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2000

years ago, the ancient Greeks,


everything made of 4 elements. Wind was
not one of them.
1661- Robert Boyle, an element was a
substance that couldnt be broken down in a
chemical reaction. Seen as the start of
modern chemistry.
1789- Antoine Lavoisier, made a detailed list
of substances that he believed were
elements. 33 elements grouped metals, non
metals.
1820- Jakob Berzelius, changed the
geometric patterns used as chemical
symbols to letters. Also combined his current
knowledge into one system.
1829- Johann Dobereiner discovered that 3
elements with similar properties and named
them triads. Helped, atomic patterns to be
discovered.
1864 John Newlands, every eighth element
had similar properties, thought it was like
octaves in music. Was not taken seriously.
1869- Dmitri Meneleev, creator, He put the
names of the 63 elements that he knew on
cards and rearranged them into similar
properties. He also had holes of 21 elements
(1 shows accuracy) in his periodic tables,
undiscovered elements.
1894 William Ramsay used new technology
to discover argon. Refrigeration to liquefy.
1913- Henry Mosely, Elements have
properties that recur or repeat according to
their atomic number. X-rays, find atomic
numbers of element
1940- Nuclear processes, heavy elements
were made such as Neptunium and
Plutonium.

Rows are called periods. The atomic number
increases by one as you across, shows shells.
Columns are called groups, similar
properties, and shows us the amount of
valence electrons.
Neurons- NO CHARGE (nucleus)
Protons positively charged (nucleus)
Electrons Negatively charged (shell)
The nucleus makes up almost all of the mass
but none of its volume.
Bohr found that electrons are located in
shells as close as possible to the nucleus. The
closer the shells are the electrons are
considered more stable because they have
lower energy levels.
The outermost shell is called the valence
shell. The valence electrons are most
important as they are involved with
chemical reactions.

Metals: are Lustrous (shiny)
Able to conduct heat and electricity.
Malleable (able to be beaten into new
shape)
Ductile (able to be drawn into a wire)
Group 1: Alkali Metals, highly reactive,
further down the group. Low melting point.
Resemble Plasticine in pure state. Act very
violently when reacting with water. 1
electron in valence shell.
Group 2: similar to group 1, but less reactive
and 2 valence electrons.
Transition Metals: A small number are
magnetic, form coloured compounds, only
Gold and Copper are not silver in colour.

Metalloids: Conduct electricity like the metals.


Three of the metalloids are semiconductors
that conduct electricity in a certain way under
certain conditions. Silicon and Germanium are
used in electronic devices.
Non-Metals: are not Lustrous (shiny), not
ductile (easily manipulated), a small number
of non metals are coloured; some are brittle.
Non metals have large melting points and
boiling points. Many are gases at room
temperature and bromine is the only liquid.
Halogens: Group 17, have 7 electrons in the
valence shell, they react with metals to form
salts, some have bleaching properties. As you
go down the groups the less reactive, opposite
to metals. Fluorine is the most reactive.
The Noble Gases: Group 18, have 8 electrons
in the valence shell. Helium has 2. All shells
are full making these elements unreactive and
stable.

Emission Spectrum: When atoms are heated
the electrons gain extra energy and jump
from their shell to the next outer shell the
electrons are said to be excited. This state is
unstable so the electrons jump back- to their
normal shell almost instantly. Every jump
releases a certain amount of energy in form
of light of particular wave length.
Element Fingerprint: Each element produces a
different spectrum because the value of energy
for the electrons are different for each element.
Electron Configuration:
2,6 oxygens electron configuration.
2 2
4
Or 1s 2s 2p
2,8,4 Silicons electron configuration
2 2
6
2
2
or 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p

Ions:
Example: Oxygen need to gain 2 electrons to
-2
be stable so its negatively charged. O .
Calcium need to loose 2 electrons to be stable
+2
so its positively charged. Ca .
Ionic Compounds:
When a non metal and a metal combine to
gain stability. A ion with a +2 charge is likely to
react with a ion with a -2 charge.















A lot of energy is needed to break an ionic
bond as the electrostatic forces are extremely
strong. Meaning Ionic Compounds are hard to
melt. Table Salt NaCl melts at a really high
temperature.

Polyatomic Ions:
When a number of ions are made up of more
than one atom. Same method though.
Example Calcium Carbonate





Example Ammonium Carbonate





Electrons and Electricity: Metals are good
conductors of electricity as they dont have
many electrons in the outer shell, and these
electrons are easily moved.
A substance will only conduct electricity if
contains charged particles that can move
around freely. These charged particles are
delocalised electrons because they are not
stuck in one locality. These electrons cause a
metal to be shiny.


All metals conduct electricity at a solid state,
while Ionic Compounds only conduct
electricity at molten state.

Covalent Bonding: Is between two non
metals, which are to the right of the periodic
table. This is when electrons are shared to
gain stability
Covalent bonding either results in a diatomic
molecule or a molecular compound.
2
2
2
Examples of Diatomic Molecules: H , Li , Cl
Examples of Molecular Compounds: CO2, H2O
These Molecular Compounds do not conduct
electricity, because molecules are uncharged
and are unable to carry a current. They are
easily separated.

C02







2
F






CH4






Decomposition Reactions:
Decomposition Reactions are the breakdown
of compounds into similar compounds.
Either Elements or more similar compounds.
Thermal Decomposition uses heat to provide
energy for a reaction.


Electrolytic decomposition or Electrolysis


uses electricity to provide energy for this
reaction


Combustion:
Is a fast reaction with oxygen. The reaction
releases light energy and heat energy, which
may be seen as flame. Combustion is a type of
Oxidation reaction, so is Respiration.


Polymers and Plastics:
Giant Molecules are called Polymers. These
are made by combining smaller molecules, to
make a long chain on molecules. The small
molecules being placed under reaction
conditions (specific temperature and/or
pressure) that encourage them to join
together in a chain reaction to form giant
molecules that can contain thousands of
atoms.
Proteins, DNA and cellulose are natural
Polymers.
Polythene is (C 2 H 4),
Monomer + Monomer = Polymer

Precipitation Reactions:
A precipitation reaction refers to the formation
of an insoluble salt when two solutions
containing soluble salts are combined. The
insoluble salt that falls out of solution is known
as the precipitate, hence the
reaction's name. Precipitation reactions can help
determine the presence of various ions in
solution.

2 Solutions make a Solid. They must be ionic


substances.


Displacement: Displacement reaction is a
chemical reaction in which a more reactive
element displaces a less reactive element from
its compound. Both metals and non-metals take
part in displacement reactions. Reaction of
iron nails with copper sulfate solution.

Combination: A combination reaction is a
reaction in which two reactants combine to
form one product.
Oxygen and the halogens are very reactive
elements and are likely to undergo combination
reactions with other elements. When a metal
undergoes a combination reaction with oxygen,
a metal oxide is formed (similarly, a metal
halide is formed if reacted with one of the
halogens). You see the products of this type of
reaction whenever you see rust.

Neutralization: Neutralization is a type of
chemical reaction in which a strong acid and
strong base react with each other to form water
and salt. A salt is formed when a cation
(positive ion) of an acid forms a compound with
the anion (negative ion) of a base. The
neutralization of a strong acid and a strong base
results in a solution with a pH of 7 (neutral pH).

Surface area: If there are small grains, with a
large surgace area, then the reaction rate will
be faster Concentration: The more dilute a
solution, the slower the reaction rate Heat or
temperature: Reactants with more heat (at a
higher temperature) react faster than
reactants with less heat (at a lower
temperature) or if reactants have a higher
temperature, they will react quicker. This is
because the particles in a hot gas have more
kinetic energy, and move faster, than the
particles in a cold gas. Faster moving particles
will collide more often because they travel
further in the same time as a cold particle.

Mixing or stirring: Reactants that are mixed
by stirring will react faster than reactants that
are not mixed Adding a catalyst: Adding a
catalyst increases the reaction rate and a
catalyst can be recovered and used again. A
catalyst is a substance that speeds up a
chemical reaction but is not used up in the
reaction. Catalysts work in many different
ways such as a solid catalyst, providing a
surface on which the reaction can occur,
poisoning catalysts where the catalyst cannot
work to its full potential due to the impurity
and taking part in a reaction and being
regenerated later.

Enzymes: An enzyme is a catalyst made and
used in living cells. Enzymes play an important
part in all cellular processes. All the reactions
that occur inside a cell are helped along by
these catalysts. There are numerous enzymes
in our bodies to help speed up reaction rates.
For example, enzymes in the digestive system
help break down food. Enzymes only work
with specific reactants and so will only
catalyze certain reactions.