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TORTS AND DAMAGES

c/o Atty. Randolph A. Pascasio


COURSE OUTLINE
I.

CONCEPT OF TORTS; HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF PHILIPPINE LAW ON


TORTS
Sangco, pp. XXXI to XLV, pp. 1 to 10
Aquino, pp. 1 to 10

II.

THE CONCEPT OF QUASI-DELICT


A.

Elements
Article 2176, CC
Barredo vs. Garcia, 73 Phil 607
Elcano vs. Hill, 77 SCRA 98
Cinco vs. Canonoy, 90 SCRA 369
Baksh vs. CA, 219 SCRA 115
Dulay vs. CA, 243 SCRA 220 (1995)
Garcia vs. Florido, 52 SCRA 420
Andamo vs. IAC, 191 SCRA 195
Taylor vs. Manila Electric Company, 16 Phil 8
Tayag vs. Alcantara, 98 SCRA 723

B.

Distinctions
1.

Quasi-delict v. Delict
Article 2177, CC
Article 365, RPC
Aquino, pp 24-26
I Sangco, pp. 115-120
Barredo vs. Garcia, 73 Phil 607
Padilla vs. CA, 129 SCRA 558
Cruz vs. CA, 282 SCRA
Philippine Rabbit vs. People, GR No. 147703 (2004)
People vs. Ligon, 152 SCRA 419 (1987)

2.

Quasi-delict v. Breach of contract


Articles 1170-1174, CC
Article 1174, CC
Article 2178, CC
Aquino, pp. 25-26
Cangco vs. Manila Railroad, 38 Phil 768
Fores vs. Miranda, 105 Phil 266
Far East vs. CA, 241 SCRA 671
Air France vs. Carrascoso, 18 SCRA 155
PSBA vs. CA, 205 SCRA 729
Syquia vs. CA, 217 SCRA 624
Calalas vs. Sunga, 332 SCRA 356 (2000)

III.

NEGLIGENCE
A.

Concept of Negligence
1.

Definition; Elements
Article 20, CC
Article 1173 CC
V. Tolentino, pp. 506-507
Picart vs. Smith, 37 Phil 809

2.

Standard of Conduct
2.1.

Ordinary prudent person


I Sangco, pp. 7-8

2.2

Special Cases
Children
Article 12, RPC & Comprehensive Juvenile Justice Law
II Sangco, pp. 7-8
Taylor vs. Manila Railroad, 16 Phil 8
Jarco Marketing vs. CA, GR No. 129792, 21 December 1999
Del Rosario vs. Manila, 57 Phil 478
Ylarde vs. Aquino, 163 SCRA 697
Experts/Professionals
Article 2187,CC
Culion vs. Philippine, GR No. 32611
US vs. Pineda, 37 Phil 456
BPI vs. CA, 216 SCRA 51
Intoxication
Wright vs. Manila Electric, 28 Phil 122
Insanity
Articles 2180, 2182, CC
US vs. Baggay, 20 Phil 142

B.

Degrees of Negligence

C.

Article 2231, CC
Marinduque Iron Mines Agents, Inc. v. Workmen's Compensation
Commission, G.R. No. L-8110, [June 30, 1956], 99 PHIL 480-486)
Proof of Negligence
1.

Burden of proof
Rule 131, Rules of Court (ROC)

2.

Presumption
Articles 2184-2185, 2188, 1734-1735, CC

3.

Res ipsa loquitur


Layugan vs. IAC, 167 SCRA 363
Ramos vs. CA, 321 SCRA 584
Batiquin vs. CA, 258 SCRA 334
DM Consunji vs. CA, 357 SCRA 249

D.

Defenses
1.

Plaintiffs Negligence
Article 2179, CC
Manila Electric vs. Remonquillo, 99 Phil 117 GR No. L-8328 (1956)
Bernardo vs. Legaspi, 29 Phil 12
Bernal vs. House, 54 Phil 327
PLDT vs. CA, GR No 57079, 178 SCRA 94 (September 29, 1989)

2.

Contributory Negligence
Articles 2179, 2214, CC
Genobiagon vs. CA, 178 SCRA 422
Rakes vs. Atlantic, GR No 1719 (1907)
Philippine Bank of Commerce vs. CA, 269 SCRA 695

3.

Fortuitous Event
Article 1174, CC
Juntilla vs. Funtanar, 136 SCRA 624
Hernandez vs. COA, 179 SCRA 39
Gotesco Investment vs. Chatto, 210 SCRA 18
Servando vs. Phil Steam, 117 SCRA 832
National Power vs. CA, GR Nos. 103442-45 (1993)
Southeastern College vs. CA, GR No. 126389, 292 SCRA 422 (July
10, 1998)

4.

Assumption of Risk
Afialda vs. Hisole, 85 Phil 67
Ilocos Norte Electric Co. v. CA, G.R. No. 53401, 06 November 1989,
179 SCRA 5

5.

Due diligence
Ramos vs. Pepsi, 19 SCRA 289
Metro Manila vs. CA, 223 SCRA 521

6.

Prescription
Kramer vs. CA, 178 SCRA 518
Allied Banking vs. CA, 178 SCRA 526

7.

Double recovery
Article 2177, CC

IV.

CAUSATION
A. Proximate Cause
1.

Definition
Bataclan vs. Medina, 102 Phil 181(L-10126) (1957)
Fernando vs. CA, 208 SCRA 714 (92087) (1992)
Urbano vs. IAC, 157 SCRA 1 (L-72964) (1988)
Phoenix Construction vs. IAC, 148 SCA 353 (L-652095) (1987)
Pilipinas Bank vs. CA, 234 SCRA 435 (105410) (1994)
Quezon City vs. Dacara, (150304) (June 15, 2005)

2.

Distinguished from other kinds


Remote
Gabeto vs. Araneta, 42 Phil 252 (15674) (1921)
Urbano vs. IAC, 157 SCRA 1 (L-72964) (1988)
Concurrent
Far East Shipping vs. CA, 297 SCRA 30 (130068) (1998)
Sabido vs. Custodio, L-21512 (Aug 31, 1966)

3.

Tests
But for
Bataclan vs. Medina, 102 Phil 181
Substantial Factor
Philippine Rabbit vs. IAC, 189 SCRA 158 (66102-04) (1990)
Cause v. Condition
Phoenix vs. IAC, supra
Manila Electric vs. Remoquillo, 99 Phil 117 (L-8328) (1956)
Rodrigueza vs. Manila Railroad Co, G.R. 15688, 19 November 1921

B.

Efficient Intervening Cause


McKee vs. IAC, 211 SCRA 517 (68102) (1992)
Manila Electric vs. Remoquillo, 99 Phil 117 (L-8328) (1956
Teague vs. Fernandez, 51 SCRA 181 (L-29745) (1973)
Urbano vs. IAC, 157 SCRA 1 (L-72964) (1988)

C.

Last Clear Chance


Aquino, pp. 311-329
Picart vs. Smith, 37 Phil 809
Bustamante vs. CA, 193 SCRA 603 (89880) (1991)
Phoenix vs. IAC, 148 SCA 353 (L-652095) (1987)
Glan vs. IAC, GR No. 70493 (May 18, 1989)
Pantranco vs. Baesa, 179 SCRA 384 (79050-51) (1989)
Philippine Bank of Commerce vs. CA, 269 SCRA 695 (97626) (1997)
Ong vs. Metropolitan, 104 Phil 397 (L-7664) (1958)
4

Anuran vs. Buno, (L-21353) (May 20, 1966)


Raynera vs. Hiceta, 306 SCRA 102 (April 21, 1999)
Canlas vs. CA, GR No 112160 (February 28 2000)
Consolidated Bank vs. CA, GR No 138569 (September 11, 2003)
Engada vs. CA, GR No. 140698 (June 20, 2003)
Allied Banking Corp. v. Bank of the Philippine Islands, G.R. No. 188363, 27
February 2013, 705 PHIL 174-188
V.

LIABILITY
A.

Possessor of Animals
Article 2183, CC
Vestil vs. IAC, 179 SCRA 47

B.

Things thrown or falling from a building


Article 2193, CC
Dingcong vs. Kanaan, 72 Phil 14

C.

Death/Injuries in the course of employment


Article 1711, CC cf 1712
Afable vs. Singer Sewing Machine, 58 Phil 39

D.

Strict Liability/Product Liability


Blacks Law Dictionary, 6th Edition, p. 142
Article 2187, CC
Articles 50 52, 97, 99, 106-107, Consumer Act
Sec. 11 RA 3720
II Sangco, pp. 714-734
Coca-cola vs. CA, 227 SCRA 293

E.

Interference With Contractual Relations


Article 1314, CC
Aquino, pp. 795-801
Gilchrist vs. Cuddy, 29 Phil 542
So Ping Bun vs. CA, (120554) (September 21, 1999)

F.

Liability of Local Government Units


Article 2189, CC
Guilatco vs. City of Dagupan, (61516) 171 SCRA 382

G.

Presumption of Negligence
Articles 2185, 2188, 2190 to 2193, Civil Code

VI.

PERSONS LIABLE

A.

The Tortfeasor
Articles 2176, 2181, 2184, 2194, CC
Worcester vs. Ocampo, (5932) 22 Phil 42 (1912)
Chapman vs. Underwood, (9010) 27 Phil 374 (1914)
Caedo vs. Yu Khe Thai, G.R. No. L-20392 (Dec 18 1968)
Rodriguez Luna vs. IAC, 135 SCRA 242 (1995)

B. Vicarious Liability
Quasi-tort Blacks Law Dictionary, 6th Edition, p.1489
Article 58 PD No. 603
Articles 216, 218- 219, 221, 236, FC
Articles 101-103, RPC
Sec. 6, RA 9344
Articles 2180 2182, CC
1.

Parents
Exconde vs. Capuno, (L-10134) 101 Phil 843 (1957)
Salen vs. Balce, (L-14414) 107 Phil 748 (1960)
Fuellas vs. Cadano, (L-14409) 3 SCRA 361 (1961)
Gutierrez vs. Gutierrez, (34840) 56 Phil 177 (1931)
Rodriguez-Luna vs. IAC, (L-62988) 135 SCRA 242 (1985)
Libi vs. IAC, (70890) 214 SCRA 16 (1990)
Tamargo vs. CA, (85044) 209 SCRA 518 (1992)
Cuadra vs. Monfort, 35 SCRA 160 (1970)

2.

Guardians
Articles 216 and 218, Family Code
Articles 2180-2181, CC

3.

Teachers and Heads of Institutions


Articles 218-219, FC
Article 2180, CC
Mercado vs. CA, (L-14342) 108 Phil 414 (1960)
Palisoc vs. Brillantes, (L-29025) 41 SCRA 548 (1971)
Amadora vs. CA, L-47745 (April 15, 1988)
Pasco vs.CFI, (L-54357) 160 SCRA 785 (1988)
Ylarde vs. Aquino, (L-33722) 163 SCRA 697 (1988)
Salvosa vs. IAC, (L-70458) 166 SCRA 274 (1988)
St Francis vs. CA, (82465) 194 SCRA 340 (1991)
PSBA vs. CA, 205 (84698) 205 SCRA 729 (1992)
Soliman vs. Tuazon, (66207) 209 SCRA 47 (1992)
St. Marys Academy vs. Carpitanos, (143363) (Feb 6 2002)

4.

Owners and Managers of Establishments


Philippine Rabbit vs. Phil American, (L-25142) 63 SCRA 231 (1975)

5.

Employers
Philtranco vs. CA, (120553) 273 SCRA 562 (1997)
Castilex vs. Vasquez, G.R. No. 132266 (Dec 211999)
Filamer vs. IAC, (75112) 212 SCRA 637 (1992)
6

NPC vs. CA, (119121) 294 SCRA 209 (1998)


Light Rail Transit vs. Navidad, (145804) 397 SCRA 75(2003)
Mckee vs. IAC, (68102) 211 SCRA 517 (1992)
Valenzuela vs. CA, (115024) 253 SCRA 303 (1996)
6.

State
Merrit vs. Government, (11154) 34 Phil 311 (1916)
Rosete vs. Auditor General, (L-1120) 81 Phil 453 (1948)
Mendoza vs. De Leon, (9596) 33 Phil 508 (1916)
Fontanilla vs. Maliaman, (55963) 194 SCRA 486 (1991)
Article 2189, CC
City of Manila vs. Teotico, (L-23052) 22 SCRA 267 (1968)
Republic vs. Palacio, 23 SCRA 899

C.

Others
Article 1723, CC
1.

Proprietors of Buildings
Articles 2190- 2192, CC

2.

Employees
Araneta vs. Joya, (L-25172) 57 SCRA 59 (1974)

3.
D.

Engineer/Architect

Nature of Liability: Joint or Solidary?


Lanuzo vs. Ping and Mendoza, 100 SCRA 205 (1980)
Malipol vs. Tan, 55 SCRA 202 (1974)
Viluan vs. CA, 17 SCRA 742

VII.

TORTS WITH INDEPENDENT CIVIL ACTION


A.

Violation of Civil and Political Rights


Article 32, CC
1 Sangco, pp. 228-255 (1993)
Delfin Lim vs. Ponce de Leon, G.R. No. L-22554 (1975)
Aberca vs. Ver, G.R. No. L-69866 (1988)
MHP Garments vs. CA, 236 SCRA 227

B.

Defamation, Fraud, Physical Injuries


Article 33, CC
Articles 353-359, RPC
Marcia vs. CA, 205 Phil 147
Madeja vs. Caro, 211 Phil 469
Arafiles vs. Phil Journalists, GR No 135306 (2004)
1.

Defamation

MVRS vs. Islamic, GR No 135306, 396 SCRA 210 (January 28, 2003)
2.

Fraud
Salta vs. De Veyra, 202 Phil 527

3.

Physical Injuries
Capuno vs. Pepsi Cola, G.R. No. L-19331 (1965)
Corpus vs. Paje, G.R. No. L-26737 (1969)
Madeja vs. Caro, supra
Dulay vs. CA, GR No 108017 (1995)

C.

Neglect of Duty
Article 34, CC

D.

Action for damages where no in independent civil action is provided


Article 35, CC

VIII.

INTENTIONAL TORTS
A.

Abuse of Rights
Article 19, CC
Velayo vs. Shell, 100 Phil 186
Saudi Arabia vs. CA, 297 SCRA 469
Globe Mackay vs. CA, 176 SCRA 778
Albenson vs. CA, G.R. No. 88694. January 11, 1993.
Amonoy vs. Gutierrez, 351 SCRA 731
UE vs. Jader, 325 SCRA 804 GR No 132344 (2000)
Garciano vs. CA, 212 SCRA 436
Barons Marketing vs.CA, 286 SCRA 96
BPI vs. CA, 296 SCRA 260

B.

Acts contra bonus mores


Article 21, CC
1.

Elements
Ruiz vs. Secretary, GR No. L-15526 (1963)

2.

Examples
a.

Breach of promise to marry, Seduction and Sexual Assault


Wassmer vs. Velez, 12 SCRA 648
Tanjanco vs. Santos, GR No L-18630 (1966)
Bunag vs. CA, 211 SCRA 441
Constantino vs. Medez, GR No 5722 (1992)
Quimiguing vs. Icao, 34 SCRA 132
Pe vs. Pe, GR No. L-17396 (1962)

b.

Malicious prosecution

Article 2219, CC
Aquino, pp. 384-391
Lao vs. CA, 325 SCRA 694
Que vs. IAC, 169 SCRA 137
Drilon vs. CA, 270 SCRA 211
c.

Public Humiliation
Patricio vs. Leviste, G.R. No. 51832 (1989)
Grand Union vs. Espino, G.R. No. L-48250 (1979)

d.

Unjust Dismissal
Singapore Airlines vs. Pao, 122 SCRA 671 (1983)
Medina vs. Castro-Bartolome, G.R. No. L-59825 (1982) 116
SCRA 597

IX.

OTHER TORTS
A.

Dereliction of Duty
Article 27, CC
Amaro vs. Samanguit, L-14986 July 31, 1962

B.

Unfair Competition
Article 28, CC
RA No. 10667 or the Philippine Competition Act

C.

Violation of Human Dignity and Privacy


Article 26, CC
St Louis vs. CA, GR No. L-46061 (1984), 133 SCRA 179 (November 14,
1984)
Concepcion vs. CA, GR No. 120706 (2000), 324 SCRA 85 (January 31,
2000)

X.

DAMAGES
A.

Definition and Concept


Aquino, pp. 842-843
Articles 2195, 2197, CC
People vs. Ballesteros, 285 SCRA 438
Custodio vs. CA, 253 SCRA 483
Heirs of Borlado vs. CA, G.R. 114118 (2001), 363 SCRA 753
Lazatin vs. Twano, 2 SCRA 842 (1961)
Mendoza v. Spouses Gomez, G.R. No. 160110, 18 June 2014
Damnum Absque Injuria
Aquino, pp. 843-845
Board of Liquidators vs. Heirs of Kalaw, 20 SCRA 987
Custodio vs. CA, supra

B.

Kinds of Damages
1.

Actual or Compensatory
Articles 2216, 2199, 2200, 205, CC
Algarra vs. Sandejas, 27 Phil 284
a.

Kinds
PNOC vs. CA, 297 SCRA 402
Integrated Packing vs. CA, 333 SCRA 170

b.

Extent
Articles 2201-2202, CC

c.

Certainty
DBP vs. CA, GR No. 118367 (1998)
Fuentes vs.CA, 323 Phil 508 (1996)

d.

Damage to property
PNOC vs.CA, supra

e.

Personal Injury and Death


Article 2206, CC
Ramos vs. CA, G.R. No. 124354 (1999), 380 SCRA 467 (April
11, 2002)
Gatchalian vs. Delim, 203 SCRA 126

f.

Attorneys Fees
Article 2208, CC
Quirante vs. IAC, G.R. No. 73886, 169 SCRA 769, 31January
1989

g.

Interest
Articles 2209-2213, CC
Crismina Garments vs. CA, G.R. No. 128721, 304 SCRA 356,
09 March 1999

h.

Mitigation of Liability
Articles 2203-2204, 2214, 2215
Cerrano vs. Tan, 38 Phil 392

2.

Moral
a.

Concept
Article 2217, CC
Kierulf vs. CA, 269 SCRA 433

10

b.

Proof and Proximate Cause


Miranda-Ribaya vs. Carbonell, 95 SCRA 672
Del Rosario vs. CA, 267 SCRA 58
Raagas vs. Traya, 22 SCRA 839
Enervida vs. dela Torre, 55 SCRA 339
People vs. Bagayong, GR. No 126518, 299 SCRA 528, 02
December 1998

c.

Cases where allowed


Articles 2219-2220, CC
Francisco vs. GSIS, 7 SCRA 577
Expert Travel vs. CA, G.R. No. 130030 (1999)
i.

Unfounded Suits
Mijares vs. CA, 271 SCRA 558
De la Pena vs. CA, 231 SCRA 456
J Marketing vs. Sia, 285 SCRA 580
Cometa vs. CA, 301 SCRA 459

ii.

Labor Cases
Triple Eight vs. NLRC, 299 SCRA 608

iii.

Taking of Life
People vs. Pirame, 327 SCRA (2000)
Carlos Arcona y Moban vs. CA, GR No 134784, 393
SCRA 524, 09 December 2002

d.

Factors in determining amount


PNB vs. CA, 266 SCRA 136
Fule vs. CA, 286 SCRA 698
Philippine Airlines vs. CA, 275 SCRA 621
Valenzuela vs. CA, supra
Sumalpong vs. CA, 268 SCRA 764
Lopez vs. Pan American, 16 SCRA 431
Producers Bank vs. CA, GR No 111584, 365 SCRA 326, 17
September 2001

e.

Who may recover


Strebel vs. Figueros, 96 Phil 321
ABS-CBN vs. CA, G.R. No. 128690, 301 SCRA 572, 21
January 1999
National Power vs. Philipp Brothers, G.R. No 126204, 369
SCRA 629, 20 November 2001

3.

Nominal
Articles 2221-2223, CC
Ventanilla vs. Centeno, 1 SCRA 215
Robes-Francisco vs. CFI, 86 SCRA 59
People vs. Gopio, 346 SCRA 408
11

Armovit vs. CA, 184 SCRA 476


4.

Temperate
Articles 2224-2225, CC
Pleno vs. CA, G.R. No. 56505 (1988)
People vs. Singh, 360 SCRA 404
People vs. Plazo, 350 SCRA 433, 161 SCRA 208 (May 9, 1988)

5.

Liquidated
Articles 2226-2228, CC

6.

Exemplary or Corrective
Articles 2229-2235, CC
PNB vs. CA, 256 SCRA 44
Del Rosario vs. CA, 267 SCRA 158

TEXTBOOKS AND REFERENCES


AQUINO, T.A., Torts And Damages 2nd Edition, 2005.
SANGCO, CESAR J. Philippine Law on Torts and Damages, Rev. Ed., Quezon City, JMC
Press, Vol. 1 (1993), Vol. II (1994)
TOLENTINO, ARTURO Commentaries and Jurisprudence on the Civil Code of the
Philippines, Vols. I, IV and V, Quezon City
CIVIL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES (CC)
FAMILY CODE (FC)
REVISED PENAL CODE (RPC)

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