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LIFE-TRACKER PROJECT

Prepared for: Joshua Staubs, Ph.D.

Prepared by: Life-Tracker, Group number 4

Participated in: Remote Controlled Airplane Design Competition

Course title: Introduction to Aerospace Engineering, 1/2015

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PROJECT REPORT CONTENT

Team Overview and Description


The team overview represents the background and story behind our team name, our goal and objective.
The team members and each members duty are described in this section as well.

Theme Research
Our research in ecology and zoology and real-life applications are reported in the section. We studied how
the scientists work and designed how our RC plane will help their works or enhance their research and
studies.

Preliminary Technical Design Concept


Our concept is based on the

Budget
The budget section contains details of production costs and labor cost based on standard sources. All
materials used in this project are also mentioned here.

Overall Project Schedule


The project period began on 26 October 2015 and the competition day will be held on 14 December 2015.
This section also includes the tasks and milestones as the team initially scheduled.

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TEAM OVERVIEW AND DESCRIPTION

Team Overview
The name Life-Tracker came from our project goal/objective to enhance scientific works, especially in
ecological and zoological, with our RC plane. The name literally means we track the lives of the living
creatures such as rare plants on the peak of the steep mountains or the endangered species in the
savannah field.

Team Members and Roles


Shinaphadh Damrongsiri 5731223821

Assignment areas: Team Leader

Kasidis Sangkitporn 5731206121

Assignment areas: Pilot and Preliminary Design

Thanapat Kosiumnuay 5731250721

Assignment areas: Preliminary Design

Pattharakorn Chaya 5731297221

Assignment areas: Aerodynamics

Supharada Viboonyaron 5731329721

Assignment areas: Theme Research and Report

Advisor
Joshua Staubs, Ph.D.

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THEME RESEARCH

Real-life Application and Challenges


We studied how the ecologists and zoologist actually work, to gather all the needed requirements for our
RC plane to work well and satisfy our objective. For ecologists, scientists who work with ecosystem and
the relationship between people, plants and animals, they usually choose a specialist area and conduct
surveys to identify, record and monitor species and their habitats. Therefore, our RC plane could play a
role in the monitoring part. And for zoologists, life scientists who study wildlife, observing them in the
laboratory and in their natural habitat. Its useful to use the RC plane to track the animals in the real
environment that is dicult for humans to reach. We can describe the requirements for the plane as below

can take o and land in short and rough area

can fly for short flight

can follow the slowly moving herd

can fly in a wide range of height (very close to the ground to the peak of an average mountain)

Goal/Objective
Our objective for this RC plane is to enhance ecological research and also zoological studies. These
scientists normally work in remote areas where there is no long smooth runway for any plane to take o,
thus its necessary to produce such RC plane that minimise a take o distance. For the ecologists, the RC
plane is useful as it can carry their small tools, survey the areas they cant reach with installed camera and
other emergency uses. And for the zoologists, the RC plane is used to track wild animals that have
movements at all time. Therefore, the plane has to be ready and able to take o in a very short time.

Our design is invented to meet our objective, we concentrated at making a RC plane that takes o in a
shortest distance possible and works well in every type of topography. To do so, we aimed to create high
lift coecient and the minimum weight of the plane. Besides of our goal, we also have to consider the
environment and usage to give the most reasonable design. It means that the plane and its wings cannot
be too big to takeo in rough areas or too small to stabilise the whole plane during flight.

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PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL DESIGN CONCEPT

Flight Score Sensitivity Analysis

Total Flight Score = Takeo Distance Score + Flight Time Score + Battery Charge Score

Configurations Considered
Mission Scoring Requirement

Design Requirement

Maximum Flight Time

Minimize weight and Drag

Minimal Takeoff Distance

Light Weight, High Lift at low Speed

Battery Pridiction

Fabricate as Design

Option/Trade Assessment
Aircraft Configuration

Monoplane

Biplane

Triplane

Weight

Li#

0.4

-1

Drag

0.2

-1

Weight

0.4

-1

Total

0.2

-0.2

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High Wing

Mid Wing

Low Wing

Weight

Li#

0.3

Weight

0.3

-1

Drag

0.2

-1

-1

Stability

0.2

-1

Total

0.2

-0.5

-0.4

Tri-cycle

Tail-dragger

Weight

Takeo
Performance

0.4

Weight

0.3

-1

Drag

0.2

-1

Ground Control

0.1

-1

Total

-0.4

0.8

From the figure of merit shown above, our group has decided to design our aircraft based on conventional
monoplane with high wing, tail dragger, and tractor motor.

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AirFoil Selection

Option1 : NACA 2412

Option2 : NACA 9412

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Option3 : NACA 0012

Since our groups main goal is to be able to takeo in a short distance, the airfoil with the highest
coecient of lift is chosen. NACA 9412, compared to other options, has the highest coecient of lift when
considered in the same angle of attack. On the other hand, NACA 9412 also has the highest coecient of
drake compare to other options.

Figure : NACA9412

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Quantitative Predictions

Flight Performance Analysis


The flight performance prediction of the airplane is shown in the table below.

Performance Parameter

Calculated Value

Clmax

2.5073

0.75

CD0

0.05014

L/D max

10.1013806

Takeo Weight [KG]

0.57

Takeo Speed [m/s]

6.30

Takeo Distance [m]

0.975

Cruise Speed [m/s]

7.50

Stall Speed [m/s]

5.25

Stall angle [degree]

12

Takeo Distance

Takeo distance predicted


from the plotting of the
formula

which

is calculated to be 0.975 m

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Crusing Speed Calculation


The cursing speed is the speed that airplane can fly at the maximum power eciency obtained from the
excel which is the point where the L/D ratio is the greatest which will give the lowest trust required value.

It is found that at the speed of 7.5 m/s will gives the highest L/D ratio thus, require the least cruising
power.

Flight Time
The figure below represent the plot of thrust versus RPM from motor_prop_matching code form octave.
The redline shows the maximum RPM range available for this particular motor.

Figure of graph plotted thrust versus RPM

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From the spreadsheet, we know the maximum L/D will give Ta = 0.55 N.

At thrust of 0.55 N, it will give the motor RPM about 4190. If we want to know the throttle percentage, we
have to divide 4190 by 12100 (maximum RPM). The result is throttle 34.59%.

To determined the current drawn from the battery, we use calc_thrust_avilable code from octave. By
inputting throttle = 34.595% we get current = 4.4355A.

Flight Time = (Battery Capacity left for cruise) / (Cruising Load * 60)

From the above formula, we predicted our aircrafts flight time, from the 2200 mAh battery, to be 23.788
minutes.

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Mechanical Design

Wing
AR = 8.7

Airfoil - NACA 9412

Span = 120 cm

Stall Angle = 12 degree

Chord = 13.79 cm

CL at 0 degree = 1.1212

Taper Ratio = 1 (no taper)

CL max = 2.5073 (at 12 degree, maximum lift)

Sweep Angle = 0 degree

Aileron - Width = 2.07 cm (15% of wing chord)


- Length = 15 cm (25% of wing span)

Fuselage
Length = 40 cm
Height = 9 cm (maximum)
Width = 9 cm (maximum)

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Tail
Airfoil - NACA 0012

For the tail of the airplane, the symmetric Airfoil model NACA 0012, which is very suitable in terms
of yaw stability and ease of manufacturing, is used to provide the counter moment to stabilise the
airplane.

Horizontal Stabiliser

Vertical Stabiliser

ARh = 5.742

ARV = 3

Lh = 40 cm

Lv = 40 cm

Bh = 25 cm

Bv = 15 cm (max length)

Ch = 10 cm

Cv = 20 cm

Area = 15% of wing area

Area = 15% of wing area

Elevator

Rudder

Area = 20% of horizontal stabiliser area

Area = 30% of vertical stabiliser

Length = 25 cm

Length = 20 cm

Width = 2 cm

Width = 3.7 cm

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Center of Gravity

Center of Gravity of the aircraft is at 17.09 cm


from the reference point, the head of the fuselage.

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Stability Analysis
The stability analysis is calculate using the excel file to ensure that the airplane is stable in term of
moment of the airplane.

Table show the calculation of the moment of the airplane.


We set the tail angle to be 3.4 degree to make the y intercept of the plot of graph below to be
positive number and closed to 0.

By considering of the plot between Moment coecient and the absolute angle of attack of the
airplane is very close to (0,0) point on the graph. Hence this indicated that this airplane is very
stable

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Electrical Design Consideration


The Motor and Battery are fixed using the NTM Prop Drive Series 35-30 motor propelled to 10x5 highly
ecient propeller which are powered by 2200 mAh LiPo Battery.

Motor
For the design, the airplane will be propelled using 1 electrical motor rated at maximum power of 350W.

- Model: NTM Prop Drive Series 35-30 1100kv

- kv: 1100 rpm/v

- Max Current: 32A

- Max Power: 350W @ 12V / 380W @

- 15VNTM Prop Drive Series 35-30 1100kv

- Shaft: 4mm

- Weight: 88g

Battery

- Model No: AGA2200/30-3S

- Capacity: 2200 mAh

- Voltage: 11.1 V

- Size (L x W x H): 105.0 x 34.0 x 26.0 mm

- Weight: 175.0 g

- Continuous: 30X (66A)

- Burst: 60C (132A)

The LiPo Battery is very suitable type because LiPo

battery has the Highest Power to Weight Ratio compared

to another type of battery. For this particular 2200 mAh

battery, it can be discharged continually at the rate of 2.2 ampere for 1 hour. The maximum estimated
flight time for this airplane is 29 minutes with the electrical load of 4.43 A flying at cruising speed.

Due to the limitation of LiPo battery, discharging over 80 percent will caused premature failure of the
battery. Therefore this calculation is based on discharging the battery to 80 percent will provided us
around 24 minutes of flight time.

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Electronic Speed Controller


- Output: Continuous 40A, Burst 60A up to 10 sec

- Input Voltage: 2-6 cells lithium battery

- BEC: 3A/5V (Switch mode)

- Max Speed: 210k rpm for 2 Poles BLM, 70k rpm for 6 poles BLM, 35k rpm for 12 poles


BLM. (BLM: BrushLess Motor)

- Size (L x W x H): 55 x 28 x 12 mm

- Weight: 35g

By considering the 40A continuous maximum rating current of the Electronics Speed Controller (ESC), the
motor will draw maximum current of 21A peak during takeo. Hence, the ESC is very suitable for our
design.

R2006GS S-FHSS receiver


- Type: Full-range flight receiver

- Modes: FHSS or S-FHSS

- Features: Easy-Link binding, high-voltage operation, frequency-hopping, spreadspectrum


design & Dual Antenna Diversity

- Voltage Input: 4.8V-7.4V

- Compatible Batteries: NiCd, NiMH, LiPo, LiIon & LiFe

- Dimensions: 43 x 24 x 7.9 mm

- Weight: 8.3 g

- Current Drain: 80mA (@ no signal)

Servos

- Dimension: 23x12.2x29mm

- Torque: 1.5kg/cm (4.8V)

- Operating speed: 0.10sec/60 degree

- Operating voltage: 4.8V

- Temperature range: 0-55C

- Dead band-width: 7us

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Electrical Component Diagram

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Model

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BUDGET

Remote Controlled Aircraft


This overall budget for the Life-Tracker Project included item name, costing method, item cost per unit,
quantity, labor costs and reference sources. The costing for labor is considering per hour based on
estimated industry standard labor cost for a junior aerospace engineering working in Thailand. The costing
method is listed as Actual purchase price or Estimated purchase price.

Description

Quant
ity

Unit
Price

Cost

Reference

Costing Method

Motor

Propeller

Lithium Polymer Battery

500 1,000 http://www.rcsociety.com/store/


product/view/
2200mAh_3s_30C_Lip
o_battery-26531404th.html

Estimated Purchase
Price

Electronic Speed Controller

390 390 http://


bingun.tarad.com/
productth-25683-5973733Helicox+pentium+40a.
+(oem+hobby+wing
+).html

Estimated Purchase
Price

Futaba T6J 6Channel


Transmitter

1 4,900 4,900 http://www.rcsociety.com/store/


product/view/
FUTABA_T6J_Super-1
9445205-th.html

Estimated Purchase
Price

Futaba R2006GS S-FHSS


Receiver

Estimated Purchase
1 1,800 1,800 http://www.rcsociety.com/store/
Price
product/view/
Futaba_R2006GS_6_C
hannel_2.4GHz_S_FH
SS_Receiver_6J-2435
0138-th.html

LIFE-TRACKER

648 648 http://


www.hobbyking.com

Estimated Purchase
Price

78 http://
www.hobbyking.com

Estimated Purchase
Price

78

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Description

Quant
ity

Unit
Price

Cost

Reference

Costing Method

Servos

Estimated Purchase
90 360 http://
www.tdhobby.com/
Price
index.php?
option=com_virtuemart
&view=productdetails&
virtuemart_product_id=
242

Push-Rods

34 136 http://
www.hobbyking.com

Estimated Purchase
Price

Landing Gear

93

93 http://
www.hobbyking.com

Estimated Purchase
Price

Foam Board 2.5x60x120


cm

30

30 Somjai store

Actual Purchase Price

Balsa Sheet 4mm thick

65 130 Somjai store

Actual Purchase Price

Balsa Sheet 1mm thick

40

80 Somjai store

Actual Purchase Price

Wooden Dowel Rod 4x4


mm

20

20 Somjai store

Actual Purchase Price

CA 7174 Glue 50g. 1.7oz

25

50 http://
www.hobbyking.com

Actual Purchase Price

Total

9,715

Labor Costs
Hour Per Member
Per Day

Total Cost Per


Member

One hour
Working Hour
Total Hour

Hour Per Group


Per Day

Total Cost Per


Group

104

520

416

20

2,080

104

2,704

520

54,080

Reference: http://www.unigang.com/article/1181

Total Cost 9,715 + 54,080 = 63,795

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OVERALL PROJECT SCHEDULE

TOPIC

2-6 Nov

9-13 Nov

16-20
Nov

23-27
Nov

9-11 Dec

12-13
Dec

14 Dec

Team Organisation
Theme Research
Option/Trade
Assessment
Mechanical Design
Quantitative Design
Fabrication
Flying Test

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