0 Votos favoráveis0 Votos desfavoráveis

25 visualizações32 páginasAug 11, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT ou leia online no Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

25 visualizações

© All Rights Reserved

- Neuromancer
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Fault Lines
- Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
- The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870-1914
- The Wright Brothers
- The Wright Brothers
- The Lean Startup: How Today's Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses
- A Jazzi Zanders Mystery
- Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap...And Others Don't
- The 6th Extinction
- The Great Bridge: The Epic Story of the Building of the Brooklyn Bridge
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Right Stuff
- Zero to One: Notes on Start-ups, or How to Build the Future
- A Short History of Nearly Everything
- Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone
- Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution

Você está na página 1de 32

a) Purpose

b) Ambient condition and environment

c) Degree of protection (weather, chemical, mechanical, particle,

liquid, etc.)

d) Insulating material (Cable Type)

e) Conductor material

f) Method of installation

g) Thermal insulation

h) Type of protective device

i) Short-circuit capacity

j) Current-carrying capacity

k) Voltage drop

colour code is Brown / Blue.

All factors are covered by I.E.E. Wiring Regulations (BS7671) and

C.O.P.

a) to c) would establish the types of cables.

d) to k) shall be discussed in class, and each of them would affect

sizing of cables. d) to g) plus i) are factors affecting heat dissipation

and temperature tolerance, and hence affecting factor j) current

carrying capacities of the cables.

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 149

Busbars

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 150

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 151

and is being widely used as an insulation on electrical

equipment. It has high electrical resistance, good dielectric

strength and mechanical toughness over the common range of

room temperatures. While mechanically tough, bending is quite

flexible. PVC is also the general insulation material of small

cables. An additional layer of PVC is called a sheath and is

acceptable for general mechanical protection. And where

higher risks exist, metal enclosure accommodating the PVC

cables is considered necessary.

considered to be a better insulating material than PVC. A

XLPE cable can also withstand higher temperature, and

therefore has a higher current rating than a PVC cable of the

same size. In the past, XLPE is significantly more expensive.

Now the cost is moving down. Thus more and more installations

use XLPE cables, especially for larger cables in the communal

installation of a building. XLPE are quite inflexible and hence

may not be suitable for cable routes with many bends.

Mechanical protection requirement is the same as that for PVC

cables.

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 152

by themselves on any surface, or even at trenches and

underground.

are usually, but not definitely, stranded; i.e. each cable

conducting material is in a bunch of cores.

Cables that carry an protective conductor is also available.

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 153

Recall:

SHORT-CIRCUIT CAPACITY

bounded by

Let through energy

I2 t K2 S2

constant cross-sectional

for a given

area

cable type

short-cct

current

time

quantities

thermal constant of the specified conductor, then work for S.

You may either treat S as an unknown, or substitute a S

value into the condition to test its feasibility.

Values of K and reference fault levels are available in BS7671

and CoP respectively.

Operating times are observed by I-t curves.

Energy let through is obtained from I2 t tables.

Operating Temperature is the temperature at which the

conductor is utilizing its full current carrying capacity

(full-load). At this temperature, the conductor can perform

without deterioration. This is also the initial temperature we

shall assume for fault and Energy-let-through calculation.

The final limiting temperature is the temperature which the

conductor can withstand for a short time. Beyond this

temperature the conductor shall deform instantly.

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 154

operating temp. 70 C

operating temp. 90 C

K = 115

K = 143

Busbars in Switchboard

K = 159

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 155

From IEE Wiring Regulations/ BS7671. Similar Tables availble at CoP Table

11(2).

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 156

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 157

Current-carrying Capacity

Let

IL

Ib

In

Iz

Ita

Ib

Ib

In

Iz

To determine Iz :

Including type of protective device, there are 8 factors which must be

taken into consideration. They are :

i)

type of protective device (Cf = 1 or 0.725)

ii)

methods in the same category, and assume they are

equivalent. In particular cases, we use Cm as correction

factor)

iii)

type of cable

iv)

no. of phases

v)

a.c. or d.c.

vi)

grouping of cable ( Cg )

vii)

ambient temperature ( Ca )

viii)

thermal insulation ( Ci )

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 158

CORRECTION FACTORS

Let Ca, Cg, Ci, 0.725 be the correction factors for the

current-carrying capacity of cable, then

Iz

In

Cf Ca Cg Ci

Note that although the correction factors are for the cable, the

solution is worked from the nominal rating (or current setting) of the

protective device.

Then from the appropriate table and column in IEE Regulations or

COP, or otherwise, find Ita I z ,

The corresponding conductor size is the lower bound in respect of

this requirement.

Since

Ita

Iz

we use Ita instead of Iz in the equations from now on.

Please also read ii) to note an additional correction factor for the

current.

No correction is required for MCB, MCCB, ACB, IDMTL relay

and HRC fuse as we assume that the fusing faster of each is less

than 1.45. (i.e. Cf = 1)

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 159

I2 1.45 Iz

2 In

1.45 Iz

In 0.725 Iz

i.e. Cf = 0.725

or

I ta

In

0.725 Ca Cg Ci

20 typical methods of installation are specified.

In general, we group similar methods in the same category,

and assume they are equivalent.

Different columns of a table for each type of cable are used to

differentiate the change in current carrying capacity. For

installation methods 1 to 17, no correction factor is required.

For installation methods 18 to 20, current carrying capacities

are obtained by treating them as methods 12 or 13 as

appropriate, but with suitable correction factors applied.

These correction factors Cm are additional to the Ca, Cg, Ci,

Cf, Ct factors, and are obtainable from TABLE A5(6).

Different tables are provided for different types of cables, no

correction factor is required.

iv)

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 160

Number of phases

Refer to different columns in tables

v) a.c. or d.c.

Refer to different columns in tables

When Cables are grouped or bunched in the same route.

They are very close to each other, and thus shall affect heat

dissipation. A correction factor Cg is required.

More energy is required to raise a cable to its maximum

permissible temperature when the ambient temperature is

lowered. The opposite is also true.

Therefore, an ambient temperature factor Ca is required.

Values of the factors are different for different installation

methods.

viii) Thermal insulation

Where a cable is to be run for a significant length in a space to

which thermal insulation is likely to be applied, the cable

shall wherever practicable be fixed in a position such that it

will not be covered by the thermal insulation. Where fixing in

such a position is impracticable, the current-carrying

capacity of the cable shall be appropriately reduced, i.e. a

thermal insulation factor Ci is required.

For full insulation 0.4 m, Ci

shorter insulations.

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 161

& group)

(1) Where overload protection is by fuse to BS 88 or BS

1361 or a MCCB or MCB:

In

I ta

Ca Ci

b) for groups

i) circuits may be simultaneously overloaded

In

I ta

Ca Cg Ci

overload

1 Cg2

I ta

HKUEEE

larger

I n2 + 0.48 Ib2 (

Ib

Ca Cg Ci

Electrical Installations

Cg2

Ca Ci

p 162

to BS 3036:

a) for single circuits

I ta

In

0.725 Ca Ci

b) for groups

i) circuits liable to simultaneous overload

I ta

In

0.725 Ca Cg Ci

1 Cg2

I ta

(3)

Ib

larger

Ca Cg Ci

Cg2

Ca Ci

i.e. where IEE Regulation 473-01-04 applies

I ta

Ib

Ca Cg Ci

Where various factors apply to different parts of the route, each part

shall be treated separately, or alternatively only the factor or

combination of factors appropriate to the most onerous conditions

encountered along the route shall be applied to the whole of the

route.

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 163

Voltage Drop

Maximum permissible voltage drop at receiving end is 4% of the

nominal voltage.

i.e. If nominal voltage of 3-phase 4-wire installation is 380 V / 220V

Max permissible voltage drop is 8.8V for phase-voltage,

and is 15.2V for line voltage.

Voltage drop is a cable

= current in the cable impedance of the cable

( V drop =

Z cable

Ib

Z cable )

Voltage drops per ampere per metre are given in tables A6 of COP.

Note resistive parts are affected by temperatures of conductors.

O/C protective device BS 3036 fuse

ambient temp 30

When

t1

Ib2

= t p (Ca Cg

) (t p 30)

Ita2

2

where

HKUEEE

tp

Electrical Installations

p 164

230 + t1

Resistivity at t1

Resistivity at tp

230 + t p

= Reduction Factor

Design mV/A/m

Tabulated mV/A/m

= Ct

2

230 + t p (Ca Cg

=

Ct

Ib2

) (t p 30)

Ita2

230 + t p

Then with correction for volt drop,

(mV/A/m) actual = C t (mV/A/m) tabulated

When conductor > 16 mm2

then

(mV/A/m)r actual

= C t (mV/A/m)r tabulated

is unaffected by temp

mV/A/m x

such that

x

r

3,

no correction is required.

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 165

When conductor 16 mm2

Apply

Cp =

cos

(mV/A/m) actual = cos (mV/A/m)r tabulated + sin (mV/A/m)x tabulated

not for

cables in flat formation

x-area > 240 mm2

& p.f. > 0.8

load power factor

When conductor 16 mm2

combined correction = C t cos

When conductor > 16 mm2

(mV/A/m) actual = C t cos(mV/A/m)r tabulated + sin(mV/A/m)x tabulated

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 166

Assume:

2

For conductors 16 mm , assume resistive only.

Source impedance independent of temperature when

specific parameters not known.

Using tables for cable ratings/sizes, we may obtain per

length impedance from taking a half of tabulated mV/A/m

values with temperature adjustments. The reason for

taking a half is because the length in table refers to circuit

length, but for resistance/impedance, we talk about

conductor length.

That is:

Tabulated mV/A/m

2

230 + tx

230 + tp

)x

length in m

calculate size of protective conductor.

Conductor resistances at 20C in milliohms/metre (from Electrical Installation

calculations)

Copper

Aluminium

X-sectional area mm2

1

18.1

1.5

12.1

2.5

7.41

4

4.61

6

3.08

10

1.83

16

1.15

1.91

25

0.727

1.2

35

0.524

0.868

Multipliers to be applied for protective conductor:

70C pvc 1.24 + 0.002ta 85C rubber 1.36 + 0.002ta

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 167

TABLE 4.2B

Single-core PVC/XLPE Non-armoured Cables, with or without sheath (Copper Conductor)

Conductor Resistance at 50 Hz Single-phase or Three-phase a.c.

(Based on BS7671, Requirements for Electrical Installations, Table 4D1B & 4E1B)

Conductor

crosssectional

in milliohm per metre (m/m)

area (mm2)

PVC cable at max. conductor

XLPE cable at max. conductor

operating temperature of

operating temperature of 90C

70C

Enclosed in

Clipped

Enclosed in

Clipped

conduit/trunking

direct or

conduit/trunking

direct or

on tray,

on tray,

touching

touching

1.5

14.5

14.5

15.5

15.5

2.5

9.5

9.5

5.5

5.5

3.65

3.65

3.95

3.95

10

2.2

2.2

2.35

2.35

16

1.4

1.4

1.45

1.45

25

0.9

0.875

0.925

0.925

35

0.65

0.625

0.675

0.675

50

0.475

0.465

0.5

0.495

70

0.325

0.315

0.35

0.34

95

0.245

0.235

0.255

0.245

120

0.195

0.185

0.205

0.195

150

0.155

0.15

0.165

0.16

185

0.125

0.12

0.135

0.13

240

0.0975

0.0925

0.105

0.1

300

0.08

0.075

0.0875

0.08

400

0.065

0.06

0.07

0.065

500

0.055

0.049

0.06

0.0525

630

0.047

0.0405

0.05

0.043

800

0.034

0.036

1000

0.0295

0.0315

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 168

1.

2.

Determine In

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Determine Iz

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

If

S1 =

S2 =

S3 =

size of cable calculated from continuous loading consideration

size of cable calculated from volt-drop consideration

S4 =

given by:

then

S max

S2

Alternatively, find S1 first, and then test it against volt drop and I

requirement.

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 169

NEUTRAL CONDUCTOR

Make & break:

Makes before the phase conductors

Breaks after the phase conductors

or simultaneously make and break

No switch (unless inherently linked) nor fuse shall be connected in

neutral conductors, including those of control circuits.

Size of neutral depends on

a) neutral current, how balancing the phase currents is;

b) fault level of phase to neutral fault;

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 170

a) by the protective devices in phase conductors if size of neutral

conductor is not less than that of a phase conductor;

b) by the protective devices in phase conductors if load is shared

evenly by the 3 phases and the neutral conductor can meet the

let through energy requirement;

c) by its own protective device if a) & b) are not met. But the

protective device should also disconnect phase conductors.

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 171

a) Neutral conductor of a single phase circuit should not be

shared with any other circuit.

b) Neutral conductor of a three phase circuit should only be

shared with its related phases in a three phase four wire

system.

c) For a polyphase circuit, the neutral conductor should have a

suitable current carrying capacity to cater for any imbalance

or harmonic currents which may occur in normal services.

(Note that Triplen harmonics cannot be cancelled by each

other in 3-phase 4-wire systems. Nowadays much harmonic is

generated from electronic non-linear loads)

d) Where an autotransformer is connected to a circuit having a

neutral conductor, the common terminal of the winding

should be connected to the neutral conductor.

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 172

Main purpose of conduit and trunking is for mechanical protection.

Conduits are for small cables only, and trunking can be for both

small and medium cables.

Methods to determine their sizes are fully discussed in Code 14 of

C.O.P.

1) by comparing sum of cable factors with conduit & trunking

factors

2) space factor 45%

For conduits, two sets of tables are available,

one is for short straight run,

the other is for long run (straight or with bends)

Space Factor is:

The ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the sum of the overall

cross-sectional areas of cables (including insulation and any sheath)

to the internal cross-sectional area of the conduit or other cable

enclosure in which they are installed. The effective overall

cross-sectional area of a non-circular cable is taken as that of a circle

of diameter equal to the major axis of the cable.

Space

factor

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 173

A three-phase circuit has a 3-phase full load of 20 A, (36 + j15) A and (20 j15) A.

The end of the circuit is connected to a distribution board that distributes electricity to

its loads. The distribution board has an exposed conductive part. The circuit is

controlled and protected by a moulded case circuit breaker (MCCB) at its origin, with

its main earth terminal installed adjacent to this switch. Other information of the

circuit is as follows:

Earthing system:

T-T

Supply voltage:

380/220 volts

Supply frequency:

50 Hz

Ambient temperature:

20C to 35 C

Length of circuit:

50 metres

MCCB instantaneous operation time:

0.02 s.

Min. magnetic trip current for MCCB: 10 times its setting (10 In)

Highest fault level in the circuit:

6.6 MVA

Voltage drop measured at MCCB:

1.2 volt

Earth loop impedance measured at

earth terminal beside the MCCB:

0.1 ohm

Cables for the circuit:

single core XLPE cable to BS 5467

Wiring method:

in trunking

Determine:

a) the desirable current rating and breaking capacity of the MCCB;

b) the maximum permissible earth fault loop impedance;

c) the correction factors for current carrying capacity of the cables;

d) whether 10 sq,mm. is a desirable size of the live conductors;

e) whether 6 sq.mm. is a desirable size of the protective conductors;

f) the earth fault loop impedance after selection of conductors;

g) the fault current that flows in an earth fault;

h) the touch voltage at the distribution board;

State all your assumptions.

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 174

ANSWER:

a)

Therefore, In = 50 A (or a current not less than 39A)

Given fault level = 6.6 MVA, and system voltage = 380/220V

Fault level in terms of current

(6600/3/220)

10kA

(Note: In real design, we should practically balance the loads.)

b)

Max. permissible earth fault loop impedance is the impedance that shall produce an

earth fault current just enough to break the circuit within the max. tolerable time (in

this case 5 sec.) by the selected protective device.

Assume the instantaneous trip of MCCB occurs at I 10 In .

Max permissible earth fault loop impedance = 220 V / 10 x 50 A =

c)

0.44

Factors: Ca = 0.96, Cg = 1,

Ci = 1,

d)

With I = 10 kA, K = 143, t = 0.02 s,

(You should refer to the t provided by manufacturer. We take this as 0.02 s as

MCCBs are current limiting devices nowadays.)

Substituting values into boundary condition I2 t = K2 S2

Smallest acceptable S = 9.89 mm2 Cu 3-ph cable

Choosing 10 mm2 Cu cable is acceptable.

*

Ca = 0.96,

Cg = 1,

Ci = 1,

In = 50 A

min Ita = In / (0.96 x 1 x 1) = 52.1 A

Assume cables are in trunking

From Table, cable 10 mm2 Cu is acceptable.

Therefore 10 mm2 Cu cable is OK.

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 175

1st method:

assume 10 mm2 Cu cable (taken from above). We assume a

size first because this data is required for calculating the temp correction

factor.

tp = 90oC,

From table,

Volt drop (3-phase) per A per m = 4.0 mV (Note for 1-phase, it would be 4.7

mV). None of them is perfect, as the loads are unbalanced three-phase.

If no exact calculation is preferred, then play safe and use 1-phase value.

Without temp and p.f. correction, and no voltage vector adjustment,

Volt drop from source = (39 x x 4.7 x 50 mV) + (1.2 V)

= 9.17V + 1.2V

10.37 V.

Note 1: Please note that the 4% volt drop is measured from nominal. Thus volt drop

in the up-stream must also be taken into account.

Note 2: There are two voltage drop correction factors: temperature and power

factor. Since both voltage drop correction factors are not larger than 1 (unless the

ambient temp is low), thus when the calculation does not take the voltage drop

correction factors into account, the calculated volt drop value without correction

may be larger than actual voltage drop value which has taken correction factors

into account. Hence applying voltage drop correction factors may give us an

opportunity to select a smaller cable size, or similarly, not to select a larger cable

size.

If the total voltage drop without correction factors (and also the unbalanced

condition in Note 4) does not exceed 8.8 volt for the selected size, then we can stop

calculation, and consider voltage drop is acceptable.

Note 3: When the total voltage drop exceeds permissible voltage drop, dont

immediately assume that the cable size is unacceptable. Apply correction factors to

check whether the corrected volt drop is within the limit. When the drop still

exceeds the limit, engineers should change the cable to a larger size.

Note 4: Moreover, when load currents in 3-phases are unbalanced, the largest

voltage drop occurs at the phase having the largest current. Its exact volt drop is

obtained by the volt drop along its line conductor, plus the volt drop along the

neutral conductor. The volt drop along the neutral conductor is calculated by the

combined neutral current.

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 176

Since volt drop > 8.8 V, then we have to rethink the aforesaid volt-drop by

one of the following:

i)

The easiest way is to try larger size: 16 sq.mm. Students may try it and

show that mathematically it will be OK.

ii)

current separately. Then work out their respective volt drops. The total

volt drop is their sum plus 1.2 volt (VECTOR sum).

Also, Work out temp correction, and p.f. correction,

Combining the above and see whether the corrections may lower the

above calculated volt drop to smaller than 8.8 volts.

Ct (phase L1) = [230 + 90 [(0.962) 202/632)(90 30)]/ (230 + 90) = 0.846

Ct (phase L2) = [230 + 90 [(0.962) 392/632)(90 30)]/ (230 + 90) = 0.899

Ct (phase L3) = [230 + 90 [(0.962) 252/632)(90 30)]/ (230 + 90) = 0.856

(It is obvious that the higher the current, the larger the correction factor)

Apply the largest factor, i.e. the factor of L2-phase, when we do not wish to

calculate phase by phase.

Using, Ct (L2) = [230 + 90 [(0.962) 392/632)(90 30)]/ (230 + 90) = 0.899

And p.f. 0.923

Then with both temp and pf corrections,

Volt drop = 39 x (0.899 x 0.923) x 4.7 x 50 mV + 1.2 V = 8.8 V

which is just acceptable.

(Note that in 3-phase, by considering volt drop due to phase current and

neutral current separately will show a value even smaller than 7.6 V because

neutral current is often smaller (Note 5).)

Since the voltage drop in its up-stream does not exceed 1.2 V. (assume same

p.f. at upstream and downstream), Choosing 10 mm2 Cu cable is acceptable.

Note 5: For using volt drop values in tables, engineers must clearly understand the

difference between 3-phase volt-drop values and those for 1-phase. The Volt-Drop

Considerations and Tolerances are different. 1-phase V-drop is 4% of 220 V and

3-phase is 4% of 380V..

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 177

2nd method:

Permissible volt drop per A per m = (8.8 1.2) V / 39A/ 50m

=

3.90 mV

Thus any cable size giving a volt drop per A per m less than 3.90mV is acceptable.

Therefore from table, 16 mm2 Cu cable is OK.

Again, for marginal consideration, the correction factors may help our

consideration to save cable size. And indeed 10 mm2 Cu cable can be used.

Compare the cables sizes by the three considerations (current carrying capacity;

volt drop; & short-cct capacity), take maximum value (10 mm2, 10 mm2, 10 mm2,

also compare min. size for mech protection)

Choose 10 mm2 Cu cable. Existing cable size is acceptable.

e) Consider size of protective conductor is 6 mm2 Cu cable,

For simplicity of calculation, we take no temperature adjustment (But temp

adjustment gives more accurate and appropriate result, unless you allow

tolerance consideration in choosing the size),

Resistivity of c.p.c.(approx from table) = 7.9/2 = 3.95 m-ohm/m

Resistivity of live conductor.(approx from table) = 4.7/2 = 2.35 m-ohm/m

Earth fault loop impedance = 0.1 + (3.95 + 2.35) x 50 / 1000 = 0.415 ohm

For Max permissible earth fault loop impedance consideration:

The max. value is 0.44 ohm,

thus 0.415 ohm is acceptable.

Min earth fault current = 220/0.415 = 530 A

Max earth fault current = 220/0.1 = 2200 A

For Energy-Let-Through consideration:

Check energy-let-thru condition by the max E/F current (Assume using XLPE

cable, K = 143)

S = 2.18 mm2 Cu cable

Choose 6 mm2 Cu cable as protective conductor is acceptable, (or any size

not less than 2.18 mm2 Cu cable)

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 178

IEF to effect 5 sec operation = 10 times In = 10 x 50 A

Max Z loop

Max Z protective =

220 V/ 500 A

500 A

0.44

Which is larger than 0.1 , hence not acceptable.

A larger protective conductor is required.

Choose 16 mm2 Cu cable as protective conductor.

Check Z protective of 16 mm2 Cu cable = (2.9/2) x 50 / 1000 = 0.0725

This is now acceptable.

Thus, take all things into consideration, choose 16 mm2 Cu cable as protective

conductor.

f)

Using 16 mm2 Cu cable as protective conductor, and consider the circuit end,

Earth fault loop impedance = 0.1 + (2.9/2 + 4.7/2) x 50 / 1000 = 0.29 ohm

which is less than max permissible Z-loop 0.44 ohm.

g)

Min. current =

220/0.29

758.6 A

2200 A

Use max. current to verify size.

h)

Touch voltage at exposed conductive part between the limb and the

distribution board = 759 A x c.p.c. resistance = 759 x 0.0725

=

55 V

(Even with the high touch voltage calculated as above exceeds 50V, it is still safe.

Check the touch voltage curves, a touch voltage of 55 V should not harm persons

under protection by MCCB operating at 0.02 sec.)

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 179

Note that persons outside the fault zone may also receive a touch voltage.

Assume earth resistance of installation is half of the up-stream earth fault loop

impedance.

Touch voltage = 759 x earth resistance

= 759 x (0.1/2) =

37.9 V

This is less than 50 V, thus acceptable for T-T system with MCCB.

0.1/2 ohm is based on assumption that the upstream protective conductor plus

an earth resistance contributed half of the earth fault loop impedance at the

origin.)

As touch voltage is acceptable, thus the size of protective conductor is

acceptable.

Where the question also asks for accommodation of cables, then either:

1) Use the Cable Factor Method

Adding up the cable factors of all the cables in the enclosure;

Compare to check which enclosure has a enclosure factor not less than this

sum of cable factors;

Then this enclosure is the minimum size of enclosure to accommodate the

cables.

2) Use the Space Factor Method

Calculate the cross-sectional area of each cable including its insulation/

sheath;

Add up all the cross-sectional areas;

Divide the sum by 0.45 to get the minimum cross-sectional area of the

enclosure.

HKUEEE

Electrical Installations

p 180

- CT_MANUALEnviado porwilmanzito
- Revisions for the 2014 NEC, With Cover, First PrintingEnviado porOmar Cruz
- EarthingEnviado porKantharaj Chinnappa
- Poweriso 5.6 SerialEnviado porEngr Saeed Khan
- SEW EX Asynchronous Servo MotersEnviado porwickedness
- Electricl load CenterEnviado pormih_dolphin
- Ground%20Fault%20Protection[1].pptEnviado porlivespive
- Revit Mep Electrical CalculationsEnviado porpraveenbusa
- Electrical Terms and Definitions.docxEnviado poredsel fagela
- Forms 17thEnviado porSofyan Shah
- Forms_17th.pdfEnviado porAdri Antolino
- Blk-1 Fiber MsdEnviado poranbesivam87_49857255
- IS 694Enviado pornm_ranga
- tk2_enEnviado por34kaanka
- Catalogue - Multi C120Enviado porJeferson Silva
- S-Curve Project SummaryEnviado porArkaprava Ghosh
- 021144076Enviado porfgf
- Earthing and Bonding Techniques for Electrical InstallationsEnviado porEberArciniega
- Rv 2 2011 Nonmetallicsheathed CableEnviado porraghavendran raghu
- r.d.electrical Schedule,2009Enviado porhenchudi
- 4099-0002Enviado porkikeecp
- 15-25kV 200A Fuse Elbow Instruction SheetEnviado por01666754614
- 03 Non Dir. OvercurrentEnviado porSiva Krishnan
- 6000-in006_-en-pEnviado porSGQ
- DD1377306Enviado porthecure78
- Daikin AC Quote, Ageo TechnologiesEnviado porAnuradha Acharya
- Split Room AC InstallationEnviado porfethry000
- Philippine Electrical Code Part 1_Chapter 2. Wiring and Protection_Article 2Enviado porHarry King Corral Avenido
- 45A18OBEnviado porcharlyzeus
- data.docEnviado porelmapa04

- Όρια αντίστασης βρόγχουEnviado porehe_greece
- Earthing system.docxEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- MU040_KRT-EngHandbook-lowres.pdfEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- 05-lv-cv-iec-single.pdfEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- EarthingEnviado porBattinapati Shiva
- 21.pdfEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- Cooper Busman Calculation - SCEnviado porcvijesh
- Short Circuit Fault CalculationEnviado porNillutpal Boruah
- 6. Earth loop impedance tests.pdfEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- ZS chart_090315_final.pdfEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- pdf_HT-XLPEEnviado porరాజా రావు చామర్తి
- app3.pdfEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- Ze.pdf4.pdfEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- _46_Cable_Volatge_Drop_for_Different_Size_of_Cables_1.9.15_.xlsxEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- _33_Short_Circuit_Current_at_various_Point_of_Distribution_System_1.9.15_.xlsEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- ZS chart_090315_final.pdfEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- EDS+01-0045+Overhead+Line+Ratings.pdfEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- Code of Practice for Earthing LV Networks and HV Distribution Substations IMP010011Enviado porSatya
- BrokenEarth.pdfEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- 05-mr-h-jaykumar.pdfEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- Electrical Cable Sizing(2)Enviado porKuwat Riyanto
- Overheal Line Clearances_IE RulesEnviado porkapil
- Earthing 1Enviado porMonalisha S Rout
- OM 6-5-B Earthing practices Additional.docEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- Littelfuse_PGR_8800_Application_Guide.pdfEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- Littelfuse_White_Paper_PGR8800_ArcFlash_Relay (1).pdfEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- earth_fault_protection.pdfEnviado porRajendra Prasad Shukla
- NGR Sizing CalculationEnviado porPramod B.Wankhade
- Lecture 17Enviado pormatlab5903

- KinamaticsEnviado porChathur Chandrasoorya
- Sizing CalculationsEnviado porsreedhar
- Boat Stream Governmentadda.comEnviado porSriSri
- Three-Phase a.C. CircuitsEnviado porVan Hoan Pham
- Phys 205 Test 1 Fall 14 Key (3)Enviado porAlex Nguyen
- EENG223 Ch06 Capacitors&InductorsEnviado porpunz
- Soil Three Phase system.pdfEnviado porShahida Shahii
- Vibrating Molecules That Moves Energy FromEnviado porapi-11990531
- Hw 14Enviado porSiva Ram
- 3 Vacuum Basic ConceptsEnviado porapi-3856548
- Lectut MTN 105 PDF MT 201A Tutorial Ch 8Enviado porVikhyath Kst
- R7210305 ThermodynamicsEnviado porsivabharathamurthy
- physics bowl pb_1994Enviado porJames Su
- Radio CommunicationEnviado porRandy Dookheran
- 1Enviado porHemanta Bhattarai
- Gear Quality ClassEnviado porPankaj Rane
- 120 TOP MOST CURRENT ELECTRICITY - Electrical Engineering Multiple Choice Questions and AnswersEnviado porrose mary
- Q5Enviado porSaad Mohsin
- Vib104_HW1Enviado porTai-Yuan Hsu
- PSYCHROMETRICS (1)Enviado porZeba Fatima
- SolutionsEnviado porChristopher Knocke
- Sample Problems in Industrial Plant DesignEnviado porSdhfdh Hdfhd
- Introduction to Lagrangian DynamicsEnviado porPk Gyabaa
- Sir Kamran Soomro-MCATEnviado porKamran Ali
- Gas Law ProblemsEnviado portoffahmaxwell
- Rotational Mechanics- IIT JEE ExamEnviado porfaizan123khan
- jeep112.pdfEnviado porshubhammukri
- Neet Model Grand Test4 2017Enviado porpikumar
- 1797-physicsxii.docxEnviado porabhijit gogoi
- Lecture 4 StaticsEnviado porEdwin

## Muito mais do que documentos

Descubra tudo o que o Scribd tem a oferecer, incluindo livros e audiolivros de grandes editoras.

Cancele quando quiser.