In an interconnected power system, if a load demand changes randomly, both frequency and tie line power
varies. The main aim of automatic voltage controller is to minimize the transient variations in these variables
and also to make sure that their steady state errors is zero. Many modern control techniques are used to
implement a reliable controller. The objective of these control techniques is to produce and deliver power
reliably by maintaining voltage within permissible range. When real power changes, system frequency gets
affected while reactive power is dependent on variation in voltage value. That’s why real and reactive power is
controlled separately. Our objective is here for to study and analyze the Genetic algorithms and their
application to the problems of Function Optimization and System Identification. Since there are other methods
traditionally adopted to obtain the optimum value of a function (which are usually derivative based), the project
aims at establishing the superiority of Genetic Algorithms in optimizing complex, multivariable and multimodal
function. The Genetic Algorithm is a popular optimization technique which is bio-inspired and is based on the
concepts of natural genetics and natural selection theories proposed by Charles Darwin.

© All Rights Reserved

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In an interconnected power system, if a load demand changes randomly, both frequency and tie line power
varies. The main aim of automatic voltage controller is to minimize the transient variations in these variables
and also to make sure that their steady state errors is zero. Many modern control techniques are used to
implement a reliable controller. The objective of these control techniques is to produce and deliver power
reliably by maintaining voltage within permissible range. When real power changes, system frequency gets
affected while reactive power is dependent on variation in voltage value. That’s why real and reactive power is
controlled separately. Our objective is here for to study and analyze the Genetic algorithms and their
application to the problems of Function Optimization and System Identification. Since there are other methods
traditionally adopted to obtain the optimum value of a function (which are usually derivative based), the project
aims at establishing the superiority of Genetic Algorithms in optimizing complex, multivariable and multimodal
function. The Genetic Algorithm is a popular optimization technique which is bio-inspired and is based on the
concepts of natural genetics and natural selection theories proposed by Charles Darwin.

© All Rights Reserved

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ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 3, (Part - 6) March 2016, pp.20-24

RESEARCH ARTICLE

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OPEN ACCESS

Algorithm Applying IAE, ITAE Criteria

Indradeep Kumar1, Kiran Kushwaha2

1

2

Research Scholar(M. Tech.), Electrical Engineering, Kalinga University,

ABSTRACT

In an interconnected power system, if a load demand changes randomly, both frequency and tie line power

varies. The main aim of automatic voltage controller is to minimize the transient variations in these variables

and also to make sure that their steady state errors is zero. Many modern control techniques are used to

implement a reliable controller. The objective of these control techniques is to produce and deliver power

reliably by maintaining voltage within permissible range. When real power changes, system frequency gets

affected while reactive power is dependent on variation in voltage value. Thats why real and reactive power is

controlled separately. Our objective is here for to study and analyze the Genetic algorithms and their

application to the problems of Function Optimization and System Identification. Since there are other methods

traditionally adopted to obtain the optimum value of a function (which are usually derivative based), the project

aims at establishing the superiority of Genetic Algorithms in optimizing complex, multivariable and multimodal

function. The Genetic Algorithm is a popular optimization technique which is bio-inspired and is based on the

concepts of natural genetics and natural selection theories proposed by Charles Darwin.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, AVR, PID, ACO, ITAE, IAE

I.

INTRODUCTION

power demands are never steady as they changes

continuously with the rising or falling trend. The

voltage and frequency controller has gained

importance with the growth of interconnected

system and has made the operation of power

system more reliable. Many investigations in the

area of AVR of an isolated power system have

been reported and a number of control schemes like

Proportional and Integral (PI), Proportional,

Integral and Derivative (PID) and optimal control

have been proposed to achieve improved

performance. The conventional method exhibits

relatively poor dynamic performance as evidenced

by large overshoot and transient frequency

oscillations

Optimization is the selection of a best

element from some set of available alternatives. In

the simplest case, an optimization problem consists

of maximizing or minimizing a real function by

systematically choosing input values from within

an allowed set and computing the value of the

function. Several new optimization techniques like

Genetic Algorithm (GA), PSO, Ant Colony

Optimization (ACO), Simulated Annealing (SA)

and Bacterial Foraging have emerged in the past

two decades that mimic biological evolution, or the

way biological entities communicate in nature. Due

its high potential for global optimization, GA has

received great attention in control system such as

the search of optimal PID controller parameters.

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enormous computational efforts. The premature

convergence of GA degrades its performance and

reduces its search capability. GA is a local search

technique used to find approximate solutions to

optimization and search problems. Genetic

Algorithm has been developed by John Holland

and his co-workers in the University of Michigan

in the early. Genetic algorithms are theoretically

and empirically proved to provide robust search in

complex spaces. Genetic algorithms are a particular

class of evolutionary algorithms that use techniques

inspired by evolutionary biology such as

inheritance, mutation, selection, and crossover.

The Genetic Algorithms need to be

implemented to simple function optimization like

Automatic Voltage Regulator. Then the process is

to be extended to complex multimodal functions

like one of the model of power system i.e. LFC.

This paper deals with reduction of error in AVR of

the proposed system through simulation in the

MATLAB-Simulink environment. The computer

simulations illustrate the results. It also makes a

comparison between the GA technique and

different error criteria.

The objective of this work is to design and

implement GA-PID controller to search the optimal

parameter for efficient control of voltage. The

model of the AVR of single area power system is

designed using simulink in MATLAB.

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ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 3, (Part - 6) March 2016, pp.20-24

II.

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voltage magnitude (i.e. on the generator excitation).

Genetic Algorithms (GA) provide a general

approach for searching for global minima or

maxima within a bounded, quantized search space.

Since GA only requires a way to evaluate the

performance of its solution guesses without any

prior information, they can be applied generally to

nearly any optimization problem.

equipments are installed for each generator. The

schematic diagram of the voltage control loop is

represented in fig.1. The controllers are set for a

particular operating condition and take care of

small changes in load demand to maintain the

voltage magnitude within the specified limits.

Small changes in real power are mainly dependent

on changes in rotor angle and, thus, the frequency

The aim of this control is to maintain the

system voltage between limits by adjusting the

excitation of the machines. The automatic voltage

regulator senses the difference between a rectified

reference voltage. This error signal is amplified and

fed to the excitation circuit.

The whole process consists of three steps

i.e. firstly is the model preparation, secondly

preparation of objective function, then the last

comes the application of optimization technique.

with having Integral Absolute Error criteria. From

the simulation the graph is generated.

This is as shown below.

IAE

e ( t ) dt

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ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 3, (Part - 6) March 2016, pp.20-24

www.ijera.com

This figure shows the output simulation graph

After the model

preparation ,the next

comes the objective function by which the three

variables value is to be calculated. This is

basically a MATLAB Programming . In which all

the variables in the model i.e. Kp, Ki and Kd values

are assign to x(1) , x(2) and x(3) respectively. This

values of x(1) x(2) and x(3) are show on MATLAB

workspace

Simulation

function y = iae_b(x)

assignin ('base','Kp', x(1));

assignin ('base','Ki', x(2));

into MATLAB workspace

[t,xx,y_out]=sim ('iae_a.mdl',[0 30] );

y = y_out(end);% evaluate objective function

Now on running the simulation, the graph is

obtained which is shown above

Case 2: AVR Integral Time Absolute Error

(ITAE)

Figure show the simulation model of AVR

using Integral Time Absolute Error criteria. From

the simulation the graph is generated.

ITAE

t e ( t ) dt

0

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ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 3, (Part - 6) March 2016, pp.20-24

www.ijera.com

This figure shows the output simulation graph

comes the evaluation of objective function by

which the three variables value is to be calculated.

This is basically a MATLAB Programming , in

which all the variables in the model i.e. Kp, Ki and

Kd values are assign to x(1) ,x(2) and x(3)

respectively. This values of x(1) , x(2) and x(3) are

show on MATLAB workspace.

Simulation

function y = itae_b(x)

assignin ('base','Kp', x(1));

assignin ('base','Ki', x(2));

assignin ('base','Kd', x(3)); % assign variable into

MATLAB workspace

[t,xx,y_out]=sim ('itae_a.mdl',[0 30] );

AVR

With PID

With PID

IAE

With PID

ITAE

III.

APPLYING OPTIMIZATION

TECHNIQUE

technique in the run model. As using MATLAB

12.0, it provides direct accesses to genetic

algorithm technique. This provides the best fitness

function and best value for the model. It randomly

through value and check for the best, and after

different iteration it provides the best fitness

function and original value of variables that shows

the best value for the model the with minimizing

the error

Rise Time

2.883

4.18

Settling time

58.985

231.54

Settling min

0.2710

0.2644

Settling max

1.6323

1.85

Overshoot

63.867

86.08

Under-shoot

0

0

Peak

1.6323

1.85

Peak time

18

23

6.377

108.59

0.89

1.12

12.40

1.12

28

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ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 3, (Part - 6) March 2016, pp.20-24

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Values

Criteria

IAE

ITAE

Kp

Ki

Kd

2.36

0.0855

1.97

0.0377

0.78

0.0305

Where Kp = proportional controller

Ki = Integral controller

Kd = Derivative controller

After the completion of all above steps, for

knowing the values of output step response of both

the cases. I have used a command S = step info

(Scope Data(: , 1))

The table shows the step information of the graph

.This show that how both the criteria provide

different response and reduce overshoot. It reduces

the error in the system

Rise time: time taken by signal to change from low

value to specified high value

Settling time: time elapsed from instantaneous

step input to time of output

Settling min: Minimum value of y once the

response has risen

Settling max: Maximum value of y once the

response has risen

Overshoot: Percentage overshoot (relative to y

final)

Undershoot: Percentage undershoot

Peak: Peak absolute value of y

Peak time : Time at which this peak is reached

S = step info(y ,t) uses the last sample value of y as

steady-state value y final.

S = step info(y) assumes t = 1:ns.

IV.

[2].

[3].

[4].

[5].

[6].

September 2-4, 2004.

Ranuva Nageswara Rao, P. Rama Krishna

Reddy

PSO based tuning of PID

controller for a Load frequency control in

two area power system International

Journal of Engineering

Kothari and Nagrath, Power System

Engineering2nd edition, Tata McGrawHill Education, 2008.

Hadi Saadat, Power System Analysis

Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2010.

Phillip David Power, Non Linear Multi

Layer Perceptron Channel Equalization,

and Genetic Algorithm Optimization, in

IEEE Transactions,The Queen University

of Belfast, April 2001.

Jacob D. Griesbach and Delores M. Etter,

Fitness-Based Exponential Probabilities

for Genetic Algorithms Applied to

Adaptive IIR Filtering, in IEEE

Transactions, Department of Electrical

and Computer Engineering University of

Colorado Boulder.

CONCLUSION

AVR reveals the superiority of the Genetic

Algorithm over the other criteria. The different

criteria of error reduction have their own

advantages and disadvantages in the different

optimization problems. In this section I have

searched and concluded from the table that ITAE

criteria better than IAE in case of overshoot .On the

other hand, IAE is better in minimum settling time.

Thus, this paper summarizes a number of current

developments in genetic algorithms. It includes

both theoretical aspects of genetic algorithms and

its variants and some potential applications which

incorporate the use of genetic algorithms.

REFERENCES

[1].

(M.Sc.) Uniified PID Design for Load

Frequency Control Proceedings of the

2004 IEEE International Conference on

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