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Technical Presentation on Durable Preventive

Maintenance for IEM North


5th. August 2016

Steven Ng
Sika Kimia Sdn Bhd

CONCRETE HAS TO WITHSTAND HARSH ENVIRONMENTS

Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

AND OFTEN CONCRETE NEEDS REPAIRING!

Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

5 Key Stages in Concrete Repair


Future maintenance

Step 3

Select repair process

Assessment of the structure

Options and
objectives of
repair

Diagnose cause of deterioration

The Condition Survey

Identify the cause


Determine the effect

What is the consequence?

Part 1 - The Visual Inspection


Environmental influences
Service influences
Visual damages
Looking for the obvious

Part 2 - Structural
Examination
1. Mechanical Properties
i. Surface Hardness Testing
ii.Windsor Probe
iii.Cylindrical Core Testing
iv.Surface Tensile Strength

v.Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) Test

2. Physical Properties
3. Chemical Properties

Stage 2 Structural
Examination
1. Mechanical Properties
2. Physical Properties
vi.

Concrete Cover Survey

vii. Permeability Test


viii. Gas Diffusion Test

ix.

3. Chemical Properties

Sorptivity Test

Stage 2 Structural
Examination
1. Mechanical Testing
2. Physical Testing
3. Chemical Testing
x. Carbonation Testing
xi.Chloride Content Testing
xii.Petrography Test
xiii.Corrosion Survey (Half Cell Potential)
xiv.Corrosion survey (Linear polarisation)

INVESTGATION SUMMARY

Investigation should be the basis of all concrete repair work

Cost of investigation is not proportional to value of the structure


Investigations are mainly undertaken when damage is obvious

Can be used when damaged is not noticeable (monitoring)


Testing program are not standardised

Meaningful conclusions used to prepare safe strategy when decision making

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

5 Key Stages in Concrete Repair


Future maintenance

Assessment of the structure

Select repair process


Diagnose cause of deterioration

Options and
objectives of repair

1. CAUSES OF CONCRETE DAMAGE


EXPOSURES
ROOT CAUSES
CORROSION
CARBONATION
CHLORIDE ATTACK

Exposures on Reinforced Concrete


Cl-

CO2

NOx
H2O

SOx

Concrete Defects and Damage


Mechanical damage
Mechanical Impact
Overloading
Movements (Settlement)
Explosion/Fire
Vibration
Chemical damage
Alkali Silica Reaction
Sulphates, Salts
Acids, Soft water
Biological (Acids)
Physical damage
Freeze-Thaw Action
Thermal Movements
Erosion/Abrasion
Shrinkage

Reinforcement Corrosion

Chemical attack
- Carbonation
- Acids

Corrosive
contaminants
- Chlorides

Stray
electrical
current

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Protection of Steel in
Concrete
Alkaline environment protects reinforcing steel from corrosion

Concrete pH 12.5 - 13.5


Reinforcing steel
Passive iron oxides with max.
layer thickness ~10 (1.0 nm)

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Conditions for Corrosion of


Steel in Concrete
Stage 1
Breakdown of the protective layer
By carbonation
By chlorides
Stage 2
Electrochemical process requires
Electrolyte (moist concrete matrix)
Anode
Cathode

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Corrosion of Steel in Concrete


Concrete (pH = 12.5-13.5).
Steel is protected.

Initiation stage
Destroying passive layer..
Carbon dioxide/chlorides enter.
pH reduces.
Steel unaffected

Propagation Stage
Steel Corrosion..
Moisture and oxygen
causes corrosion of steel

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Result of Steel Corrosion in Concrete


Volume of corrosion product is approx. 2,5 times bigger than black
steel delaminating load spalling!

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Corrosion Process
1. Electrical current flows
between the Anode and
Cathode

corrosion = Redox reaction


Fe + O2 + H2O Fe2+ + 2 OH-

2. Iron (Fe) oxidised into Iron


Hydroxide Fe(OH)2
3. Results in increase in metal
volume

Oxidation
Fe + 2 OH-

Fe(OH)2 + 2e-

Reduction
O2 + H2O + 2e-

2 OH-

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Influences of Steel Corrosion


in Concrete

Concrete cover of reinforcement

Concrete quality

Service conditions e.g. chloride exposure

Humidity (50-70%),

Splashing water

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Influence of concrete quality


30
CARBONATION DEPTH IN mm

150 kg OPC /m3


25
20
250 kg OPC /m3
15
350 kg OPC /m3
10
450 kg OPC /m3
5

30
AGE IN YEAR

Concrete Damage and Defects


Carbonation
- carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
reacting with Calcium Hydroxide in
the concrete pore liquid
- CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O
- alkalinity is reduced
- steel passive layer is broken down

Corrosion due to Carbonation Process


Concrete
Spalling

Corroded
Rebars

Low
Concrete
Cover

Reduction of rebar: approx. 2/100 to 2/10 mm per year

Concrete Damage and Defects

Chlorides
- chlorides accelerate corrosion
- at about 0.5 % content they
break down the passive oxide

Chloride Ingress
Chlorides attack is dependant on: Amount of chloride
Concrete permeability
Degree of moisture present
When they reach reinforcement: Destroy passivity around steel
Cause steel corrosion
Concrete cracks and delaminates

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Corrosion due to Chloride


Pinhole corrosion
(localised)

De-icing salt (chlorides)

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Conditions for Pinhole-Corrosion Caused by


Chlorides

Electrolyte: pore solution

Requirements for pin-hole corrosion:


Small surface of Anode ; large surface of Cathode
Concentration of chlorides
Acceleration (catalyst) of reaction. Acid ambience.
Fast, local reduction of cross-section

Corrosion of Rebars due to Chloride

Reduction of rebar: approx. 1 to 10 mm per year!!

Corrosion induced by carbonation:


Reduction of rebar: approx. 2/100 to 2/10 mm per year

SUMMARY OF STEEL CORROSION


DIRECT INFLUENCES
Carbonation
Chlorides
Chemical Attack

IN-DIRECT INFLUENCES
Design
Concrete
Application
Conditions

PRINCIPLE OF CONCRETE REPAIR


Removing or reducing one corrosion
ingredient is often sufficient to adequately
delay the onset of steel corrosion

Root Cause

Oxygen
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Moisture

Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

Note: often the aggressive elements are transported in


the water

Leaching

Dissolvable calcium hydroxide


transported in water which can
pass through concrete

Free - Sulphate Attack

Sulphate solutions which react


with calcium hydroxide and
calcium aluminates, (C3A)

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Alkali Aggregate Reaction


(AAR)
Certain natural aggregates
react chemically with alkalis
present in Portland cement

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AAR Damage
Unrestrained crazing
cracking

Restrained cracking
mainly in direction of
main reinforcement bars

Types of Defect in Concrete Structures

Delamination

Cracks

Honeycombing

Spalling

Low cover /
poor concrete

Causes of Deterioration
Problem

Cause

Leakage
Defect
Settlement

Construction:
Spacer positioning
Water/cement ratio
Concrete curing

Honeycombing
Wear
Spalling

Design:
Exposure conditions
Cover of reinforcement
Movement/settlement
Materials:
Chloride accelerators
ASR prone aggregates
Marine aggregates

Damage

Overloading
Chemical spill
Earthquake
Fire

Cracking
Delamination

Deterioration

Corrosion
Erosion
Poor maintenance

5 Key Stages in Concrete Repair


Future maintenance

Step 3

Select repair process

Assessment of the structure

Options and objectives of repair

Diagnose cause of deterioration

Owner Options
Do nothing
Downgrade structure

Reduce further damage


Repair and restore
Part reconstruction
Demolition

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Considerations

Costs
Design life
Performance requirements
Temporary works
Construction
Future maintenance

2. STANDARDS & TEST METHODS


EUROPEAN
NORTH AMERICAN

STANDARDS AND REQUIREMENTS


Europe: EN 1504
The EN 1504 consist of 10 main parts (EN
1504-1 to EN 1504-10) which covers
about 65 standards for test methods for
atmospherically exposed, buried and
submerged concrete structures.

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

EN 1504

Products And Systems For The Protection


And Repair Of Reinforced Concrete

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Definitions
Requirements
Quality Control
Evaluation Of Conformity

Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

EN 1504 - BACKGROUND
International all EU countries since 2009
Most comprehensive repair specification in the world
Covers:
Material specifications and quality
Repair and maintenance principles
Site investigation
Refurbishment strategies
Site application

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

IN-SCOPE
EN 1504 is about
Environment and mechanical attack

Corroding reinforcement
Preventive maintenance
Most of the repair and refurbishment projects Sika are involved in

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

OUT-SCOPE
EN 1504 is not about
Fire damaged structures

Modification due to change of use


Aesthetic improvements such as floor screeds, renders and plasters
Post tensioned structures

45

Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

DEFINED PROJECT PHASES

Information about the structure

Process of assessment
Maintenance strategy

Design of repair work


Repair work

Acceptance of the works

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

THE 10 PARTS
Part

Content

Part 1

Definitions

Part 2

Surface protection systems

Part 3

Concrete repair with mortars

Part 4

Structural bonding

Part 5

Concrete injection

Part 6

Products and systems for grouting anchor reinforcement

Part 7

Reinforcement corrosion protection

Part 8

Quality control and evaluation of conformity

Part 9

General principles for use of products and system

Part 10

Site application of products and systems and quality control of


the works

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

EN 1504-9 - PRINCIPLES
Different types of damage and the root causes existed for many years

The correct repair and protection methods have also been established
This knowledge summarized by 11 Principles in Part 9
Systematic approach to repair

Principles 1 to 6 relate to defects in the concrete


Principles 7 to 11 relate to damage due to reinforcement corrosion

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

PRINCIPLES AND METHODS

49

Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

PRINCIPLES AND METHODS

Example Product Data Sheet

50

Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

REPAIR AND PROTECTION BROCHURE


Version 3
February 2016
New Corporate Identity
Updated products

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

FEATURES EN 1504-3
TABLE 1
For all intended uses and for
certain intended use

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

TABLE 3 EN 1504-3
a The value of 0,8 MPa is not required where cohesive
failure occurs in the repair material. If cohesive failure

occurs a minimum
tensile strength of 0,5 MPa is required.
b Not required for Repair Method 3.3.
c Not required if thermal cycling is undertaken.
d Mean value with no single value less than 75 % of the
minimum requirement.
e Maximum permissible average crack width 0,05 mm
with no crack 0,1 mm and no delamination.
f For durability.

g Not suitable for protection against carbonation unless


the repair system includes a surface protection system
with proven
protection against carbonation (see EN 1504-2).
h Choice of method depends on the exposure conditions.
When a product satisfies Part 1 it is deemed to satisfy Part
2 and Part 4.

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

DURATION EUROPEAN TEST METHODS


Test Method

Approximate Total Test Duration

Compressive Strength

During 28 days up to 91 days

Chloride Ion Content

~0.5 day

Adhesive Bond

After 28 days

Restrained Shrinkage Expansion

During 28 days up to 91 days

Carbonation Resistance

~3 months

Elastic Modulus

After 28 days

Thermal Compatibility

~5.5 weeks (freeze-thaw)

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

After 28 days

Capillary Absorption

~1.5 weeks

According to test methods Table3 EN 1504-3


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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

NORTH AMERICAN GUIDELINE


AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE
ACI 546.3R-14
Guide to Materials Selection for
Concrete Repair

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

EUROPEAN AND ACI COMPARISON


Performance Characteristic
Compressive / Flexural Strength

ASTM Test Method

No requirement EN 1504-3

Chloride Ion Content

Adhesive Bond

No requirement EN 1504-3

Restrained Shrinkage Expansion / Length change

Carbonation Resistance

Elastic Modulus

Freeze Thaw

No European test method*

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion / Thermal Expansion

Skid / Abrasion Resistance

Capillary Absorption

Certain uses (anchoring)

Rapid chloride permeability

No European test method*

Alkali aggregate reaction

No requirement EN 1504-3

Sulphate resistance

No requirement EN 1504-3*

Tensile strength

Slant shear bond

Scaling resistance

Creep

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European Test Method

Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

NORTH AMERICAN APPROACH TO DURABILITY

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Service Conditions

Related Characteristics

Standard Test Method

Climate: Temperature
fluctuations
Ambient Moisture

Thermal
expansion/contraction
Freezing and thawing
resistance

Freeze-Thaw ASTM C666 Proc A &B

Exposure: Applied
salts/salt water,
Aggressive chemicals

Chloride permeability
Scaling resistance
Chemical resistance

Chloride Perm. ASTM C1202


Scaling Resistance ASTM C672

Loads: Traffic, wind,


earthquake

Abrasion resistance
Creep/shrinkage
Strength
Modulus of elasticity

Abrasion ASTM C 944


Creep ASTM C 512
Shrinkage - ASTM C 157
Elasticity - ASTM C 469
Strength - ASTM C39

Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

RAPID CHLORIDE PERMEABILITY


DETERMINATION OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE

ASTM 1202

Concrete core
Coated epoxy
Vacuum saturated with water

Remove & expose one end to Sodium


Chloride (NaCl) the other end Sodium
Hydroxide (NaOH)
Apply 60 V potential
Measurements every 30 minutes for 6
hours

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

RATING SYSTEM

As chlorides penetrate deeper pore solution


becomes more conductive and current
readings increase
Area under graph of time vs. current gives
charge passed, Coulomb
Does not measure depth or rate of chloride
penetration

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

3. PRODUCT RANGE
NAMING
POSITIONING

EN 1504-3
STRENGTH CLASS

PRODUCT POSITIONING

R4
R3
R4
R3
R2

SYSTEM

PERFORMANCE

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

NORMAL USE RANGE


Cost effective
Long lasting
Easy application
With added value

PERFORMANCE ENHANCED
Polymer modified
Multi functional
Longer durability
Innovative

PRODUCT OVERVIEW

62

PRODUCT

SUMMARY

Sika MonoTop-910 N

1C PCC cement slurry, applied by hand or spray as a coating; carbon dioxide


and water vapour diffusion resistant, EN1504-7; 25kg & 2x5kg bags

SikaTop Armatec-110
EpoCem

3C epoxy modified cement - EpoCem technology; A+B liquid and dry powder C
component. Long open time even at high temperatures. Passes EN1504-7.
Hand or spay applied.

Sika MonoTop-412 NFG

1C PCC thixotropic repair mortar, BEII; corrosion inhibitor; 6-50mm layers; A1


fire rating; low rapid chloride permeability (ASTM)

Sika MonoTop-412 N

1C CC; 6-50mm layers

Sika MonoTop-352 NFG

1C PCC; lightweight mortar; corrosion inhibitor 4-75 mm layers; low rapid


chloride permeability (ASTM)

Sika MonoTop-352 N

1C CC;lightweight mortar; 4-75 mm layers

Sika MonoTop-211 RFG

1C PCC; fast setting; corrosion inhibitor; 4-60mm layer; low rapid chloride
permeability (ASTM)

Sika MonoTop-723 N

1C; R3 to EN1504:3; A1 fire rating : French sulphate and sea water resistance
NF P 18837

Sikagard-720 EpoCem

R4 to EN1504:3; EpoCem technology; TMB, chemical resistant

Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

REPAIR MORTAR REQUIREMENTS


Harmonised naming, same performances

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Product Profile
Classification performance for positioning e.g. EN 1504-3
No cracking and low shrinkage

High layer thickness


Very dense, very low permeability
Excellent sag flow behaviour
Hand and machine (wet spray) applied
12 months shelf life
Generally > 40 minutes pot life (unless rapid setting)
Production control to maintain quality

Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

4. THE REPAIR PROCESS


KEY STAGES

AT THE DENTIST
Repairing concrete is very much like going
to the dentist

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

KEY STAGES AT THE DENTIST


Examine
Teeth

Future
Maintenance

Remove,
repair,
nothing?
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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

Further
Investigation
e.g. X-Ray

Discuss
Options

5 Key Stages in Concrete Repair


Future maintenance

Step 3

Select repair process

Assessment of the structure

Options and objectives of repair

Diagnose cause of deterioration

Crack Injection Method

Repair Material Sikadur 52MY


Low viscosity Epoxy Crack Injection Resin

Two Components
Low viscosity
Fine cracks as small as 0.2mm in
width
Dormant cracks (no movement)
Non-flammable
Shrinkage free
High early and ultimate strengths
Can be applied on horizontal,
vertical and overhead structures
Good adhesive strength on
concrete substrate
Fast curing

Repair Material - Sikadur 31 CF Normal


Epoxy adhesive for high mechanical strength

Two component thixotropic


epoxy adhesive

Solvent free

Shrinkage free hardening

Excellent bond strength

Can be applied on dry &


damp surface

Good workability

Easy to mix and apply

Material Selection Guideline


Concrete Repair
Wear
Honeycomb
(Surface)
<cover

Honeycomb
(Deep)
>cover

Spalling

Cavities

Large Scale Repair

Static Cracks

Overloading

Slope protection

Filling Gaps

Low tensile
strength
Low compressive
strength

Delamination
Hand Patch Repair

Sika MonoTop System


(Sika MonoTop R/615SD)

Pressure Grouting
Letter Box Grouting
Sika Microcrete 2000
Sikagrout 215

Guniting

Epoxy Injection Method

Structural
Strengthening

Sikacrete Gunite 103

Sikadur 52MY

Sika CarboDur
SikaWrap

Select Appropriate Repair Techniques


Repair Techniques
Letter Box
Technique

Dry Pack Technique

Pre-placed Aggregate
Form
and
Pump

Shotcrete

Patch
Repair

Concrete Repair and Protection Application Steps


Remove damaged concrete and
prepare exposed steel

Protect exposed reinforcement

Replace damaged concrete

Concrete Repair and Protection Application Steps


Protect against the development
of latent damage

Level the profile and fill surface pores

Seal and coat the surface to prevent


the ingress of aggressive influences

STEP 1. Protecting Exposed Reinforcement


SikaTop-110 EpoCem
- Protects reinforcement in highly alkaline
cementitious environments
- Can be applied on damp surfaces
- Increases barrier to chlorides and carbonation
- Steel reinforcement primer and bonding bridge
- Fully complies with load transfer requirements

Sika Friazinc-R MY
- One component anti-corrosive, zinc rich steel reinforcement primer

STEP 2. Replacing Damaged Concrete

STEP 2. Replacing Damaged Concrete


Sika Microcrete 2000 (25-150mm)

Dual shrinkage compensated,


cementitious formwork repair

Good flow properties

Very dense and durable with RCP


Test < 1000 Coulomb

Impact and vibration resistant

Suitable for repair to marine


structures

Easy to mix and apply

For deep grouting work (>cover)

Sika Monotop 412 MY System

Polymer modified cementitious


hand placed or by trowel

Apply bonding primer, Sika


Monotop 610 MY before apply
Monotop 412 MY wet on wet

Fast and easy to apply in layers


up to 20mm thick

Contains fibres to prevent micro


cracking

Suitable for surface repair work


(<cover)

Soffit of Slab Repair:


1) Sikacrete Gunit 103 (Dry Spray Method )
2) Sika Monotop 412 MY (Wet Spray Method)
At Fire Damaged Telekom Building at Kota Kinabalu

Sikacrete Gunit 103

Ready to use 1-Part Gunite Mortar with High


Compressive Strength of 70 N/mm2
Suitable for dry-spray applications to large areas.
Good adhesion to concrete substrates
Can be trowelled after application.
Formwork not required

Sikacrete Gunit 103

New Sika MonoTop System

the next generation


of repair systems
400 series
300 series
200 series

85

Market Requirements?
Choice normal or slow setting mortars
Polymer or non-polymer modified
Structural or non-structural application
Rapid setting mortars

Lightweight mortars
Pourable Mortars

86

Added Value For the Owner


Cost efficient
Long durability
Guarantee available

87

Added Value - For the Designer


Easy product selection
High carbonation resistance
Low chloride permeability
High compressive strengths
E-Modulus similar to concrete
High layer thickness, low

shrinkage

88

Formulation Improvements
Latest cement technology
New additives
Optimised grading

Dense mortar structure


Improved workability

New shrinkage technology

Sika MonoTop 412 Under Dynamic Load

Oscillation of repair during application:


Reduced bond strength
Destroys mortar cohesion
Strength reduction

Sika MonoTop - 412 : Next Generation


R4 class according EN 1504-3
Fire classification: A1 (acc. EN 1504-3)
1-component system
Hand and machine (wet spray) applied
Excellent workability
Extremely low shrinkage high layer thickness
Contains silica fume Very dense, very low
Permeability

Contains synthetic fibres good sag flow behaviour


Sulphate resistant

Testing Dynamic Loading

German Standard ZTV-SIB, TL BE-PCC


No visible cracks > 0.10 mm
Pull-off after 28 day > 1.5 N/mm2
Example System:
SikaTop Armatec -110 EpoCem +
Sika MonoTop-412 N /-NFG

92

Concrete Repair to Spalling Concrete Slab


Project : Komtar Building , Penang

9,000 bags Wet Spray Mortar , Sika Monotop-412 MY


Wet Sprayed Sika Monotop-412 MY on Wire Mesh to rebuild
80 mm thk. Using Putzmeiser Srew Pump S5

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Concrete Repair to Spalling Concrete Slab


Project : Komtar Building , Penang
Fast application , no formwork , minimum
rebound

Finish can be easily troweled to smooth finish

STEP 3. Protection Against Latent Damage


Sika Ferrogard 903+FD

- Penetrates via liquid and


vapour diffusion
- Film forming inhibitor
- Inhibitor acts on both anodic
and cathodic sites

- Contains a Fugitive Dye

STEP 4. Reprofiling and Leveling the Surface

STEP 4. Reprofiling and Leveling the Surface


Sika Monotop 620 MY

Polymer modified cementitious pore sealer/


fairing coat

Application by trowel or spray

Fast and easy to apply for uniform substrate


of 1.5 mm to 5 mm thk per coat

Used as a superior finishing for concrete and


repair patches

Used to fill surface defects to ensure


continuous protective coating

Sikagard-720 EpoCem
- Unique epoxy cement technology
- Integral curing ability
- Ideal for leveling and reprofiling after application of Sika FerroGard- 903+

STEP 5. Sealing and Coating to Prevent the


Ingress of Aggressive Influences

STEP 5 : Sealing and Coating to Prevent


the Ingress of Aggressive Influences
Sikagard-700S / 705 L
- Hydrophobic impregnators
- Prevent water and chloride ingress

- Breathable
Sikagard-670W MY
- Effectively halt carbonation
- Breathable
- Prevents water and chloride ingress
- Excellent colour retention

Protective Coating
Sikagard 670W MY AT YAHYA PETRA BRIDGE , KELANTAN
(COMPLETION ON JUNE , 2002)

Sealing and Coating to Prevent the Ingress of


Aggressive Influences
Underwater/Tidal Zone Epoxy Coatings,
Sikagard-61 TZ
- Epoxy coating designed to provide corrosion
resistance and abrasion
protection in
marine environment
- Corrosion protection for steel and concrete
structures in offshore marine
- Excellent adhesion to damp surfaces
- Capable of curing underwater
- Apply by roller or brush or spray

KEY PROJECT MANAGEMENT

CHIMNEYS AND COOLING

WASTE WATER

TOWERS

TREATMENT PLANTS

BRIDGES

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

REFERENCES

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Advanced Engineered Concrete Repair/ Template February 2016

103

5 Key Stages in Concrete Repair


Future maintenance

Step 3

Select repair process

Assessment of the structure

Options and objectives of repair

Diagnose cause of deterioration

Future Maintenance Strategy


Detailed records
Monitoring
Inspection instructions
Responsibilities
Local requirements

IF YOU NEED A DENTIST FOR CONCRETE REPAIR,


ASK A SIKA SPECIALIST

THANK YOU FOR PARTICIPATING

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