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UNITIV

PROGRAMMINGLOGICCONTROLLERS

4.1DEFINITIONOFPLC:

Aprogrammablelogiccontroller(PLC)Programisaspeciallydesigneddigitaloperatingmicroprocessor
basedcontrollerthatusesaprogrammablememoryforinternalstorageofinstructingandforinternalstorage
ofinstructingandforimplementingfunctionsuchaslogic,sequencing,timing,countingandarithmeticin
ordertocontrolmachinesandprocesses.

BASICCOMPONENTSOFPLC:

ThePLChardwaresystemconsistsofthebasiccomponentsare
Processor

Memory

PowerSupply

InputIOutputmodules

Programmingdevice

Monitor

Processor:

ItistheheartofPLC

Heprocessorprocessesthesignalsfrominputmoduleandgeneratescontrollingsignalsforthesystem

Italsoscansandsolvethelogicoftheuserprogram

ItconsistsofALU,microprocessorunit,memoryunitandsystempowersupply

Memory:
Thememoryunitcontainstheprogramstoredinit

Theprogramswerewrittenwithcontrolactionstobeexecutedbythemicroprocessorfortheinputgiven

RAMisatemporarystoragedeviceusedtostoreladderdiagramandfortestingandevaluation

ThenitisstoredinROMwherechangescannotdone

PowerSupply:

ThepurposeofapowersupplyunitistoconvertthemainA.CvoltageintoalowlevelD.Cvoltage(5V).

TheD.C.voltageissuppliedtotheprocessorandthecircuitsintheinputandoutputinterfacemodules.
Thepowersupplyshouldbefreefromheavyloads,noisesandvoltagefluctuations.

Input/OutputModules:

TheInputmodulereceivesinformationfromextendeddevicesandsendstoprocessorandcommunicatestheprocessed
informationtotheexternaldevicesthroughoutput

modules.

TheInputdevicesaremechanicalswitches,photosensors,temperaturesensors,flowsensors,other

typeofsensorskeypadsetc.,

Theoutputdevicesmayincludesolenoidvalves,Relays,contactors,lights,Horns,
Heatingelements,fans,Motorstarter,signalAmplifiers.Conveyorbelt,lift,automaticdooretc.,

I/Odevicesarealsocalledperipheraldevices.

ProgrammingDevice:
ItisusedtoentertherequiredprogramintothememoryoftheCPU

Theprogramisdevelopedinprogrammingdeviceandstoredintomemoryunit

BASICSTRUCTUREOR(INTERNALARCHITECTURE)OFAPLCSYSTEM:CentralProcessing
Unit:
TheCPUcontrolsandprocessesalltheoperationswithinthePLC.

Itissuppliedwithaclockwithafrequencyoftypicallybetween1to8MHz.

ThisfrequencydeterminestheoperatingspeedofthePLCandprovidesthetimingandsynchronizationforallelementsinthe
system.

TheinformationwithinthePLCiscarriedbymeansofdigitalsignals.

Theprocessorisamicroprocessorthatexecutesaprogramtoperformtheoperationsspecifiedinaladderdiagramorasetof
Booleanequations.

TheCPUconsistsofthefollowingunits

ArithmeticandLogicUnit(ALU):

ThisunitperformsdatamanipulationandarithmeticandlogicaloperationsoninputIvariabledataand
determinestheproperstateoftheoutputvariables.

Thearithmeticoperationincludesaddition,subtractionetc.,andlogicoperationsincludeAND,OR,AND,EXCLUSIVE
OR.

MemoryUnit:

Memorytermedregisterslocatedwithinthemicroprocessorandusedtostoreinformationinvolvedinaprogramexecution.

Theseprogramscontaincontrolactionstobeexecutedbythemicroprocessorforthegiveninput.Thereareseveralmemory
elementsinaPLCsystem.

SystemReadonlyMemory(ROM)givespermanentstoragefortheoperatingsystemandfixeddatawedbytheCPU.

RAMfortheusertodevelopprogramandactsatemporarymemory.

Inaddition,temporarybufferstoresfortheI/Ochannels.

ControlUnit:
Acontrolunitisusedtocontrolthetimingofoperations.

Theprocessorfunctionsunderapermanentsupervisoryoperatingsystemthatdirectstheoveralloperationsfromdatainput
andoutputtoexecutionofuserprograms.

Thecontrollercanperformonlyoneoperationatatime.So,itscanseachoftheinputssequentially,evaluatestheladder
diagramprogram,provideeachoutput(s),andthen

repeatthewholeprocess.

Hence,thetimingcontrol'snecessaryforaPLCsystem.

MemoryUnit:
Thesequenceofinstructionstobeexecuted,programsarestoredinthememoryunit.

DuringenteringandeditingincludingDebugging,theprogramisstoredinthetemporarystoragescalled

RAM(RandomAccessmemory).

Oncetheprogramiscompletelyfinished(free&fromerrors).

Itmaybe'burned'intoROM

WhentheROMispluggedintothePLC,thedeviceisreadytobeplacedintoserviceintheindustrialenvironment.

FornetworkprogrammedPLCs,thefinalPLCsprogramisdownloadedintoaspecialreprogrammable

ROM(EPROM,PROM,andEEPROM)inthePLC.MemorymaybeeithervolatiletypeorNonvolatiletype.

VolatileMemory:

VolatilememoryortemporarymemoryorApplicationmemoryistheusermemory,wheretheusercanenterandeditthe
program.

Volatilememorywillloseallitsprogrammedcontentsifoperatingpowerisremovedorlost.

Therefore,necessarytoprovideabatterybackuppowertoalltimes.

NonVolatileMemory:

Nonvolatilememoryorpermanentmemoryorsystemmemoryis(used)asystemmemorythatstoresthemonitorabooting
programs,lookuptablesetc.,

Thisusuallyprogrammedandsuppliedbythemanufacturer.

ThiscontrolstheoperationofPLC.

Itdoesnotloseitscontentduringpowerfailure.

Itdoesnotrequireanybattery.

TheROMmemoryofferstheCPUtouseonlyfixedamountofdata.

TheDifferentTypesofROMSare
_

MaskprogrammedROM

PROM

EPROM

EEPROM

MaskProgrammedROM:
ItisaspecialtypeofROMwhichisprogrammedduringmanufacturing.

TheprogrammedcontentstoredbythistypeofROMmemorycannotbealtered.

PROM:
PROMstandsforprogrammableReadonlymemory.

ItisaspecialtypeofROMusuallyprogramedbymanufacturerduringmanufacturing.

Ithasthedisadvantageofrequiringspecialprogrammingdeviceandonceprogrammedcannotbeerasedoraltered.

EPROM:
EPROMstandsforelectricallyprogrammableReadonlyMemory.

Here,theuserprogramselectrically.

OnecanerasetheprogramcompletelybyshiningUVlightsourceorquartzwindowinpackage.
Aftertheprogramchipiserasedcompletely,programchangescanbemade.

WhentheprogramdevelopedinRAM,themanufacturersusuallyloaditinEPROMtomakepermanentstorage.

EEPROM:

EEPROMElectricallyErasableprogrammableReadonlymemory.

Eventhough,itisanonvolatilememory,itofferssomeprogrammingflexibilityasRAM.

Onecanerasetheprogramcompletelybyelectricalsignals.

ProgramchangescanbemadeveryeasilywiththeuseofaPCwithEEPROMsoftware.

Itcanbeelectricallyprogrammablebytheuser.

Buses:

AsetofparallellinesthatprovidescommunicationbetweenvariousdevicesofasystemistermedasaBus.

ThebussystemcarriesinformationanddatastoandfromtheCPU,MemoryandI/Ounits.

Theinformationistransmittedinbinaryformas0or1

Digitalsignalsorelectricalsignalsareflowinginsidethebus.

Itmightbetracksonaprintedcircuitboard(PCB)orwiresinaribboncable.

ThePLCsystemcontainsfourbuses.

TheyarenamelyDataBus,AddressBus,Controlbusandsystembus.

DataBus:

Thedatabuscontains8,16or32parallelsignallinesforsendingdatabetweenthevariousdevicesofasystem.

An8bitmicroprocessorhasaninternaldatabuswhichcanhandle8bitnumbers.

Thedoubleendedarrowsonthebuslineshowthattheyarebidirectional.

ThismeansthatCPUcanreaddatainfrommemoryorfromI/OunitontheselinesoritcansenddataouttomemoryortoI/O
unitontheselines.

Manydevicesinasystemwillhavetheiroutputsconnectedtothedatabus,butonlyonedevicewillhaveitsoutputenabledat
atime.

AddressBus:

TheAddressbuscontains16,20,24or32parallelsignallinestocarrytheAddressofthememorylocationsforaccessing
storeddata.

EverymemorylocationisgivenadistinctuniqueaddresstolocateeasilyandaccessedbytheCPUeithertoreadorwrite
data.

ControlBus:

TheControlbuscontains4to10parallelsignallinestocarrythesignalsusedbytheCPUthatarerelatedtointernalControl
actions.TypicalcontrolbussignalsareMemory

readMemorywrite,I/OReadandI/Owrite.

I/OSystemBus:
_

TheI/OsystembusprovidethecommunicationbetweentheI/OportsandI/Ounits

Input/OutputUnit:

TheI/Ounitsprovidetheinterfacebetweenthesystemandtheoutsideworld,allowingforconnectionstobemadethrough
I/Ochannelstoinput/outputdevices.

ProgramsareenteredfromaprogrampanelthroughI/Ounit.

INPUT/OUTPUTPROCESSING:

ThesourcingandsinkingareusedtodescribethewayinwhichDCdevicesareconnected

toPLC

Sourcing:

Ifaswitchisconnectedtothepositiveofthebatteryandcurrentflowsfrompositivetonegative,itissaidtobethesourcing
thecurrent.So,theinputdevicereceivescurrent

fromtheinputmodule.

ForthePLC,inputunit,henceinputmoduleisthesourceofthecurrent.ForthePLCoutputunit,outputmoduleisthesource
ofcurrentasitsuppliescurrenttotheoutput

devices.Sourcingoutputunitsforinterfacingwithsolenoids.

Sinking:

Here,theinputdevicesuppliescurrenttotheinputmodule.ForthePLCinputunit,hencetheinputmoduleisthesinkforthe
current.Sinkinginputunitsareusedfor

interfacingwithelectronicequipment.

So,ifaswitchisconnectedtothenegativeofthebatteryandcurrentflowsfrompositivetonegative,byconventionalcurrent
flowdirection,itissaidtobethesinkingfor

Current.ForthePLCoutputunit,thecurrentflowsfromoutputdevicetotheoutputmodulethentheoutput
moduleisthesinkforcurrent.

STEPSINVOLVEDININPUT/OUTPUTPROCESSING:

ThesequencefollowedbyaPLCwhencarryingoutaprogramcanbeasfollows:
Scantheinputsassociatedwithonerungoftheladderprogram

Solvethelogicoperationinvolvingthoseinputs.

Set/Resettheoutputsforthatrung

Moveonthenextrungandrepeattheoperations1,2,3

ThetwomethodsofInput/Outputprocessingoperationsare
Continuousupdating

MassInput/Outputcopying

ContinuousUpdating:

Thesequencefollowedthusincontinuousupdatingisasfollows:

Fetchanddecodethefirstprograminstruction

Scanthererelevantinputs

Fetchanddecodethesecondprograminstruction

Scantherelevantinputsetc.Fortheremainingprograminstructions

Updateoutputs

Reporttheentiresequence.

MassInput/OutputCopying:
ThesequencefollowedinMassI/Ocopyingisthus:
ScanalltheinputsandcopyintoRAM

Fetchanddecodeandexecutealltheprograminstructionsinsequence

CopyalltheoutputinstructionstoRAM

Repeatthesequence

PLCLOGIC:

InstructionCodeMnemonics:

ANDLogicFunction:

ANDlogiccircuitrepresentsseriescircuit

ANDgateiscomposedwithtwoinputsandoneoutput.

ANDgateproduceoutputwhenboththeinputsareHIGHstate.

InputA
InputB
OutputA.B

0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1

ORLogicFunction:
ORlogiccircuitrepresentstheparallelcircuit.

ORGateiscomposedoftwoormoreinputsandoneoutput.

ORoperationislikeadditionofbinarynumbers.

ORgateproduceoutputwhenanyoneinputareHIGHstate.

InputA
InputB
Output(A+B)

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1

NOTLogicFunction:
NOTfunctionisalsoknownasInverter.

NOTgateiscomposedofsingleinputandasingleoutput.

Thebubble,orcircle,attheoutputisthestandardsymbolusedtorepresentinversion.

InNOTgate,thereisanoutput,whenthereisnoinputandnooutputwhenthereisaninput

NANDLogicFunction:
NANDisacombinationofANDandNOTgates.

ArrangementshowsANDgateisfollowedbyNOTgate.HenceitiscalledNOTANDgate.
BoththeinputsAandBhavetobeatLOWstatetogettheoutputatHIGHstate.

NANDGateiscomposedoftwoormoreinputwithasingleoutput.

AnyoneinputisinLOWstatealsooutputwillbeHIGHstate

NORLogicFunction:
NORisacombinationofORandNOTgates.

ArrangementshowsORgateisfollowedbyNOTgate.HenceitiscalledNOTORgate.

BoththeinputsAandBhavetobeatLOWstatetogettheoutputatHIGHstate.

NORGateiscomposedoftwoormoreinputwithasingleoutput.

AnyoneinputisinHIGHstatealsooutputwillbeLOWstate

ExclusiveOR(XOR)LogicFunction:
WhenboththeinputsareatLOWstatetheoutputwillbeatLOWstate

WhenboththeinputsareatHIGHstatetheoutputwillbeatLOWstate

WhenanyoneinputisHIGHstatetheoutputwillbeatHIGHstate

latching:
Itisnecessarytoholdanoutputcoilenergized,evenwhentheinputceases

Thetermlatchisusedforthecircuitusedtocarryoutsuchanoperation.

Latchcircuitisaselfmaintainingcircuitthatmaintainsitsoutputinanenergizedstateuntilthenextinputisupdated

TIMER:

AtimerisaspecialcounterladderfunctionthatallowsthePLCtoperformtimingoperationsbasedonapreciseinternal
clock.

TypesofTimers:
DelayONTimersorONdelaytimers

DelayOFFTimersorOFFdelaytimers
PulseTimers

CascadedTimers

ONOFFCycleTimers

OneShotTimers

DelayONTimers:

Thetermdelayisusedtoindicatethatthistimerburnson,afterwaitingforafixedtimedelayperiod.

Whenthereisaninput,thetimerisenergisedandstartstiming,aftersomepresetvalue,thetimercontactsareclosedto
output.

TONisusedtodenoteONdelay.

DelayOFFTimers:

OFFdelaytimersaremaintainedasONforafixedtimeofdelayperiodbeforeturningoff.

TOFisusedtodenoteOFFdelay.

PulseTimers:

PulsetimerswitchesisanothertypeofTimerwhichcomeseitherONorOFFforafixedperiodoftimeasafunctionof
pulses.

TPisusedtodenotePulseTimers

CascadedTimers:
Cascadingmeansmoreelementsarelinkedtogethertoformasystem.

Thecascadingtimersarelinkedtogethertogivelongerdelaytimeswhichiseasilyachievedthanjustonetimer.

ONOFFCycleTimer:

Timersproducinganoutputforsomeperiodandnooutputforsomeperiodandanoutputforsomeperiod.

ThetimerisdesignedtoswitchanoutputforTsecandoffforanotherTsecond

OneShotTimers:

Oneshottimersproducesanoutputforafixedlengthofsomeinitiationinput.

INTERNALRELAY:

Aninternalrelaybehaveslikerelayswiththeirassociatedcontacts,buytheyarenotactualrelayswhosesimulationsarecontrolled
bythePLCsoftware.

Internalrelayscanbeveryusefulintheimplementationofswitchingsequences.

Theyareoftenusedwhenthereareprogramswithmultipleinputconditions.

TheyarealsoknownasAuxiliaryrelaysormarkers.

Inusinganinternalrelays,ithastobeactivatedononerungofaprogramandthenitsoutputusedtooperateswitching
contactsonanotherrungofaprogram.

COUNTERS:

Countersareusedtocountaspecifiednumberofcontactoperations.

TypesofCounters:
UpCounters

DownCounters

UpCounters:
Upcounterscountupfromthezerotopresetvalue

Theeventsareaddeduntilthepresetvalueisreached

Whenthecounterreachesthesetvalue,itscontactschangestate

DownCounters:
Downcounterscountdownfromthepresetvaluetozero

Theeventsaresubtracteduntilthepresetvalueisreached

WhenthecounterreachestheZerovalue,itscontactschangestate

SHIFTREGISTER:

Ashiftregisterisanelectronicstoragedevicethatallowsthestoredbitsofonerelaytogetshiftedintoanotherrelay.

DATAHANDLING:

ThestepsinvolvedindatahandlingwithaPLCsystemare

Movingdatafromonememorylocationtoanother

ComparisonofMagnitudesofdata
_

Arithmeticoperations
_

Dataconversion

DataHandling
Source
Destination

Instruction
Address
Address
DataMovement:

Instruction
:MOV

Function
:Tocopyavaluefromoneaddresstoanother

Program:

LDX400

MOV

D1

D2

WhenthereisaninputtoX400,

Thedatamovesfromthedesignatedsourceaddresstothedesignateddestinationaddress.
Thedatatransfermightmoveaconstantintoadataregister

DataComparison:
ThedatacomparisoninstructiongetsthePLCtocomparetwodatavalues.

Itcompareapresetvalue(1)totheinputvalue(2)

orEQU

orGRT

orLEQ

or<>orNEQ

orGEQ

Fordatacomparisonthetypicalinstructionwillcontainthedatatransferinstructiontocomparethedatafromsourceaddressand
designationaddress

Itisrequiredtosoundanalarmifasensorindicatesatemperatureabove90Candremainsoundinguntilthe
temperaturefallsbelow75C.

Forthis,theladderdiagramisshownabove.

Theinputtemperaturedataisinputtedtothesourceaddressandthedestinationaddresscontainsthesetvalue.

Whenthetemperaturerises90Corhigher,thedatavalueinthesourceaddressbecomes>thedestination
addressvalueandthereisanoutputtothealarmwhichlatchestheinput

Whenthetemperaturefallsto75Corlower,thedatavalueinthesourceaddressbecomes<thedestinationaddress
valueandthereisanoutputtotherelaywhichthen

opensthecontactsandsoswitchesthealarmoff.

DataArithmeticOperations:

PLCsareofferedwiththeabilitytocarryoutthearithmeticoperationssuchasaddition,subtraction,

multiplicationanddivisiononly.

Theycannotcarryoutexponentialfunctions.

Additionandsubtractionoperationsareusedtoalterthevalueofdataheldindataregisters.

Multiplicationsareusedtomultiplysomeinputbeforeaddingtoorsubtractingitfromanother.

CodeConversions:
AlltheinternaloperationsintheCPUofaPLCarecarriedoutthroughbinarynumbers.

MostPLCsprovideBCDtobinaryandbinarytoBCDconversionforuse.

Whenadecimal(input)signalisgiven,BCDconversionisused.

Similarly,whenadecimaloutputisrequired,Decimalconversionisused.

ThedataatthesourceaddressisinBCDandconvertedtobinaryandplacedatthedestinationaddress.

SELECTIONOFPLCS

TheselectionprocessofPLCforaparticulartaskdependsonthefollowingfactors.
CapacityofInputandOutput

No.ofInputsandOutputs

TypesofInputsandOutputs

SizeofmemoryrequiredI,

SpeedandPowerrequiredoftheCPU