
angles within its boundary. (See Section 2.2.2 for winggeometry parameters.)
Step 2.
Using the wing geometry determined in Step 1, obtain (cos Ac/2 )ff
by
j=l
whr
(os A.
(.cos A,2) Si
4. 1.3.2f
where
w
Sjiis
(,;os Act 2)j
Step 3.
Obtain the liftcurve slope by application of the method used to delCten1ie CLa o(
straighttapcit'd wings, but with t,A,/2 ),ff used in place of Ac,/2 in the design chart
(Figure 4.1.3.249).
4.1.3.27
"*
Cranked Wings
The subsonic liftcurve slope of cranked wings with ou.gdnosed airfoils is obttined by applying an
empirical correlation to the method of Reference S.
The equation for CL. of cranked wings, taken from Reference 8, is
CL X
test
(CL
(cL,)ped
(C) r(CL,)
4.1.3.2g
pred
where
is the liftcurve slope of the cranked wing, predicted by the method outlined
(CL )p,,
A comparison of test data tor 12 configurations with CL. of cranked wings having roundnosed
airfoils calculated by this method is presented as Table 4.1.3.2A (taken from Reference 8). The test
data are for four wingalone and eight wingbody configurations. Three of the wingalone
configurations have two breaks in the leading edge. Although no attempt has been made to define
the effects of wing thickness ratio, poor accuracy generally results for t/c > 0.09. It should also be
noted that the calculated accuracy detexiorates as Mach number exceeds 0.80. No configuration had
a bodydiametertowingspan ratio .jreater than 0.147 and, consequently, the wingbody interference is considered to be negligible. It is suggested that this method be restricted to values of
M 0.80 and t/c < 0.10.
It is suggested that th. subsonic liftcurve slope of cranked wings with sharpnosed airfoils be
obtained by direct application of the method outlined for doubledelta planforms.
Curved Wings
No method is presented for estimating the subsonic liftcurve .dope of curved wings because of their
nonlinear lift characteristics.
Sample Problems
1. Method 2
Given: The following straighttapered, constantsection, lowaspectratio, clippeddelta configuration.
.2.
73.50
M=0.2
*i

ALE
X= 0.18
A = 0.823
4.1.3.28

.
Lf
t.
tt
qr
Compute:
CL.),too y
A
1A/(I + 2Atan ALE)
16
8 tan)16=+
0.823w"
16 + 0.323 r/[ 1 + 2(0.18)(3.376)]
~8tan
Ik
"3+A
CL.
(cL) th~
0.98
= 0.0209 perdeg
0.18
+ 2(0.1
II+0.823
l+2/
(Equation 4.1.3.2a)
'2
=0.095
(Figure 4.1.3.250a)
CL.
(CL,
)
(08
(Equation 4.1.3.2b)
(0.0209)(0,98)
=0.0205perdeg (valid for CL <CLII)
The following pressure data for a NACA 241? airfoil are (Reference 11):
V
CP,,
x/c
0
0.253
0.37
0.56
0.30
0.19
0.5
0.95
0.05
The above data are now plotted on Figure 4.1.3.250b. From Figure 4.1.3.250b we now
obtain a value of 0.222 for CLI, at a value of 0.53 forC;,u.
Plot C
4
versus x/c
_1.0
 75.
. 0
. 25
S0
.3
0I.2
x/c
From the above plot xlc
0.53.
4.1.3.29
x/c
(1 4 XX 1  x/c) tan AL
0.204
=__
____
(1 + 0.18)(1  0.204)(3.376)
= 0.0643
(Figure 4.1.3.251)
CLIII = 0.467
16.50
90o73.50
Ac = 900 _ALE
11 4
(Equation 4.1.3.2c)
it
(CLJ)basic
=0.03420.0205
=0.0137
0.0067
(Step 7)
(Equation 4.1.3.2d)
1II
1
+ (SCL,)
(CL)*)tbasic +
(CL,)C~a!I
= 0.0205 + 0.0067
= 0.0272 per deg (valid for 0.222 < CL < 0.467)
Since 0.0137 > 0.012,
(CL,
11 , 1
&CLallI =
0.012perdeg
(Step9)
(Equation 4.1.3.2e)
"0.0205+ 0.012
=
* '
Solution:
The entire lift curve can now be constructed assuming the wing zerolift angle of attack Ot0 has
been determined using Section 4.1.3.1.
2. NonStraightTapered Wings
(See Section 2.2.2 for wingplanform
Given: The arankedwing planform of Reference 29. Sw
i.,geometry.)
bw/2 = 18.0 in.
= 2.25 sq ft
4,0
=Awf
"geomr.
9
AW
A"E7
lB =0.6
,rw
ALE
ctw
4.0
13.85 in. cB
i
kW = 0.30
= 0.609sqft
= 1,641 sqft So
Si
8.03 in.
=
ctw
0.517
0.58
ALE = 7.70
AALi= 48.60
Ac/2
40.90
___
4.15 in,
7.7
*..



0.80
4.1.3.210
s .
13= 0.60
.Compute:
j
(cos Ac/2)eff
E..
(cos A/
'.
2 )i
Si
(cos A
"c2
Si + (cos A
":(Equation
4.1.3.2f)
=0.820
0.6976
6.00
0
aR
crM
10.0 (0.6)
=
(21r/0)
[p2
0.6
a M
21
(Ac/2)eff
=0.955
"40
+0.4866/
3.85
:i~~~!(Cape
Co pred
2.40
(CLa)test
4CLa
(LO)p
(CL.)ts
(CL)
(Equation 4.1.3.2g)
 (4.00) (1.081)
4.324 per rad
0.0755 per deg
This compares with a tcst value of 0.075 per degree fromReference 29.
4
4.1.3.211
B. TRANSONIC
The transonic characteristics of wings are very difficult to predict. The current status of the
problem is summarized in Reference 12. It is pointed out in this reference that although transonic
theory gives results of surprisingly good accuracy in many cases, the mathematical difficulties in
solving nonlinear partial differential equations of the mixed elliptichyperbolic type have limited its
application to a few simple configurations.
On the other hand, windtunnel tests cover a wide variety of configurations but are of questionable
accuracy because of wallinterference effects. These interference effects "e both difficult to
determine analytically and difficult to eliminate. Simply testing smaller ,..odels is not always
sufficient, even in slottedwall tunnels (Reference 12).
..
In spite of the uncertainties in test data, the straighttaperedwing design charts of this section are
based largely on experimental data from windtunnel tests. This is done because of certain
important flowseparation effects not accounted for by theory and because of the limited scope of
existing solutions for transonic theory. The limited experimental data for nonstraighttapered wings
preclude development of design methods for those planforms at transonic speeds. However, a chart
is presented that indicates the trend of transonic data for doubledelta wings and foi cranked wings
"withan aspect ratio of approximately three.
Thick, unswept, straighttapered wings show increases in liftLurve slope with Mach number up to
Mach numbers slightly beyond the critical. The slope then drops abruptly to a low value followed
by a rise near Mach=l.0 to a value almost as high as the value at the critical Mach number (see
Sketch (c), for type "A" wings). This behavior for twodiniensional sections is illustrated in
References 13, 14, and 15. Reducing either the aspect ratio or the wingthickness ratio or both
reduces the magnitude of these effects. For very thin wings and for wings of very low aspect ratio
these transonic nonlinearities do not exist (see Sketch (c) for type "B" wings). Increasing the sweep
angle raises the wing critical Mach number. However, the increase is never as large as that predicted
by simple sweep theory. Reference 16 shows that threedimensional effects in the regions of the
wing root and tip prevent the full benefits of sweep from being realized.
The transonic nonlinearities in liftcurve slope are related to the appearance of local shocks located
asymmetrically on the upper and lower surfaces of the wing. Prediction of the exact shockwave
location is somewhat involved, since there is an interaction between the shocks on the upper and
lower surfaces (Reference 17). Camber, thickness ratio, and thickness distribution all have
pronounced effects on section transonic lift characteristics. Proper combination of the above
geometric parameters can prevent transonic lift losses even for quite thick sections (Reference 18).
Wings that do have large transonic lift losses at zero angle of attack show marked recovery at higher
angles of attack (Reference 19).
DATCOM METHODS
StraightTapered Wings
The procedure for constructing the transonic liftcurve slope of conventional planforms is outlined
in the following steps. In following this procedure, reference should be made to the schematic
sketch below. The method is based on data for the untwisted and uncambered wings of
References 19 and 47 through 51. These data are compared in Table4.1.3.2B with the values
calculated from the charts.
4.1.3.212
,.
.

The charts are limited to wings having symmetrical airfoils of conventional thickness distribution
and are for zero angle of attack only.
CL
1.4
.6
1.4
.6
MACH NUMBER
MACH NUMBER
Step 1.
Calculate the forcebreak Mach number Mfb. TIhis is obtained from Figure
4.1. 3 . 253a for zero wing sweep. A correction for sweep effects is provided by
Figure 4.1.3.253b.
Step 2.
Compute the theoretical liftcurve slope at the forcebreak Mach number by the
method of paragraph A.
Step 3.
The actual liftcurve slope at the forcebreak Mach number is found by means of the
ratio (CL" fb/(CLa,)theory obtained from Figure 4.1.3.254a.
Step 4.
The abrupt decrease in liftcurve slope above the forcebreak Mach number is
described by the ratio a/c (see Sketch (c)). This ratio is given in Figure 4.1.3.254b.
The Mach numbei Ma at which the liftcurve slope reaches its minimum value is
Ma =Mb +0.07
The liftcurve slope at Ma is
(CL)
(I=
For wings thiat do not exhibit large transonic lift losses (Sketch (c)), the liftcurve
slope at Ma may still be obtained from the ratio a/c as given in Figure 4.1.3.254b.
In all cases, c is the liftcurve slope at the forcebreak Mach number as obtained in
Step 3.
Step 5.
The subsequent rise in CIoa (Sketch (b)) is given by the ratio b/c as presented in
Figure 4.1. 3 . 2 54c, The Mach number at this point is
Mb= Mfb +0.14
4.1.3.213
.
~
(Ib)C*f
Step 7.
Step 8.
The complete transonic liftcur,;c slope between Mach numbers 0.6 and 1.4 can now
be constructed by fairing a curve through the points obtained by means of Steps 1
through 7.
NonStraightTapered Wings
During the course of the program reported in Reference 8 an empirical correlation of the liftcurve
slope of doubledelta and cranked wings at M = 1.0 was achieved. This correlation is presented
"herein as Figure 4.1.3.255. It is suggested that it be used as a guide for fairing between subsonic
and supersonic values Of CL, of composite wings with an aspect ratio of three or less.
"The configurations used in the correlation vary in aspect ratio from 1.33 to 3.0. The inboardpanel
sweepback is 780 for the lower correlation points and 600 for the upper correlation points.
Spanwise positions of the leadingedge break i vary from approximately 0.30 to 0.70.
Semple Proble'ns
1. StraightTapered Wing of Type "A."
Given: Wing tested in Reference 48.
':
A= 4.0
Co mp u te :"
, = 1.0
ALE
= 0
NACA 63AO01
" >
ct
ce
am
(c?/ )
".==
;2r/)
'0
:
4.1.3.214
(21r/03)
cM

27r
= 0.958
airfoil
] V.
A k2 tan2A
(CLOtheory
f:::.''1
C,)tr=
4.0
0/. 8 (0.291)
2.25
. ..
1.25 per tad (Figure 4.1.3.249)
A
5.0 per rad
(C~or~heory
(CLjCb)hr
Ma = Mpo+0.07 = 0.912
(CL)Oa
(!a)(CLa)fb
4
0.15 (Figure
Mfb+0.14 = 0.982
= 3.12perrad
.1.3,254c)
SMb
(CL)M=0. 6
=(Figu
0
(Paragraph A)
10+tnAj
(c La)M=
0
A
perradb
4.08 per rad
12
0.958
( 0 .6 4 )1/2= 3.34
(C)M14
*
*1
"1/(A)
(Paragraph C)
0.255
4.1.3.215
P2Na
(CNM)M.i.
Solution:
The complete liftcurve slope as a function of Mach number may now be constructed as shown
in the following diagram.
4
3
CLf
(per rad)
+ Experimental Data
i
i
.
now".
:'q,0
.6
:
.7,
*.
0.2
ALE
.8
, , Compute:
'.
Aqc
26.60
(Mfb)A
(CLa)theory at (M)A
*c~
4.1.3.216
Calculated Points
1.2
1.0
MACH NUMBER
= 450
"(Mfb)A=o
1.4
fi
.
(2rclo) =
A[
7..
..
SCLO)
10
1.03
2.6 7
12'
27r
=
.%"
2.6
(21r/0)
1.03
2,
.3
(0.251)2 =1.30
3.83 perthor
,):
(CLa)theory
"aa
(CL
at fb

Ma
(CLa)a = (1)(CL)fb
Mb =
=
(CL).~
,(CL)M,
(1
L.)(fcb
3.85
(Paragraph A)
kCL,)M0.6

A
(4.32M=0.6
.(CL)M
%;i
4. ;.3.217
(CLU)M= 1.4
(Paragraph C)
P/tan ALE
L":'
CN
CNa) theory
= 0.88(Figure 2.2.18)
.Ay
ii" i"
.
ZX~l"
...
cos
AY4=
ALE=1,4
1.245
CNa
"(CNc)theory
(CNa)M=1
Solution:
The complete liftcurve slope as a function of Mach number may now be constructed as shown
in the following diagram.
45
4.
CLa
"(perrad)
E4
Yperimental Data
+
*..
0 Calculated Points
.,
4
.6
.8
1.0
MACH NUMBER
4.1.3.218
1.2
1.4
,
4 V V.
C. SUPERSONIC
Methods are. presented for determining the wing normalforcecurve slope of the following two
1',01
Reference 21  in the region of subsonic leading edges and supersonic trailing edges
Reference 22  in the regions of tiproot interaction and tiptip interaction
Reference 23  in the region of subsonic leading and trailing edges
Reference 6
for values of A,
References 24 and 25
.

'4
'4
For straighttapered wings with sharp leading edges, the airfoil nose semiwedge angle (measured
perpendicular to the Wing leading edge) determines the shock position relative to the wing and
hence the normalforcecurve slope. Experimental data indicate that the parameter corresponding to
the nose semiwedge angle of the supersonic airfoil is Ay/cos ALE, where Ay is the difference
between the uppersurface ordinates expressed in percent chord at the 6percent and 0.1 5percentchord stations (Figure 2.2.18). This is the same Ay discussed in Section 4.1.3.4 with regard to
4
4.1.3.219
airfoil maximum lift. It can he shown that for doublewedge and biconvex airfoils there is a linear
relationship between Ay and the leadingedge semiwedg., angle, given by
AY.L
5.85 tan 5_
where
Ay
A
cos ALE
and 61 is the semiwedge angle normal to the leading edge. Either 6.L or Ayj, whichever is more
convenient, may be used to calculate thickness effects for straighttapered wings with sharpnosed
airfoils.
Figure 4.1.3.260 presents the leadingedgethickness effect on the normalforcecurve slope of
straighttapered wings in the form of a ratio of actual normalforcecurve slope to theoretical
normalforcecurve slope. This chart is empirically derived from the experimental data of
Reference 26 of this section and References 11 through 17, 26, and 45, of Section 4.1.3.3.
For doubledelta and cranked wings empirical correlation factors for roundnosed and sharpnosed
airfoils (from Reference 8) are applied, which account for leadingedge effects.
The method presented for determining the normalforcecurve slope of curved (Gothic and ogee)
wings consists of a semiempirical correlation based on the theoretical results of Squire in
Reference 27.
Because of the nonlinear nature of the normalforce curve at high angles of attacK, the methods
presented for estimating CN , are limited to low angles of attack.
Wings with inverse taper (X > 1) have not been considered. Wings with sweptforward leading edges
are included through the use of the reversibility theorem (Reference 28). The reversibility theorem
states that the normalforcecurve slope of the wing in forward flight equals the normalforcecurve
slope of the same wing in reverse flight at the same Mach number.
DATCOM METHODS
StraightTapered Wings
The supersonic normalforcecurve slope of conventional wings is obtained as outlined in the
following steps:
Step 1.
Step 2.
4.1.3.220
NonStraightTapered Wings
DoubleDelta Wings
*the
This method, taken from Reference 8, uSCs the lineartheory desiW charts of the straighttapered"wing method with appropriate empirical correction factors. Application of the method requires that
wing planforrn be broken down as follows (see Sketch (d)):
Basic Wing 
the outboard leading mid trailing edges extended to the center line.
Glove 
a delta wing superimposed over the basic wing. The glove leading edge is that of
that poiiion of the wing behind the trailing edge of the basic wing for wings
with broY.%'n trailing edges.
Glove
GveBasic Wing
Extension
SKETCH (d)
The method is applicable to doubledelta wings having breaks in the leading and/or trailingedge
sweep at only one spanwise station,
The normalforcecurve slope of the total wing is
CN
I(N)b
~
I(N)b
(c 1 )bw
(C
CLnF
S
(L
41N
9 + (CN)E
where
KL
4:
4.1.3.221
r
SW
are the ratios of the areas of the basic wing, gloSe, and trailingedge
SW' SW
extension, respectively, to the total wing area. (See Section 2.2.2 for
winggeometry parameters.)
(CNO)bw, (CNa),
(C LEbw (CLE)
(Cn)E
$2
(c 1S
CN
whaere"'
SE~
zz:
CN)
here
ICN)
S1
4.1.3.2i
SW2S
(cN E
S2
are the ratios of the areas of the two zerotaper planforms to the total wing
Sw
w area.
ALFg
LE
bE12
.,
sw
ATE
ATEE
(CN)
bw
Sw
(CN
s)
SW
SKETCH (e)
4.1.3.222
.
.


,.A~
NN;)
(CNS
Application of this method is illustrated in Sample Problem 1 on Page 4.1.3.229.
t'
A comparison o' test data for 26 configurations with CN , of doubledelta wings calculated oy this
method is presented as Table 4.1.3.2C (taken from Reference 8). All but two of the configurations
listed in the table are wingbody combinations, All predictions were made by using the theoretical
planform (leading and trailing edges extended to the center line) for the total planform area and
neglecting body effects. No configuration had a ratio of body diameter to wing span greater than
0.15; consequently, the wingbody interference is considered to be negligible. The wingthicknessratio range covered (0.02 to 0.07) is consistent with current practice and no significant effects of
wing thickness ratio are evident.
It should be noted that the maximum error generally occurs on wingbody configurations with large
inboard sweep angles (ALEi > 780). This can conceivably result from two sources. Configurations
with large inboard sweep have a large portion of the theoretical glove planform submerged in the
body, making the assumption of negligible wingbody interference effects less valid; and the
"leadingedgeeffect factors" presented in Figure 4.1.3.262 are not well defined for sharpnosed
airfoils at low values of fl/tan ALE.
It is recommended that this method be restricted to the Machnumber range, 1.2 C< M < 3.0 For
M = 1.0 the empirical correlation presented in Paragraph B should be used.
Another class of doubledelta wings of practical interest are those with the outboard wing sweep
greater than the inboard wing sweep. No configuration with ALEo > ALEi was analyzed during the
investigation reported in Reference 8; however, a method of approach for treating such
configurations is suggested.
Defining the basicwing breakdown as before results in some additional basicwing area created
forward of the wing sweep break as illustrated in Sketch (f).
"Figure
4.1.3.2.63 may also be applied with equal facility to obtain norrrmlforcecurve slope of the glove.
Using lCNI/A) from Figure 4.1.3.263
S.W
AgSW
4.1.3.223
Glove
Basic Wing
Extension
SKETCH (f)
For this class of doubledelta wings the normalforcecurve slope of the basic wing is determined by
extending the basicwing leading edge to the configuration center line, calculating the normalforcecurve slope of the extended basicwing panel, and calculating and subtracting the normalforcecurve
,iope of the section of the basicwing panel forward of the wing sweep break. This is shown
schematically in Sketch (g).
21
(CNa)bw 'SbW
CN)
W
(LNa)
SW
SKETCH (g)
Based on this definition of the norm alforcecurve slope of the blic wing, the total wingN
normalforcecurve slope is given by Equation 4.1.3.2h with the "liftinterference factor" KL
replaced by K.
CN
CNb
3
[(C~ab
4.1.3.224
yS
(CL2.
(KC)
(CLF)g+
(C
4.1.3.2k
(CN
(C
)E]W
7y.
7.
.
y 
...
7
7
where
K
Glove
Extension
Cranked wing with ATE
> ATE
1
SKETCH (h)
4.1.3.225
This additional area is considered to be the trailingedge extension. Defining (CN,,) I and (CN ,) 2
exactly as for the doubledelta wing results in a negative normalforcecurve increment for the
trailingedge extension.
This method is applicable to cranked wings having breaks in the leading and/or trailingedge sweep
at only one spanwise station.
The normalforcecurve slope of the total wing is given by Equation 4.1.3.2h; i.e.,
CN ,
[(CN a) ,U.
(C LE )bw
C . .
C E ,
SWW
C .) )
where all the parameters are defined under Equation 4.1.3.2h of the doubledeltawing method.
The normalforcecurve slope of the trailingedge extension for the case where the inboard
trailingedge sweep angle is greater than the outboard trailingedge sweep angle is shown
schematically in Sketch (i).
ALEg
A
IqE
A
b F
j
N4'T
ATEE
SE
N1
(N)
(C' )E 9
0I
((W
S
J2SW
SKETCH (i)
A
.
,"
.
doubledeltawing method. The wing thicknessratio range covered (0.02 to 0.08) is consistent with
current practice and no significant effects of wing thickness ratio are evident.
Five of the configurations had small ratios of body diameter to wing span and the predictions for
those configurations were based on the theoretical planform extended to the body center line. The
configurations of References 65 and 66 had nacelles included in the body, and an effective
extension was included as part of the planform as shown in Sketch (j). Since the definition of the
extension was somewhat arbitrary, this technique should not be considered as a general wingbody
prediction technique.
/\'
L..
Extension
SKETCH ()
Although all the configurations investigated had roundnosed airfoils, the application of the method
to cranked wings with sharpnosed airfoils should give equally good results except in the low
supersonic Machnumber range. The "leadingedgeeffect factors" are not well defined for
sharpnosed airfoils at low values of 0/tan ALE and must be considered as a possible source of error
at low supersonic Mach numbers.
It is recommended that this method be restricted to the Mach number range, 1.2 < M < 3.0. For
"M= 1.0 the empirical correlation presented in Paragraph B can be used for cranked wings with
"aspectratios of approximately three.
Curved Wings
This method, taken from Reference 8, is based on the theoretical results of Squire in Reference 27.
The supersonic normalforcecurve slope of curved (Gothic and ogee) planforms is obtained from
the procedure outlined in the following steps:
4
4.1.3.227
"
:",
'
1,
"I
'
"=
'
''
"
 ":' ';
':
... =''"
" :
"
: " "'
""
. . .ali&
"
,.
Step 1.
Using the given wing geometry calculate the aspect ratio A, the planform shape
parameter
p, and
the wing slenderness parameter bw/(2Q). (See Section 2.2.2 for
winggeometry
parameters.)
Step 2.
Step 3.
"
4.1.3.21
P)
CN
obtain

A comparison of test data for 18 configurations with CN of curved wings calculated by this
method is presented as Table 4.1.3.2E (taken from Reference 8). Four of the configurations listed
in the table are wingbody combinations with small ratios of body diameter to wing span. The
calculations for these configurations were made by using the theoretical planform extended to the
body center line and neglecting body effects. All models employed thin wings (0.008 < t/c 4 0.06)
with sharp leading edges.
The method provides satisfactor results for low supersonic Mach numbers and may be applied over
the Mach number range, 1.0 < M 4 3.0.
On some ogeewingbody configurations the leadingedge sweep becomes very large near the
wingbody juncture. For such configurations, unrealistic values of p will be obtained if "good
engineering judgment" is not exercised in extending the planform to the center line. The error that
could result is illustrated by the somewhat analogous cases of wings W1 , W4 , and W7 of
Reference 79 (see Table 4.1.3.2E). These configurations are ogee wings with very slender apexes
and, consequently, low values of p. It is believed that the slender apex behaves more as a body than
as part of the lifting surface. For these wings the method underestimates the normalforcecurve
slope from 6.5 to 21.7 percent.
The calculated results for the configuration of Reference 8 1 are as much as 22 percent in error.
However, the model is a sonicdesign, blended wingbody configuration with unusual bumps in the
wing surface near the wingbody juncture, and it is suspected that the bumps significantly affect the
pressure distribution at supersonic speeds. It is significant that at subsonic speeds, test data for this
configuration correlate quite well with the predicted lift at angle of attack (see results for
Reference 43 in Table 4.1.3.3D).
The authors of Reference 8 note that moderately lowaspectratio wings (1.5 < A < 3.0) have linear
liftcurve slopes up to approximately eight degrees angle of attack at supersonic speeds. However,
the lowaspectratiowing (A < 1.3) data of Reference 79 show .a break in the lift curve at
approximately two degrees angle of attack. Unfortunately, the program reported in Reference 8 did
not include an investigation of the supersonic winglift variation with angle of attack for
irregularshaped wings.
4.1.3.228
._,.:_=._,,..
.
..
'
. . .,
"
"
","'..
,.
i.
"
7 7
Sample Problems
1. DoubleDelta Wing
Given: Doubledelta wing of Reference 58.
ALEi
Cr
rg
ALEo
rbw
Cr
ATE
E
TEl
Sbw
Total Wing
Aw
= 2.42
ALE.
Sw
= 238 sq in.
ATE"
= 47.37 0
70.67
Xw
0.086
ALE
= 51.630
= 0.40
7B
"TE
bW
24.0 in.
26.620
Basic Wing
Abw
ALEbw
3.50
ALE
Xbw
51.630
0.20
Sbw
ATEbw
164.6 sq in.
ATE
= 26.620
4.1.3.229
7.r TC,
71
r7
Yq
'TWWW
T
W~
...
jh
..
Glove
Ag
Xg
 1.402
ALE
ALE.
" 70.670
Sg
65.7 sq in.
Extension
bw
bE
22
2
ATEE
2B  4.8 in.

ATEi
47.370
Additional Characteristics:
M
Sharpnosed airfoil
Compute:
N,)b
K.?211
4.421
13(CNlabw
(_CN,) bw
.3/tan ALEb
1.38
*,,
(3/tanALE
(CNug
(AtanALE)g = 3.99
0.612;
1.72 per md
(CNE
4.1.3.230
0.6g12
tan ATE 1
tan ALE 1
/CN"N
\A
tan
0.381
tan ALE
9/tan ALE 2
"., :
tan ATEE
1.58 (Figure4.1.3.263)
P/tan ALE
ATE 2
0.612
tan ATE
_____
Tbw
0.176
"tanALE 2
tan ALE
A /2
~(1.2
Sg~
1C,,) CN
(CN)g
SW  1.744 (.
L[
"7",KL,
'II
/C
(t5.7
IVw W2382)
\1wSgE
0.7
.7
SW
SW
(16.6)2
238
u.S8I7
238
Solution:
CNaE
'
CN
[CNC)
(CLE)bw
= 0.8130 (2.43)
(093
W (CLE)g+ (CN
17)
_ "
uation 4.1.3.2h)
(0.995) + 0.197
00.197
2
7
77    7 
"

"
ALEi
C
r2
CrI
' .],
T"2
i
Aw
= 1.86
Aw
F

600
ALE
275.9 sq in.
7B
SW
ATE
= 47.50
= 0.130
0
0.654
Glove
Sg
[a
SW  0.346
Crg
Ag
Xg
ALEi
ALE
=2.31
Extended Planforms
crW
Sl
"b2
2
ALE0
ALE 1
02
ALE
0.0698
750
1.327
Al
ATE
X,
1.405
.n.
S2
""SW

A
"ALw
0.745
ALE0
750
22E2
bw
A2
1.072
Characteristics
*OAdditional
Sharpnosed airfoil
Compute:
(CN.)g
tan ALE/j3
.
4.1.3.232
4.0
3.71;3 3.573
600
P(CNj)g
= 2.06
(CLE)g
(CN
)b Sw
(cN
3/tan ALE1 = 0.957; (A tan ALE)
4.94
04N)2
(Ctan ALE
= 4.0
!2
tan ALE 2 (CN)
(CNa)
Sbw
(CN
Sw
(CNa)l(bw
C=
S,
:bw
0.957
",/tan ALEbw
(CLE)bw
0.94(Figure 4.1.3.262)
4.1.3.233

,0
Solution:
CN= K (CN),bw
(Equation 4.1.3.2k)
i (CLE)g
(CLE)bw +(CNa)g
Total Wing
LAE
AE
Aw
EoALE.
ALE10
SCrbw
SW
ttW
:_
ATE,
2.91
Xw
0.444
53.130
ALE
32.160
40.04 9q in.
060
ATE
=37.30
EbE
Basic Wing
Abw
2.73
Xbw = 0.40
ALEbw
Sbw
4277 sq in.
bbw
ATEbw
Glove
Ag =3.0
Extension
bE
22
10.8 in.
A
ALEi = 53.130
ALE
Roundnosed airfoil
4.1.3.2,34
32.16o
ATE
bw
3.24 in.
ATEE
Additional Characteristics
___:
Sg
ALE 0
M = 1.40; i3 = 0.98
ATEi
37.3
Xg
5'
Compute:
(CNo)bw
tan ALEb/3 = 0.642; (A tan ALE)bw
1.715
P(CN)hbw
(Ctb
a/tan ALEbw
1.560
0.99 (Figure 4.1.3.262)
(CLE)bw
4.0
(Figure 4.1.3.256a)
T~~(s
(CNX)E
/aAL
=A73
e Figure 4.1.3.263)
",/tan ALE1
.735
P/tan ALEg
tan ATEE
tan ATE 1
= 0.5'71
::4
tan ALE 1
tan ALEg
"(A 1
a/tan ALE
/tan ALE 2
0.735
tan ATEbw
tan ATE 2
=0
""
(Figure 4.1.3.263)
tan ALEg
tan ALE 2
(A)2
(Figure 4.1.3.263)
4.1.3.235
,.'
"
"
"
".
bE2
/C
SE /CN~\
(CN
a=I _J
~N;SW L
/
\A/2]
SW
(Equation 4.1.3.2j)
(6.48)2
(0.650 1.16) 4
0O.535 per rad
Sg
(CNoz)gSW
(14.00)
1
0.98 (3.43)(40.04)
1.224
"12
2 6
KL = 0.74(Figure 4.1.3.  1)
Solution:
~ ~~ CNa
:
.,
=K4(N)W
4.1 .3.2h)
 (Eqiuation
(N)
CEb
oo,2
(w
LE~bw+(CN),
Sg(wE~
CE~+(~)
',(CN)E w
Sbow
CN.
=0.74
( (0.99)
0.99)
+(.3
1"0(3 (0.93)
(40.04)
0.7 1(3.49)
(39)(42.77)
+ (3.43) (40.04)
(140.00)
.3
0.5351
This compares with a test value of 0.0563 per degree from Reference 32.
4. Curved Wing
Given: Ogee wing of Reference 80.
AW
M
1O
4.1.3.236
32
1.20
bw = 12.0 in.
1.82;
; 1.52
20.0 in.
SW = 120 sq in.
Compute:
Planform shape parameter
p
Sw/(bwR)
(120)/[(12)(20)1
0.50
(12.0)/[(2) (20)]
(1.52) (12.0)

2Q
(CN)
(2) (20.0)
.!)
0.30
=0.456
Solution:
CN
(Equation 4.1.3.2R)
(0.50)
i
(4.18)(1.20) i+0.50
Ai
The theoretical nonmalforcecurve slope of a flat plate at zero angle of attack approaches zero as
the Mach number becomes large. The interrelated effects of viscosity, heat transfer, and detached
*shock waves due to blunt leading edges cause considerable deviations of the normalforcecurve
slope from the theoretical values. These effects are discussed more fully in Paragraph D of
Section 4.1.3.3. The magnitude of these effects on surface pressures, although large enough to be
important under certain conditions, has not been determined. The method presented herein is based
on linear theory and is intended only as a firstorder approximation of the normalforcecurve slope
of straighttapered planforms at hypersonic speeds.
DATCOM METHOD
The hypersonic portions of Figures 4 .1.3.256a through 4.1.3.256g may be used to obtain a
firstorder approximation of the normalforcecurve slope at zero angle of attack for conventional
wings of zero thickness. For planforms with wedge airfoils an approximation of the normalforcecurve slope at zero angle of attack may be obtained by applying the results of Figure 4.1.3.265.
This figure, based on twodimensional supersonic slenderairfoil theory, presents the ratio of CN . of
wedge airfoils to CN. of flatplate airfoils.
4.1.3.237
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""
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4.1.3.239
[.t... 

..
'" 
.'
,,.
",.
.
..
'.
.
".
L
,"
' .
'
.
.
51.
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IU)
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'.
69.
Jernell, L.S.: Aerodynamic Characteristics at Mach Numbers From 2.50 to 4.63 of a VariableSweep Model at Sweep Angles from 550 to
750, NASA TM X9E9, 1964. (C) Title Unclassified
70
Landrum, E.J.: Effect of Skewed WingTip Contros on a VariableSweep WingFuselage Configuration at Mach Numbers of 1.41 and 2.20.
NASA TM X951, 1964. (C) Title Unclassified
71.
Spearman, NvhL., and Hart's, R.V., Jr.: The Longitudinal and Lateral Aerodynamic Characteristics at Mach Numbers of 1.41 and 2.20 .f a
VariableSweep Fightwr Model With Wing Sweeps Varying From 250 to 750. NASA TM X759, 1963. (C) Title Unclassified
72.
Spearman, M.L., and Itobinsor., R.B.: Stabilit, and Control Characteristics at a Mach Number of 2.01 of a VariableSweep Airplane
Confifguration Capable of LowLUel Supersonic AttackOuter Wing Swept 750. NASA TM X310, 1960. (C) Title Unclassified
73.
Robinson, R.B., and Howard, P.W.: Stabi,*ty and Control Characteristics at a Mach Number of 2.2 of a VariableSweep Airplane ConHaving a 12PercentThick Wing Swept 750 ard an Inboard Pivot Location. NASA TM X435, 1960. (C) Title Unclassified
S"figuration
4.1.3.240
__
74.
Foster, G.V., and Morris, OA.: Stability and Control Characteristics at a Mach Number of 1.97 of an Airplane Configuration Having
Two Types of VariableSweep Wings. NASA TM X323, 1960. (U)
75.
Foster, (3.V.: Stability and Control Characteristics at Mach Numbers of 2.50, 3.00, and 3.71 of a VariableWingSweep Configuration
With Outboard Wing Panels Sweot Back ?5o. NASA TM X267, 1960. (U)
76.
Spearman, M.L.: Static Longitudinal and Lateral Aerodynamic Characteristics at Mach Numbers of 1.41 and 2.20 of a Model of a LowAspectRatio 83.50 DeltaWing Airplane [laying Auxiliary VariableSweep Wing Panels. NASA TM X708, 1963. (C) Title Unclassified
77.
Shaw, D.S.: Supersonic Investigation of the Static Stability, Performance, and Control of a VariableSweep Tactical Fighter Model.
Phase 1. NASA TM X1045, 1965, (C) Title Unclassified
78,
Shaw, D.S., and Wassum, D.L.: Supersonic Investigation of the Static Stability, Performance, and Control of a VariableSweep Tactical
Fighter Model. Phase 2. NASA TM X1046, 1965. (C) Title Unclassified
79.
Igglesden, M.S.: Tabulated Lift, Drag, and Pitching Moment From WindTunnel Tests on 30 Slender Wings of Ogee and Other Planforms,
With Various Thickness Distributions, at M = 1.4, 1.61, and 1.91. RAE TN Aero 2694, 1960. (U)
80.
81.
Holdaway, G.H., and Mellenthin, J.A.: Evaluation of Blended WingBody Combinations With Curved Plan Forms at Mach Numbers Up
to 3.5. NASA TM X379, 1960. (U)
82.
Hicks, R.M., and Hopkins, E.J.: Effects of Sparwise Variation of LeadingEdge Sweep on the Lift, Drag, and Pitching Moment of a WingBody Combination at Mach Numbers From 0.7 to 2.94. NASA TN D2236, 1964. (U)
83.
Corlett, W.A., and Fostet, G.V.: Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Tailless FixedWing Supersonic Transport Model at Mach Numbers
From 1.80 to 2.86. NASA TM X992, 1964. (C) Title Unclassified
84.
Foster, G.V., and Corlett, W.A.: Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Tailless FixedWing Supersonic Transport Configuration at Mach
Number 2.20. NASA TM X960, 1964. (C) Title Unclassified
85.
Cook, T.A.: WindTunnel Measurements at Mach Numbers Up to 2.80 of the Effects of Gulling on the Longitudinal and Lateral
Stability and Drag of a Cambered, Slender Ogee Wing. ARC CP 803, 1965. (U)
86.
Rolls, L.S., Koenig, D.G., and Drinkwater, F.J., IIl: Flight !nvestigation of the Aerodynamic Properties of an Ogee Wing. NASA
TN D3071, 1965. (U)
87.
Earnshaw, P.B.: LowSpeed WindTunnel Tests on a Series of Cambered Ogee Wings. ARC CP 775, 1963. (U)
88.
Keating, R.F.A.: LowSpeed WindTunnel Tests on SharpEdged GotlKic Wing of AspectRatio 3/4. ARC CP 57,
89.
Squire, L.C.:
go.
Taylor, C.R.: Measurements at Mach Numbers Up to 2.8 of the Longitudinal Characteristics of One Plane and Three Cambered
Slender 'Ogee' Wings. ARC R&M 3328, 1961. (U)
91.
Isaacs. D.: Measurement at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds of Longitudinal and Lateral Stability of a Slender Cambered Ogee Wing
Including Effects of a Fin, Canopy Nose, and TrailingEdge Controls. ARC R&M 3390, 1965. (U)
92.
Dobson, M.D., and KingUnderwood, R.: WindTunnel Tests Between M = .4 and 2.0 on Cambered Wing of Slender Ogee Planform.
ARC CP 778, 1965. (U)
93.
Egger,., A.J., Jr., Syvertson, C.A., and Kraus, S.: A Study of Inviscid Flow About Airfoils at High Supersonic Speeds. NACA
TR 1123, 1953. U)
94.
Creager, M.O.: Surface Pressure Distribution at Hypersonic Speeds For Blunt Delta Wings at Angle of Attack. NASA Memo 512E3A,
1959. (U)
95,
Messiter, A.F.: Lift of Slender Delta Wings According to Newtonian Theory. AIAA, Vol. I, No. 4. 1963. (U)
96.
Olstad, W.B.: Theoretical Evaluation of Hypersonic Forces, Moments and Stability Derivatives For Combinations of Flat Plates,
Including Effects of Blunt Laeding Edges, by Newtonian Impact Theory. NASA TN D1015, 1952. (U)
0.4 to M = 1.8.
1960. (U)
Measurement of Lift and Pitching Moment on 4 Ogee Wings at Supersonic Speeds. ARC CP 673, 1962. (U)
4.1.3.241
4;~
,
,2
i~
 .=

"
z,' 
.
 
, 
,,.
"N
a
_ _ . +
. .
+. .
,+
0 000
.
mt
COi
00
~Z
LL
(0
*j
U. D....
+~~C
0.

mm

ad
spP~,
W
,,<
__ .. _ _ .. +
+m
+_,,._
_ _ _ _ _,
..
.c......
.. k
__
____
U;.
*'
4.1.3.242

_..
.
.t*.
a2.
.X.'.,P,.+'.e
,++.',:
.+
+J'+.
. L
"..
'.
+.
.++.
"
+.,+..'.
"TABLE
4.1.3.28
TRANSONIC LIFTCURVE SLOPES OF STRAIGHTTAPERED WINGS
DATA SUMMARY AND SUBSTANTIATION
Ref.
Airfoil
Section
48
63A010
AC/ 2
(doeg)
x 106
2.0
19
47
(CL,)
M ab
(CL
.82
6.1
.89
3.2
.96
6.2
.82
1.3
.89
4.1
.95
4.6
63A008
2.0
.84
.84
7.0
6.5
.91
.90
5.0
5.1
.98
.95
5.9
5.5
T
E
"63A006
2.0
.87
.87
7.9
8.0
.94
.94
6.8
6.0
1.01
1.01
6.9
5.6
T
E
63A010
0j
2.0
.84
.84
4.8
4.7
.91
.90
3.123.0
4.08
4.2
T
E
63A008
2.0
.87
.86
5.4
4.7
.94
.94
4.5
4.1
1.01
.98
4.5
4.7
T
E
63A006
2.0
.91
.94
5.9
5.9
.98
.98
5.5
5.4
1.05
1.05
5.1
4.9
T
E
63A010
2.0
.98
.98
2.9
2.7
1.05
1.05
2.9
2.9
1.12
2.5
T
E
63A006
2,0
1.0
1.0
3.1
3.4
1.07
1.07
3.3
3.5
1.17
2.7
T
E
63A006
2.
2.0
1.0
1.0
3.3
3.2
1.07
1.07
3.5
3.1
1.14
2.9
T
E
63A010
2.0
1.0
1.0
1.4
1.4
1.07
1.07
1.6"
1.5
1.14
1.14
1.2
1.,*
T
E
63A008
2.0
1.0
1.0
1.5
1.3
1.07
1.07
1.7
1.5
1.14
1.14
1.3
1.4
1.0
1.0
.94
.94
1.6
1.3
4.0
4.0
1.07
1.07
1.01
1.01
1.8
1.6
3.8
3.9
1.14
1.14
1.08
1.08
1,4
1.0#
3.5
3.5
T
E
T
E
1.0
1.0
4.4
4.2
1.07
1.07
4.2
a5
T
E
49
(CL
Theoretical (T)
Experimental (E)
Mfb
63A006
66A006
.6
43,2
.46
6SA006
.6
32.5
.46
.93
.93
4.8
4.8
63 1 A012
.68 43.6
.57
.92
3.6
3.4
.99
.99
1,5
2.4
1.06
1.1
3.0
3,1
T
E
.56 43.6
.57
.875
.875
4.1
4.7
.945
.995
1.4
1.6
1,015
1.095
3.5
3.3
T
E
.46 43.6
.57
.875
.875
""
4.6
4.1
.945
1.0
1.3
1.6
1.015
1.125
3.9
2.9
T
E
.92
.92
5.2
4.3
.99
.99
4.8
4,4
1.06
1.06
4.5
4.1
T
E
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.6
1.8
1.7
1.07
1.07
1.07
1.9
2.0
1.9
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.5
1.9*
1.6
T
E
T
1.0
1.0
1.0
1t9
2.6
2,8
1.07
1.07
1.07
1.9
2.9
2.9
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.9*
2.4
2.7*
E
T
E
1.0
1.0
2.8
2.9
1.07
3.1
1.14
2.6
1.07
2.0
1.14
3,0
1.0
1.0
1.0
3.7
3.7
4.2
1.07
1.07
1.07
3.8
3.6
4.1
1.14
1.14
1.14
3.4
3.2'
3.9
T
E
T
1.0
4.0
1.07
3.9
1.14
3.7
I.92
2.0
.98
.98
63A006
26,6
2.4
63A004
.5
33.4
2.9
1.08
.3
44.0
2.6
1.67
.2
38.7
2.5
1.71
.4
26.5
2.7
2.46
.1
33.5
2.5
"2.67
.2
26.6
2.5
___
"EXTRAPOLATED VALUES
4.1.3.243
.w
..
.r.."
' r7
, . ,
.
TABLE 4.1.3.2.C
SUPERSONIC NORMALFORCECURVE SLOPE OF DOUBLEDELTA WINGS
"DATASUMMARY
A
o
.295
.400
ALE
Raf.
Config.
58
WB
3.15
.510
2.86
.407
70.67
2.86
A07
2.62
2.62
2A2
W
t
c
LER
.06
Sharp
CN
Calc.
a
Test
Percent
Error
1.61
.0477
.0462
3.2
.0442
.0366
.0437
.0355
1.1
3.1
64.07
1.61
.0458
.0450
1.8
339
70.67
64.07
1.61
1.61
.0421
.0443
.0416
.0431
1.2
2.8
.292
70.67
1,61
.0411
.0402
2.2
1'
2.01
.0339
.0351
 3.4
1.10
.0523
.0540
 .00 .0332
.0320
3.8
.0242
.0487
.0230
.0500
5.2
2.6
.0405
.0410
1.2
.0313
.0270
1509
.0227
.0221
2.7
1.10
.0476
.0469
1.5
1.40
,0380
.0363
4.7
91.g .0276
.0259
6.6
3.0
2.01
1.96
d
b
1.61
2.01
t
59
AND SUBSTANTIATION
16
.302
.295 .344
313
A05
64.07
78
78
51.63
.125
53.3
48.5
Sharp(a)
.12
.127
2.94
1.10
.03
4A4
1.98
S2.94
1493
1.72
.10.0
.196
A4
"" .$4
.48
.414
82
602.2
""1
2.39
.3
.163
78
.403
38.1
60
7'
60
82
60
.147
.03
.147
.03
.147
2.94
.0205
.0199
1.10
.0322
.0320
0.6
1.40 .0M5
.0280
678
Ron
32.94 .0194
.0170
.03
Sharp
1.10
.0390
10.3
.0323
.030
 2.1
.0282
.0270
4.4
.0207
.0200
3.3
.08
010
 6.8
1.40
.0336
.0350
 4.0
1.98
.0280
.0280
.0207
.0210
 1.4
1.10] .0421
.0460
 8.5,1
Round
IRound
3.0
.0221
.0200
10.5
1.2
.06;14
.0506
1.6
o.Shwp
2.0
.0315
.0310
1.6
.173
0Oe
4.0
S1.4
::i::i.1.98
2.94
,
1.55301
S.
r
;:l
.,"60
:""61
W
W
'.:.:
.. ::'""4.1!.3.244
.400 1
.144
.31,10

!2.94
1.72
MB
A14
77.4
.127
a0
2.25
2.39
.29
.376
0
0
.415
.126
X8
82.9
60
50
 
.04
A.7.03
'
'
'I
4.0
3,1
.0350
14.1
.
TABLE 4.1.3.2C
"Ref.
"i':
62
A
Config.
Round~(b,2.35
.229
.625
.700
WB
3.15
.508
2.86
.407
2.62
.339
.295
.400
WB
.150
.06
1 5
Round
.0620
49.59 20.85
.125
.06
Sharp
1.0
0.3
2.01
.0363
63.07
2.01
.0346
.0360
 3.9
70.10
2.01
.0328
.0332
1.2
1.61
.0428
.0440
2.7
.0382
5.0
.407
49.59
2.01
.0355
.0369
3.8
2.62
.339
63.07
2.01
.0337
.0348
3.2
2.42
.292
70.10
2.01
.0320
.0320
1.61 .0406
.0423
4,0
2.98
.0224
3.6
2.43
.448
4 4
.259
78
60
.077
.018.04
Sharp
'I"
I
1.52
.479
'
.102
.216
.0232
2.59
.0262
.0254
3.1
2.20
.0315
.0304
3.6
iII
1.53
.0402
'
''
1.17
.0451
.0382
.0459
5.2
1.7
83.35
62
2.98
.0220
.0210
4,8
"2.81
.0231
.0231
2.20
.0280
.0289
 3.1
2.59
.0242
.0238
1.7
1.59
.0344
.0346
 0.6
2.98 .0219
.0219
.0216
.095
.018.029
""
4.4.4
0
.18'1
83.0
70
.100
.02
2.98
.1G .627
.102
.197
83.0
70
.092
.02
2.98
.0201
.0209
 3.8
2.98
.0201
.0207
 2.9
.0220
.0228
 3.5
.0220
.0226
 2,7
S1.6
.627
.
""7
.2.59
2.59
(b)
.0515
2.L,..0366 .0365
II
Is)
2.86
4 4
64
30
44
444
4 f$
63
61.7
Ppercent
Error
Test
CaIc.
LER
ALE.
:'';.
WB
tCN"
LEi
ICONTD0
Average Error
.0208
1.4
5.3
3.7%
4.1.3.245
. r.
v. r
ri .
'
. .. .
..
..
TABLE 4.1.3.2D
SUPERSONIC NORMALFORCECURVE SLOPE OF CRANKED WINGS
DATA SUMMARY AND SUBSTANTIATION
A
'Ref.
C.nhig.
30
WB
2.91
I
32
j
66
67
38
?i
kE
'
d
b
t
c
CL
Caic.
CN
Test
Percent
Error
1.41
.0456
.0433
5.3
2.0
1.4
.00,3
.0552
.0563
7
Round
.06.02 Round
2.2
2.60
.0375
.029
.0602 Round
2.96 .0260
3.95 .0201
1.20 .0660
LER
,139
.04.03 Round
I I I I I I I
4
I I I
I
53.13 32.16
.147
.06.03 Round
43.2
50
45
.186
.079
.353
.500
.625
.600
WI
2.91
.641
WBVN
WB
3.59
4.43
WS
4.43
.389
.464 .404
70
65
66
45
.079
1.05wo
2.60
13,0
.0563
.0390
2.0
0.9
3.8
.0317
&300.0267
65
WBVN
3.80
.374
.289
.297
74.17 50
.211
.08
Round
&350.0212
1.70 .0407
2.00 .0345
.0390
.0334
.0310
.0324
4,3
.0274
.0289
5.2
2.20
2.50
6
(at
44
4.1!.3.246
4.4
3.3
nrr4
....
TABLE 4.1.3.2E
SUPERSONIC NORMALFORCECURVE SLOPE OF CURVED (GOTHIC AND OGEE) WINGS
DATA SUMMARY AND SUBSTANTIATION
:,
.
Ref.
Confl&,
CN
_"i___t
d.a
___,d
Planform
ON
.41.00
21
1
.188
.2
.35
Percent
(root,
8 (a)
.37
01
1.330
1.00
12
32
1.11
.010
Calc.
Test
21.7
1.61
.0178
.0211
15.6
1.91
1.41
.0175
.0237
.0204
.0283
14.2
16.3
1.6
"1.91
.0232
.0224
.0267
.0248
13.1
 9.7
1.4
.030n
.0354
13.8
1.41
1.61
.0283
.0272
.0286
.0262
3.8
1.91
1.41
.0253
.0293
.0252
.0288
0.4
1.7
.0282
.0270
4.4
.0262
.0247
Error
.014(a
.50
.25
.25
.4!0
.013(a)
11.61
**41.91
1.0
6.1
WI10
.75
.188
.500
.01210
1.41
1.91
.0218
.0213
.0219
.02130
1
WI
.75
.25
.17
.016(7)
.0205
.0255
.0204
.0265
3.8
1.61
.0245
.0253
3.2
1.91
.0227
.0241
5.8
1.41
.0283
.0289
2.1
1.I
1.91
.0272
.0263
.0265
.0260
2.72.6
1.41
.0255
.0234
9.0
1.61
.0245
.0234
1.91
.0227
.0229
1.41
.0324
.0315
1.61
.0300
.0266
.0392
.0309
.0288
.0388
2.9
7.7
1.0
.0349
.0307
.0373
.0335
6.4
8.4
.0268
.0258
1.91
.0239
.0239
14
.0277
.0243
529
2.61
1.91
.0266
.0247
.0254
.0251
.015()
1.41
1.61
.0283
.0272
.0289
.0263
1.91.0253
.05
11.00
1.4(25a60)
W3
i3
Gothic
.75
"2
.;
W
1.00
S1.91
9
.13
.667
.44
Wi1
4
.857
.25
.583
W20
.938
.25
.53
016
.018(a
.667
III
It
.0
S11.00
WB
O12
.25
.500
.300
.016(m
.01 (a
12
.13
1.41
1.61
11.91
1.41
1.41
..
80
CN
'
1.41
.0257
16
0.5
0.5
4.7
0.9
2.9
3.9
&.8
.0243
4.7
1.6

2.1
3.4
.0261
 3.1
.0349
0343
.0364
.0351
 4.1
2.3
13
.0338
1.4
.0329
1 .6. .0310
0332
.0327
.0309
IB
0.6
0.3
.02 92 .028 5
1.i82
1.6
4.1.3.247
rr
r
.,
. .
,,
...
...
bW
Rot.
Confih;
81
we
Planform
O
A
2.
21
(root)
,0
85
WB
Bg.e
o9,
1.98
.924
.35
.353
.127
11.98
.208
.45
.112
S1.8
.02
Si2.2
6n
*0
4.1.3.248
fen
Calc.
Test
1.00
.0612
.0570
7.4
1.10
.0614
.0694
.0595
.0610
3.2
 2.6
1.20
.0653
.0522
1 1.1
1.60
1.90
2.00
2.20
V2.,
1.40
.0418
.0378
.0347
.0318
.0304
.0413
.063n
.0476
.0445
.0360
.0350
.0466
21.9
20.4
22.0
11.7
13.1
11.4
 8.4
5.0
2.7
81.05
82
Error
.0328
.0358
2.94
.0260
.0238
1.4
.0248
.0234
.0255
.0727
.0215
.0210
2.
2
:.8
0+,207 0o17
.0191 1o.012
Avvlgs Error 
 6.2%
3.1
2.4
6.1
4.9
SUBSONIC SPEEDS
"1.6
_.

1.4
CLa
A
1.0
'C
7l
21r
2A.)
2 +A.(1+tan
,2
L .8 "
Ca
. .
.. .
+4
o2
A .6
(per 'ad)
.2
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
1'2
Aj2+ TAN 2 Ac '2
1
2
.,,
4 .1.3 .2 4 9
.9z
A (l+2X)
_.04_
CL
(C &
~eory[
FIG_
_
1.2
NEGATIVE
PRESSUR
COEFFICIENT02
.3
.1.2
.4.56.78
4.1.3.250
C1 '
AND C
1.0
__
___
CL1 1 1
REFERENCE
___LINE
11N
4AMPLE
CALCULATION
2
K0
.05
.10
15
.20
.2w5
.10
12
14
16
.18
20
.2
24
.26
.2 8
.30
x/C
(1 X (
FIGURE 4.1.3.251I
x/c)
tan ALE
ESTIMATION OF CLil
4.1.3.251
SUBSONIC SPEEDS
1.4
1.2
(CLo )test
__
CLc~pred
.6
.2
":
" :"
10
12
/l  M2 A
* D4.1.3.252
TRANSONIC SPEEDS
.9
(fb)2
.8
__4
__
16
12
1.0
(M)A
20
40
A c12
60
80
100
(deg)
FIGURE 4.1 .3.253b TRANSONIC SWEEP CORRECTION FOR FORCEBREAK MACH NUMBER
4.1.3.253
TRANSONIC SPEEDS
1.2110,4.8
6N8
A
2
(CLux)theory
'
'0
4
0
12
16
4 .1.3 .254a
.66I
/ 7
c .4_
a
3
2
.2
12
106
.2.
00
4
8
12
THICKNESS RATIO (% chord)
16
TRANSONIC SPEEDS
(CL)M
+m
1.0
(per rad)
4,.,

i
2I

72
0
.4
.6
.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
"FIGURE
1Ad
, ".
4,1.3.255
: .
. '
."  .
'
.'. .
...
..
"_
. .
SUPERSONIC SPEEDS
TANALE
C~a) heor
TTAANAL
(C TAN ALE
TAN~~(Ca
3(CN)
AL(heoryry


(per rad)
brad (per
TATA
TANN
FIGURE 4...6ANLE
N
4...25
ALE'
ALE
PROI
7
... .. ...

*.,.,.....,....
...
.
t..
...
(b)~.
OMLFOCUV
LP
SUPERSONIC SPEEDS
7prrd

(C)

I6
A
ITTA
7.
N ALE
**+
TE
3
TFAN ALE (CNC,)tor
UNWLP
2.
 t
~(EN)
theory
(per iad)
_
TAN AL
1.305
0.2FI.URE64.8
....
.

...
..

.2)
.8CONT4
...
t
T
SUPERSONIC SPEEDS
1i
7..................
T
X= 1/2
~55
TAN ALE (CN.) thor
(per rad)
;v

tor3
*TAN A (CN
theory2
24
(per rad)
0.
TAN A L
'TAN A LE
7
Note: For rectangular planforms,
see figure 4.1,3.246g
]7
.
=1
5m5
TANALE(N,
AL~~theory
TAN A
ho
4
.5
(CNa) theory
(per rad)
0
.2
.4
.6
r~7~lTAN AL
.8
1.0
.8
4.1.3.258
.4
.6
TAN AL
.2
SUPERSONIC SPEEDS
A= 0
I
(g)
1.0
RECTANGULAR WINGS

PCN
CN/A
(per rad)
(per rad)
2
_

oo
0
.2
.4
.6
Ag
.8
1.0
.8
.6
.4
.2
I/(AO)
FIGURE 4.1.3.256(CONTD)
4.1.3.259
SUPERSONIC SPEEDS
__FLAT PLATE
1.0
p eg
1.0
419
CNb
.9
_
____
(CN.. 1
.6
.5
.2
.4
8.C
.5
tan 61
a,5.85
..


.6
CN/
5
.8
1.0
.8
.6
.4
.2
TAN ALE
TAN ALE
e4.1.3.260
SUPERSONIC SPEEDS
1.0 .
..
4.
4i4.1.3.26
SUPERSONIC SPEEDS
1.2
1.1
....
_
____
or
(CLE)bw
orCL.0bw
.9
_
.8
TAN ALE
FIGURE 4.1.3.262
4.1.3.262
,.,
~
~ ~
7
4
.
,
.
SUPERSONIC SPEEDS
1.8
1.4
1.2TA
A
ALE
N
NTA
1.
FIUE4C326
IGSPROI
NRAOCUV
LP,?N
4.13.26
.
..
SUPERSONIC SPEEDS
5 "
" ""

4

(p) r
L2
.4
..

.2
.s..
.4
.6
.8
1.0
.n'
1.2
I
1.4
1.6
,6bW
4.1. .2 64
HYERSONIC SPEEDS
3
 (Ka)
L4
0
.2
.4
.6
.8
1.0
tan2
TT
I
.
ALE
0
is inradiausL.
.8
.4
.6
3
.2
!
K
FIGURE 4.1.3.265 NORMALFORCECURVE SLOPE FOR THINWEDGE PROFILES FROM TWODIMENSIONAL SUPERSONICHYPERSONIC SLENDERAIRFOIL THEORY
4i
4.1.3.265
TEST DATA,
64AO10

.,"
S.,/
o44
S
I
20
40
60
80
0X
2"0
a;I(DCG)
40
60
 I ....
80
100
aJ (DEG)
SKETCH (a)
The aspectratio6 wing with the 64A01I0 airfoil reaches a maximum lift coefficient at a relatively low angle
of attack. Followin~g this, the lift drops abruptly and then stabilizes at nearly constant level for approximately the next 30 of angle of attack.
For the same wing with a sharp leading edge (represented by the wing in reverse flow) the maximum lift
coefficient is not nearly as large as in the previous case, but the drop subsequent to the maximum lift is also
much less. The result is that for angles of attack beyond stall, the lift on the blunt wing is not greatly different from the lift on the sharp wing.

This effect is accounted for in this section by making the drop in lift following maximum lift reflect the
difference between the actual maximum lift and the maximum lift determined by the lowaspectratio
method of Section 4.1I.3.4. (This latter method gives results corresponding to those for a thin airfoil.)
For very lowaspectratio rectangular wings experimental data (reference 2) occasionally show a hysteresis
in the normalforce curve near maximum lift, with different liftcurve shapes, depending on whether the
angle of attack is increasing or decreasing. For these wings the results of this section must be applied with
caution, since they do not reflect this hysteresis.
Reynolds number was not accounted for in the analysis of this method. There is a Reynoldsnumber effect
on the liftcurve shape for the thicker wings, but within the Reynoldsnumber limitations listed on the charts
the values predicted are of sufficient accuracy for most purposes.
*
DATCOM METHOD
The general method for estia maxing
the s
icnormal force on conventional, straighttapered uncambered
wings for angles of attack from 0 to 900 is outlined in the following steps:
RenodStep 1.
n tThe
The ghe
isused for
aue
predcNte2
normalforcecurve slope CN
+ of
sinaucsina
4.1.3.3a
4.1.3.33
wings, the lift curve is based on the apprcpriate section liftcurve slope. For lowaspect ratios
and borderline aspect ratios (defined in Section 4.1.3.4), the section liftcurve slope is
assumed to be 21r (K = 1 in figure 4.1.3.249).
is calculated as the sum of two terms;
(CNo, ,) ref
CN
4.1.3.3b
ACN
is based on CN at C. L
ref
'
isbsdo
at
@C
C1
=4.1.3.3c
max
..
where C L,
CLL
are obtained
and ac
fru
Lmatx
CN
""
is given by
CLx
Naa),t
CN
na
sin
mx
4.1.3.3d
sin
as a function of the parameter J and the ratio of the tangent of the angle of attack in
question to the tangent of the angle of attack at CL Max" The wingshape parameter J is
defined by the equation
22+1) A tan AL3
(CI + 1) (C 2 + 1)
LE
4.1.3.3e
The constants C1 and C2 are the empirical taperratio constants of Section 4.1.3.4.
"Thewing lift coefficient may now be calculated for any angle of attack up to and ircluding
the stall by substituting the appropriate values of C
*
Step 2.
and C
in equation 4.1.3.3a.
N'
tanaC
tana
_NC
C
+
"2.3
.C
\c
x1
4.1.3.3f
4.1.3.34
where
(cN)
X
Iref
calculated
as outlined in step 1.
(
(C a
0sin
j3
Ct
is
maximum lift coefficient obtained as outlined in Section 4.1.3.4
forthe
the wing in question.
C*
is the maximum lift coefficient of the wing, calculated by using the lowaspectratio method of paragraph B of Section 4.1.3.4. If the wing in
question has a low aspect ratio by the definition of Section 4.1.3.4, then
CL*
= CL
and the last term in equation 4.1.3.3f is
max
j3D
max
CNa
".
is obtained from
ALE =.
Substituting values of CNaa determined by equation 4.1.3.3f, together with the value of
CN
from figure 4. 1.3.249, into equation 4.1.3.3a gives the wing normalforce coefficient
CL
(a  a0 )
where a0 is the angle of attack for zero lift. For angles of attack below the stall an equivalent angle of
attack for the cambered wing is defined as a. = a  a0 . Then, the equation6 for lift are
"C
CN
Csin C
N'
S.
where CN
CNa
cos a
N aa
in determining
4.1.3.35
4
(NaXref
CN
La2
sin (at)
(CN)
aa)
ACN
G) sin 2(a.)C
rf
si (a*CLmwx
(equation 4.1.3.3d)
tan a,
3
a.
is read from figure 4.1.3. 55a as a function of J and the ratio tan
Naa
~~tan a)Lmax
For angles of attack beyond the stall, the linear term vanishes as a approaches 900, and the equivalent
angle of attack for the cambered wing is defined as
a
a.
1+ +
a.
92 90_ ac
LMax
__
4.1.3.3g
90
90
Lma
where a, a 0 , and a c
90
0
ac
tmax
CN cos a
sin 2a*
C'N
where CN
Na
Noa
sina, Isin,
I (equation 4.1.3.3a)
(C1 +
+ 1) cosALE , either the
high or the lowaspectratio procedure of Section 4.1.3.4 may be applied to determine the wing maximumlift characteristics. It is suggested that the lowaspectratio procedure be applied as this facilitates application
of equation 4.1.3.3f, since C* max
CL
masx
Three sample problems are included on pages 4.1.3.311 through 4.1.3.323 to illustrate the calculation procedure for estimating wing lift in the nonlinear angleofattack range of conventional, straighttapered wings.
Comparison with experimental data is presented in each case.
Sample problems 1 and 2 emphasize the highangleofattack characteristics of a lowaspectratio and a highaspectratio wing, respectively. Comparison is made between the calculated and experimental values for both
lift and normal force. Agreement between the calculated and experimental values near stall is not particularly
good for the highaspectratio wing. However, the experimental data in this case should be viewed with
caution, since it indicates a highly nonlinear !ift curve prior to stall for a highaspectratio wing.
Sample problem 3 illustrates the special case of a cambered wing, as well as a more representative comparison
of lift at the lower angles of attack.
4.1.3.36
I.m
NonStraightTapered Wings
EQ.
K>.:
Semiempirical methods, taken from reference 1, are presented for estimating the nonlinear lift of doubledelta and cranked wings at subsonic speeds. The nonlinea.r lift of doubledelta wings is based on the hypothesis that an expression similar to that developed by Ktlchemann (reference 8) for the nonlines, lift of smallaspectratio wings with leadingedge separation may be applied to doubledelta planforms. By using such an
ap.proach, a correlation proportional to the linear liftcurve slope was developed that is strongly dependent
on the inboardpanel geometry. The characteristic behavior exhibited by the experimental data of cranked
"wingsled the authors of reference 1 to conclude that the flow field about these wings is similar to that about
a lowaspectratio delta wing with leadingedge separation. On the basis of these observations, the nonlinear
lift of cranked wings has been related to the correlation for the nonlinear lift of doubledelta wings.
The nonlinear lift of curved (Gothic and ogee) wings has been correlated in reference I by the empirical
method developed by Peckham in reference 9.
The following methods for estimating the nonlinear lift of nonstraighttapered wings are limited to angles of
01
Step 1.
Ca flB
from figure 4. .3.356, This parameter is correlated as a function of wing aspect ratio A, the
leadingedge sweepback of the inboard panel AL 6 , and the Mach number parameter
/ IV  M2 . It should be noted that for angles of attack up to 80, an aspectratio dependence exists at Mach numbers above 0.7. Not enough data are available at high subsonic Mach
numbers to allow investigation of the aspectratio dependence above 80 angle of attack.
Step 3.
Calculate CL by
CL=(
aTA C
4.1.3.3h
where
8
1
*AI
Step 4.
is the .panwise location of the break in the leading edge expressed in percent of
wing sernispan.
is the aspect ratio of the planform formed by the two inboard panels
Plot calculated values of CL versus a and fair a curve through the points tangent to CL,
near zero lift.
4.1,3.37
L'
CL
broot'k
Lnnlinear
6C
Evaguated using
Cr]
furo 4.1.3.356"
CC
'breeik
a
SKETCH (b)
"By referring to sketch (b), the nonlinear lift of cranked wings at subsonic speeds is obtained from the
p,)cedure outlined in the following steps:
Step 1.
4.1.3.38
7777
7:77.
7
77
r7

Step 2.
Obtain a break as a function of the leadingedge sweepback of the inboard panel from
figure 4.1.3.357.
Step 3.
Calculate CLbrook by
C

Sep
"Step44.
=C
Lbreak
Obtin
he prameer
parameter
Obtain vlue
values of the
CL
AI
La
17B
La
4.1.3.3i
break
ar using equation 4.1.3.3h. (See doubledeltafrom figure 4.1.3.356, and calculate CLnonlln
1
wing method of this paragraph.)
Step 5.
'!
Obtain (CL)a
by plotting CL
versus a from step 4, and then
b brC k nonlinear
norillnear
alculate Iaclt
6CIL1 by
I'.P"'
6CC1
Step 6.
[CL
 (
)'=0break
(LL)a.aJ
Sthe
total C
nonlinear
olna
break
4.1.3.3i
i.e.,
Lbrak
6C1
4.1.3.3k
Before attempting to assess the validity of the method some salient features should be pointed out. The
accuracy of the method is strongly dependent on knowing atweak' Since the break in the lift curve is essentialy a type of stall phenomenon, Reynolds number may have a significant effect on a brok. Unfortunately,
a lack of data prevented a detailed study of Reynolds number effects during the correlation reported in
reference 1. The method also assumes a sharp discontinuity at (',Wek ; however, test data show that as aspect
ratio is reduced the break in the lift curve becomes less apparent, and for tite loweraspectratio wings the
lift curve exhibits a gradual transition from the linear to the nonlinear region. Furthermore, the shape of
the nonlinear lift curve is based on the correlation derived for doubledelta wings, which is restricted to
wings with small or zero trailingedge sweep angles.
From the foregoing discussion it might be expected that the method would give acceptable results when
applied to wings with moderate to high aspect ratios and small or zero trailingedge sweep angles. Of the
seven configurations listed in table 4.1.3.3C, these conditions are met only by the configurations of
references 37, 38, and 39. The average error for the nine calculated points of those references is 4.9 percent.
It is difficult to assess quantitatively the effect of Mach number on the accuracy of the method. However, it
should be pointed out that the curves of figure 4,1.3.356 have been extrapolated to account for low values
.4
4.1.3.9
q7%
of 3 tan
ALE
of reference 36 at M = 0.90.
Since the configurations of references 38 and 39 had twisted and cambered wings, their lift curves were
significantly displaced from the origin. In analyzing the test data for these configurations the lift curves were
shifted so that CLa=0 = 0. The calculated results for these configurations compared well with the adjusted
. '
test values, indicating that twist and camber have a negligible effect on the shape of the lift curve in the
nonlinear region.
Test data show that the lift curve tends to fall off at approximately 160 angle of attack at M = 0.80 and
0.85 for the configuration of reference 28, and at approximately 120 angle of attack throughout the Mach
range tested for both configurations of reference 36. This trend indicates that the inboard panel is beginning
to stall; conseqitently, the method should not be expected to give reliable results for these configurations at
higher angles of attack.
Curved Wings
The nonlinear lift of curved (Gothic and ogee) wings at subsonic speeds was correlated in reference I by
Peckham's method (reference 9) where the ratio of lift to the square root of the wing slenderness parameter
plotted versus angle of attack converges on a single curve,
The nonlinear lift is obtained from the procedure outlined in the following steps:
Step 1.
Using the given wing geometry calculate the wing slenderness parameter

(See
Step 3.
Calculate CL at each a by
CL
CL
*"
4.1.3.3*
"Sincethere is no theoretical basis for this method, it should be used with caution outside the planformn
parameter ranges covered in the correlation. The correlation of figure 4.1.3.358 is based on data from sharpedged, thin, Gothic and ogee wings with moderate trailingedge sweep angles (+ 150). The planform param
4.1.3.310
,.
. ,
,. .
.r ,, . :
r, 
'
"
..
< 0.667
0.45 <
w
0.25 < S "
0.54
Sample Problems
Conventional, StraightTapered Wings
A = 2.0
M = 0.2; /3 = 0.98
63.50
= 1.0(assumed)
1
ALE
45.20
Na
Lmax
max
A <
C 1 =0, C 2
0 (figure 4.1.3.424b)
2
(C1 + 1)
0.98
sA
(CLrn~x base" =
(0.4462)
0.91
4.01
V( figure 4.1.3.424a)
AC
":"
C
Ay
".'
and a
Find CL
(C
ACL
Lax
(equation 4.1.3.4g)
tamax/xb
x
= 129
4.1.3.311
................ 
i.................................
A1
(acLnsx)
(quation 4.13.4l
A'
('%Lx)!~g
mMax
CL
pa
] = 2 (0.4462) [1 + 01 = 0.8924
= 34,50
Find CLa
a1
+ tan 2 A 112
"CLa CNa
Find (CN
2.81
CL/A
L~
(1.15)(2.0) = 2.30perrad
Oa.) ref
CL"

@c
CSCN
@
Lmmx
coscc
(equation 4.1.3.3c)
Lmax
1.29_
0.8241
= 1.565
.
241
i!!"
*
Caa,
(CN)
tref
s
si
sin 2a
 CN
@CL
(equation 4.1.3.3d)
sLna Lcsna
aaL
ma"x
LMax
0.9336
1.565
2.30
\(2!
1.53
(0.5664)2
Find J
[(C
SA
(Cl + 1)(C
+ 1)
+ 1) Atan A.,i31
7
(equation 4..3.30)
S4.1.3.312
0.3 (1)
12(2.006)1'
(0.4462)
 0.222
Solution: Angles of Attack Below the Stall
CL
sin2a
Cos a
coa
"C
(CNM
= 1.53 + ACN
Ac
__O
1.53 *(nex
0.126
0.60
2.33
0.018
0.200
0.218
0.22
10
0.256
0.80
2.33
0.070
0.393
0.463
0.46
15
0.390
0.73
2.26
0.151
0.575
0.726
0.70
20
0.530
0.66
2,18
0.25
0.739
0.994
0.03
25
0.600
0.45
1.90
0.364
0.881
1.236
1.12
30
0.840
0.25
1.78
0.445
0.996
1.44i
1.26
34.6
1.000
1.53
0.491
1.070
1.561
1.29
mex
sn2
CNa "
~4. 1.3.313
C
CN
+
tanN
p2
+rel
(CNr)
Na/
N,
(N N)aW
(equation 4.1.3.3f)
.0
tan a
+ 0.96 D
2.3
CL
e)
tan ac"
1. 20

0.33
120033
+ 0.96D
tan a
0~
.fD
,~
""w
'
tan__a
4Q. 4.1.3.31.f
j 4.1.3.3i5ea
1.2 +.33+6~
___
2
612 I
"
s q.4.1.N3.3L
C1
.C
NO
37
0.912
. 20
1"3W
0.474
1.11
1.684
1.26
40
0.819
.0.86
0,66"
0.270
1.13
1.400
1.07
46
o.L67
1.43
0.064
0.027
1.1
1.177
0.83
50
0.577
1.64
40.08
0.062
1.13
1.078
0.69
6o
0.397
1.27
0.112
0.084
0.9"
1.080
0.54
70
0.20
.0.86
o.43
0.387
0.74
1.127
0.
1.200
1.200
1.2M
go10
"'(Ic
A comparison of the calculated values and the ex.perimenta, data of reference 25 is presented as sketch (c).
SL:
A 006(2d
f7>

2..t.J
o
20
40
60
00
100
SKETCH (c)
4.1.3,314
T. . .
,..2.. ...
~1,
20
40
co
so
'o
M = 0.2;
K
0.5
6.0 X
ALE
3  0.98
RI
2.60
and acLmax as outlined in Section 4.1.3.4 and CNa from Section 4.1.3.2.
1.23 at R
= 9X106
9
(table 4.1.1B)
 1.23  0.14
cj.
Cmax
(Cm
*AC
CL4l34d
tmx
0 (figure 4.1.3.4.22)
Lmax = (
Cimax
max
= (0.895)(1.09)
(equation4.1.3.4
0.975
Find CL
La
A 2 + tan 2 A
11/2
5.89
c12
CL /A
La
4.1.3.315
K
Aa
(0.76)(6)
La)A)
Ca =
Lmax
cfi
=
0
0.10
0 (equation 4.1.3.1a)
(equation 4.1.3.4e)
 . :.
C t m ax
CL~
Cm
""
ax + a 0
Lmax
La.La
0.975
4.56/(57.3)
Find (CNa~a)ref
0.975
Lmax
CN @ CLrmax
C'@C
sinamax
(IAsin 2ac
CN
.CN
C'imax
(C
0.9732
COS aC,
si
CLmOX
(equation 4.1.3.3d)
siC
S~0.4478
1.002  4.56
,.=
(0.2300)2
0.359
Find J
7.
cos
ALE
(Cl + 1) (C 2 + 1)
(equation 4.1.3.3e)
,,.':
= 0.3 (0 .3 1)
=6,36
.
4.1,3.316
.. (0.988)
6(.1
(1.3 1) (2.06)
(2.06)
CL
cos;....
CO
a2
"aa'
CNNa
N
N
'C.,
"
22
(CCNaa )
=0.359
CNo
a
N
ref+ +'ACNCa
+ ACNaa
Ac
aeOa
(deg)
eq. 4.1.3.3b
fig. 4.1.3.3
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