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SELECTION OF CABLES/ CONDUCTORS

Technically, there are at least 12 factors to be considered:


a) Purpose
b) Ambient condition and environment
c) Degree of protection (weather, chemical, mechanical, particle,
liquid, etc.)
d) Insulating material (Cable Type)
e) Conductor material
f) Method of installation
g) Thermal insulation
h) Type of protective device
i) Short-circuit capacity
j) Current-carrying capacity
k) Voltage drop

An Old 2-core Cable. Note new


colour code is Brown / Blue.

l) Minimum size requirement


All factors are covered by I.E.E. Wiring Regulations (BS7671) and
C.O.P.
a) to c) would establish the types of cables.
d) to k) shall be discussed in class, and each of them would affect
sizing of cables. d) to g) plus i) are factors affecting heat dissipation
and temperature tolerance, and hence affecting factor j) current
carrying capacities of the cables.

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p 149

Busbars

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Polyvinyl-Chloride (PVC) is a thermo-plastic synthetic resin


and is being widely used as an insulation on electrical
equipment. It has high electrical resistance, good dielectric
strength and mechanical toughness over the common range of
room temperatures. While mechanically tough, bending is quite
flexible. PVC is also the general insulation material of small
cables. An additional layer of PVC is called a sheath and is
acceptable for general mechanical protection. And where
higher risks exist, metal enclosure accommodating the PVC
cables is considered necessary.

For larger cables, Cross-linked polyethylene, XLPE, is


considered to be a better insulating material than PVC. A
XLPE cable can also withstand higher temperature, and
therefore has a higher current rating than a PVC cable of the
same size. In the past, XLPE is significantly more expensive.
Now the cost is moving down. Thus more and more installations
use XLPE cables, especially for larger cables in the communal
installation of a building. XLPE are quite inflexible and hence
may not be suitable for cable routes with many bends.
Mechanical protection requirement is the same as that for PVC
cables.

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Metal sheath or metal armour provide much tougher protection


by themselves on any surface, or even at trenches and
underground.

Except for cables x-sect. not exceeding 2.5 sq.mm., conductors


are usually, but not definitely, stranded; i.e. each cable
conducting material is in a bunch of cores.

The general numbers of strands are 3, 7, 19, 37, 61,


Cables that carry an protective conductor is also available.

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Recall:

SHORT-CIRCUIT CAPACITY

Recall: The constraint of short-circuit capacity of a cable is


bounded by
Let through energy

I2 t K2 S2
constant cross-sectional
for a given
area
cable type

short-cct
current

time

All of them are + ve


quantities

Knowing I fault current, t operating time, and K


thermal constant of the specified conductor, then work for S.
You may either treat S as an unknown, or substitute a S
value into the condition to test its feasibility.
Values of K and reference fault levels are available in BS7671
and CoP respectively.
Operating times are observed by I-t curves.
Energy let through is obtained from I2 t tables.
Operating Temperature is the temperature at which the
conductor is utilizing its full current carrying capacity
(full-load). At this temperature, the conductor can perform
without deterioration. This is also the initial temperature we
shall assume for fault and Energy-let-through calculation.
The final limiting temperature is the temperature which the
conductor can withstand for a short time. Beyond this
temperature the conductor shall deform instantly.
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PVC, max. continuous


operating temp. 70 C

XLPE, max. continuous


operating temp. 90 C

K = 115

K = 143

Busbars in Switchboard

K = 159

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From IEE Wiring Regulations/ BS7671. Similar Tables availble at CoP Table
11(2).

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Current-carrying Capacity
Let

IL

current of total load

Ib

design current (i.e. IL diversity)

In

nominal rating of protective device

Iz

effective current carrying-capacity of cable

Ita

feasible (or tabulated) current carrying-capacity of cable

Their relationships are :


Ib

IL diversity factor of load (see table 7(1) of COP)

Ib

In

Iz

To determine Iz :
Including type of protective device, there are 8 factors which must be
taken into consideration. They are :
i)
type of protective device (Cf = 1 or 0.725)
ii)

method of installation (In general, we group similar


methods in the same category, and assume they are
equivalent. In particular cases, we use Cm as correction
factor)

iii)

type of cable

iv)

no. of phases

v)

a.c. or d.c.

vi)

grouping of cable ( Cg )

vii)

ambient temperature ( Ca )

viii)

thermal insulation ( Ci )

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CORRECTION FACTORS
Let Ca, Cg, Ci, 0.725 be the correction factors for the
current-carrying capacity of cable, then

Iz

In
Cf Ca Cg Ci

Apply other correction factors if applicable.

Note that although the correction factors are for the cable, the
solution is worked from the nominal rating (or current setting) of the
protective device.
Then from the appropriate table and column in IEE Regulations or
COP, or otherwise, find Ita I z ,
The corresponding conductor size is the lower bound in respect of
this requirement.
Since
Ita

Iz
we use Ita instead of Iz in the equations from now on.
Please also read ii) to note an additional correction factor for the
current.

i) Type of protective device


No correction is required for MCB, MCCB, ACB, IDMTL relay
and HRC fuse as we assume that the fusing faster of each is less
than 1.45. (i.e. Cf = 1)

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However, fusing factor of semi-enclosed fuse is 2.


I2 1.45 Iz

2 In

1.45 Iz

In 0.725 Iz

i.e. Cf = 0.725

For semi-enclosed fuse only

or

I ta

In
0.725 Ca Cg Ci

ii) Method of installation


20 typical methods of installation are specified.
In general, we group similar methods in the same category,
and assume they are equivalent.
Different columns of a table for each type of cable are used to
differentiate the change in current carrying capacity. For
installation methods 1 to 17, no correction factor is required.
For installation methods 18 to 20, current carrying capacities
are obtained by treating them as methods 12 or 13 as
appropriate, but with suitable correction factors applied.
These correction factors Cm are additional to the Ca, Cg, Ci,
Cf, Ct factors, and are obtainable from TABLE A5(6).

iii) Type of cable


Different tables are provided for different types of cables, no
correction factor is required.

iv)
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Number of phases
Refer to different columns in tables

v) a.c. or d.c.
Refer to different columns in tables

vi) Grouping [ Table A5(3) ]


When Cables are grouped or bunched in the same route.
They are very close to each other, and thus shall affect heat
dissipation. A correction factor Cg is required.

vii) Ambient temperature [ Table A5(1) ]


More energy is required to raise a cable to its maximum
permissible temperature when the ambient temperature is
lowered. The opposite is also true.
Therefore, an ambient temperature factor Ca is required.
Values of the factors are different for different installation
methods.
viii) Thermal insulation
Where a cable is to be run for a significant length in a space to
which thermal insulation is likely to be applied, the cable
shall wherever practicable be fixed in a position such that it
will not be covered by the thermal insulation. Where fixing in
such a position is impracticable, the current-carrying
capacity of the cable shall be appropriately reduced, i.e. a
thermal insulation factor Ci is required.
For full insulation 0.4 m, Ci
shorter insulations.

0.55. Smaller values for

Refer to C.O.P. Appendix 5(3) and Table A5(4)


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Correction for current carrying capacities (single


& group)
(1) Where overload protection is by fuse to BS 88 or BS
1361 or a MCCB or MCB:

a) for single circuits


In
I ta

Ca Ci

b) for groups
i) circuits may be simultaneously overloaded
In
I ta

Ca Cg Ci

ii) circuits which are not liable to simultaneous


overload
1 Cg2

I ta

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I n2 + 0.48 Ib2 (

Ib
Ca Cg Ci

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Cg2

Ca Ci

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(2) Where overload protection is by semi-enclosed fuse


to BS 3036:
a) for single circuits
I ta

In

0.725 Ca Ci

b) for groups
i) circuits liable to simultaneous overload
I ta

In

0.725 Ca Cg Ci

ii) circuits not liable to simultaneous overload


1 Cg2

I ta

(3)

1.9I n2 + 0.48 Ib2 (

Ib
larger

Ca Cg Ci

Cg2

Ca Ci

Where overload protection is omitted:


i.e. where IEE Regulation 473-01-04 applies
I ta

Ib
Ca Cg Ci

Variation of installation conditions along a cable route


Where various factors apply to different parts of the route, each part
shall be treated separately, or alternatively only the factor or
combination of factors appropriate to the most onerous conditions
encountered along the route shall be applied to the whole of the
route.

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Voltage Drop
Maximum permissible voltage drop at receiving end is 4% of the
nominal voltage.
i.e. If nominal voltage of 3-phase 4-wire installation is 380 V / 220V
Max permissible voltage drop is 8.8V for phase-voltage,
and is 15.2V for line voltage.
Voltage drop is a cable
= current in the cable impedance of the cable
( V drop =

Z cable

Ib

Z cable )

f (temp, material, x-sect area, length)

Voltage drops per ampere per metre are given in tables A6 of COP.
Note resistive parts are affected by temperatures of conductors.
O/C protective device BS 3036 fuse
ambient temp 30

When

Correction for operating temperature (for voltage drop)


t1

Ib2
= t p (Ca Cg
) (t p 30)
Ita2
2

where

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230 + t1

Resistivity at t1
Resistivity at tp

230 + t p

= Reduction Factor

Design mV/A/m

Tabulated mV/A/m

= Ct

Adjust Resistive component by


2

230 + t p (Ca Cg
=

Ct

Ib2
) (t p 30)
Ita2

230 + t p

When conductor 16 mm2


Then with correction for volt drop,
(mV/A/m) actual = C t (mV/A/m) tabulated
When conductor > 16 mm2
then

(mV/A/m)r actual

= C t (mV/A/m)r tabulated

is unaffected by temp

mV/A/m x

When conductor is very large

such that

x
r

3,

no correction is required.

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Correction for load power factor ( for voltage drop )


When conductor 16 mm2
Apply

Cp =

[ i.e. (mV/A/m) actual

cos

= cos (mV/A/m) tabulated ]

When conductor > 16 mm2


(mV/A/m) actual = cos (mV/A/m)r tabulated + sin (mV/A/m)x tabulated
not for
cables in flat formation
x-area > 240 mm2
& p.f. > 0.8

Combined correction for both operating temperature and


load power factor
When conductor 16 mm2
combined correction = C t cos
When conductor > 16 mm2
(mV/A/m) actual = C t cos(mV/A/m)r tabulated + sin(mV/A/m)x tabulated

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For calculation of the impedance,


Assume:
2
For conductors 16 mm , assume resistive only.
Source impedance independent of temperature when
specific parameters not known.
Using tables for cable ratings/sizes, we may obtain per
length impedance from taking a half of tabulated mV/A/m
values with temperature adjustments. The reason for
taking a half is because the length in table refers to circuit
length, but for resistance/impedance, we talk about
conductor length.
That is:

Resistance in mV at txoC is given by

Tabulated mV/A/m
2

230 + tx
230 + tp

)x

length in m

Conversely, knowing other parameters may permit us to


calculate size of protective conductor.
Conductor resistances at 20C in milliohms/metre (from Electrical Installation
calculations)
Copper
Aluminium
X-sectional area mm2
1
18.1
1.5
12.1
2.5
7.41
4
4.61
6
3.08
10
1.83
16
1.15
1.91
25
0.727
1.2
35
0.524
0.868
Multipliers to be applied for protective conductor:
70C pvc 1.24 + 0.002ta 85C rubber 1.36 + 0.002ta
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XLPE 1.42 + 0.002ta


p 167

From: Guidelines on Energy Efficiency of Electrical Installations, 2007 page 16 of 35


TABLE 4.2B
Single-core PVC/XLPE Non-armoured Cables, with or without sheath (Copper Conductor)
Conductor Resistance at 50 Hz Single-phase or Three-phase a.c.

(Based on BS7671, Requirements for Electrical Installations, Table 4D1B & 4E1B)

Conductor
crosssectional

Conductor resistance for PVC and XLPE cable


in milliohm per metre (m/m)

area (mm2)
PVC cable at max. conductor
XLPE cable at max. conductor
operating temperature of
operating temperature of 90C
70C
Enclosed in

Clipped

Enclosed in

Clipped

conduit/trunking

direct or

conduit/trunking

direct or

on tray,

on tray,

touching

touching

1.5

14.5

14.5

15.5

15.5

2.5

9.5

9.5

5.5

5.5

3.65

3.65

3.95

3.95

10

2.2

2.2

2.35

2.35

16

1.4

1.4

1.45

1.45

25

0.9

0.875

0.925

0.925

35

0.65

0.625

0.675

0.675

50

0.475

0.465

0.5

0.495

70

0.325

0.315

0.35

0.34

95

0.245

0.235

0.255

0.245

120

0.195

0.185

0.205

0.195

150

0.155

0.15

0.165

0.16

185

0.125

0.12

0.135

0.13

240

0.0975

0.0925

0.105

0.1

300

0.08

0.075

0.0875

0.08

400

0.065

0.06

0.07

0.065

500

0.055

0.049

0.06

0.0525

630

0.047

0.0405

0.05

0.043

800

0.034

0.036

1000

0.0295

0.0315

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Steps for Determination of Cable Size


1.

Determine Ib and its electrical properties

2.

Determine In

3.

Choose protection device

4.

Determine cable route and circuit length

5.

Determine method of installation

6.

Determine type of cable

7.

Work out ambient temperature

8.

Check thermal insulation

9.

Determine Iz

10.

Check short-circuit capacity, select cable size -- S1

11.

Select cable size ( by looking at Ita in tables ) --

12.

Check voltage drop, select cable size -- S3

13.

Check if there is a minimum size requirement -- S4

14.

S max [ S1, S2, S3, S4 ]

If

S1 =
S2 =
S3 =

size of cable calculated from short-circuit capacity


size of cable calculated from continuous loading consideration
size of cable calculated from volt-drop consideration

S4 =

minimum according to mechanical, ambient, purpose consideration

the size of cable which should be selected is


given by:

then

S max

S2

S1, S2, S3, S4

Alternatively, find S1 first, and then test it against volt drop and I
requirement.

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NEUTRAL CONDUCTOR
Make & break:
Makes before the phase conductors
Breaks after the phase conductors
or simultaneously make and break
No switch (unless inherently linked) nor fuse shall be connected in
neutral conductors, including those of control circuits.
Size of neutral depends on
a) neutral current, how balancing the phase currents is;
b) fault level of phase to neutral fault;

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Overcurrent protection of neutral conductor is


a) by the protective devices in phase conductors if size of neutral
conductor is not less than that of a phase conductor;
b) by the protective devices in phase conductors if load is shared
evenly by the 3 phases and the neutral conductor can meet the
let through energy requirement;
c) by its own protective device if a) & b) are not met. But the
protective device should also disconnect phase conductors.

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Circuit Arrangement of Neutral Conductors


a) Neutral conductor of a single phase circuit should not be
shared with any other circuit.
b) Neutral conductor of a three phase circuit should only be
shared with its related phases in a three phase four wire
system.
c) For a polyphase circuit, the neutral conductor should have a
suitable current carrying capacity to cater for any imbalance
or harmonic currents which may occur in normal services.
(Note that Triplen harmonics cannot be cancelled by each
other in 3-phase 4-wire systems. Nowadays much harmonic is
generated from electronic non-linear loads)
d) Where an autotransformer is connected to a circuit having a
neutral conductor, the common terminal of the winding
should be connected to the neutral conductor.

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Capacity of conduit & trunking


Main purpose of conduit and trunking is for mechanical protection.
Conduits are for small cables only, and trunking can be for both
small and medium cables.
Methods to determine their sizes are fully discussed in Code 14 of
C.O.P.
1) by comparing sum of cable factors with conduit & trunking
factors
2) space factor 45%
For conduits, two sets of tables are available,
one is for short straight run,
the other is for long run (straight or with bends)
Space Factor is:
The ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the sum of the overall
cross-sectional areas of cables (including insulation and any sheath)
to the internal cross-sectional area of the conduit or other cable
enclosure in which they are installed. The effective overall
cross-sectional area of a non-circular cable is taken as that of a circle
of diameter equal to the major axis of the cable.

Space
factor

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Example of Cable Size for discussion


A three-phase circuit has a 3-phase full load of 20 A, (36 + j15) A and (20 j15) A.
The end of the circuit is connected to a distribution board that distributes electricity to
its loads. The distribution board has an exposed conductive part. The circuit is
controlled and protected by a moulded case circuit breaker (MCCB) at its origin, with
its main earth terminal installed adjacent to this switch. Other information of the
circuit is as follows:

Earthing system:
T-T
Supply voltage:
380/220 volts
Supply frequency:
50 Hz
Ambient temperature:
20C to 35 C
Length of circuit:
50 metres
MCCB instantaneous operation time:
0.02 s.
Min. magnetic trip current for MCCB: 10 times its setting (10 In)
Highest fault level in the circuit:
6.6 MVA
Voltage drop measured at MCCB:
1.2 volt
Earth loop impedance measured at
earth terminal beside the MCCB:
0.1 ohm
Cables for the circuit:
single core XLPE cable to BS 5467
Wiring method:
in trunking

Determine:
a) the desirable current rating and breaking capacity of the MCCB;
b) the maximum permissible earth fault loop impedance;
c) the correction factors for current carrying capacity of the cables;
d) whether 10 sq,mm. is a desirable size of the live conductors;
e) whether 6 sq.mm. is a desirable size of the protective conductors;
f) the earth fault loop impedance after selection of conductors;
g) the fault current that flows in an earth fault;
h) the touch voltage at the distribution board;
State all your assumptions.

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ANSWER:
a)

Given, max current in a phase (phase L2) = 36 + j15 A or 39 /22.6 A


Therefore, In = 50 A (or a current not less than 39A)
Given fault level = 6.6 MVA, and system voltage = 380/220V
Fault level in terms of current

(6600/3/220)

10kA

Breaking capacity must be larger than fault current, which is 10 kA.


(Note: In real design, we should practically balance the loads.)
b)

Max. permissible earth fault loop impedance is the impedance that shall produce an
earth fault current just enough to break the circuit within the max. tolerable time (in
this case 5 sec.) by the selected protective device.
Assume the instantaneous trip of MCCB occurs at I 10 In .
Max permissible earth fault loop impedance = 220 V / 10 x 50 A =

c)

0.44

Given max amb. temp = 35 C. Assuming no grouping and no thermal insulation,


Factors: Ca = 0.96, Cg = 1,

Ci = 1,

Correction factors for volt drop are to be discussed as part of d).


d)

* Consider short cct capacity,


With I = 10 kA, K = 143, t = 0.02 s,
(You should refer to the t provided by manufacturer. We take this as 0.02 s as
MCCBs are current limiting devices nowadays.)
Substituting values into boundary condition I2 t = K2 S2
Smallest acceptable S = 9.89 mm2 Cu 3-ph cable
Choosing 10 mm2 Cu cable is acceptable.
*

Consider current carrying capacity,


Ca = 0.96,

Cg = 1,

Ci = 1,

In = 50 A
min Ita = In / (0.96 x 1 x 1) = 52.1 A
Assume cables are in trunking
From Table, cable 10 mm2 Cu is acceptable.
Therefore 10 mm2 Cu cable is OK.
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Consider volt drop,


1st method:
assume 10 mm2 Cu cable (taken from above). We assume a
size first because this data is required for calculating the temp correction
factor.
tp = 90oC,

Ib = 36 + j15 A (39A), p.f. = 0.923

Take max volt drop = 4% x 220 V = 8.8 V


From table,
Volt drop (3-phase) per A per m = 4.0 mV (Note for 1-phase, it would be 4.7
mV). None of them is perfect, as the loads are unbalanced three-phase.
If no exact calculation is preferred, then play safe and use 1-phase value.
Without temp and p.f. correction, and no voltage vector adjustment,
Volt drop from source = (39 x x 4.7 x 50 mV) + (1.2 V)
= 9.17V + 1.2V

10.37 V.

Its larger than 8.8 V!!


Note 1: Please note that the 4% volt drop is measured from nominal. Thus volt drop
in the up-stream must also be taken into account.
Note 2: There are two voltage drop correction factors: temperature and power
factor. Since both voltage drop correction factors are not larger than 1 (unless the
ambient temp is low), thus when the calculation does not take the voltage drop
correction factors into account, the calculated volt drop value without correction
may be larger than actual voltage drop value which has taken correction factors
into account. Hence applying voltage drop correction factors may give us an
opportunity to select a smaller cable size, or similarly, not to select a larger cable
size.
If the total voltage drop without correction factors (and also the unbalanced
condition in Note 4) does not exceed 8.8 volt for the selected size, then we can stop
calculation, and consider voltage drop is acceptable.
Note 3: When the total voltage drop exceeds permissible voltage drop, dont
immediately assume that the cable size is unacceptable. Apply correction factors to
check whether the corrected volt drop is within the limit. When the drop still
exceeds the limit, engineers should change the cable to a larger size.
Note 4: Moreover, when load currents in 3-phases are unbalanced, the largest
voltage drop occurs at the phase having the largest current. Its exact volt drop is
obtained by the volt drop along its line conductor, plus the volt drop along the
neutral conductor. The volt drop along the neutral conductor is calculated by the
combined neutral current.
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Since volt drop > 8.8 V, then we have to rethink the aforesaid volt-drop by
one of the following:
i)

The easiest way is to try larger size: 16 sq.mm. Students may try it and
show that mathematically it will be OK.

ii)

Calculate exact volt drop by considering phase 2 current and neutral


current separately. Then work out their respective volt drops. The total
volt drop is their sum plus 1.2 volt (VECTOR sum).
Also, Work out temp correction, and p.f. correction,
Combining the above and see whether the corrections may lower the
above calculated volt drop to smaller than 8.8 volts.

Correction factors of the phases:


Ct (phase L1) = [230 + 90 [(0.962) 202/632)(90 30)]/ (230 + 90) = 0.846
Ct (phase L2) = [230 + 90 [(0.962) 392/632)(90 30)]/ (230 + 90) = 0.899
Ct (phase L3) = [230 + 90 [(0.962) 252/632)(90 30)]/ (230 + 90) = 0.856
(It is obvious that the higher the current, the larger the correction factor)
Apply the largest factor, i.e. the factor of L2-phase, when we do not wish to
calculate phase by phase.
Using, Ct (L2) = [230 + 90 [(0.962) 392/632)(90 30)]/ (230 + 90) = 0.899
And p.f. 0.923
Then with both temp and pf corrections,
Volt drop = 39 x (0.899 x 0.923) x 4.7 x 50 mV + 1.2 V = 8.8 V
which is just acceptable.
(Note that in 3-phase, by considering volt drop due to phase current and
neutral current separately will show a value even smaller than 7.6 V because
neutral current is often smaller (Note 5).)
Since the voltage drop in its up-stream does not exceed 1.2 V. (assume same
p.f. at upstream and downstream), Choosing 10 mm2 Cu cable is acceptable.
Note 5: For using volt drop values in tables, engineers must clearly understand the
difference between 3-phase volt-drop values and those for 1-phase. The Volt-Drop
Considerations and Tolerances are different. 1-phase V-drop is 4% of 220 V and
3-phase is 4% of 380V..
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p 177

2nd method:

Alternatively, assume the size of cable is an unknown,

To start with, as earlier alternative, use 1-phase value,


Permissible volt drop per A per m = (8.8 1.2) V / 39A/ 50m
=

3.90 mV

Thus any cable size giving a volt drop per A per m less than 3.90mV is acceptable.
Therefore from table, 16 mm2 Cu cable is OK.
Again, for marginal consideration, the correction factors may help our
consideration to save cable size. And indeed 10 mm2 Cu cable can be used.
Compare the cables sizes by the three considerations (current carrying capacity;
volt drop; & short-cct capacity), take maximum value (10 mm2, 10 mm2, 10 mm2,
also compare min. size for mech protection)
Choose 10 mm2 Cu cable. Existing cable size is acceptable.
e) Consider size of protective conductor is 6 mm2 Cu cable,
For simplicity of calculation, we take no temperature adjustment (But temp
adjustment gives more accurate and appropriate result, unless you allow
tolerance consideration in choosing the size),
Resistivity of c.p.c.(approx from table) = 7.9/2 = 3.95 m-ohm/m
Resistivity of live conductor.(approx from table) = 4.7/2 = 2.35 m-ohm/m
Earth fault loop impedance = 0.1 + (3.95 + 2.35) x 50 / 1000 = 0.415 ohm
For Max permissible earth fault loop impedance consideration:
The max. value is 0.44 ohm,
thus 0.415 ohm is acceptable.
Min earth fault current = 220/0.415 = 530 A
Max earth fault current = 220/0.1 = 2200 A
For Energy-Let-Through consideration:
Check energy-let-thru condition by the max E/F current (Assume using XLPE
cable, K = 143)
S = 2.18 mm2 Cu cable
Choose 6 mm2 Cu cable as protective conductor is acceptable, (or any size
not less than 2.18 mm2 Cu cable)
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For Touch Voltage consideration:


IEF to effect 5 sec operation = 10 times In = 10 x 50 A
Max Z loop

Max Z protective =

220 V/ 500 A

500 A

0.44

(50 / 220) x Max Z loop = 0.1

Compare with Z protective of 6 mm2 Cu cable = (3.95) x 50 / 1000 = 0.1975


Which is larger than 0.1 , hence not acceptable.
A larger protective conductor is required.
Choose 16 mm2 Cu cable as protective conductor.
Check Z protective of 16 mm2 Cu cable = (2.9/2) x 50 / 1000 = 0.0725
This is now acceptable.
Thus, take all things into consideration, choose 16 mm2 Cu cable as protective
conductor.
f)

Using 16 mm2 Cu cable as protective conductor, and consider the circuit end,
Earth fault loop impedance = 0.1 + (2.9/2 + 4.7/2) x 50 / 1000 = 0.29 ohm
which is less than max permissible Z-loop 0.44 ohm.

g)

Earth fault current is between


Min. current =

220/0.29

Max. current = 220/0.1

758.6 A

2200 A

Use min. current to determine actual touch voltage.


Use max. current to verify size.
h)

Inside the equipotential zone,


Touch voltage at exposed conductive part between the limb and the
distribution board = 759 A x c.p.c. resistance = 759 x 0.0725
=

55 V

(Even with the high touch voltage calculated as above exceeds 50V, it is still safe.
Check the touch voltage curves, a touch voltage of 55 V should not harm persons
under protection by MCCB operating at 0.02 sec.)

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Note that persons outside the fault zone may also receive a touch voltage.
Assume earth resistance of installation is half of the up-stream earth fault loop
impedance.
Touch voltage = 759 x earth resistance
= 759 x (0.1/2) =

37.9 V

This is less than 50 V, thus acceptable for T-T system with MCCB.
0.1/2 ohm is based on assumption that the upstream protective conductor plus
an earth resistance contributed half of the earth fault loop impedance at the
origin.)
As touch voltage is acceptable, thus the size of protective conductor is
acceptable.

Where the question also asks for accommodation of cables, then either:
1) Use the Cable Factor Method
Adding up the cable factors of all the cables in the enclosure;
Compare to check which enclosure has a enclosure factor not less than this
sum of cable factors;
Then this enclosure is the minimum size of enclosure to accommodate the
cables.
2) Use the Space Factor Method
Calculate the cross-sectional area of each cable including its insulation/
sheath;
Add up all the cross-sectional areas;
Divide the sum by 0.45 to get the minimum cross-sectional area of the
enclosure.

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