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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This project is the result of the continuous guidance and encouragement of the
teachers of The Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, IIT (BHU),
Varanasi.
I express my deep sense of gratitude and reverence to Prof. A.S.K. Sinha, Head of
Department, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, IIT (BHU),
Varanasi and Prof. A.K. Verma, Dr. Durga Prasasd and Mrs. Bhavana Verma, Project
Coordinators, for providing me opportunity to work on this project and for their
scrupulous supervision and being available for us to sort out any kind of trouble in the
way.
It is my privilege to express my indebtedness and deep sense of gratitude to all the
respected teachers of our department for their guidance throughout the duration of the
project. I also extend my gratitude to library staff for their cooperation.
Finally, I would like to thank my team mates, Ashwin Sancheti and Keshav Baranwal,
for their unalloyed helping hands in proving me with materials and moral support
which helped me to complete the project.
Date: _________
____________
Avinash Nayak
09102EN023
B. Tech Pat IV
Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology
IIT (BHU), Varanasi
1

INDEX
Topic

Page No.
Title
Acknowledgement

1. Problem Description and Summary of Report

2. Introduction
2.1 Uses
2.2 Grades of Soda ash
2.3 Demand and Production Statistics
2.4 Projected Demand

3.

Process Description
3.1 Various Processes used for Soda ash Manufacture
3.2 Selection and description of Process
3.3 Flow Sheet of selected Process

10
11

Raw Materials

22

4.

5. Material Balance
5.1. Lime Kiln
5.2. Mixer
5.3. Slaker
5.4. Ammonia Absorption tower
5.5. Calciner
5.6. Carbonating Tower

19

24

5.7. Ammonia Still


6. Energy Balance

33

6.1. Slaker
6.2. Ammonia Absorption Tower
6.3. Calciner
6.4. Ammonia Still
6.5. Carbonating Tower
6.6. Lime Kiln
7. Process Design
7.1. Process Design of Ammonia absorption Column
7.2. Process design of Brine Cooler
7.3. Process Design of Carbonating Column

41

8. Equipment Design
8.1. Designing of Ammonia Absorption Column
8.2. Design of Brine Cooler

68

9. Process Control and Instrumentation

86

10. Process Utility

89

11. Plant Location

93

12. Plant Layout

98

13. Pollution Control and Waste Management

102

14.Plant Safety

104

15. Organisation Layout

107

16. Plant Economics

108

16.1. Capital Investment


16.2. Estimation of Total Production Cost
16.3. Selling Price
16.4. Profit
16.5 Return On Investment
16.6. Payback Period
16.7. Break Even Analysis
17.Conclusion

115

18. Bibilography

116

1) PROBLEM DESCRIPTION AND SUMMARY OF REPORT


A plant is proposed to be set up for the production of Soda Ash at the capacity of 500
tons per day. This is a Techno-Economic Feasibility Report for the same. This report
aims to find out an appropriate process with consideration of the product demand and
raw material availability in long as well as short term. Besides, the report seeks to find
out an appropriate process as according to technical and economic feasibility along
with being technically feasible simultaneously. Detailed technical analysis involves
selection of the raw materials with maximum profitability to achieve the best quality.
Material balance and energy balance, overall and over individual equipments is
established to estimate the quantities of input and outputs, both in terms of
products/raw materials and energy. These are supplemented with process as well as
equipment design of all the equipments used in the chosen process, which are then to
be utilized in the plant. The next half of the process concerns with economic and
environmental feasibility of the process. Pollution control and safety control measures
are mentioned, before the selection of the plant location for convenience both to the
customers as well as raw material sources. Plant layout along with the organizational
chart is provided. The report then summarizes with the economic aspects of the report,
with calculation of Capital Investment, Product Cost, Selling Price, Profit, Return on
Investment, Payback Period, Cash Flow Diagram and Break Even Analysis.

2) INTRODUCTION
Soda ash, the common name for sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), has significant
economic importance because of its applications in manufacturing glass, chemicals,
paper, detergents and many other products. It has been used since ancient times. The
Egyptians, for instance, umade glass containers from soda ash as early as 3500 BC.
And the early Romans expanded its use beyond glass as an ingredient in medicinals
and bread.

Fig 2.1 Structural Formula of Soda Ash


Properties
Chemical Name
Molecular Weight
Melting Point
Specific Gravity200/40C
Specific Heat
250C
770C
450C
Heat of Fusion, 8540C
Heat of Formation, 250C
Heat of Hydration
Monohydrate, Na2CO3 H2O
Heptahydrate, Na2CO3 -7 H2O
Decahydrate, Na2CO3 -10 H2O
Solubility
00C
1000C
35.370C (max.)
Alkali Equivalent
Acid Equivalent
Table 2.1

Sodium Carbonate
105.989
8510C
2.533
0.249 cal/gm/0C
0.249 Btu/lb/0F
0.256 cal/gm/0C
75.5 cal/gm
2550 cal/gm
30.0 cal/gm
156.4 cal/gm
208.8 cal/gm
7 gms Na2CO3 in 100 gms H2O
44.7 gms Na2CO3 in 100 gms H2O
49.5 gms Na2CO3 in 100 gms H2O
100% Na2CO3 = 58.48% Na2O
1lb. Na2CO3 = 0.6881 lb. HCI

2.1) Uses of Soda ash

Soda ash is used for production of following materials.


Glass Manufacture
Soda Ash is essential to the production of glass. This market is comprised of
manufacturers of glass packaging (bottles and other containers), commercial,
residential and automobile windows, mirrors, fiber glass, television tubes, lighting
ware, tableware, glassware and laboratory glass.
Sodium-Based Products
Soda Ash is used as a source of sodium ions throughout the chemical industry. It is
used in the production of sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphates, sodium silicates
and chrome chemicals.
Detergents
Dry laundry detergents typically contain anywhere from 20% to 80% Soda Ash. Soda
Ash also often is the prime alkali used to make phosphates and silicates for detergent
applications.

Water Treatment
Soda Ash can be used to control pH (acidity) levels in water and also provides the
sodium ion needed for water softening.
Pulp & Paper
Soda Ash supplies the sodium ion required in the pulping of wood fiber.
Some more uses of soda ash
1. Mineral processing in mining
2. Soaps and detergents
3. Metal refining
2.2) Grades in Soda Ash
6

Product

Description

Documents

Absorptaplus

FMCs most absorptive light density soda ash.

MSDS
Tech Data Sheets
MSDS
Grade 100

Light density ash with absorptive properties.


Tech Data Sheets
MSDS

Grade 160

Specialty dense grade low in organic content.


Tech Data Sheets
MSDS

Grade 260

Dense soda ash, Westvaco facility


Tech Data Sheets
Specialty light density with very fine particle

MSDS

size.

Tech Data Sheets

Grade 50
MSDS
Optipro

Regular light grade soda ash.


Tech Data Sheets

Table 2.2
2.3) Demand and Production statistics at national and international level
The manufacture of soda ash in India started in 1932 at Dharangadhra in Gujarat with
an installed capacity of 50 tonne per day under the name of 'Shri Shakti Alkali Woks'
which later became Dharangadhra Chemical Works Ltd. This was followed by the
entry of Tata Chemicals at Mithapur in Gujarat in 1994 with an installed capacity of
100 tonne per day. In a span of 50 years it has grown to be the biggest soda ash unit in
the country with daily capacity of 2000 tonne. In the same Saurashtra region
in Gujarat, two more soda ash plants came up after-wards. Saurashtra Chemicals at
Porbandar was commissioned in 1959 with a capacity of 200 tonne per day which has
been expanded to 800 tonne per day. Gujarat Heavy Chemicals Ltd at Sutrapada, near
Veraval was commissioned in 1988 with a capacity of 1200 tonne per day. All these
four units in Saurashtra are based on Solvay process.

The present installed capacity of Sixteen soda ash manufacturing units is 69.09 lakh
tonne. With the expansion of existing soda ash manufacturing units and after
commencement of production of the new units the total production of soda ash will be
97.4 lakh tonne.
Raw materials for Solvay process are salt, lime-stone and coke. Ammonia is also used
in the process as an intermediate carrier Catalyst. In soda ash industry solar salt is
used which contains 93-94% NaCl as against 98% available in the international
market. Similarly, the quality of lime stone does not meet international standard. As
regards coke the industry has no option but to import it from China, Japan etc.
Coal is not a raw material for soda ash manufacture but all soda ash units are having
coal based captive power plants for cogeneration of steam and power required in the
industry.

The present global capacity of soda ash is 67.0 million tonne per annum and the long
term growth rate is 1.5-2%. A list of Global major soda-ash units are given.
The major technology suppliers are :
Solvay and Cie SA, Belgium
AKZO-ZOUT Chemie BV, Netherlands
Asahi Chemical Industry, Japan
Polimex Cheepok, Poland
Technology Exports Divn, DSTA, China

2.4) Projected Demand for atleast 20 years


Soda ash production is expected to grow by 5.6% during 2012-13 as demand from
user industries is likely to remain healthy. "Glass manufacturers consume around half
of India's soda ash production. Production of sheet glass and toughened glass is
8

expected to grow by 8.4% and 6.1%, respectively, during the year," CMIE ( Centre for
Monitoring Indian Economy) said in a recent report. After falling for three
consecutive months, the chemical production index rose by 5.3% in July 2012
compared to a year ago.

3) PROCESS DESCRIPTION
3.1) Brief Description of various process
(A)Le Blanc Process
This process was invented by Nicolas Le Blanc, a French man ,who in 1775, among
several others submitted an outline of a process for making soda ash from common
salt, in response to an offer of reward by the French academy in paris. Le Blanc
proposal was accepted and workable on a commercial scale.
Process Description
Reactions
2NaCl+H2SO4 Na2SO4+2HCL
4C+ Na2SO4 NaS+4CO
Na2S+ CaCO3 Na2CO3+CaS

A mixture of equivalent quantities of salt and concentrated sulphuric acid is heated in


cast iron salt cake furnance. Hydrochloric acid gas is given off and sodiumhydrogen
sulphate is formed. The gas is dissolved in water and the mixture is raked and
transferred to the muffle bed reverbratory furnance where it is subjected to stronger
heat. Here sodium sulphate called salt cake is formed. The cake is broken, mixed with
coke and limestone and charged into black ash furnance. The mass is heated and a
porous grey mass know as black ash is withdrawn. The black ash is cursed and
leached with water in the absence of air in a series of tanks. The extract containing
sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide and many other impurities ,is sprayed from the
top of a tower counter current to the flow of hot gases from the black-ash furnance.
This converts sodium hydroxide, aluminate,silicate, cyanate to sodium carbonate. The
liquor is concentrated in open pans until the solution is concentrated in open pans
until the solution is concentrated enough to precipitate sodium carbonate on cooling.
The product is calcined to get crude soda ash which is purified by recrystallisation.
The liquor remaining after removal of first crop of soda crystals is purified to remove
iron and causticised with lime to produce caustic soda. The mud remaining in the
leaching tanks containing calcium sulphide is suspended in water and lime kiln gas is
passed through it. The following reaction occurs.
CaS+ H2O + CO2 CaCO3 + H2S
The lean gas containing hydrogen sulphide is passed through another tank containing
suspension of calcium sulphide.
CaS+ H2S Ca(SH)2
This solution is again treated with lime kiln gas liberating a gas rich in hydrogen
sulphide.
Ca(SH)2+CO2+H2O CaCO3 +2 H2S

10

The hydrogen sulphide is burnt in limited supply of air in a special furnance in


presence of hydrated iron oxide as a catalyst to obtain sulphur.
H2S+1/2O2 H2O +S
The sulphur is sublimed and collected.
(B) Trona purification process
Several process are used to refine trona ore and are simpler than solvay process . in
general, they are of two types. In one process trona ore is calcined to impure soda ash,
which is then purified. The other type produces soda ash by calcinations of purified
sodium sesquicarbonate obtained from the trona. The first route is now used
predominantly although the latter route was practiced first.
Monohydrate Process
In this process , the trona ore is cursed and then calcined in a rotary kiln at 16020000C, decomposing the sodium sesquicarbonate and librating water and carbon
dioxide. The calcined material, which is impure soda ash, is agitated in tanks with
water or weak soda ash liquors to dissolve the soda ash and soluble impurities, such as
sodium chloride and sodium sulphate. Insoluble material, consisting of shale, clay,
and complex salts containing calcium carbonate, is separated from the hot, nearsaturated soda ash solution. To reduce soda ash losses, waste solids from this step are
washed before being discarded.
The filtered liquor is usually treated with activated carbon to remove soluble
organic compounds and reduce foaming during evaporation to produce crystals of
sodium carbonate monohydrate. Crystallization is carried out in multiple effect
evaporators at a maximum temperature of about 10000C, which is below the transition
temperature of monohydrate to anhydrous soda ash. A purge from the crystallizers
may be maintained to remove impurities. The slurry is centrifuged to separate the
crystalline sodium carbonate monohydrate from the mother liquor which is returned
11

to the crystallizers. The monohydrate crystals are dehydrated at about 15000C.


because the crystal size of the soda ash is carefully controlled in the crystallizer only
nominal screening is required before the dence ash product is cooled and loaded.
Sodium sesquicarbonate process
In this process, the crused trona ore is fed into a series of dissolves to produce a
saturated mother liquor, which is clarified, filtered, and freed of organic compounds
by carbon treatment. Corrosion of the equipment by the mother liquor is controlled by
a low concentration of sulfide ion. The treated liquor is evaporated in vaccum
crystallizers and cooled to 4000C. The Sodium sesquicarbonate crystals formed are
centrifuged and the mother liquor recycled to the to the dissolvers. The
sesquicarbonate crystals are decomposed to sodium carbonate in rotary caliners at
approximately 20000C. the anhydrous soda ash product has a bulk density of about
800kg/m3 and must be double calcined to prepare dense ash. After calcinations, the
soda ash is cooled and is ready for shipment.

(C) Dual process


In this process ammonium chloride is produced as a coproduct in equivalent
quantities and differs from conventional ,solvay process and it does not recycle
ammonia.
Process description:
The mother liquor from the carbonating system, containing ammonium chloride,
unreated salt and traces of carbonate is ammoniated in ammonia absorber. The
ammoniated mother liquor is passed through a bed of salt in a salt dissolver. Exit
liquor from the dissolver, saturated with salt, is gradually cooled from 4000C to
1000C by evaporation under vacuum to separate ammonium chloride. The slurry
containing
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ammonium chloride is centrifuged and dried. The product is 98% pure and is marked
as ammonium chloride fertilizer with nitrogen content of 25%. The mother liquor
obtained after the separation of ammonium chloride crystals is recycled to the
carbonation vessels placed in series. Carbon dioxide obtained from ammonia plant
and the calciner section of soda ash plant is injected in the carbonation vessels. There
is provision of cooling coils in the lower carbonation vessels. Sodium bicarbonate is
formed. The growth of crystals, of sodium bicarbonate is controlled by the supply of
cooling water to cooling water to cooling coils in carbonation vessels. Sodium
bicarbonate is thickened in a thickener and centrifuged. The sodium bicarbonate is
calcined to soda ash.
Raw material consumption per ton of co-product
The plant has several advantages over the conventional Solvay process in as
much as it uses less raw material, has no effluent disposal problem, and both sodium
and chloride radical of salt are fully utilized giving valuable ammonium as a
byproduct.

3.2) Selection and Description of Process selected


Solvay process or Ammonia-soda process
The discovery of the chemistry of the ammonia-soda process can be traced back to the
early 1800s. A few British and French plants operated in 1840-1860, but without
success. The ammonia-soda process is usually called the Solvay process because in
1865 Ernest Solvay started the first really successful plant at couillet in Belgium. In
1874, the first successful ammonia-soda plant was erected in England. The ammoniasoda process is the dominant technology used throughout the world, hence this
process is selected for production of soda ash.
Chemical reactions
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(a) Overall reaction


CaCO3 + 2NaCl Na2CO3 + CaCl2
This reaction takes place in a number of steps
(b) CaCO3 CaO + CO2
(c) C + O2 CO2
(d) CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2
(e) NH3 + H2O NH4OH
(f) NaCl + NH4OH NH4Cl + NaHCO3
(g) 2NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O
(h) 2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 2NH3 + CaCl2 + 2H2O
Brine Preparation: Sodium chloride solutions are occasionally available naturally
but are more often obtained by solution mining of salt deposits to give raw, near
saturated brine containing low concentrations of impurities such as magnesium and
calcium salts. Some brines contain significant quantities of sulfates. Brine purification
is required to prevent scaling of processing equipment and contamination of the
product. Brine is usually purified by a lime soda treatment where the magnesium is
precipitated with Ca(OH)2 (milk of lime) and the calcium is precipitated with soda
ash. The brine, separated from precipitated impurities, is sent to the ammonia
absorbers.
Ammonia Absorption: The strong brine is saturated with ammonia gas in the
absorption tower. The ammonia, recycled from various process steps, contains water
vapor and carbon dioxide. Small amounts of ammonia are added to make up for
losses. During ammoniation, the brine requires cooling (approx 1650 MJ/t or 394
kcal/kg of product soda ash). The absorption operation is generally carried out at
atmospheric pressure. The brine descends through the main part of the absorber

14

countercurrent to the rising ammoniacal gases. The temperature of inlet brine is about
300C and that of exit is about 360 to 420C.
Precipitation of Bicarbonate: The ammoniated brine from the absorber coolers is
pumped to the top of one column in a block of columns used to precipitate
bicarbonate. This column which has been fouled or partially plugged with sodium
bicarbonate after several days of crystallization is referred to as a cleaning column.
Lime kiln gas, compressed to about 414 kPa (60psi), enters the bottom of the cleaning
column and bubbles up through the solution to absorb most of the carbon dioxide. The
concentration of carbon dioxide in the liquor is kept below the precipitation
concentration. Relatively little cooling is required. The scale is dissolved off the
cooling surfaces of the cleaning column by the fresh ammoniated brine, assisted by
gas agitation. The liquor leaving this column is fed in parallel to the top of the
remaining columns in to block. A stronger carbon dioxide gas made up of a mixture of
kiln gas an bicarbonate calciner gas is fed to these crystallizing or making columns
and bubbles up through the solution. This process precipitates sodium bicarbonate and
is accompanied by the evolution of considerable heat which must be removed to
improve yield. Crystals formed during the carbonation step gradually foul the heat
exchange surfaces and thus a crystallizing column must alternately be the cleaning
column. The gases, which are predominantly nitrogen, but also contain carbon dioxide
and ammonia, are vented from the cleaning and making columns and collected of
recycling to the absorber.
Filtration of Bicarbonate: The slurry, collected from the crystallizing towers, is fed
to continuous vacuum filters or centrifuges which separate the crystals from the filter
liquor. The filter cake is carefully washed with fresh water to control the residual
chloride to meet customer specifications. The dewatering characteristics of the
bicarbonate crystals are very dependent on operating conditions in the crystallizing
15

columns. Air drawn through the vacuum filter (or the vent gas from the centrifuge
operation) is returned to the absorption section. The filter cake, often called crude
bicarbonate or ammonia soda, liquor and is made up of sodium bicarbonate and
small amounts (5 mol% on a dry basis) of ammonia primarily in the form of
ammonium bicarbonate. The cake is then conveyed to the calcining operation.
Recovery of Ammonia: The filter liquor contains unreacted sodium chloride and
substantially all the ammonia with which the brine was originally saturated, present as
fixed and free ammonia. The fixed ammonia or ammonium chloride
corresponds stoichiometrically to the sodium bicarbonate that had been precipitated.
Free ammonia includes ammonium hydroxide, bicarbonate, carbamate, and the
several possible carbon compounds of ammonia that decompose at moderate
temperatures. Before preheating, sulfide solution may be added for corrosion
protection. The sulfide is distilled for eventual absorption by the brine in the absorber.
The filter liquor is preheated by indirect contact with the gases leaving the distiller.
The warmed feed liquor then enters the main coke-, or bubble cap filled sections of
the distiller where heat decomposes free ammonium compounds and steam strips
almost all of the free ammonia and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide free solution
is usually treated with milk of lime (or anhydrous lime) in an external well agitated
limiting tank called a prelimer. Here the ammonium chloride reacts with the milk of
lime and evolved ammonia gas is vented back to the distiller. The resulting hot
calcium chloride solution, containing residual ammonia in the form of ammonium
hydroxide, flows back to a lower section of the distiller. Low pressure steam sweeps
practically all of the ammonia out of the limed solution. The final solution, known as
distiller waste, contains calcium chloride, unreacted sodium chloride, and the
excess lime, and is diluted by the condensed steam and the water in which the lime
was conveyed to the reaction. Distiller waste also contains the inert of this solution.
16

However, the waste liquors are usually pumped to settling basins where the suspended
solids are deposited. The clear over flow contains dissolved salts, which are
objectionable contaminants are locations where the quality of the receiving waters is
materially affected. Close control of the distillation is required to thoroughly strip
carbon dioxide to avoid waste o flame and achieve nearly complete ammonia
recovery. The hot (560C) mixture of wet ammonia and carbon dioxide leaving the top
of the distiller is cooled to remove water vapor before being sent to the absorber.
Lime Preparation: The most suitable limestone, hard and strong with low
concentrations of impurities, is graded to reasonably uniform coarse size. Although
other fuels may be used, the limestone is usually mixed with about 7% metallurgical
grade coke or anthracite and then burned in vertical shaft kilns. Air is admitted
continuously into the bottom of the kiln an gas is sucked off the top. The fuel burns in
a zone a little below the middle of the kiln, and the stone burns to lime. Carbon
dioxide is generated by decomposition of limestone and combustion of carbon in the
fuel. The kiln gases are diluted with nitrogen from the air used to burn the fuel and
usually stone dust, ash particles, and gaseous impurities. The gas is partially cooled in
the kiln by the upper layers of stone, and further cooled and cleaned before entering
the compressors feeding the carbonating columns. The lime, cooled somewhat by the
entering air in the lower parts of the shaft kiln is discharged intermittently and usually
in rotary slackers that produce a thick suspension, commonly called milk of lime,
which is stored in agitated tanks. The heat of the reaction produces milk of lime at a
temperature of 90-1000C; water addition is controlled to give a free calcium oxide. In
some operations, dry lime is used in place of the milk of lime. It is pulverized and
added continuously to the prelimer in the distillation step, thus reducing the water
added and steam consumption and producing a concentrated distiller waste.
Calcining the Bicarbonate to Soda Ash: To prevent dilution of the decomposition
17

gases, the crude filtered bicarbonate is continuously calcined by indirect heating.


Various techniques are used to heat the material in which is recycled after
compression to enrich the makeup kiln-gas feed to the carbonation operation. The hot
soda ash discharged from the calciner is cooled, screened, and packaged or shipped in
bulk. This product, called light ash because of its low bulk density, is converted to
dense ash.
By-Products:
Calcium Chloride: Relatively few synthetic soda ash plants recover calcium
chloride, and most of those that do utilize only a small part of the total amount
available in the distiller waste. To produce calcium chloride, the distiller waste liquor
is settled and then evaporated in multiple effect evaporators. During concentration
most of the sodium chloride separates. The remaining solution is further concentrated
to the equivalent of CaCl2.2H2O. this solution is cooled, forming flakes which are
dried in a rotary dryer, giving a product sold as 77-80% calcium chloride. A small
amount is processed to the anhydrous state. Calcium chloride is used on unpaved
roads as a dust abater and as a deicer on highways in winter. It is used for freeze
proofing and dust proofing coal and coke, in refrigeration brines, as a drying agent,
and in cement products.
Ammonium Chloride: Ammonium chloride is the principal salt present in the
mother liquor from the crude sodium bicarbonate filtration in the ammonia soda
process. Small amounts have been produced in soda ash plants by carbonation of the
filter liquor, concentration, and crystallization of the ammonium chloride. Most of the
demands in the United States are low tonnage. The end uses are primarily in dry
cells and fluxing agents. However, ammonium chloride is also a good fertilizer for
important crops in rainy climates, particularly for rice. In Japan, the production of byproduct ammonium chloride is quite large. In one process for manufacturing large
18

quantities of by-product ammonium chloride, more ammonia is first added to the filter
liquor, which is chilled to approximately 100C. Solid sodium chloride is added,
dissolved, and ammonium chloride precipitates, which is separated for sale, the
mother liquor being recycled to the carbonation operation. There are significant
differences in equipment of the conventional ammonia soda process and the
ammonium chloride producing soda ash process. For example, there is no ammonia
recovery and therefore no distillation tower, likewise, no milk of lime and
consequently no lime kilns which are also the source of carbon dioxide for
bicarbonation. However, the ammonium chloride producing process requires, unlike
the regular ammonia soda plant, equipment to process solid salt, and of the
ammonium chloride production, crystallizers, filters, dryers, and cooling equipment of
corrosion resistant materials. In addition, an ammonia source is required which
preferably also supplies carbon dioxide for the bicarbonation.

Advantages of Solvay process


Can use low-grade brine
Less electric power
Less corrosion problems
No co-products to dispose of
Does not require ammonia plant investment
Disadvantages of Solvay process
Higher salt consumption
Higher investment in ammonia recovery unit verses crystallization units for
ammonium chloride
19

Waste disposal of calcium chloride brine stream


More steam consumption
Higher capacity plant for economic break-even operation
With current fertilizer shortage, all of the ammonium chloride will be used as a
mixed chemical fertilizer ingredient, so co-product disposal no problem

3.3) Flow Sheet Process of selected process

Figure 3.1

20

FIgure 3.2

4)

RAW MATERIALS
21

Input bulk requirements for the Solvay process are salt, coal, and limestone. Salt is
used as brine, pumped from deep wells or as crystalline salts via evaporation
procedures. Ammonia make up in the recirculation load amounts to about 1.5kg/ton of
soda ash.
(i)Specifications and Availability of raw materials
Generally quick lime is used in the manufacture of calcium carbide. The calcium
carbide manufactures generally prefer lime containing 95% CaO (min.), not more
than 3% SiO2, not exceed 2%. Though chemical composition is the guiding factor, the
physical characteristics of the limestone are also very important. For the manufacture
of bleaching powder also, fat lime-containing CaO 95% and above is required. Total
Fe2O3+ Al2O3 + MnO2 should be less than 2%; MgO should be below 2% and
SiO2 less than 1.5%. Bleaching powder is prepared by absorption of chlorine by dry
hydrated lime. The hydrated lime should not contain more than 2% of excess water.
Iron and oxides tend to discolour the bleached material. Magnesia renders the
bleaching powder hydroscopic. Silica and clay impede solution and setting of
bleaching powder. Limestone suitable for bleaching powder can be advantage utilized
by alkali industry for the manufacture of soda ash and caustic soda.

Commodity:Coke, Indian origin.


22

Standard Specifications of coke (Size 40-100mm)

Sr.

Parameters

Guaranteed
Specification

Chemical Analysis
01 Ash (dry basis)
02 Fixed carbon
03 Moisture
04 V M (dry basis)
05 Sulphur (dry basis)
06 Phos (dry basis)
07 CSR
08 CRI
09 M 40
10 M 10
Table 4.1

12.5 % max
By Difference
5.0 % max,
1.5 % max
0.6 % max
0.055 % max
62% min
28% max
82% min
7.5% Max

Salt (Coarse)
High purity certified vacuum salt especially prepared to be of relatively coarse
crystals with a narrow grain size range. Strictly prepared in batch lots to optimise
grain size uniformity. Suitable for salting in some mechanical cheese manufacturing
plants using accurate pneumatic salt conveying equipment, which are sensitive to a
wide or variable range of grain sizes.

23

Figure 4.1

FLOWSHEET OF PLANT PROCESS

Production of soda ash 500 TPD = (500000/24) Kg/hr = 20833.3 Kg/hr

24

5) MATERIAL BALANCE
5.1) Material Balance for lime kiln
Thus,
Amount of CO2 required = 20833/106 x 44 = 8647.8 Kg/hr
CaCO3 CaO + CO2

H296 =+43.4 kcal/mol

C+ O2 CO2

H298= -96.4 Kcal/mol

Assuming 90% and equal conversion in both reactions and ideal conditions that
energy for the 1st reaction is provided by the 2nd reaction.
Moles of CaCO3/ Moles of C = 96.4/43.4 =2.226
Amount of Calcium Carbonate required = 8647/44 x 100/90 x1/1.449 x 100.8=
14654.9 Kg/hr
Amount of carbon required = 8647.8/44 x 100/90 x 1/3.226 x 12 =812.2 Kg/hr
However, calcium carbonate is also a source of slaked lime ( i.e.Ca(OH)2) which is
uses for separation of Ammonia still. Hence we need to make sure enough calcium
oxide is produced.
20833.3 Kg/hr of Na2CO3 = 20833.3/100 x 2 Kmoles of NH4Cl is Produced
Ca (OH)2+ 2 NH4Cl CaCl2 + 2 NH3 + H2O
Thus, Ca (OH)2 required = 20833.3/106 x 2/2 Kmoles/hr = 14544 Kg/hr
Hence, CaCO3 required = 20833.3/106x 2/2 x 100.8 x 100/90 =22012.2 Kg/Hr
Carbon required = 22012/(100.00x2.226) x 12 x 100/90 =1318.4 Kg/hr
Amount of oxygen required =1318.4 /12 x 32=3515.7 Kg/hr
Amount of air required = 100/23 x3515 Kg/hr
25

= 15285.7 Kg/hr

Calcium Oxide formed =90/100 x 22012.2 x 56/100.00 = 11094 kg/hr


Thus Carbon dioxide produced = 13549.4 kg/hr
Input (Kg/hr)
Lime stone

Output (Kg/hr)
22012.2

Lime stone

2201.2

(unreacted)
Carbon

1318.4

Carbon (unreacted)

131.8

Air

15285.7

Calcium Oxide

11094

Impurities

NA

Oxygen (in oxides

376.718

of impurities)
Nitrogen

11769

Carbon dioxide

13549.4

Table 5.1

5.2) Material Balance for Mixer


Concentration of Brine solution required = 0.3 Kg NaCl/Lt
Soda ash to be produced = 20833.3 Kg/hr
26

Thus,
Amount of NaCl salt required = 20833.3/106 x 2 x (23+35.5) = 22995.2 kg/hr
Amount of Water required = (13/0.3) x 22995.2 = 996450 kg/ hr
Input (Kg/hr)

Output (Kg/hr)

NaCl

22995.2

Brine solution

1019445

Water

996450

Concentration

0.3 NaCl/Lt

Table 5.2
5.3) Material Balance for Slaker
Calcium oxide from lime kiln = 11094.4 Kg/hr
Water is in 200% excess
Thus,
Amount of water required = 11094.4/56 x 300/100 x 18 = 10697.7 Kg/hr
Amount of Ca(OH)2 produced = 11094/56 x 74 = 14659.9 Kg/hr
Amount of slaked lime produced = 10697.7 + 11094.4 = 21792.1 Kg/hr
Input (kg/hr)

Output (Kg/hr)

Calcium oxide

11094.4

Calcium Hydroxide

14659.9

water

10697.7

Water

7131.3

Table 5.3
5.4) Material Balance for Ammonia Absorption Tower
Brine solution = water + NaCl salt
Amount of NaCl salt = 22995.2 Kg/hr
Amount of water = 996450 Kg/hr
Assuming 99% absorption of ammonia
Amount of ammonia absorbed = 22995.2 /58.5 x 17 = 6682.4 Kg/hr
27

Thus, amount of ammonia at inlet of absorber =100/99 x 6682.4 = 6749.9 Kg/hr


Input (kg/hr)
Ammonia

Output (kg/hr)
6749.9

Ammonia

67.5

(unreacted)
NaCl

22995.2

Water

986485.5

Water

996450

Ammonium

13756.0

Hydroxide
NaCl

22995.2

Table 5.4

5.5) Material Balance for Calciner


2 NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O

H298 = +Kcal/mol

Soda ash produced = 20833.3 Kg/hr


Assuming complete decomposition ,
Amount of Sodium bicarbonate input = 20833.3/100 x 84 x2 = 34999.9 Kg/hr
Carbon dioxide produced = 20833.3/106 x 44 = 8647.7 Kg/hr
Input (Kg/hr)
Sodium bicarbonate

Output (Kg/hr)
34999.9

Soda ash

28

20833.3

Water

3537.7

Carbon dioxide

8647.7

Table 5.5

5.6) Material Balance for Carbonating Tower


NH4OH + NaCl + CO2 NaHCO3 + NH4Cl

H298 = +Kcal/mol

Amount of sodium bicarbonate formed = 22995.2/58 x 84 = 33018.5 Kg/hr


Amount of carbon dioxide reacted = 22995/58.5 x 44= 17295.4 Kg/hr
Fresh CO2 available from lime kiln = 13549.4 Kg/hr
CO2 available from recycle from calcinatory = 8647.7Kg/hr
Total CO2 available = 22197.1 Kg/hr
CO2 unreacted = 22197.1 -17295.4 = 4901.7 Kg/hr
Amount of ammonium chloride formed = 22995.2/58.5 x 53.5 = 21029.8 Kg/hr

29

Input (Kg/hr)

Output (Kg/hr)

Water

986485.5

Sodium bicarbonate

33018.5

NaCl

22995.2

Water

986485.5

Ammonium

13756.0

Ammonium

21029.8

hydroxide
Carbon dioxide

chloride
22197.1

Carbon dioxide

4901.7

Table 5.6

5.7) Material Balance for Ammonia Still


2 NH4Cl + Ca (OH)2 CaCl2 + 2 NH3 + 2 H2O

H298 = +Kcal/mol

Ammonium chloride in input = 21029.8 Kg/hr


Calcium chloride produced = 21029.8/ (53.5x2) x 111 = 21815.9 Kg/hr
Calcium hydroxide required = 21029.8/ (53.5x2) x 74 = 14543.4 Kg/hr
Thus milk of lime required = 25493 Kg/hr
Water produced =21029.8/53.5 x 18 = 7075.2 Kg/hr
Ammonia produced = 20129/53.5 x 17 = 6682.1 Kg/hr
Input (Kg/hr)
Ammonium

Output (Kg/hr)
20129.8

Calcium Chloride

21815.9

Ammonia (recycled) 67

Ammonia

6682.1

Calcium Hydroxide

Water

7075.2

chloride
14543.4

30

Table 5.7

OVERALL MATERIAL BALANCE


Input (Kg/hr)

Output (Kg/hr)

Sodium chloride

22995.2

Sodium carbonate

20833.3

Carbon

1318

Calcium chloride

21815.9

Lime stone

22012.2

Carbon dioxide

4901.7

Water

1007147

Water

1007147

Air

15285.7

Carbon (unreacted)

131.8

Nitrogen

11769

Lime stone

2201.2

(unreacted)
Oxygen (in Oxides

376

of impurities)
Table 5.8
Outputs:
Output temperature of products = T Kelvin
Heat Output
= (mCpt)CaO + (mCpt)CO2 + (mCpt)C(unreacted) + (mCpt)CaCO3 (unreacted) +(mCpt)C
31

= (4668.5T 1.247 x 1011 / T2 + 14.38 x 106) x (T-298)


From heat balance
3.04 x 109 = (4668.5T 1.247 x 1011 / T2 + 14.38 x 1006) x (T-298)
T= 486.53 K

or

T=2130C

6) ENERGY BALANCE
6.1) ENERGY BALANCE AROUND SLAKER
CaO + H2O Ca (OH)2

H298 = -15.6 Kcal/mol

Input (Kg/hr)

Output(Kg/hr)

Calcium oxide

11094.4

Calcium hydroxide

14659.9

water

10697.7

water

7131.3

Reaction temperature = 1000C


Inputs:
Temperature of input water stream

=250C

Temperature of input calcium oxide stream

=2130C

Heat input by reactants

= 0.775x109 calories

Heat of reaction (H100)

= -3.85x109 calories

Outputs:
Temperature of output stream
Heat output

= T Kelvin

= (mCpt)Ca (OH)2 + (mCpt)H2O


= (9.68x106 +3672.02T 0.1024T2) x (T-298)

From heat balance


3.85 *106 = (9.68x106 + 3672.02T 0.1024T2) x (T-298)
32

T= 645 K
T= 3720C

Or

6.2) ENERGY BALANCE AROUND AMMONIA ABSORPTION TOWER


Inputs:
Temperature of input brine

=250C

Temperature of input gases

=600C

Input (Kg/hr)

Output(Kg/hr)

Ammonia

6749.9

Ammonia

67.5

(unreacted)
NaCl

22995.2

Water

986485.5

Water

996450

Ammonium

13756.0

Hydroxide
NaCl
Table 6.1
Heat input

= (mCpt)gases
= (1569 x 7440 x 25)
=0.29 x 109

Output:
Temperature of output liquid stream = 4000C
Temperature of output gas stream = 3000C
Heat output

= (mCpt)NaCl + (mCpt)NH3 + (mCpt)H2O

33

22995.2

= (755 x 12200 + 987 x 8547 +6468 x 18026) x (40-30)


=1.342 x 109

From heat balance


0.29 x 109

=1.342 x 109 + heat removed

Heat removed = 1.052 x 109 calories

34

6.3) HEAT BALANCE AROUND THE CALCINER


2 NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + CO2+ H2O
Reaction Temperature = 2000C
Input

Kg/hr

Kmol/hr

Output

(Kg/hr)

Kmol/hr

Sodium

34999.9

473

Soda Ash

20833.3

196.5

Water

3537.7

196.5

Carbondioxide

8647.7

196.5

bicarbonate

Table 6.2
Inputs:
Reactant temperatures

=250C

Heat input

=0

Heat of reaction

= 1.7 x 1010 calories

Outputs:
Output stream temperature = 1800C
Heat output = (mcpt) Na2CO3 + (mcpt) H2O + (mcpt) CO2
=196.5 x 28900 x 150 + 196.5 x 8311 x 150 + 196.5 x 10610 x 150
=1.4141 x 109 calories

35

From heat balance


-1.7 x 1010 + heat supplied

= 1.414 x 109

Heat supplied

=1.841 x 1010 calories

6.4) HEAT BALANCE AROUND AMMONIA DISTILLER


2 NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 2 NH3 + CaCl2 + 2 H2O
NH4OH NH3 + H2O
Reaction temperature = 750C
Input

Output

Ammonium

Kg/hr

Kmol/hr

20129.9

379.8

Calcium

Chloride
Ammonia

Kg/hr

Kmol/hr

21815.9

198.31

chloride
67

3.9

Ammonia

6682.2

393.1

14543.4

196.5

water

7075.2

393.1

(recycled)
Calcium
hydroxide
Table 6.3
Inputs:
Heat input

= (mcpt) Ca(OH)2 + (mcpt) NH4Cl + (mcpt) NH3


= (196.5 x 22489 +393.1 x 22936) x (25)
=0.335 x 109 calories

Heat of reaction (H298) = 5.1 109

36

Outputs:
Temperature of output stream = 600C
Heat output

= (mcpt) NH3 +

(mcpt) H2O + (mcpt)CaCl2

=0.393 x 109 + 0.393 x 1010 + 0.196 x 109


= 4.519 x 109
From heat balance
0.335 x 109 + 5.1 x 109

=4.519 x 10 9 +heat removed

Heat removed

= 0.916 x 109 calories

6.5) ENERGY BALANCE AROUND CARBONATING TOWER


37

NaCl + NH4OH + CO2 NH4Cl + NaHCO3


Reaction temperature

=600C

Temperature of reactants

=250C

Heat input

=0

Heat Output

= -4.7 x 109calories

From heat balance


4.7 x 109

Heat removed =
Cooling water required

-23.29 x 106 +heat removed


4.7 x 109
= -4.7 x 109 / (1000x (45-25) x x18)
=13055.5 Kg/hr

6.6) ENERGY BALANCE AROUND THE LIME KILN


38

CaCO3 CaO + CO2

H= 43.4 Kcal/mol

C+ O2 CO2

H=-96.4 Kcal/ mol

Thus carbon dioxide produced = 13549.4 Kg/hr


Input (Kg/hr)

Output (Kg/hr)

Lime stone

22012.2

Lime stone

2201.2

Carbon

1318

Carbon

131

Air

15285.7

Calcium Oxide

11094.4

Impurities

N.A.

Oxygen

376

Nitrogen

11769

Carbon Oxide

13549.4

Table 6.4
Temperature of reaction is 11000C
Inputs:
Temperature of input reaction = 250C
Therefore heat of reactants = 0
Heat of reaction at 1100 0C (H298) = -3.04 x 109 calories

7) PROCESS DESIGN
7.1) PROCESS DESIGN OF AMMONIA ABSORTION COLUMN
Ammonia Absorption column (Packed column)

39

Feed to the adsorption tower is sodium chloride solution (brine).


Containing 300gm NaCl /litre of solution.
Composition of gaseous mixture used is (in mole fraction)
Ammonia =65%
CO2 =15%
Water=20%
Ammonia composition in inlet gas stream,
Y0=1.8569 Kmol NH3/Kmol inerts (Bottom)
Assuming 99% ammonia absorbed,
Yn-1 = 0.0186 Kmol NH3/Kmol inerts (top)
Brine solution flow rate Ln= 147170.11 Kg/hr
Water flowrate = 119575.77 kg/hr

1) Column Design
Material Balance across stage M for Ammonia

40

NH3 entering the stage as vapour + in water = NH3 going out in vapour phase + in
water
VYM-1 +LXM+1 = VYM+LXM
Thus,
Xm+1= (VYm + LXm Vym-1)/L---(2)
Also
VYm LXm+1 = VYm-1 LXm = VYo +LX1 = 256.58 * 1.8569 7114.77 *0.0663
This implies:
VYm LXm+1 = 4.731
From2:

Xm+1 = (VYm 4.731)/7114.773

From 1: Xm+1 = (256.58 * (2.075 * Xm) 4.731)/7114.773 ------(3)


Hence starting from X1= 0.0663 and using 1 and 3
Gas inlet
Stage 1
Stage 2
Liquid inlet
Table 7.1

Yo= 1.8589
Y1= 0.1375
Y2= 0.0086
-

X1=0.0663
X2=0.0043
X3=0

Thus 2 stages are requires


Column diameter calculations
Property
Gas flow rate

Column top
261.34 Kmol/hr
41

Column bottom
733.03 Kmol/hr

=0.0726 Kmol/sec
Liquid flow rate
7114.78 Kmol/hr
=1.9763 Kmol/sec
Gas density ( assuming 101325/(8.314x313)
=0.03893 Kmol/m3
ideas gas law rho=
=1.323 Kg/m3

=0.02036 kmol/sec
7586.48 Kmol/hr
=2.1074 Kmol/sec
rho= 0.905 Kg/ m3

P/RT
Average molecular

34 Kg/ Kmol

23.25 Kg/kmol

weight (gas)
Liquid density
Average molecular

1000 Kg/ m3
20.68 Kg/Kmol

1000 Kg/ m3
20.68 Kg/ Kmol

weight (liquid)
Flv = lw/vw

Lw= 147133.011 Kg/hr


= 40.87 Kg/sec

(rhog/rhol)^(1/2)
Vw= 203.34 x 34 Kg/hr
= 2.468 Kg/sec
Flv= 0.6024
Table 7.2
Ideal pressure drop in a packed tower absorber is 15- 50 mm H2O/ m packing.
Thus,
Assuming pressure drop of 20 mm H2O /m packing
We refer to Fig 11.44 Pg.6-3 Coulson Richardson vol. 6 3rd edition

At flooding
% flooding

K1= 0.36
K2 =0.95
(0.36/0.95 x100)(1/2)
=61.6 %

K1= 0.55
K2= 1.9
(0.55/1.9 x 100(1/2)
=53.8 %

Table 7.3
Selecting pall rings of 31/2 inch size for packing
Size = 89 mm
Bulk density = 64 Kg/ m3
Surface area , a= 85 m2/ m3
Packing factor, fp = 52/m
Mass flow rate of vapor / unit area of cross section

)1/2

Vw= (

Vw

1.007 Kg/m2 s

42

1.379 Kg/m2 s

Cross section area


Diameter, d

Packing to diameter

2.480 /1.667 = 1.488 m2

4.704/1.379 =3.433 m2

= 1.376 m =1.5 m
16.85

=2.09 m =2.1 m
23.6

ratio
Table 7.4
Estimation of Column Height
We need to find height of each stage individually since the flow rate is
changing and cannot be assumed to be constant in the entire column.
Height of gas and liquid transfer unit
Hg =Gm/( Kg a P)
Hl = Lm/ (Kl a Cl)
Total height , Ht = Hg + ( m Gm* Hl/ Lm)
Where,
P = column operating pressure, atm
Cl= total concentration, Kmol/m3
Gm = molar gas flowrate/ unit corss section area, Kmol/ m2 sec
Lm = molar liquid flowrate / unit cross section area, Kmol/ m2 sec
Using Ondas method
KL(

KG(
Where:
K5= 5.23 for packing size above 15 mm and 2 for size below 15 mm
Lw = liquid mass flowrate / unit cross section area, Kg/ m2
Vw= gas mass flowrate / unit cross section area, Kg/ m2
A= area of packing/ unit volume, m2/m3
Dp= packing size, m
KG = gas film mass transfer coefficient, Kmol/m2atm
Kl= liquid film mass transfer coefficient, Kmol/m2sec
Dv =2.28 * 10-5 m2/sec

We know (from literature);

Dl =5* 10-9m2/sec
v =1.78 * 10-5 Kg/msec
3

Cl = 1000/20 = 50 mol/ m
=0.05 Kmol/m3
Thus we calculate height of each stage by using the above formulae

43

Property
Stage 1 (bottom)
Stage 2 (top)
2
Lw
12.557 Kg/m sec
27.473 Kg/m2sec
2
Lm
1.328 Kmol/m sec
0.612 Kmol/m2sec
Kl
0.147258 m/s
0.030762 m/s
Hl
3.469 m
7.675 m
Vw
1.659 Kg/m2sec
1.379 Kg/m2sec
Gm
0.0488 Kmol/m2sec
0.0593 Kmol/m2sec
2
Kg
0.00241 Kmol/m atm
0.000186 Kmol/m2atm
Fg
3.898 m
6.12m
Height of stage, ht
4.16 m
7.66 m
Table 7.5
Thus total height of absorption column is Ht1 +Ht2
= 11.82 m
= 12 m
Adding top and bottom clearances for heads height = 12+2= 14 m

Design of column internals


Packing selection
The principal requirements of a packing are that it should:
Provide a large surface area: high interfacial area between the gas and

liquid.
Have an open structure: low resistance to gas flow.
Promote uniform liquid distribution on the packing surface.
Promote uniform vapour gas flow across the column cross section.

Recommended size ranges are:


Column Diameter
<0.3 m (1 ft)
0.3 to 0.9 m (1 to 3 ft)
>0.9 m (3 ft)

Use packing size


<25 mm (1 in)
25 to 38 mm (1 to 1.5 in)
50 to 75 mm (2 to 3 in)

44

Table 7.6

inch size plastic pall rings og poly propylene have been selected for

packing because of low density and light weight.

45

Size : 89 mm
Bulk density: 64 Kg/m3
Surface area, a: 85 m2 /m3
Packing factor, fp: 52 /m
Thus mass of packing required

=(HT1 D1 + HT2D2)(bulk density

of packing )
=(4.16x2.1 + 7.66x1.5)(64)
=1294.46 kg packing
=1300 kg packing
Packing support
The function of the support plate is to carry the weight ig the wet packing , whilst
allowing free passage of the gas and the liquid. These requirements conflicts; a poorly
designed support will give a high pressure drop and can cause local flooding.
Simple grid and perforated plates can be used, however in these designs the liquid and
gas have to vie for the same openings. Thus pressure drop across the support would
increase. So the best design for packing support is one in which liquid flows from the
bed; such gas injectors are shown in the diagram. These designs have a free area of
flow of the order of 85%, thus low pressure drop and no tendency to flooding. Also
they are available in wide range of sizes and materials.

46

Figure 7.2 Typical designs of gas injections supports (Norton Co.)

Liquid Distributors
The satisfactory performance of a plate column is independent on maintaining a
uniform flow of liquid throughout the column, and good initial liquid distribution is
essential. It is generally considered necessary to provide at least five points of
introduction of liquid for each 0.1 m2 of tower cross section for large towers (d> 1.2
m). Various designs of distributors are used. The two most commonly used designs
are orifice type and weir type.

47

Figure 7.3

Weir type is selected because it does not create significant pressure drop unlike orifice
type. IN weir type liquid flows over notched weirs in the gas stand pipe. This type can
be designed to cope with a wider range of liquid flow rates than simple orifice type.

Figure 7.4 Weir- trough liquid distributor. ( Chemical Process Product Division,

Norton Co.)
Liquid redistributor

48

Channeling tendency in the present design is kept minimum by selecting packing of


pall rings such that:

However, we need to provide for redistribution of liquid at intervals from 3-10 times
the tower diameter, but at least every 6 to 7 m.
Redistributors are used to collect liquid that has migrated to the column walls and
redistribute it evenly over the packing. They will also even out any mal- distribution
that has occurred within the packing. A full re- distributor combines the function of a
packing support and a liquid distributor; a typical design is shown in figure.

Figu
re 7.5

49

7.2) PROCESS DESIGN OF BRINE COOLER (HEAT EXCHANGER)


Heat exchanger used is shell and tube. The ammoniated brine exiting from ammonia
absorption column must be cooled from 40 0C to 30 0C using cooling water available
at 20 0C.
Shell Side
Feed (mb )

= 40.88kg/s

Inlet Temp.(T1 ) =40 0C


Outlet Temp.(T2 ) =400 C
Tube Side
Inlet Temp.(t1 ) =20 0C
Outlet Temp.(t2 ) =29 0C
Avg. properties of fluids
a) Tube side(ammoniated brine) at 35 0C

Cp =3.555 KJ/Kg. k
K=0.49w/m.k
b) Shell Side (water) at 250C

Cp =4.18 KJ/Kg. k
K=0.608w/m.k
1) Heat Balance
Qh=mhCp(T1-T2)
=40.88*3.555*(40-30)
=1453.28 kW
50

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

At steady state,
Qh= Qc=mcCp(t1-t2)
1453284=mc*4.18*(29-20)
Mc = 38.63 kg/s
LMTD
LMTD = 10.50C
FT = LMTD Correction factor
R = 0.90 & S= 0.5
From graph of FT vs S
FT =0.85
LMTD (corrected )= 0.85*10.5=8.90C
Heat Transfer area:
Choose overall heat transfer coefficient = 1000 W/(m2K)
Q = UA(LMTD)
A = 1453284/1000*8.90
=162.956 m2
Tube selection
in. OD , 16 BWG tubes
OD = in. = 19.05 mm
ID = 0.62 in. =15.75 mm
Length of tube L =20 ft= 6m
in tubes arranged in triangular pitch
TEMA P or S , Floating Head type:
Heat transfer area per tube = 0.3589 m2
Number of tubes
= 162.956/0.3589
= 454
Nearest tube from table
NT=456
Assuming 4 tube pass and 1 shell pass,
Thus, 114 tubes per pass
Shell ID (DF) calculation
We find k1 and n1 factors (0.175 & 2.285 respectively ) for triangular pitch
Bundle Diameter Db =595.4 mm
Clearance depends on type of head selected
Thus, clearance for floating head type for given Db =60 mm
DF=655 mm
Corrected heat transfer area =0.3589*456=163.659m2
Corrected overall heat transfer coefficient
U=995.7 W/(m2K)
Tube side velocity
No. of passes NP = 4
Flow area
=(3.14*Dt2/4)*NT/NP
= (3.14*0.0165/4)*114
AP =0.0222 m2
Vt

= mc/(Aa

=40.88/(0.0222*999)
=1.866 m/s
Velocity is within the range 1 to 2 m/s
7) Shell side velocity

51

Sm =((P1-D0)Ls)Ds/P1

P1=pitch=23.8 mm, Ls=0.8Ds

=((0.0238-0.01905)*0.524)*0.655/0.0238
= 0.0687
Vs = mc/(

=38.63/(999*0.0687)
=0.563 m/s
Nb+1=L/Ls=6/0.524=11.45
Thus, Nb=11 baffles
8)Shell side heat transfer coefficient
Nnu=jhNre(Npr)1/3

Nnu= Nusselt no.

Nre= VsD0

Nre= Reynolds no.

=0.563*0.01905*999/0.000897
=8479
Jh= 0.006
Npr=0.000897*4180/0.608
=6.164
Nnu= 92.176
h0= 92.716*0.608/0.01905 = 4167.48 W/m2K
52

9)Tube side heat transfer coefficient


Nnu=jhNre0.8 (Npr)1/3
Nre=17903.6
Npr=11.75
Jh= 0.0027
Nnu=109
hi= 3391.34 W/m2K
10) Overall heat transfer coefficient
Dirt coefficient on shell side hod=5000 w/m2/K
Dirt coefficient on tube side hid=5555 w/m2/K

U= 951 w/m2K
Assumed value and designed value are almost same.

53

11) Pressure drop calculations


Tube side Reynolds no. Nre= 17903.6
Friction factor f = 0.003
PL= 8 f Lvt2

/(2Di)

=8 x 0.003 x 6 x (1.8656)2 x 987.86 /( 0.01575 x 2)


=1571.75 N/m2
Pe =2.5 x vt2 x

/2

= 2.5 x 999 x 1.86562 /2


=4346.22 N/m2
PT = Np (PL + Pe )
= 4 x (1571.75 + 4346.22)
=23671.88 N/m2

ie. Within the range opf 35 KN/m2 for

<1 mNsec/m2
7.3) PROCESS DESIGN OF CARBONATING COLUMN
Feed to the absorption tower is sodium chloride solution (brine).
Containing 248 gms NaCl per liter of solution.

Water

Input

Moles

Output

(mol/hr)

(Kg/hr)
111084

(mol/hr)
6171

(Kg/hr)
39622

373

Sodium
bicarbonate
54

NaCl
Ammonium

27594
16509

471
532

Water
Ammonium

11084
2523

6171
47

hydroxide
Carbondioxide 25416

577

chloride
Carbon

4661

105

dioxide
Total

7753

6698

Table 7.6
Given
Brine solution flow rate
Water flow rate

L1

= 111048 +27594 +16509 =155151 Kg/hr


= 111048 Kg/hr

Gas flow rate at bottom Gb

=25416 Kg/hr

Gas flow rate at top Gt

= 4661 Kg/hr

Solution flow rateat bottom Lb

= (39622 + 111084 + 25235) =175941 Kg/hr


=1.98 Kg/ m3

Density of gas s

Density of liquid

=1125 Kg/ m3

Bubble cap tray design


(1) Tray spacing
Chosen tray spacing ts = 610 mm = 24 in
(2) Tray thickness
T1 = 3 mm
(3) Estimation of Plate diameter
L/G (PG/PL)0.5 = 175941 / 25416 (1.98/1125)0.5
L/G (PG/PL)0.5 = 0.32
From flooding curve capacity parameter for tray spacing of 24 in
55

C SB,F

= 0.24 ft/sec

Surface tension opf liquid = 75.5 dynes/cm


Unf

=CSB x (c/20)02 [[PL-PG]/PG]0.5

For 90% flooding


Unf

= 0.9 x 7.45

Unf

=2.011 m/sec

=6.70 ft/sec

Volumetric flow rate of gas = 3.56 m2/sec


Net area available for gas flow (An) An

=3.56/2.011

An

=1.77 m2

Net area = Column cross sectional area downcomer area An= Ac Ad


Lw/Dc = 0.7
Sin(c/2) = [(Lw/2)/(Dc/2)] = 0.7 => c = 88.850
Ac

=(/4) Dc2 = 0.785 Dc2

Ad

=( /4) Dc2 (c/360) (Lw/2)(Dc/2).cos(c/2)


= 0.068 Dc2

Since An= Ac- Ad


1.77 = 0.785 Dc2 0.068Dc2
Dc = 2.46 m Taking
Dc= 2.5m

56

Ac= 7.065 m2
Ad=.612 m2
Lw= 2.1 mm
Active area

Aa

=Ac - 2Ad

Aa

= 5.841 m2

Liquid distribution area =

Acz

=10 % Ac

Acz

=0.7065 m2

Waste peripheral area = Awz = 5 %


Awz

=35325 m2

Ap= Ac-2Ad-Acz-Awz
Ap= 7.065 2 x .612 -7.065 -0.035 = 4.8 m2
(4) Selection of bubble cap
For tower of diameter 2.5 m
Cap diameter = 100mm = 4 in
4 inch size bubble cap, carbon steel US stnadard 12 OD = 4.093 in
ID = 3.875
Height overall 3 in
No. of slots

= 26

Type of slots = trapezoidal shape

57

Slot width
Bottom

= 0.333 in

Top

=0.107 in

Slot height

=1.25 in

Height around ring = 0.25 in


Take clearance , C=1
hap= hds C

=129.16 25.4 = 103.76 mm

Ads= Lwx hap = 0.1452 m2


hds=165.2 [0.0458/0.1452]2 = 16.436 mm

Down comer backup


hdc= hda +hw+ how+ hhg+ hl
=123.2 + 62.5 +74.711 + 16.436 + 20
= 297.52 mm
hl1 = hl/c
where c is froth density
Riser
OD = 2.718 in ID =2.5 in

58

Standard height
0.5 in skirt height = 0.5 in
1.0 in skirt height =3 in
1.5 in skirt height=3.5 in
Cap areas =4.8 in2
Risers =7.3 in2
Reversal =5.9 in2
Annular = 8.12 in2
Slot = 13.15 in2

5) Pitch of bubble cap


Bubble caps arranged on triangular pitch lp=150 mm
6) Ratio bubble cap area to perforated area
(Ab/Ap) = 0.403
7) Total area of bubble caps
Ab

= 1.93 m2

Total no. Of bubble caps = NT = 110


8) Weir height

59

hw = skirt clearance + spround ring + slot height + static seal


= 62.5 mm
9) Tray Dynamics calculation
Head loss through dispersion unit ( dry cap + slot drop)
hl = K1 + K2 (

) Uh2

Uh=15 m/s =liner gas velocity through risers


K1 = 3.73((

)/

)1/5(hsh)4/5(Us)2/5

Hsh = 32 mm = cap slot height


Us= 23 m/s linear gas velocity through slots m/s
K1 = 45.5

K2 calculation
(Annular area/riser area )=1.4
From plot of this area ratio vs K2, K2= 13
hl = 47.39 + 13*(0.8065/1125)*14.642
hl = 51.8 mm
Height of crest over weir (how)
how= fw*664(q/lw)2/3

60

q= liquid flow rate in m3/s =0.0434 m3/s


lw=weir length =2.1
q/lw = 0.03271
fw=1.1
how=74.711mm
Dynamic seal
hds= how+ hs+ hhg/2
hg= hw height of slot
hs=44.45mm
Let us assume hhg =20 mm
hds = 119.16 mm
Pressure drop through aerated liquid
hl1 = hds
= aeration factor
There fore =0.6
hl1 = 0.6*119.16
=71.5 mm
Total pressure drop
hl = hd + hl1

61

=123.2 mm
Head loss over down comer apron
hd= 165.2 {q/Ada}2
10) Column efficiency
Point Efficiency ( EOG)
Number of gas phase transfer units :
Ng=(0.776+ 0.00457hw Uapg0.5 + 105W) Nsc0.5
hw =weir height in mm = 62.5 mm
Ua= gas velocity through active area = 1.476 m/s
W= liquid flow rate in m3/(s.m) of width of flow path on plate= 0.007289 m3/(m.s)
Nsc g = Gas schimdt no.
Dg = Gas diffusion coefficient
Nsc g = 1.0644
Ng = 1.465
Number of liquid phase transfer units NL=KL.a.L
KL= liquid phase transfer coefficient
L=residence time of the liquid in the froth, sec
a = effective interfacial area for mass transfer, m2/m3
hL = effective clear liquid height, mm

62

q = liquid flow rate , m3/s


L = hLAa/1000q
=69.23*2.596/1000*0.0458
=4.39
KL.a = (4.127*108 DL)0.5 (0.21Ua

0.15

+0.15)

=0.1484
NL= 0.221
= mt( G1/L1)((1+Yt)/(1+Xt))

=15*(1/8.758)(1+0.01843)

= mb( G1/L1)((1+Yb)/(1+Xb))

=5.428*(1/8.758)(1+1.843)/(1+0.218)
=1.446
=(

+ t)/2 =1.595

NoG=1/(1/NG+ /NL)=0.495

EOG=1-e-NOG=0.3684= 36.84 %

63

8) EQUIPMENT DESIGN
8.1) Mechanical Design of Ammonia Absorption Column
Diameter of the tower Di = 2.0m
Working pressure = 1 atm=1.0329 kg/m2
Design pressure Pd = 1.1362 kg/ m2
Shell material Plain Carbon steel
Permissible tensile stress (ft) = 950kg/cm2
Insulation thickness = 100mm
Density of insulation = 770 kg/m3
Tray spacing = 610mm
Top disengaging space = 1m
Bottom separator space = 2m
Skirt height = 2m
64

Density of material column = 7700 kg/ m3


Wind pressure = 130 kg/ m2

1) Shell thickness
ts = PDi /(2fJ-P) + C
P= design pressure in kg/cm3
f=allowable tensile stress kg/cm3
C= corrosion allowance
J=joint factor
ts = (1.1362*2000)/(2*950*0.85-1.1362)
ts = 4 mm
Minimum thickness allowable is 6mm Hence ts = 6mm

2) Head Design
Shallow dished and torispherical head
Thickness of head is given by
65

th = PRCW/2fJ
Rc =crown radius
W=stress intensification factor
W= 0.25(3 + (Rc/Rk)
Rk = knuckle radius ,6% of crown radius.
W= 1.7706
th = 1.1362*2000*1.7706/2*950*0.85
ts = 2.491 mm
minimum thickness is ts = 6mm

3) Shell thickness at different heights


At a distance X m from the top of the shell the stress are;
Axial Stress: (compressive)
fap = piDi/(4(ts C))
= 1.1362*2000/4*(6-2)
= 142.025 kg/ m3
4) Compressive stress due to weight of shell up to a distance X
fds = /4 * ( Do2 Di2 ) s X / /4 * ( Do2 Di2 )
= s X
= 0.77X kg/ m3
5) Compressive stress due to weight of insulation
fd(ins) = Dins tin ins / Dm (ts C )
fd(ins) = 2212*100*770*X
66

2006*(6-2)
fd(ins) = 2.122X
6) Compressive Stress due to the weight of the liquid and tray
fd = Wliq / Dm(ts-C)
Wliq = ((X-top space)/TS+1) (d2/4)L
Wliq = ((X-1)/0.61)+1) (*22/4)*1193
= [61.44X-27.03] kg/cm
fd =[61.44X-27.03]/( *2.006*(6-2))
fd = [24.37X-10.722] kg/cm2
7) Stress due to the weight of the attachments
The total weight of the attachments
Wa = (2670 + 140X)
Fd(att) = (2670 + 140X)/(*2006*4) = 10.59 + 0.55X
8) Total compressive dead weight stress at height X
fds=27.812 X 19.755
9) Stress due to wind load at distance X
fws = 1.4*PwX2/*Do(ts-c)
= (1.4*130*X2)/(*201.2*.4)
= 0.7198X2
10) Stress in upwind side
fmax= fws+fap-fdx
0.8*950= 0.7198X2+142.025-27.812X+19.755
0.7198X2-27.812X-597.917=0
X=53.32 m
11) Stress in down side
fmax= fws+fap+fdx
67

0.7198X2-27.812X-882.28=0
X=49.30 m
From this ,for whole tower 6mm thickness is enough.
12) Skirt design
The material of construction for skirt is carbon steel IS: 2062-1962
Minimum weight of vessel
Wmin= (Di+ts) ts(H-2)s + 2WH
H=10.5 (Total height of tower including skirt height)
s= 7700kg/m3 (specific weight of shell material)
WH= 2670kg (weight of head)
Wmin= (2+0.006) (0.006)(10.5-2)7700 + 2*2670
Wmin= 8688.27 kg

Maximum weight of vessel


Wmax=Ws+Wi+Wl+Wa
Ws= 10800 kg (weight of shell during test)
Wi= 4200kg (weight of insulation)
Wl= 36128 kg (weight of water during test)
Wa= 4400 kg (weight of attachments)
Wmax=55528 kg
Wind load
PW= K1pwHD
For minimum weight of column, D=2m
Pw(min)= 0.7*130*10.5*2= 2457 kg
Pw(max)= 0.7*130*10.5*2.2= 2702.7 kg
Minimum wind moment
68

MW(min) = PW(min)*H/2
= 2457*10.5/2
= 16584.75 kg m
Maximum wind moment
MW(min) = PW(min)*H/2
= 2702.7*10.5/2
= 18243.22 kg m
Bending stresses
fb(min)= 4Mw(min)/ *D2*t
= 4*16584.75/ *22*t
= 0.5279/t kg/cm2
fb(max)= 4Mw(max)/*D2*t
= 4*18243.22/*4*t=0.5806/t kg/cm2
Minimum dead load stress
Fds(min)= Wmin/dt
= 8688.27/*2*t
= 0.1382/t kg/cm2
Maximum dead load
Fds(max)= Wmax/dt
= 0.8837 kg/cm3
Maximum tensile stress without any eccentric load
fz= fbs(max)-ffs(min)
980*0.8= 0.0529/t
t= 0.0771mm
Maximum compressive stress without any eccentric load
fz=fbs(max)-fbs(min)
69

fz= 0.125 E (t/Do)


= 0.125*2.04*106*t/2
= 127500t
127500t=0.5806/t+0.5279/t
t=2.94 m
Minimum skirt thickness is 7mm, by providing 1mm corrosion allowance
ts=8mm

Design of skirt bearing bolts


Maximum compressive stress between bearing plate and foundation
fc= Wmax/A + Mw/2
A=(Do-l)/2
l=outer radius of bearing plate minus outer radius of skrit
Z=Rm2 l
Rm=(Do-l)/2
fc= 55528 /((2-l)l) + 18243.22/((2-l)2l
The allowable compressive stress of concrete foundation varies from 5.5 to 9.5
MN/m2
0.55*106 = 55528 /((2-l)l) + 18243.22/((2-l)2l
l=0.021m
As required width of bearing plate is very small a 100 mm width is selected
70

l=0.1 m
therefore fc= 0.122*106
thickness of bearing plate
tbp=l(3fc/f)
= 100(3*0.122*106/96*106) = 61.2 mm
Bearing plate thickness of 61.2 mm is required
As the plate thickness required is larger than 20mm gussets may be used to reinforce
the plate.
For l/b=1
M(max) = MY= 0.199fcl2
= 0.119*0.122*106*0.12
= 145.18 kg
tbp=(6Mmax/f) = 9.52 mm
if gussets are used at 100mm spacing ,bearing plate thickness of 10mm will be
sufficient
fmin= Wmin/A Mw/Z
= 8688/(2-l)l + 18234.22/(2-l)2l
= 30641 kg/m3
j=WminR/Mw
R=moment arm for that weight of vessel.
R=0.42 Dol
R= 8688*0.42*2.2/18243.22
R= 0.44
As the value is less than 1.5, the vessel will not be steady by its own weight.
Therefore anchor bolts are to be used
Pbolt*n=fmin*A
71

= 30641*3.14*(2-0.1)*0.1
=1828
For hot rolled carbon steel f=5.73*106 kg/m2
(arn)f=nPbolt
arn=319 m2
For 12X1.5 ,ar=63mm2
Number of bolts=319/63=5 bolts
(13) Nozzles
Diameter of liquid inlet and outlet nozzles = 180mm
Diameter of gas inlet and outlet nozzles =75 mm
Thickness of nozzles t=10mm

(14) Bubble cap Tray


Number of bubble caps=110
Diameter of bubble cap (dc)=100mm=4in
Cap pitch (p)=150mm=6in
Distance between extreme rows of caps=l-(p+dc)
l=length of liquid travel=1.428m=56.23 in
number of rows= 1+(l-(p+dc))/p
=1+ (1-(56.23-(6+4))/6
= 9 rows
nr=number of caps for center row
nr= (Dc-(dc+3))/p
nr= (80-(4+3))/6
nr= 13
72

8.2) Mechanical Design of Brine Cooler (Heat Exchanger)


(a) Shell side details
Material: carbon steel
Number of shell passes: one
Working pressure: 0.1N/mm2
Design pressure: 0.11N/mm2
Inlet temperature: 400C
Out let temperature: 300C
Permissible stress for carbon steel: 95N/mm2
(b) Tube side details
Number tubes: 740
Number of passes: 6
Outside diameter: 19.05mm

73

Inside diameter: 15.75


Length: 6m
Pitch triangular: 1 inch
Working pressure: 0.1 N/mm2
Design pressure: 0.11N/mm2
Inlet temperature : 200C
Outlet temperature: 300C

Shell side
(1) Shell thickness
ts= PD/(2fJ+P)
= 0.11*838/(2*95*0.85+0.11)
= 0.57
Minimum thickness of shell must be=6.3 mm
Including corrosion allowance shell thickness is 8mm
(2) Head thickness.
Shallow dished and torispherical
ts=PRcW/2fJ
= 0.11*838*1.77/(2*95*1)
= 0.858
Minimum shell thickness should be 10mm including corrosion allowance.
74

(3) Transverse Baffles


Baffle spacing =0.8*Dc
= 670.4mm
Number of baffles,
Nb+1=L/LS=6000/670.4=9
Nb=8
Thickness of baffles, tb=6mm
(4) Tie Rods and spacers
For shell diameter, 700-900mm
Diameter of Rod = 13mm
Number of rods=6

(5) Flanges
Design pressure=0.11 N/mm2
Flange material IS: 2004-1962,class 2
Bolting steel: 5% Cr-Mo steel
Gasket material: asbestos composition
Shell thickness: 8mm=go
Outside diameter of shell: 854 mm
Allowable stress of flange material: 100MN/m2
Allowable stress of bolting material: 138MN/m2
Determination of gasket width
dO/di = [(y-Pm)/(y-P(m+1))]0.5
Assume a gasket thickness of 1.6mm
y = minimum design yield seating stress = 25.5 MN/m2
75

m = gasket factor = 2.75


dO/di = [(25.5-0.11*2.75)/(25.5-0.11(2.75+1))]0.5
dO/di = 1.002m
let di of gasket equal 864mm
do = 1.002*di
do = 0.8657 m
Minimum gasket width = 0.801(1.002-1)/2 = 0.0008m
Taking gasket width of N= 0.010m
do =0.885
Basic gasket seating width,bo=5mm
Diameter of location of gasket load reaction is
G=di +N
=0.864+0.01= 0.874 m
Estimation of Bolt loads.
Load due to design pressure
H= G2P/4
= 3.14*0.8742*0.11/4
= 0.066 MN
Load to keep joint tight under operation
Hp=G(2b)mp
= 3.14*0.874*(2*0.00559)*2.75*0.11
= 0.01 MN
Total operating load
Wo= H+Hp
=0.066+0.01
=0.076 MN
76

Load to seat gasket under bolting condition


Wg = Gby
= 3.14*0.874*0.00559*25.5
= 0.3914 MN
Wg>Wo, controlling load=0.3914MN
Calculation of optimum bolting area
Am=Ag=Wg/Sg
= 0.3914/138
= 2.836*10-03 m2
Calculation of optimum bolt size
Bolt size,M18 X 2
Actual number of bolts =44

Radial clearance from bolt circle to point of connection of hub or nozzle and back of
flange = R = 0.027 m
C = nBs/ = 0.9243
C =ID + 2(1.415g + R)
= 0.854 +2[(1.415)(0.008)+0.027]
= 0.9301m
Choose C = 0.93m
Bolt circle diameter = 0.93m
Calculation of flange outside diameter
A=C+ bolt diameter +0.02
=0.93+0.018+0.02
= 0.968
Let A=0.97 m
77

Check for gasket width


AbSG / (GN) = 34.055 < 2y,
where SG is the Allowable stress for the gasket material
Flange moment computation
(a) For operating condition
Wo=W1+W2+W3
W1=B2P/4
=*0.8542*0.11/4
= 0.063 MN
W2=H-W1
=0.0646-0.063
= 0.063MN

W3=Wo-H=Hp
= 0.01 MN
Mo=Total flange moment
Mo=W1a1 + W2a2 + W3a3
a1=(C-B)/2=(0.93-0.854)/2
a1=0.038 m
a3=(C-G)/2=(0.93-0.865)/2
a3=0.0325 m
a2= (a1 + a3)/2= (0.038+0.0325)/2=0.03525 m
Mo=0.038*0.063+0.03525*0.0016+0.0325*0.01
Mo= 2.775*10-3 MN-m
(b) For bolting condition
Mg=Wa3
78

W= (Am+Ab)*Sg/2
Ab=44*1.54*10-4 =6.76*10-3 m2
Am= 2.836*10-03 m2
W= (2.836*10-3+6.76*10-3)*138/2
W= 0.6621 MN
Mg= 0.6621*0.0325
= 0.02333 MN-m
Mg>Mo, Hence moment under operating condition Mg is controlling, Mg=M

Calculation of flange thickness


t2 = M CF Y / (B SF), SF is the allowable stress for the flange material
K =A/B = 0.97/0.854 = 1.135
For K = 1.15, Y = 14
Assuming CF =1
t2 = 0.02333*1*14/(0.854*100)
t= 0.0618 m=61.8 mm
Actual bolt spacing BS = C/n = (3.14)(0.93)/(44) = 0.066m
Bolt Pitch Correction Factor
CF = [Bs / (2d+t)]0.5
= (0.066/(2*0.018+0.076)1/2
= 0.7675
CF=0.87612
79

Actual flange thickness = CF*t


= 0.8761*0.0618
= 0.04713 m
= 47.13 mm
Standard flange thickness available is 50 mm
Channel and channel Cover
th=Gc(KP/f)
= 0.865*(0.3*0.11/95)
= 0.016m =16mm
th=18mm including corrosion allowance

Tube sheet thickness


tts=FG(0.25P/f)
= 1*0.874(0.25*0.11/95)
= 14.7 mm
tts=15mm
tts=18 mm including corrosion allowance.
Nozzles
Tube side nozzles diameter=180 mm
Shell side nozzles diameter = 180 mm
Thickness of nozzles =t=10mm
Saddle support
Material: low carbon steel
Total length of shell: 6 m
80

Diameter of shell: 854 mm


Knuckle radius: 51.24 mm
Total depth of head (H) = (Doro/2)
= (854*51.24/2)
= 148 mm
Weight of the shell and its contents = 11943kg = W
R=D/2=427 mm
Distance of saddle center line from shell end = A =0.5R=214 mm

Longitudinal Bending Moment


M1 = QA[1-(1-A/L+(R2-H2)/(2AL))/(1+4H/(3L))]
Q = W/2(L+4H/3)
= 11943(6 +4*0.148/3)/2
= 47756.075 kg m
M1 = 477560*0.214[1-(1-0.214/6+(0.4272-0.1482)/(2*6*0.214))/(1+4*0.148/(3*6))]
= 1004.63 kg-m
Bending moment at center of the span
M2 = QL/4[(1+2(R2-H2)/L)/(1+4H/(3L))-4A/L]
M2 =81085.6 kg-m
Stresses in shell at the saddle
(a) At the topmost fibre of the cross section
f1 =M1/(k1 R2 t) k1=k2=1
81

=1004.63/(3.14*0.4272*0.01)
= 17.35 kg/cm2
the stresses are well within the permissible values.
Stress in the shell at mid point
f2 =M2/(k2 R2 t)
= 604.45 kg/cm2
Axial stress in the shell due to internal pressure
fp= PD/4t
= 0.11*836/4*10
= 225.53 kg/cm2
f2 + fp = 829.98 kg/cm2
the sum f2 and fp is well within the permissible values.

9) PROCESS CONTROL & INSTRUMENTATION


The main objective in the operation of a plant is to produce a particular product of
given quality. Instrumentation involves provision of controllers to certain equipments
to measure flow rate, temperature, pressure etc. to maintain quality of the final
product.
The profit made by company also depends on the production cost. Therefore the
purchase of control equipment has to be justified, because I t increases the
production costs. Process instrumentation is justified because it gives product of
uniform and better quality and makes the operation uniform and smooth.
Moreover, an efficiently controlled plant means high safety. In chemical industry,
this is a very important consideration.

82

The most commonly encountered problem in chemical industry is the regular type
problem, in which the set point is constant and we compensate the offset as rapidly as
possible without instability.
The function fulfilled by an instrument may be:

Indicating

Recording

Controlling

Automation and control:


Improvement in automatic instrumentation and control generally has lagged behind
the petroleum and petrochemical industry, probably because of more difficult
measurement requirements. However recent dramatic increases in feed stock, quality
control and other costs coupled with lower prices on computers have greatly increased
the incentive for computer controls.
Most plants eventually improves their control by installing conventional pneumatic,
and more recently, electronic controllers on measure flow and temperature loops. This
type of control is still needed by most plants today.

83

These controllers may not take into account variation in temperature pressure
composition molecular weight or other factors that affect mass flow rates. This is
especially true of gas flows, variation being caused by changes in temperature
compensators on the airflow controllers to help reduce quality variation.
Applied automation Inc. Oklahoma 1968 pioneered in a program to determine the
affect of all known variables on quality and economics. They conducted computer
aided implant process investigation of reactor pelleting and drying areas of carbon
black plant. Special equipment include a process computer several automatic
sampling and chromatographic analysis and peripheral equipment necessary to
continuously sense process variable condition calculate mass rate calculate complete
material and energy balances and to control online or loops necessary to assure
consistent quality.

Flow control:
Flow control is usually associated with inventory controlling storage or other
equipment to provide flow control on a compressor or pump running at a fixed speed
and applying a rear constant volume output, a by pass control would be used.
The following protocol has been followed while designing the controller systems:

In general, the easier the system, the better it is.

For controlling each process parameter, the PID controllers have been used.

84

In general wherever the ratio control can be used, has been used, Since
addition of one of the component also decides the amount of the other
components to be added, the ratio control can be easily used.

The flow of steam and cooling water through heat exchangers, have been fixed
based on the tower top and tower bottom temperatures.

10) PROCESS UTILITY


Process Utilities are a major necessity for any chemical plant. Yhe following are
usually considered utilities although in some companies one or more are treated under
other specification of the cost.
Steam, cooling water, de-ionised water, electric power, instrument air, effluent

treatment. Their effect on the cost of production will naturally depend on the process

85

involved. Occasionally, the costing of utilities will be intricate because utilities


required under utilities for their manufacture.
1. Steam
Steam is an important energy vector in the manufacture of soda ash by the solvay
process because of its mechanical capability ( to drive a range of machinery including
turbo generators, gas compressors, vacuum machines, etc) and as a thermal carrier for
thermal decomposition, distillation and drying.
A range of processes and temperatures are therefore required to meet the process
needs and to maximize the energy efficiency of the process. Steam is typically
generated at super pressure (100- 150 bar) or high pressure of 60-80 bar. Mechanical
energy is removed from the steam reducing its pressure to 10-40 bar ( IP: immediate
pressure steam) and some to low pressure (L.P.: <5 bar) steam.
IP steam is normally used for thermal decomposition and drying duties associated
with the conversion of sodium bicarbonate to light soda ash and the decomposition of
sodium carbonate monohydrate and drying to produce dense ash. L.P. steam is
primarily used for ammonia distillation.

The steam process consumption lies in the range of:

Recovery of ammonia (depending of the applied process): 1300 to 2400 Kg/t

soda ash
Decomposition of bicarbonate: 1100 to 1300 kg/t soda ash
Drying of monohydrate ( dense soda ash): 350 to 450 kg/t soda ash

86

2. Process Water
Water requirements fall under three categories, cooling, process and miscellaneous
sucj as washing or drinking. For cooling purpose it is usalluy uneconomical and
occasionally violation of conservation lawa to use treated water on once through
basis, although untreated river or sea water may be used in this manner.
Basically the main consumer of water apart from brine is the slaker where the lime
coming from the lime kilns reacts with water to produce milk of lime. The quantity is
in the range of 1.9 to 2.4 m3/t soda ash.
The quantity requirement for the water is not high. It is normally taken at the outlet of
the cooling water system ( warm water). Other water needs, in the range of 0.6 to 1.2
m3/t soda ash require higher purity (absence of Ca and Mg salts) for different uses as
additional wash water to wash the sodium bicarbonate cake at the filter outlet.
The above quoted process water needs exclude the water entering the process in the
form of brine which typically represents 4500-5200 Kg/t soda ash and steam
condensate mainly partially condensing in the distillation tower (roughly 650 kg/t
soda ash).

3. Cooling waters
Many unit operation of the soda ash process are exothermic. The cooling agent is
normally cooling water in open or closed loop. The closed loop requires a cooling
tower with special water treatment. The open loop is the once through system using
for example river water. In the latter case the total flow of cooling water required for :

lime kiln gas treatment.


Carbonation towers
87

CO2 compression
Distillation
Absorption
Calcinations

-Amounts to 50 to 100 m3/t soda ash depending upon the cooling water temperature.
Cooling water consumption is minimized by managing different cross flow heat
exchangers.
4. Electricity
Electric power is required to run motors, pumps, compressors, blowers, impellers, etc.
The gas compressors can be driven by either electric motors or steam turbines, leading
to a range of electrical consumption between 50 and 130 KWh/t soda ash. The
necessary consumption for compression is also linked to CO 2 concentration. Thus it
becomes necessary to have a reliable power source.
Normally big plants have their own thermal power station, in which there are huge
boilers, in which steam is generated, which is used to run turbines. This generated
steam can be used in reboilers and heat exchangers.
In most cases it represents a modest part of total operating cost. Electrical power in
India is mostly purchased from a public utility. All major contracts contain demand
component as energy component and variable fuel-cost component.
The demand charge is based on the maximum power requirement drawn by the plant
during a measurable period. The demand charges represent fixed charge which must
be paid by the utility for generation, transmission and distribution facilities.
The energy charge is based on kilowatt used. It can be used as a flat unit cost per
kilowatt-hour. Because of the demand charge a maximum utilization of demand
capacity will result in the lower units of electricity.
88

The fuel adjustment charge reflects the increased or decreased cost of fuel to the
power company.
In addition to the cost of power from the utilities company, the power must be
transformed and distributed through the plant properly. For a chemical plant these
distribution charges may be 50% of the purchased power of the power from utility.
5. Waste disposal
It may be a major or minor cost. In a large palnt, effluent from spills discarded
fractions etc are run together into a tank or pond, neutralized and perhaps diluted until
they are very innocuous to the water body into which they are eventually drained.

11) PLANT LOCATION


The location of the plant can have a crucial effect on the profitability of a project and
the scope for future expansion. Many factors must be considered when selecting a
suitable site and only a brief review of the principal factors will be given in this

section. The principal factors to be considered are:


Location, with respect to the marketing area.
Raw material supply.
Transport facilities.
Availability of labour.
Availability of utilities: Water, Fuel, Power.
Availability of suitable land.
Environmental impact and effluent disposal.
Local Community Considerations.
Climate.
Political Strategic Considerations.
89

Marketing Area
For materials that are produced in bulk quantities: Such as cement, mineral acids and
fertilizers, where the cost of the product per ton is relatively low and the cost of
transport is a significant fraction of the sales price, the plant should be located close to
the primary market. This consideration will be less important for low volume
production, high-priced products; such as pharmaceuticals. In an International market,
there may be an advantage to be gained by locating the plant within an area with
preferential tariff.

Raw Materials
The Availability and Price of Suitable Raw Materials Will Often Determine the Site
Location. Plants Producing Bulk Chemicals Are Best Located Close To the Source Of
The Major Raw Material; Where This Is Also Close To The Marketing Area. Soda
Ash Plant Should Be Located Near the Salt Lakes or Near Sea, Where Sodium
Chloride Is Available Abundantly.
Transport
The Transport of Materials and Products To and From Plant Will Be an Overriding
Consideration in Site Selection. If Practicable, a Site Should Be Selected That Is
Close At Least Two Major Forms Of Transport: Road, Rail, Waterway or a Seaport.
Road Transport Is Being Increasingly Used, and Is Suitable For Local Distribution
from a Central Warehouse. Rail Transport Will Be Cheaper For The Long-Distance
Transport Of Bulk Chemicals. Air Transport Is Convenient and Efficient For the
Movement of Personnel And Essential Equipment and Supplies, and the Proximity of
the Site to a Major Airport Should Be Considered.
90

Availability of Labour
Labour Will Be Needed For Construction Of The Plant And Its Operation. Skilled
Construction Workers Will Usually Be Brought In From Outside the Site, But There
Should Be an Adequate Pool of Unskilled Labor Available Locally; and Labor
Suitable For Training To Operate The Plant. Skilled Tradesmen Will Be Needed For
Plant Maintenance. Local Trade Union Customs and Restrictive Practices Will Have
To Be Considered When Assessing the Availability and Suitability of the Labour For
Recruitment and Training.

Utilities (Services)
The Word Utilities Is Now Generally Used For the Ancillary Services Needed In
The Operation of Any Production Process. These Services Will Normally Be Supplied
From A Central Facility; and Will Include:

Electricity: - Power Required For Electrochemical Processes, Motors, Lightings, And

General Use
Steam For Process Heating: - The Steams required For the Process Are Generated In

The Tube Boilers Using Most Economic Fuel.


Cooling Water: - Natural and Forced Draft Cooling Towers Are Generally Used To

Provide The Cooling Water Required On Site.


Water For General Use: - The Water required For the General Purpose Will Be Taken
From Local Water Supplies Like Rivers, Lakes And Seas. Because Of This Reason

All the Plants Located On the Banks of River.


Dematerialized Water: - Dematerialized Water, From Which All The Minerals Have
Been Removed By Ion-Exchange Is Used Where Pure Water Is Needed For the
Process Use, In Boiler Feed Water.

91

Refrigeration: - Refrigeration Is needed For the Processes, Which Require

Temperatures Below That Are Provided By The Cooling Water.


Inert-Gas Supplies.
Compressed Air: - In an Ethylene Oxide Plant Compressed Air Is One Of The Raw

Materials. It Is Also Needed For Pneumatic Controllers Etc.


Effluent Disposal Facilities: - Facilities Must Be Provided For The Effective Disposal
of the Effluent without Any Public Nuisance.

Environmental Impact, And Effluent Disposal


All Industrial Processes Produce Waste Products, And Full Consideration Must Be
Given To The Difficulties and Coat of Their Disposal. The Disposal of Toxic and
Harmful Effluents Will Be Covered By Local Regulations, and the Appropriate
Authorities Must Be Consulted During the Initial Site Survey to Determine the
Standards That Must Be met.
Local Community Considerations
The Proposed Plant Must Fit In With And Be Acceptable To The Local Community.
Full Consideration Must Be Given To the Safe Location of the Plant So That It Does
Not Impose A Significant Additional Risk To The Community. Land (Site
Considerations) Sufficient Suitable Land Must Be Available For the Proposed Plant
and Future Expansion. The Land Should Be Ideally Flat, Well Drained and Have
Load-Bearing
Characteristics. A Full Site Evaluation Should Be Made To Determine the Need For
Piling or Other Foundations.
Climate

92

Adverse Climatic Conditions at Site Will Increase Costs. Abnormally Low


Temperatures Will Require the Provision of Additional Insulation and Special Heating
For Equipment and Piping. Stronger Locations Will Be Needed At Locations Subject
To High Wind Loads or Earthquakes.
Political and Strategic Considerations
Capital Grants, Tax Concessions, and Other Inducements Are Often Given By
Governments to Direct New Investment to Preferred Locations; Such As Areas of
High Unemployment. The availability of Such Grants Can Be the Overriding
Consideration In Site Selection.

93

12) PLANT LAYOUT


The economic construction and efficient operation of a process unit will depend on
how Well the plant and equipment specified on the process flow sheet is laid out. The
principal Factors are considered are:

Economic considerations: construction and operating costs.


The process requirements.
Convenience of operation.
Convenience of maintenance.
Safety.
Future expansion.
Modular constructions.
Costs
The cost of construction can be minimized by adopting a layout that gives the shortest
run of connecting pipe between equipment, and at least amount of structural steel
work. However, this will not necessarily be the best arrangement for operation and
maintenance.
Process requirements
An example of the need to take into account process consideration is the need to
elevate The base of columns to provide the necessary net positive suction head to a
pump or the operating head for a thermosyphon reboiler.
94

Operations
Equipment that needs to have frequent attention should be located convenient to the
control room. Valves, sample points, and instruments should be located at convenient
positions and heights. Sufficient working space and headroom must be provided to
allow easy access to equipment.
Maintenance
Heat exchangers need to be sited so that the tube bundles can be easily withdrawn for
cleaning and tube replacement. Vessels that require frequent replacement of catalyst
or packing should be located on the out side of buildings. Equipment that requires
dismantling for maintenance, such as compressors and large pumps, should be places
under cover.
Safety
Blast walls may be needed to isolate potentially hazardous equipment, and confine the
effects of an explosion. At least two escape routes for operators must be provided
from each level in process buildings.
Plant expansion
Equipment should be located so that it can be conveniently tied in with any future
expansion of the process. Space should be left on pipe alleys for future needs, and
service pipes over-sized to allow for future requirements.
Modular construction
In recent years there has been a move to assemble sections of plant at the plant
manufacturers site. These modules will include the equipment, structural steel, piping
and instrumentation. The modules are then transported to the plant site, by road or
sea. The advantages of modular construction are:

95

Improved quality control.


Reduced construction cost.
Less need for skilled labour on site.
Some of the disadvantages are;

Higher design costs & more structural steel work.


More flanged constructions & possible problems with assembly, on site.
The Plant Layout KEYWORDS
1. Raw material Storage
2. Product Storage
3. Process Site
4. Laboratories
5. Workshop
6. Canteen & Change house
7. Fire Brigade
8. Central Control Room
9. Security office
10. Administrative Building
11. Site for Expansion Project.
12. Effluent treatment plant
13. Power house
14. Emergency water storage
15. Plant utilities

96

A detailed plant layout is drawn and submitted with this thesis report.
This plant layout is just a reference plant layout. There may be a lot of
changes in actual plant layout.
13) POLLUTION CONTROL & WASTE MANAGEMENT
The bulk of the solids in distiller waste in the soda ash plant is made up of chloride.
This arises from the fact that the waste contains all the chloride from the salt used,
chlorine is not utilized in the process.
Calcium chloride in solution permeates the soil bed and contaminates sources of water
supply. Only to a very limited extent is any portion of the waste allowed by municipal
authorities to be sent to rivers or any public waterways and that only after complete
settling. Also fish in the river were killed by the calcium chloride and the free lime
carried in the liquor.
The preparation of chlorine gas or hydrochloric acid from calcium chloride in the
waste went no longer be considered workable in view of the present more economical
methods for preparing such materials.

97

Waste Disposal: Large volumes of liquid wastes containing suspended and dissolved
solids are produced in an ammonia soda plant. The largest volume occurs from the
distiller operation where for every ton of product soda ash, nearly 10 m3 of liquid
wastes are produced, containing about one ton of calcium chloride, one-half ton of
sodium chloride, and other soluble and insoluble impurities. Traditionally this liquid
waste, after settling of suspended solids in large basins, was discharged into local
waterways. In the United States, federal guidelines , suggesting limits on suspended
solids and pH of liquid wastes discharged to local waterways, are used in the
development of local discharge permits. The guidelines also specified no discharges
from new ammonia soda ash plants. Although processes have been proposed to
reduce or eliminate waste streams, it is felt that in the United States, with its abundant
reserves of natural ash, the guidelines will prohibit installation of new ammonia
soda plants. In addition to regulations governing liquid wastes, local restrictions have
been placed on gaseous emissions from soda ash plants to protect air quality. The cost
to comply with the environmental regulations and the increasing operating costs
relative to natural ash have contributed heavily to the shutdown of synthetic soda ash
plants in the United States.

98

14) PLANT SAFETY


Exposure to soda ash is ordinarily not hazardous but soda ash dust may produce
temporary irritation of the nose and throat. Although some become accustomed to
working in ht dust and suffer relatively little discomfort, others are allergic to alkaline
materials and develop a condition of dermatitis. Tests have shown that dermal effects
due to soda ash range from a transient reddening and inflammation to mild burns to
abraded skin areas. The skin irritations experienced by workmen exposed to soda ash
dust in hot weather are usually more severe because soda ash is likely to dissolve in
perspiration. Soda ash is corrosive to the eyes. It produces severe corneal, iridal, and
conjunctival effects (tissue destruction). Soda ash is harmful if ingested and may be
corrosive to the lining of the stomach. A private communication has indicated that the
acute oral LD50 on for soda ash is 2.8 g/kg.

99

Potential Health Effects of Soda ash


Eye: Contact with eyes may cause severe irritation, and possible eye burns.
First aid: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes,
occasionally lifting the upper and lower lids. Get medical aid immediately
Skin: Contact with skin causes irritation and possible burns, especially if the skin is
wet or moist.
First aid: Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15
minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.
Ingestion: May cause irritation of the digestive tract.
First aid: Do not induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2- 4cupfuls
of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get
medical aid immediately.
Inhalation: May cause irritation of the respiratory tract with burning pain in the nose
and throat, coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and pulmonary edema.
First aid: Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing,give
artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.Get medical aid if cough or
other symptoms appear.
Chronic: Prolonged or repeated inhalation may cause nosebleeds, nasal congestion,
erosion of the teeth, perforation of the nasal septum,chest pain and bronchitis.

100

Handling and storage


Handling: Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash
before reuse. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Keep container tightly
closed. Avoid ingestion and inhalation.
Storage: Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry,well-ventilated area
away from incompatible substances.

101

15) ORGANISATION LAYOUT

102

16) PLANT ECONOMICS

Cost of Soda ash plant of capacity 500 TPD in 1971 is Rs.1.17108.


Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index:
Cost index in 1971 = 132
Cost index in 2002 = 590
Thus, Present cost of Plant = (original cost) (present cost index)/(past cost index)
= (1.17108) (590/132) = Rs. 5.22108 i.e., Fixed Capital Cost (FCI) = Rs.
5.22108
16.1Capital Investment Cost:
I. Direct Costs: material and labour involved in actual installation of complete
facility (70-85% of fixed-capital investment)
a) Equipment + installation + instrumentation + piping + electrical + insulation +
painting
(50-60% of Fixed-capital investment)
1. Purchased equipment cost (PEC): (15-40% of Fixed-capital investment)
Consider purchased equipment cost = 25% of Fixed-capital investment
i.e., PEC = 25% of 5.22108 = 0.25 3.0455108 = Rs. 1.3325108
2. Installation, including insulation and painting: (25-55% of
purchased equipment cost.)
Consider the Installation cost = 40% of Purchased equipment cost
1.3325108 = 0.40 1.3325108 = Rs.0.553108

= 40% of

3. Instrumentation and controls, installed: (6-30% of Purchased equipment cost.)


Consider the installation cost = 20% of Purchased equipment cost = 20% of
1.3325x108 = 0.20 1.3325108 = Rs. 0.2665108
4. Piping installed: (10-80% of Purchased equipment cost)
Consider the piping cost = 40% Purchased equipment cost
= 40% of Purchased equipment cost = 0.40 1.3325108 = Rs. 0.52210&
5. Electrical, installed: (10-40% of Purchased equipment cost)
Consider Electrical cost = 25% of Purchased equipment cost
= 25% of 1.3325
8
8
8
10 = 0.25 1.332510 = Rs. 0.333110 Hence, cost =Rs. 2.9981108 --- (56.25%
of FCI)
103

B. Buildings, process and Auxiliary: (10-70% of Purchased equipment cost)


Consider Buildings, process and auxiliary cost = 40% of PEC
1.3325 108 = 0.40 1.3325108 = Rs. 0.533108

= 40% of

C. Service facilities and yard improvements: (40-100% of Purchased equipment cost)


Consider the cost of service facilities and yard improvement = 60% of PEC = 60%
of 1.3325 108 = 0.60 1.3325108 = Rs. 0.7993108

D. Land: (1-2% of fixed capital investment or 4-8% of Purchased equipment cost)


Consider the cost of land = 6% PEC = 6% of 1.3325 108 = 0.06 1.3325108
=
8
Rs. 0.0799510
Thus, Direct cost = Rs. 4.41108 ----- (82.74% of FCI)

II. Indirect costs: expenses which are not directly involved with material and labour
of actual installation of complete facility (15-30% of Fixed-capital investment)
A. Engineering and Supervision: (5-30% of direct costs)
Consider the cost of engineering and supervision = 10% of Direct costs
i.e., cost of engineering and supervision
= 10% of 4.41 108 = 0.14.41 108 = Rs. 0.441108

B. Construction Expense and Contractors fee: (6-30% of direct costs)


Consider the construction expense and contractors fee = 10% of Direct costs
i.e., construction expense and contractors fee
= 10% of 4.41108 = Rs. 0.441108

C. Contingency: (5-15% of Fixed-capital investment)


Consider the contingency cost = 10% of Fixed-capital investment i.e., Contingency
cost = 10% of 5.33108 = 0.12 5.33108 = Rs. 0.6396108
Thus, Indirect Costs = Rs. 1.5216108--- (28.54% of FCI)

104

III. Fixed Capital Investment:


Fixed capital investment = Direct costs + Indirect costs
(4.41108) + (1.5216108) i.e., Fixed capital investment = Rs. 5.9316108

IV. Working Capital: (10-20% of Fixed-capital investment)


Consider the Working Capital = 15% of Fixed-capital investment i.e., Working
capital = 15% of 5.9316108 = 0.15 5.9316108
= Rs.
8
0.889710
V. Total Capital Investment (TCI):
Total capital investment = Fixed capital investment + Working capital
= (5.9316108) + (0.8897108) i.e., Total capital investment = Rs. 6.8213108

16.2 Estimation of Total Product cost:

I. Manufacturing Cost = Direct production cost + Fixed charges + Plant overhead


cost.
A. Fixed Charges: 10-20% total product cost
i. Depreciation: (depends on life period, salvage value and method of calculationabout 13% of FCI for machinery and equipment and 2-3% for Building Value for
Buildings)
Consider depreciation = 13% of FCI for machinery and equipment and 3% for
Building Value for Buildings) i.e.,
Depreciation = (0.13108) + (0.030.533108) = Rs. 0.7711108

ii. Local Taxes: (1-4% of fixed capital investment)


Consider the local taxes = 3% of fixed capital investment

i.e.

Local Taxes = 0.035.9316108 = Rs. 0.178108

iii. Insurances: (0.4-1% of fixed capital investment)


Consider the Insurance = 0.7% of fixed capital investment
Insurance = 0.0075.9316108 = Rs. 0.0415108

105

i.e.

iv. Rent: 8-12% of value of rented land and buildings


Consider rent = 10% of value of rented land and buildings
= 10% of ((0.07995108) + (0.533108)) = 0.10 ((0.0.7995108) + (0.533108))
Rent = Rs. 0.06129x108
Thus, Fixed Charges = Rs. 1.05189108

B. Direct Production Cost: about 60% of total product cost


Now we have Fixed charges = 10-20% of total product charges (given)
Consider the Fixed charges = 15% of total product cost
Total product charge = fixed charges/15%
Total product charge = 1.05189108/15% =1.05189108/0.15
Total product charge (TPC) = Rs. 7.0126108

i. Raw Materials: (10-50% of total product cost)


Consider the cost of raw materials = 25% of total product cost
Raw material cost = 25% of 7.0126108 = 0.257.0126108
Raw material cost = Rs. 1.753108

ii. Operating Labour (OL): (10-20% of total product cost)


Consider the cost of operating labour = 12% of total product cost
Operating Labour cost = 12% of 7.0126108 = 0.127.0126108
Operating labour cost = Rs. 0.8415108

iii.Direct Supervisory and Clerical Labour (DS & CL): (10-25% of OL)
Consider the cost for Direct supervisory and clerical labour = 12% of OL
Direct supervisory and clerical labour cost = 12% of 0.8415108
= 0.120.8415108
Direct supervisory and clerical labour cost = Rs. 0.1108

iv. Utilities: (10-20% of total product cost)


106

Consider the cost of Utilities = 12% of total product cost


Utilities cost= 12% of 7.0126108 = 0.127.0126108
Utilities cost = Rs. 0.8415108
v.Maintenance and repairs (M & R): (2-10% of fixed capital investment)
Consider the maintenance and repair cost = 5% of fixed capital investment
i.e. Maintenance and repair cost = 0.055.9316108 = Rs. 0.2965108

vi.Operating Supplies: (10-20% of M & R or 0.5-1% of FCI)


Consider the cost of Operating supplies = 15% of M & R
Operating supplies cost = 15% of 0.2965108 = 0.15 0.2965108
Operating supplies cost = Rs. 0.0444108

vii.

Laboratory Charges: (10-20% of OL)


Consider the Laboratory charges = 15% of OL

Laboratory charges = 15% of 0.8415108= 0.150.8415108


Laboratory charges = Rs. 0.1262108

viii.

Patent and Royalties: (0-6% of total product cost)

Consider the cost of Patent and royalties = 4% of total product cost


= 4% of 7.0126108 = 0.037.0126108
Patent and Royalties cost = Rs. 0.2805108
Thus, Direct Production Cost = Rs. 4.2836108 ----- (61% of TPC)

C. Plant overhead Costs (50-70% of Operating labour, supervision, and maintenance


or 5-15% of total product cost); includes for the following: general plant upkeep and
overhead, payroll overhead, packaging, medical services, safety and protection,
restaurants, recreation, salvage, laboratories, and storage facilities.
Consider the plant overhead cost = 60% of OL, DS & CL, and M & R Plant overhead
cost = 60% of ((0.8415108) + (0.1108) + (0.2965108)) Plant overhead cost = 0.60
((0.8415108) + (0.1108) + (0.2965108)) Plant overhead cost = Rs. 0.7428108
Thus, Manufacture cost = Direct production cost + Fixed charges + Plant overhead
costs.
Manufacture cost = (4.2836108) + (1.05185108) + (0.7428108)
Manufacture cost = Rs. 6.07825108
107

II. General Expenses = Administrative costs + distribution and selling costs + research
and development costs
Administrative costs:(2-6% of total product cost)
Consider the Administrative costs = 5% of total product cost
Administrative costs = Rs. 0.35063108

A. Distribution and Selling costs: (2-20% of total product cost); includes costs for
sales offices, salesmen, shipping, and advertising.
Consider the Distribution and selling costs = 15% of total product cost
Distribution and selling costs = 15% of 7.0126108
0.15 7.0126108 = Rs. 1.0519108

C. Research and Development costs: (about 5% of total product cost)


Consider the Research and development costs = 5% of total product cost
Research and Development costs = 5% of 7.0126108
Research and development costs = 0.05 7.0126108 = Rs. 0.3506108

D. Financing (interest): (0-10% of total capital investment)


Consider interest = 5% of total capital investment i.e. interest = 5% of
5.9316108 = 0.055.9316108
Interest = Rs. 0.2965108
Thus, General Expenses = Rs. 2.04971108

IV. Total Product cost = Manufacture cost + General Expenses


(6.07825108) + (2.04971108)
Total product cost = Rs. 8.1279108

16.3 Selling price


Wholesale Selling Price of Soda ash per ton = $ 85 (USD)
Let 1 USD = Rs. 50.00
Hence Wholesale Selling Price of Soda ash per ton. = 85 50 = Rs. 4250
Total Income = Selling price Quantity of product manufactured
108

= 4250 (750 T/day) (330 days/year) Total Income = Rs. 10.518108


Gross income = Total Income Total Product Cost
(8.127108)

= (10.518108)

Gross Income = Rs. 2.391108


Let the Tax rate be 45% (common)
Taxes = 45% of Gross income = 45% of 2.391108 = 0.452.391108
Taxes = Rs. 1.076108

16.4 Profit
Net Profit = Gross income - Taxes = Gross income (1- Tax rate) Net profit =
(2.391108) (1.076108) = Rs. 1.315108

16.5 Rate of Return:


Rate of return = Net profit100/Total Capital Investment
Rate of Return = 1.315108100/ (6.8213108)
Rate of Return = 19.27%

16.6 Break even Analysis:


Data available: Annual Direct Production Cost = Rs.4.2836108 Annual Fixed
charges, overhead and general expenses = Rs. 2.7925108 Total Annual sales = Rs.
10.518108
Wholesale Selling Price of Soda ash per ton. = Rs. 4250 Direct production cost per
ton of Soda ash = (4.2836108)/ (10.518108/4250) = Rs. 1730.87per ton
Let n TPA be the break even production rate.
Number of tons needed for a break-even point is given by :
(2.7925108) + (1730.87n) = (4250n)
=> n = 110851.76 tons/year
n = 335.914 tons/day = 335.914 TPD
Hence, the break-even production rate is 335.914 TPD or 44.78% of the
considered plant capacity.

109

17) CONCLUSION
This is a Techno-Economic Feasibility Report for the production of soda ash. This
report aims to find out an appropriate process with consideration of the product
demand and raw material availability in long as well as short term. Besides, the report
seeks to find out an appropriate process as according to technical and economic
feasibility along with being technically feasible simultaneously. Detailed technical
analysis involves selection of the raw materials with maximum profitability to achieve
the best quality. Material balance and energy balance, overall and over individual
equipments is established to estimate the quantities of input and outputs, both in terms
of products/raw materials and energy. These are supplemented with process as well as
equipment design of all the equipments used in the chosen process, which are then to
be utilized in the plant. The next half of the process concerns with economic and
environmental feasibility of the process. Pollution control and safety control measures
are mentioned, before the selection of the plant location for convenience both to the
customers as well as raw material sources. Plant layout along with the organizational
chart is provided. The report then summarizes with the economic aspects of the report,
with calculation of Capital Investment, Product Cost, Selling Price, Profit, Return on
Investment, Payback Period, Cash Flow Diagram and Break Even Analysis.

110

18) BIBLIOGRAPHY
(1) M. Gopala Rao And Marshall Sittig, Drydens Outlines Of Chemical
Technology,
2nd Ed., East-West Press, Page No: 177-184,628-638.
(2) Kirk-Othmer, Encyclopedia Of Chemical Technology, 5th Ed, Volume-1, John
Wiley & Sons Inc., Page No: 866-883
(3) C.C Furnar, Rogers Industrial Chemistry,6th Edition, D.Van Nostrand
Company,
Inc Page No: 408-431
(4) Geoffery Martin, Industrial And Manufacturing Chemistry,7 Th Edition Part-2,
Inorganic, The Technical Press Ltd, Page No: 299-328
(5) S.D Shukla And Pandey A Text Book Of Chemical TechnologyVol-1, Inorganic
Page No:38-57
(6) M.L Faith And Donald B.Keyes Industrial Chemicals John Wiley & Son (1965)
Page No: 658-659
(7) I.Mukhlyonov & I.Furmer, The Most Important Industrial Chemical Process
Part-2
Mir Publishers, Pages 98-109
(8) Buford D.Smith, Design of Equilibrium stage processes, Mc-Graw-Hill Book
company(1963)
(9) R. H. Perry And Don W. Green, Perrys Chemical Engineers Hand Book, 6th
Ed.
Mc-Graw Hill International Edition,
(10) H.Sawistowski &W.Smith, Mass Transfer Process Calculations, Interscience
Publishers, Page No:54-99
(11) T.Hobler, Mass Transfer And Absorbers,Pergamon Press, Page No:462-4692
(12) R. K. Sinnott, Coulson And Richardsons Chemical Engineering Series,
Volume-6,
Chemical Equipment Design 3rd Ed., Butter Worth-Heinemann, Page No: 828-855,
891-895
(13) Joshi M. V., Process Equipment Design, 2nd Ed., Mc-Millan India Ltd,
(14) Max S. Peters And Klaus Timmerhaus, Process Plant Design And Economics
For
Chemical Engineers, 3rd Ed., Mc-Graw Hill Book Company, Page No: 207-208,
484-485.
(15) Indian Standard Specification For Shell And Tube Heat Exchangers,
Is 4503-1967, Page No: 5-66

111

(16) B.C Bhattacharya, Chemical Equipment Design, Chemical Engineering


Education
Development Centre.
(17) L.E. Brownell And E.H. Young, Process Equipment Design, John Wiley &
Sons
Inc. New York,

112

Index of Figures

Page no

1. Fig 2.1 Structural Formula of Soda Ash

2. Fig. 3.1 Flow sheet of the selected process

20

3. Fig. 3.2 Process Diagram of Selected Process

21

4. Fig 4.1 Flow sheet of process

21

5. Fig 7.1 Some random tower packing

48

6. Fig 7.2 Typical designs of gas injection supports

49

7. Fig. 7.3 liquid distributors and packing irrigation

50

8. Fig 7.4 weir trough liquid distributor

51

9. Fig 7.5 Liquid re-distributor

52

113

Index of Tables

Page no

1. Table 2.1 Properties of Soda Ash

2. Table 2.2 grades of Soda Ash

3. Table 4.1 Standard Specification of Coke

23

4. Table 5.1 Material Balance for Lime Kiln

26

5. Table 5.2 material Balance for mixer

27

6. Table 5.3 material Balance for Slaker

27

7. Table 5.4Material balance for ammonia absorber

28

8. Table 5.5 material balance for calciner

29

9. Table 5.6 Material balance for Carbonating tower

30

10. Table 5.7 material balance for Ammonia Still

31

11. Table 5.8 Overall material Balance

32

12. Table 6.1 Energy balance around slaker

33

13. Table 6.2 Energy balance around ammonia absorption tower

34

14. Table 6.3 energy balance around the calciner

36

15. Table 6.4 energy balance around ammonia distiller

37

16. Table 6.5 Energy balance around Lime Kiln

40

17. Table 7.1 mass balance across stage M for Ammonia

42

18. Table 7.2 Column diameter Calculations

43

19. Table 7.3 Fig.11.44 Coulson&Richardson Vol 6

44

20. Table 7.4 calculaltions

44
114

21. Table 7.5 Properties of Stage 1 and 2

46

22. Table 7.6 Recommended size ranges

47

115