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Distorcão e Cod. Modulador Canal Cod. Fonte Ruido Mensagem Transdutor Sinal de Sinal Transmissor Canal
Distorcão
e
Cod. Modulador Canal
Cod. Fonte
Ruido
Mensagem
Transdutor
Sinal de
Sinal
Transmissor
Canal
Entrada
Entrada
Entrada
Transmitido
Sinal
Sinal de
Transdutor Saida
Mensagem
Rececptor
Destino
Recebido
Saida
Saida

Demodulador

Dec. Canal

Dec Fonte

Km cm Km mW mW µW µW

P 1 P 2 G

G = 10 log P2 P1 dB P 2 > P 1

P 1 > P 2 A

A = 10 log 10 P1

P2 dB

P2 P1 Sistema
P2
P1
Sistema

mW mW dB

A = 10 log P1 P2 = 10 log 10

200

5

= 16dB

mV mA dB

P 1 = (100 × 10 3 ) 2 /600 16, 7µW

P 2 = (20 × 10 3 ) 2 × 75 = 30µW.

P2

G = 10 log P1 = 10 log

3 × 10

3

16, 7 × 10 6 32, 6dB

G = 10 log P2 P1

= 10 log

2

V

2

/R

2

V

1

/R

G = 20 log

I 2

I 1

dB

= 20 log V 2 dB

V

1

P 1 P 2 P 3 C 1 C 2 C 3
P 1
P 2
P 3
C 1
C 2
C 3
P N P N+1 C N
P N
P N+1
C N

dB

G

log P N +1

P

1

log P N +1

P

=

10

=

10

P

N

N

10 log P N +1

P

N

=

= G N + G N1 +

+ 10 log P N1 +

+ G 2 + G 1

×

P N

P

N1

10

log

×

P 2 dB

P

1

P 2

P 1

dB

G = G 2 + G 1 = 32, 6 16 = 16, 6dB

P 1 = 1mW dBm

P

= 10 log

P

2

1mW dBm

P 1 = 1W dBW

dBm

1mW = 10 log 1mW

1mW dBm = 0dBm

1W = 10 log 100mW dBm = 30dBm

1mW

2mW = 10 log 2mW dBm = 3dBm

1mW

100mW = 10 log 100mW dBm = 20dBm

1mW

2dBm + 2dBm 2dBm + 2dB

P 1

2dBm = 10 log 1mW = 10 0,2 mW 1, 6mW 2dBm + 2dBm 1, 6 + 1, 6 = 3, 2mW 3, 2mW = 10 log 3, 2 5dBm 2dBm + 2dBm = 5dBm

2dBm + 2dB = 10 log 1, 6 + 10 log 1, 6 = 20 log 1, 6 = 4dBm

P 1 g P 2

P 2 = gP 1

P 2 /1mW = gP 1 /1mW

P 2 (dBm) = g(dB) + P 1 (dBm)

dBr

10 log P r

P

r

= 0dBr

5dBm 0dBr

−5dBm 0dBr 1dB 3dB A B
−5dBm
0dBr
1dB
3dB
A
B
7dB C D
7dB
C
D
dB ) + P 1 ( dBm ) dBr 10 log P r P r =

3dB

dB ) + P 1 ( dBm ) dBr 10 log P r P r =

E

A B

A 1dBr 4dBm

3dBr 2dBm

dBr 9dBm

1dBr 6dBm

dBm0 = dBm dBr

20dBm0

B 20dBm0

0dBr 20dBm0 → −20dBm

1dBr 19dBm → −20dBm0

3dBr 17dBm → −20dBm0

4dBr 24dBm → −20dBm0

7dBr 27dBm → −20dBm0

P saida < P entrada

L =

P entrada

P saida

L dB = 10 log 10

P entrada

P saida

P saida = 10 αl/10 P entrada

l α

P entrada

L dB = 10 log 10 P saida = 10 log 10

1

10 αl/10 = αl

α = 2

L = αl = 2 Km dB 2Km = 4dB.

P saida = 10 10 L/10 P entrada = 10 0.4 10W = 4W

L = 4πl 2 = 4πfl

λ

c

2

λ f c

L

g g T R P in P out l
g
g
T
R
P in
P out
l

l Km f 10 9 Hz

L dB = 92, 4 + 20 log f GHz + 20 log l Km

l 6dB

P out = g T gR

L

P

in

g T gR A e

g = 4πA e

λ

2

=

4πA e f 2

c

2

60dB

40.000Km 6GHz g Tv = 70dB g Rd = 50dB g Ru = 30dB g Td = 30dB g amp = 80dB P in = 100W = 50dBm P out

L dB = 92, 4 + 20 log f GHz + 20 log l Km

L u = L d = 92, 4 + 20 log 6 + 20 log 40.000 = 200dB

L

= g Tu + L u g Ru g amp g Td + L d g Rd

= 70 + 200 30 80 30 + 200 50 = 140dB

g amp

g Ru g Td L L u d 40.000Km g g Tu R P in
g Ru
g Td
L
L
u
d
40.000Km
g
g Tu
R
P in
P out
5000Km

P out = L + P in (dBm) = 140 + 50dBm 140dB

P out = 10 90/10 × 1mW = 10 9 mW

α = 3

α = 6

3.6 × 10 14 Hz α = 0.2

n n

g(t) t g(t) = g(t + T 0 ) T 0 = 0 T 0 f 0 = 1/T 0 t = −∞ t = T 0 = Tms g(t)

g(t)

=

+ b 1 sin 2πf 0 t + b 2 sin 2(2πf 0 t) +

a 0 + a 1 cos 2πf 0 t + a 2 cos 2(2πf 0 t) +

+ a k cos k(2πf 0 t)

+ b k sin k(2πf 0 t)

=

a 0 +

k

n=1

[(a n cos n(2πf 0 t) + b n sin n(2πf 0 t)]

x(t) T
x(t)
T

t (ms)

g(t) f 0 = 1/T 0 T 0 = 1/f 0

g(t + T 0 )

=

=

a 0 +

a 0 +

= g(t)

k

n=1

k

n=1

[(a n cos n(2πf 0 (t + T 0 )) + b n sin n(2πf 0 (t + T 0 ))]

[(a n cos(2nπf 0 t + 2πn) + b n sin(2nπf 0 t + 2πn)]

a n b n T 0 f 0 f 0

f 0 nf 0 n ω 0 = 2πf 0 k → ∞

g(t)

=

a 0 +

n=1

[(a n cos 0 t + b n sin 0 t)]

g(t) a n b n

t 0 +T 0

t

0

t 0 +T 0

t

0

cos 0 t cos 0 tdt =

sin 0 t sin 0 tdt =

0

T 0 /2

0

T 0

/2

se

=

k

n

se

k =

n

se

=

k

n

se

k = n

t 0 +T 0

t

0

sin 0 t cos 0 tdt = 0

a 0 =

T 0

1

t

0

t 0 +T 0

g(t)dt

cos 0 t (t 0 , t 0 + T 0 )

T 0

2

t

0

t 0 +T

a n =

g(t) cos 0 tdt

sin 0 t

b n =

T 0

2

t

0

t 0 +T

g(t) sin 0 tdt

g(t) = C 0 +

n=1

C n cos(0 t + θ n )

C 0 = a 0

C n = a n + b

2

2

n

θ n = tan 1 b n .

a n

θ n b n a n

tan 1 1

1

=

tan 1 (1)

n

C n cos(0 t + θ n )

C n θ n (C n × ω) (θ n × ω)

g(t) b n = 0

g(t) a n = 0

k(t)

A

τ

T 0

k(t)

A τ T 0 k(t) t ω 0 = 2 πf 0 = 2 π T
A τ T 0 k(t) t ω 0 = 2 πf 0 = 2 π T
A τ T 0 k(t) t ω 0 = 2 πf 0 = 2 π T
A τ T 0 k(t) t ω 0 = 2 πf 0 = 2 π T
A τ T 0 k(t) t ω 0 = 2 πf 0 = 2 π T

t

A τ T 0 k(t) t ω 0 = 2 πf 0 = 2 π T

ω 0 = 2πf 0 = 2π

T

0

T 0 /2 T 0 /2

a 0 =

T 0 /2

T 0 /2 k(t)dt = T 0

1

T 0

1

τ/2

τ/2

Adt = Aτ

T

0

a n

=

=

=

T 0

2

τ/2

τ/2

A

cos 0 tdt =

2Aτ

nω 0 sin 0 t | τ/2

T

0

τ/2

2A

T

0

2π

T

0

n

(sin 0 τ/2 sin 0 (τ/2))

2A

πn

sin nπτ

T

0

b n = 0

k(t) = C 0 +

n=1

C n cos(0 T + θ n )

Aτ

T

0

C n = a n + b n = a n = a n C n = 2A sin nπτ θ n =

2

2

2

πn

T

0

C n

tan 1 b n n = tan 1 0 = 0

=

a 0

=

a

k(t) = Aτ +

T

0

n=1

2A

πn

sin nπτ cos o t

T

0

τ = T 0 /2 C 0 = AT 0 /2

T

0

C n

=

=

2A sin nπT 0 /2

πn

= 2A

πn

sin nπ

2

2A

πn

T

0

(1) (n1)/2

n

0 n

= A

2

k(t)

=

=

A

2A

+

2

A

π

2A

+

2

π

n=1,3,5,

(1) (n1)/2

n

cos 0 t

(cos ω 0 t

1

3

1

cos 3ω 0 t + 5 cos 5ω 0 t

)

π π 2A cos(3ω 0 tπ) θ 3 = tan 1 π

b n = 0

2A/3 =

0

3π

C n A A/2 3ω 0 7ω 0 5ω ω 0 ω 0 τ =
C n
A
A/2
3ω 0
0
ω
0
ω 0
τ = T 0 /2

τ = T 0 /5 C 0 = A/5 C n = 2A sin nπ θ n = 0

πn

5

± τ

2

±nT 0

k(t) = A

2

+ 2A

π

cos ω 0 t

1

3

1

cos 3ω o t + 5 cos 5ω 0 t

t = τ/2

k

τ

2

=

=

=

=

A + 2A

2

A

2A

π

+

2

A

π

2A

+

2

A

π

2

cos 2π

τ

T

0

2

T

0

4

cos 2π

T

0

1

3 cos 6π

τ

2 +

T

1

5 cos 10π

τ

2 +

T

T

0

T

0

1

3 cos 6π

0

+ 5 cos 10π

1

T

0

0

T

0

4

4

cos π 2

1

3 cos 3π + 1 5 cos 5π

2

2

+

+

T 0 = τ/2

τ 0 A → ∞ = 1

g(t) −2T 0 t 2T 0 T 0 T 0 0
g(t)
−2T 0
t
2T 0
T 0
T 0
0

g(t) =

= 1 τ 0

n=−∞

δ(t NT 0 ) = C 0 +

n=1

C n cos 0 t

C 0

C n

=

=

Aτ

T 0

lim

τ0

1

=

2A

T 0

sin nπτ

T

0

πn

= lim

τ0

πnAτT 0 sin nπτ

2AT 0

T

0

sin nπτ

T

0

2

= lim

τ0

2

T

0

T

0

nπτ/T 0

x0 lim sin x

x

=

x = nπτ/T 0 τ 0 x 0

g(t) =

n=−∞

C n =

2

T

0

δ(t nT 0 ) =

lim

x0

cosx

1

=

2

T 0

1

T 0 [1 + 2(cos ω 0 t + cos 2ω 0 t +

)

C n × ω 1/T 0

C n

2/T 0

 

1/T 0

 

ω

0

0

0

ω

sin θ =

e e

2j

cos θ =

e + e

2

g(t)

G 0 + G 1 e jω 0 t + G 2 e jω 0 t +

G n e jnω 0 t

=


=

n=−∞

+ G 1 e jω 0 t + G 2 e jω 0 t +

ω 0 = 2πf = 2π/T 0 G k e jkω 0 t

t 0 +T 0

t

0

g(t)e jkω 0 t dt =

n=−∞

t

0

t 0 +T 0

G n e j(nk)ω 0 t dt

t 0 +T 0

t

0

e j(nk)ω 0 t dt =

0

T 0

n

n = k

= k

t 0 +T 0

t

0

g(t)e jkω 0 t dt = G k T 0

G k =

T 0

1

t

0

t 0 +T 0

g(t)e jkω 0 t dt

t 0

a 0 = G 0

a n = G n + G n

b n = j(G n G

= 0 n ) n

1

G n =

2

G n =

(a n jb n ) e

1

2

(a n + jb n )

g(t) a n b n G n = G n G n G n

G n

= | G n | e jθ n

G n = | G n | e jθ n

| G n | θ n G n g(t) | G n |=| G n | G n × ω θ n × ω θ n = θ n

k(t)

K n

=

=

=

=

=

=

n=−∞

K n e jnω 0 t

T 0

1

τ/2

τ/2

Ae jnω 0 t dt

T 0 1

A

jnω 0 e jnω 0 t | τ/2

tau/2

A

T 0

1

jnω 0 e jnω 0 τ/2 e jnω 0 τ/2

T 0 e jnω 0 τ/2 e jnω 0 τ/2

A

0

nπ sin nπτ

A

T

0

2j

C n = 2A sin nπτ

T 0

τ = T 0 /2

K n =

nπ sin nπT 0 = nπ sin nπ

A

T

0 2

A

2

K A/2 n τ = T 0 −7 ω 0 −3ω 0 3 7ω ω
K
A/2
n
τ = T 0
−7 ω 0
−3ω 0
3
ω 0
0
−5ω 0
−ω 0
ω 0
0

ω

k n × ω τ = T 0

K n × ω τ 0 = 1

K n = lim

τ0

sin nπτ

1

T

T

0

nπτ

T

=

1

T 0

e

n=−∞

δ(t nT 0 ) =

1

T 0

n=−∞

e jnω 0 t

±ω 0 ±ω 0 ±ω 0 0 e jnω 0 t

cos 0 t =

1 (e jnω 0 t + e jnω 0 t )
2

g(t) = G 0 +

n=1

G n e jnω 0 t + G n e jnω o t

G n =| G n | e jθ n G n =| G n | e jθ n

g(t)

=

G 0 +

= G 0 +

= G 0 +

n=1

n=1

n=1

|

2

2

G n | e j(0 t+θ n ) +

| G n | e j(0 t+θ n )

|

G n | e j(0 t+θ n ) + e j(0 t+θ n )

2

| G n | cos(0 t + θ n )

=

c 0 +

n=1

c n cos(0 t + θ n )

C 0 = G 0 C n = 2 | G n |=| G n | + | G −∞ < t <

n

|

g(t) g P (t)

g(t)

t
t

g(t)

g (t) P t
g
(t)
P
t

g(t)

g P (t) g(t) T 0 g P (t) T 0 → ∞

g(t) =

g p (t)

lim

T

0

g p (t) =

n=−∞

G n e jnω 0 t

G n =

T 0

1

T 0 /2 T 0 /2 g p (t)e jnω 0 t dt

ω 0 = 2π

T 0

T 0