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Field Report of Northern (Gilgit Side) Pakistan,

Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Submitted To:
Sir Azeem Shah

Submitted By:
Waseem Khan
Naimat Ullah
Saddam Hussain
Adnan khan
Email: Waseem1992Geo@gmail.com

Department of Geology
University of Haripur, Pakistan

Acknowledgement
First of all we are thanking full to almighty Allah who blessed us with
coverage and ability to complete this field work.
After that we are great full to our honourable VC of UOH to give us
permission for the field. We are thanking full to the department of Geology of
University of Haripur for the endless support and encroachment.
We are highly obliged to HOD Sir Muhammad Fawad and Faculty
member Sir Qaseem-u-Rehman, Sir Azeem shah and Sir Usman Azhar for their
hard work and grace full efforts.
We are also thank full the geologist of Dasu Dam project and also great
full to the Senior Geologist, Dr Ihsanullah of Bhasha dam to share their precious
knowledge and informative knowledge about the dams and dam areas. And
also thank full to the Kohistan and other cities police for their co-operation.
Regards:
Saddam Husain /Waseem Khan
Naimat Ullah/Saeed Anwar
Fahad wahab/Adnan Khan

Table of contents
S

CHAPTER OR HEADINGS

PAGE NUMBER

ABSTRACT

04

CHAPTER 01

06

INTRODUCTION

06

GENERAL

07

CHAPTER 02

LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 03

12

METHODOLOGY

12

CHAPTER 04

13

10

FIELD DESCRIPTION

13

11

DAY 01

13

12

DAY 02

17

13

BESHAM COMPLEX

17

14

KOHISTAN ISLAND ARC

25

15

DASU HYDROPOWER PROJECT

26

16

DAY 3

27

17

DIAMIR BHASHA DAM LECTURE

27

NO

GEOLOGY

18

THATA HOT SPRING

31

19

TRIPLE JUNCTION

35

20

DAY 04

37

21

PLATE COLLISION POINT

41

22

DAY 05

44

23

DAY 06

44

AUGEN

46

GNESIS

24

CHAPTER 05

46

25

CONCLUSION

47

26

FAIR COPY OF MAPPING

49

Abstract:
The study area of Gilgit Kohistan is the Northern part of the Pakistan,
we study area along the KKH and Indus river geologically that area are very
complex and highly deformed areas having plats colloid zone and triple junction
of the world three largest mountain series.
Geotectonically there are many large and observable tectonics features in
the area, main suture zone, MMT, MKT, Triple junction, Kohistan island arc,
syntaxes collision zone of Indian and Eurasian plates.
Geomorphologically large number of alluvial fans, hot spring, flysh
deposit, mollase deposited, point bar, mid channel bar, meandering stream.
Structurally small fold, faults (rakaposhi) and fracture in rocks.
The project of Dasu dam and Bhasha dam studied along informative
lecture with respect to construction and engineering geology.
Petrology of different igneous (plutonic and volcanic), metamorphic and Meta
sedimentary rocks with their brief mineralogy and petrology.
Mainly there regionally geology having different types of rock complexes of
igneous bodies and also different grade of metamorphic rocks:

Mansehra granitic batholiths

Meta sedimentary rocks of Indian continent

Dubair granitic complex

Kohistan batholiths

Kohistan island arc rock

Besham complex rock

Chalt volcanoes

Yaseen group sediments and


5

Ortho / Paragnesis rocks

Thilichi group

Augen gnesis

CHAPTER

01

Introduction:
The six days field tour is conducted from 11_16 may 2015 to northern
Pakistan (Kohistan- Gilgit) areas by the department of Geology UNIVERSITY
OF HARIPUR. The amazing and fruit full tour according to the study is
arranged by the HOD and Faculty for batch one (semester 6Th) Geology.
We started this special field work on 10:00 am (11 may 2015) of Monday
from Haripur University. At first day we work on different location on
Shahra_e_resham and at 9:30 pm we reached to Besham continental hotel to
spend the night, and then next early morning we continued our tour from district
Shangla towards Chillas.
At 2ND day we work on 6TH different location along the lecture of Dasu
Dam project geologist. On that day field work done at Besham city, lower and
upper Kohistan district along KKH and the end of the day at11:00 pm we
reached to Shangrilla hotel for to make night rest full.
The next day (3rd) of our field start at 9:15am at the hotel with the lecture
of Dr Ihsanullah about Bhasha Diamir dam and then we start field work at 10:00
am at Chillas city Babusar top and Jaglot area. We studied 7TH different location
rocks petrology and brief mineralogy.

Day 4TH of field tour spend in Gilgit Hunza area along KKH. We work on
5 different location along KKH and reached to Hunza at 2:00pm then return
from their and reached to palace hotel at 6:00pm.
7

The 5TH day of our field spends frequently in drive. The journey was very
long and tried full but also to much informative. The location of Diamir bhasha
dam seen there. This day we came back from gilgit to Besham and at 10:00pm
we reached to Besham continental hotel district shangla again.
The 6th and last day of field trip at 16 of May 2015 we start our field work
from Besham area along with Mansehra granitic batholiths. We studied
different rocks at three different locations on the way we moving toward
Haripur. And finally we reached to Haripur about 3.30 pm evening, and taken
the bags and went to hostel.
Climate and topographic relief of different areas which we studied during
field tour:
Over all weather of Gilgit Baltistan region is very cool and enjoyable
during our field tour, Besham area is little hotter than Gilgit Baltistan because of
enter marginal basin area located. The Hunza valley is most beautiful and
topographically lies at higher elevated region, and having a large number of
mountain peaks like K2 8611 m and Nangaparbat massive. Overall topography
is very high. We went toward about 2560m high from the elevation of Haripur
in our field work. Vegetation on mountain is high in between Haripur and
Besham region, while in between Besham and Gilgit region the vegetation on
mountain is very rarely or may be negligible, which are very helpful with
respect to observed different geological features very easily and helpful to
observe rock petrology.
General geology:
The tectonic setting of that area is highly complex and the rocks are also
highly deformed. We studied rock of two different plates during this tour
Indian, Eurasian and Karakorum block (minor plate) mountain series seen. The
suture zone MMT in Kohistan separates K.I.A from Indian shield rocks.
8

Different metamorphosed rocks are observed which are due to collision B/W
Indian and Eurasian plate about 50 mya. And some are due to igneous
intrusions. The age of K.I.A is about 90 to 110 mya. MCT concept in Pakistan
is highly controversial; some geologist said it separates lesser Himalayas from
higher Himalayas. MKT thrust is separating point B/W Eurasian plate and
K.I.A. Some flysh and mollase sediments observed along Indus River at Chillas
city. Hot spring study along K.K.H near Thata paani area, which is due to active
Raikot fault. Thilichi group of back arc basin, and Chalt volcanoes, gabbroic
rock studied at bindindas areas. Observe Aplite rocks near triple junction point.
Diorite rock along with dyke intrusion near jutal area. Yaseen group
metasediment observed in the contact with Chalt volcanoes. Some people
marked as MKT. Finally our main objects of total field is to observed different
type of rocks and studied it with lenses to observed their essential and accessory
mineral to identify the rock types, minerals texture, grain shaped and to
observed different structural (fault, folds, joint)in the field work area.
Geomorphological feature point bar, mid channel bar alluvial fans, pajada,
meandering stream and other architecture of stream in gilgit area.
With respect to field geology we work on exposure and traverse mapping along
road side, mark overburden of sediment on the rock and mark different location
on the map with the help of coordinates taken in the field.

10

CHAPTER

02

Review of Literature
R. A. KHAN TAHIRKHELI et al (Geology of kohistan AND Adjoining
EURASIAN AND INDO PAKISTAN CONTINENT) conducted that Kohistan
constitutes about 36000 square kilometres of territory located between the
Indo-Pakistan and Eurasian Plates, on the north-western tip of the Himalaya.
Earlier, Dasios (1964) has differentiated this part as a tectonic zone of
Karakorum.
Bulk of Kohistan sequence consists of amphibolites, diorites, meta-norite
(pyroxene-granulites) and associated volcanic rocks which are considered to be
the crust of an ancient calc-alkaline island arc. This sequence has been
abducted on to the Palaeozoic rocks of the Indo-Pakistan continent on the
south and subducted under the Eurasian Platform along the northern mega
shears.
The northern mega shear along Hini-Chalt-Yaseen-Drosh was formerly
used to be considered the only extension of the Indus suture west of Nanga
Parbat. Recent studies by Tahirkheli et a1 (1 976, 77) have brought to light a
southern mega shear marked by the occurrence of ultramafics and high
pressure metamorphic rocks, called Main Mantle Thrust (MMT), which
delineates the southern contact of the Kohistan Island arc and the Indo-Paki
stun continent. This confirms the bifurcation of the Indus suture into two
suture zones, west of Nanga Parbat.
In this paper, an attempt has been made to introduce the geology of Kohistan
island arc and the adjoining Eurasian and Indo-Pakistan continents.
11

MATHEW P. WILLIAMS et al (Dept of Geology, Imperial College, London,


SW7 2BP, U.K)observed The gneisses, granites and metasediments of the
northern exposed margin of the Indian plate in the Besham antifoam consist of
a Precambrian crystalline basement with younger sedimentary cover. These
were metamorphosed during the main fabric-forming event of the Himalayan
orogeny, a ductile simple shear dominated deformation of the footwall of the
MMT during southward over thrusting of the Kohistan Arc. Deformation
intensity and ductility decrease southwards. Subsequent thrusting brought
together internally imprecated blocks which have different deformational
metamorphic histories. High grade rocks thrust over low grade rocks within
each block deJine an inverted metamorphic gradient produced by postmetamorphic thrusting. Major cross folding producing the Beshamantiform,
plus brittle .faults are expressions of the later N-W directed back thrusting and
E-W compression and uplift of the Besham area

Geological survey of Pakistan reported that Northern areas of Pakistan,


comprising Diamir (Chillas), Gilgit,includingHunza and Nagar) Ghizar
including ( groups of Yaseen and ishkomem) and Baltistan ( Skardu district lies
between latitude of 35 and 37 and longitude 72 and 77E. It covers total area
of 6000 Rm2and constitute one of the highest mountain region of the world. The
areas has arranged topography with a very high relief some of place like
Rakaposhi, Nangaparbat and K2 are famous worldwide for their elevation and
gradient, Numerous peaks are perpetually snow-covered and the area most
extensively glacial outside three great mountains kanees, the Karakorum,
Hindukush and Himalayas dominate the topographic scenario of the region,
Indus, gilgit and Hunza river along with their numerous tributaries drain the
area.
12

Population is spare and restricted by irrigated plain amidst rugged ranges


Gilgit, Chillas, Hunza and Skardu is main district, All area suited on the world
famous Karakorum Highway (KKH). The KKH is metalled and all weather
road, but temporary road block are common due to rock sliding and mudflow.
The study area from a part of kohistan terrain which sand witched
between the Indian plate to the south and Karakorum (micro continental) and
Asian plates to the north.

13

CHAPTER

03

Methodology:
The methodology we applied in the field tour is that; first of all at each and
every stop we tried to observed thing and to understand it by our selves, and
tried to identify the rock and there tectonic setting by our selves
We used the geological hammer for taking sample of rock and then
observed the texture, grain size, grain shape, mineral colour, and mineral crystal
system if we do not observe it with naked eye. Then we use (sight savers lens)
of 10 or 20 PX to observe that feature in the rock. We also check the amount of
essential minerals, Accessory mineral to give specific name to that rock. GPS is
used for measuring longitude, latitude and elevation also. But if we cant
identify rock petrology then our give us precious lecture about the rock and told
us it is that type of the rock having that minerals. We use field notebook,
pencils, pen, for lecture noting and marker for simple naming. We used bags
for sample collecting. In GPS we use the format of degree, minute and second
(DMS) pattern at all location and the elevation measures in meters.
Finally the lecture taken by teachers about the rocks and tectonic of the
area, in which all the things were explained with complete detailed

14

CHAPTER

04

Field descriptions:
Geography of the Area:
We start our study tour from Haripur to Hunza. We work and travel along
KKH of total distance is about 640 km approximately on korakuram highways..
We can stay some days to reaching Hunza at different location Besham, Chillas
and Gilgit.
Actual distance between Haripur to Abbotabad 34 km, Abbotabad to
Besham. 154km, Besham to Chillas 200km, Chillas to Gilgit 145km and Gilgit
to Hunza 105km.
So we write our description of each and every stop with details as following:

Day#1:
In day first we study along shahera resham in distt Mansehra and batgram
and we stay at Besham continental hotel.
Stop 1
Location: Ahal city
Coordinates: 3431 58.3 N 37 10 57.8 E
Elevation: 1267m
Geotectonically:
According to some people the MCT marked their, but MCT is very
controversial in Pakistan. Peoples says that the highly metamorphosed
crystalline rock separated by MCT from deformed rocks in this area. On the
other hand some people said that batal fault and oghi shear zone indicate MCT
there.
15

Petrology and Mineralogy:


This zone called oghi shear zone or oghi thrust. The felsic intrusion of
granodiorite observed there have highly deformed.
Observation:
Fine grain rock compare to granite showing white colour minerals greater
than black colour minerals. The rock we called granodiorite. It lies in between
felsic (granite) and intermediate (diorite). The black colour minerals are present
in greater amount from granitic rock. The granodiorite shows the mafic minerals
is 10 to 25 %, quartz present about greater than 20 %, and plagioclase ,
oligoclase are also present, due to shear zone, these are crushed.
Structurally:
Large number of fractures are small faults are present in this area. The
rocks are highly deformed due to high stresses. Batal fault are present there.
Geology:
The shear zone having foliated minerals because of metamorphism which
have highly deformation. And form different grade of metamorphic rocks.

16

STOP#2:
Location: Near Ahal city Oghi Mansehra
After some distance travels from Ahal city we study the main Oghi shear zone
or thrust along road side.
Tectonically:
This area is also highly deformed and having high vegetation above the
rock, that area called the main shear thrust.
Petrology and Mineralogy:
These areas mainly contain granitic rock, which are highly crushed. We
studied granodiorite in this region. The granitic batholiths formed different
types of rocks at different temperature and pressure at different places in the
area.

17

STOP#3:
Location: shaipur chatter near charcoal KKH.
Coordinates: 34 37'34"N 735'56"E
Petrology and Mineralogy:
We observed mostly metamorphic rocks mineral in this region. The
minerals are found in elongated form in the rock due to the high grade of
metamorphism. The segregation found in these rocks. The dark and light band
of minerals is separated with their colour. The quartz and feldspar make light
band, while biotite or other mafic minerals having dark band alternatively.
Muscovite mica is present ,so we called it gnesis but when we observed the
rocks on the basis of texture, shape, colour and composition, it explain that the
host rocks are igneous(felsic)or granitic rock. If a rock is igneous basically and
recrystallized and developed gniesosity we called it orthogenesis.

18

DAY # 2:
On this day we study different rock in Besham city and district lower and
upper Kohistan area along KKH. Six different places we studied on this day, and
the lecture about Dasu dam also conducted.
STOP # 1:
Location: near Besham continental hotel Besham district Shangla
Coordinates: 305539.9 N 725234.9E
ELEVATION: 1494 m
Geology of the area:
Mainly the area covered by medium to high grade metamorphic
rock have some patches of Aplite also observed in the rock, all rock of area
usually 1800 Mya age of Precambrian. The most rock is metamorphosed due to
the Himalayas orogeny.
Petrology and Mineralogy:
Mainly dominated quartz mineral and some feldspar exist in veins at
right side of area having cremesh color mainly cover by weather surface, other
rock mentioned below;
Schist:
(Medium grade metamorphic rock) schist observe at near quartz veins
have schistosity developed and mineralogy having quartz, feldspar, micas with
some black color mafic mineral which indicate high grade schist. Schist has
graphitic because of large number of graphite mineral. And show Blackish
color.
19

Paragnesis rock:
High grade metamorphosed rock genesis found the area which have
light and dark color banding, due to high temperature no foliation present in
the rock. The host rock of genesis is sedimentary so we called it Paragnesis.
Orthogenesis:
At Some places our group member observed at have Aplite or granitic
rock which was metamorphosed to orthogenesis.
Aplite:
Igneous felsic rock Aplite existed at left side nearest side to BC hotel.
Which have like granitic composition but have fine grain texture compare to
granite our teacher told us the properties indicate that it is Aplite.
Tectonics:
Over all Besham complex have very complex rock lithology granitic,
Aplite, amphibole, genesis, schist or other metasedimentary rock.
Metamorphism is caused by Himalaya orogeny .contact observed at different
rock.

20

STOP # 2:
Location: near to Besham Area Kohistan
Coordinates: 345734.3N725248.1E
Elevation: 758 m

21

In this Stop we studied some rock petrology, mineralogy and also some work
on mapping of the area related with field geology.
Petrology and Mineralogy:
The characteristic observe in the rock are mostly high grade
metamorphosed having crystalline and coarse grains minerals .genisosity
founded in the rock. Mineral observed quarts in large amount with micas. That
rock

is

called

Paragnesis

intruded

by

some

quartz

veins.

Field geology (traverse and exposure mapping):


We have base map having contour lines of the area.
We practice to marks our own location through GPS data .we seen or
observe the over burden existed on the rock along road side.
The map of the area present at the last of field reports.

22

STOP # 3
Location: Dubair Jijal complex Kohistan
Coordinate: 34219.6 N72543.1E
Elevation: 716 m
The felsic and intermediate rock existed their which is called granodiorite.

Petrology and Mineralogy:


Biotite, quartz and feldspar minerals are observed in the rock
.Amphibole minerals start to developed .the development of amphibole
indicate the rock type granodiorite. Its contain quartz and feldspar near 50 -55
% that rock give named diorite.

23

Tectonic:
Main mantle thrust or suture zone existed in these area .which separate
granodiorite from ultramafics rock .the main mantle thrust located between
our stop 3 and stop 4 in day 2.which we can`t observe but sir told us about it.
Age: Precambrian
STOP # 4:
Location: starting of Kohistan island arc
Coordinate: 35240.5 N725637.9E
Elevation: 936m
Tectonic:
The Jijal complex and K.I.A start from that stop .the MMT located beside
the stop toward Besham.
Petrology and Mineralogy:
The mineral observed light green giving vitreous color olivine or dark green
pyroxene in the rock .mainly the Jijal complex covered by ultramafics rock .but
these area covered by peridotite .peridotite have coarse grain intrusive
igneous rock. Teacher said us that rock is mafic but actual name give after thin
section studied.

24

STOP # 5:
Location: Patten valley Kohistan
Coordinate: 3543.7"N 725733.1E
Petrology and Mineralogy:
The mineral observed pyroxene , olivine , plagioclase (ca) , garnet in the
rock

mostly showing host rock .peridotite and the

mineral show

recrystallization at very high grade which have most of mineral are mafic and
alteration occur due to weathering cause serpentinization .the overall texture
and mineralogy indicate that it was granulites rock metamorphosed from ultra
mafic rock .
Tectonics and Petrology of K.I.A:
Kohistan island arc was formed due to the collision of two plate closing
the Tethys ocean .now it is existed between Indian plate and Eurasian .the age
of K.I.A are approximately 90-105 Mya .it is located in Kohistan extent to
Chillas district .the rock existed is mainly ultramafics rock of peridotite gabbros,
25

gabbroic norite, and having metamorphism is occur at some places forming


genesis granulites, diapsoide occurring in the surface.

ABOVE PIC HOST ROCK ULTRAMAFIC HAVE METAMORPHOSED INTO GRANULITE

STOP # 6
Location: Near Dasu village Area Upper Kohistan
Petrology and Mineralogy:
Mainly the rock in this area around the dam is granulites and
amphibolites existed in surrounding area.
Structure:
Near Kamila amphibolites khushi fault is studied.
Engineering geology:
Dasu power project is runoff river scheme located 7km upstream from
Dasu village and 74 km downstream from bhasha dam and 350km from
Islamabad.
26

Its fully concrete RCC dam to generate 4300 MW electricity .it is not
storage dam its a running water project just for electric purpose .dam height is
857 and after storage its reached to 1000 m .two power tunnels constructed
on left side and two power tunnels is right side also while two flushing tunnel
one right side and other is left side. The time require is 8-19 years .two audit
tunnels one side is closed and other side is open have 100,80 m in length .

DAY # 3
STOP # 1:
Location: at Shangrilla hotel lecturer conducted by senior geologist Dr
Ihsanullah about Bhasha Diamir dam.
Geology and Petrology:
Mainly rocks are norite, diorite, dunite, tonalite, some lacustrine deposit
famous in area and some moraine deposit existed also on dam site area.
Project occurs on Indus River 315 km upstream from Tarbela dam and
105 m downstream from gilgit.40 km downstream from Chillas. Height of dam
is 272 m. the diversion system is two tunnels and one canal. Reservoir level is
1160 m .capacity of electricity is 560 MW.

27

Main purpose the dam is storage of water, irrigation and power


generation. Controlling flood damages along Indus River. During construction
31 villages will be effected and 4100 houses.

STOP # 2:
Location: near Shangrilla hotel Chillas city
Coordinate: 352542.7N74631.2E
28

Elevation: 1064m
Geology and Geomorphology:
Pleistocene moraine deposit of ice age found on the mountain along
Indus river .that moraine deposit of ice age covered in some part of kohistan
batholiths rock in the area .the age of kohistan batholiths is Neogene (105
Mya) and moraine sediment or deposit called Jalipur sediment.

Non conformity:
Geomorphologically the beneath rock is igneous and above is recent
sediment deposit which indicated the nonconformity along Indus River.

29

STOP # 3:
Location: Babusar top road Chillas city
Coordinate: 352424" N 74848.6E
Elevation: 1051 m
Geology:
This area is the part of Chillas complex having complex rock .mainly
ultramafics to mafic rock (gabbroic, dunite, hornblendite, diorite, and dunite)
at some places. Also present dyke intrusion of pegmatite and quartz.
Petrology and Mineralogy:
Some great amount of pyroxene and plagioclase existed in the rock near
Babusar top area .the amount of clinopyroxene is greater than orthopyroxene
showing darker color called gabbros. The same composition rock of gabbros
but some changes in composition like clinopyroxene is less then orthopyroxene
and the amount of plagioclase greater called gabbronorite. In near Babusar
30

top we observe greenish light mineral along pyroxene called dunite but some
called it peridotite. At some places the amount of hornblende is greater in
amount trock called hornblendite showing light and dark color. Dyke or veins
of pegmatite existed in the area which large crystals white and black color of
hornblende, quartz, and plagioclase. Pigmitite deposite existed at babosar top
area near chillas city have very larg crystal slowly crystallization of magma.

STOP # 4
Location: near Tattapaani Chillas Karakorum highway
Coordinate: 35280N74336.0E
Elevation: 1190m
There are we observe hot spring water in Tatta area.
Two concepts is suggested for that hot spring water
31

1) Old concept: the spring is hot due to hot body (magma) existed here at
Nangaparbat side which can heated it.
2) New concept: the active fault gives heat to the spring water and the
fault is Raikot. And geothermal gradient is also the factor of heating of
water.
Structure geology of the area:
Raikot fault existed in Thata area.ray fault is the combination of
two thrusting with strike slip fault .the Thata location fault is dip slip
component of thrust disturbed by strike slip fault.

STOP # 5:
Location: Near Thilichi village
Geotectonic:
It is the sequence of meta sediment deposited by turbidity current in the
back arc basin called Thilichi group sediments .Thilichi group also include in;

32

1) Meta sediment
2) Chalt volcanoes
3) Gilgit formation

Petrology and mineralogy:


Fine to medium grain metamorphic rock existed in the area having
large amount of garnet minerals .mafic and felsic sequence existed in
the surrounding area.
Phylite:
Fine grain metamorphosed rock give us shiny surface and can`t observe
the grains or crystals in the rock.

Schist:

33

Schist also existed there having mica and garnet etc. minerals and
schistosity seen by naked eyes. Mainly that was sedimentary rock which
is metamorphosed.
Gneiss:
Some group member observe gnesosity in the out crop which look like
snake meander light and dark band.

STOP # 6
Location: Benindaas area Jaglot city
Coordinate: 353955.8N 74370.6E
Elevation: 1305 m
Geology and petrology:
Exposed the part of Kohistan batholiths .mainly rock are gabbroic
or gabbronorite at the place and intruded by diorite dyke.
The dyke y like exposed there in the area.

34

STOP # 7:
Location: triple junction point korakuram highway
Coordinate: 35449.0N 743520E
Elevation: 1370 m
Petrology and Mineralogy:
We study their the rocks of hindukush series On KKH.The similar
mineralogy to granite but very fine grain .grain not seen with naked eyes
lens .dykes and veins intruded in kohistan batholiths rocks .aplites age is
less from kohistan batholiths rocks .because kohistan batholiths have age
110 -90 mya .the vein or dykes are intruded after some time. Mainly in this
area firstly kohistan batholiths occur about 110mya then some igneous rocks
intruded after some time and lastly some dykes intruded.
Tectonic of the area:In the world there are three largest mountain series combine in the area
called triple junction .the Himalayas ,Karakoram and Hindukush are the three
35

mountain series in this area .At this area Indus river called lion river meet with
gilgit river .the Indus river excited before the mountain formed. The afghan
block and

indian plate collide and form hindukush. When korakuram block

collide with Indian plate created Karakorum series and the collision of Indian
Eurasian plate formed Himalayas series.

36

Day 4th
study

conducted from gilgit city of hunza city we work on 5 diffrent stop.we work on gilgit

river with there morphology and the alluvial fans which observed there.
STOP# 1:
Location: Jutal Area Gilgit kkh
Coordinate: 355927.5 N 7419 32.9E
Elevation 1522 m
Due to cutting for road we found fresh surface of rock observed there and in
this area the diorite intruded into gabbroic rocks and some veins also
observed.
Petrology and mineralogy:
Gabbros: the characteristic was mentioned in other stop have the part of
kohistan batholoth existed in surrounding area.
Diorite:
Diorite pitches or dykes mainly observe there. Olivine mineral existed in small
amount quartz not existed, amphibole existed in that rocks .Mica present in
silver

colour, small amount of feldspar existed in diorite. Quartz veins

observes having quartz feldspar.

37

Geology:
1st Kohistan batholiths magmatised 110mya
2nd Intruded batholiths by rocks 75 mya.
3rd The intrusion of veins or dykes 25-30 mya
Geomorphology:
Along road side KKH large number of alluvial fans and the combination
of fans bajada observed in the area.

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STOP # 02:
Location: Near Nomal city Along KKH
Geomorphology:
Geomorphology of the gilgit river in the area observed at this location,
river little slow which create some mid channel bars and point bars .We
observes the meandering stream forming curves, point bars observes at low
velocity bank side, mid channel bars was observes in the middle of stream
channel. The gold and havier metals deposited at mid of channel bar of river.
The sediment of mid channel bar is mainly have coarse grains.
Alluvial fan deposits observed there and the bajada of alluvial fans
observed at which there have high vegetation on it, and now nomal city
developed on bajada fans. Moraines deposited observed at the front of some
gorge in this mountain region.
Engineering geology:
With respect to engineering geology the housing on alluvial fans are dangerous
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And the slope on mountain is very high and it may cause damage to the
residential area.

STOP#3:
Location: Jaglot Gilgit
Coordinate: 3610 2.6N 7417 64 E
Elevation: 1671m
Petrology and Mineralogy:
The series of Chalt volcanoes start from there. The basaltic rocks
observed at this location. Some places the green schist farcies developed due
to low grade metamorphism their chlorite mineral developed .40% dark
minerals existed in this rocks some amount of mica, quartz, feldspar. Quartz
amount is low.

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STOP#4:
Location: Sikandarabad Gilgit
Tectonics:
The plates collision point is located there, about 45-55 mya ago the
Indian plate colloid with Eurasian plate and created Himalayas series mainly
developed on Indian plate at this both plates rock existed.

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Petrology and Mineralogy:


The metamorphic rocks observed their but not checked with hcl , to
check its origin its quartzite or marble formed from sedimentary rocks of
dolomite or limestone .Their existed contacts between Chalt volcano and
Yaseen group meta- sediment .

Pic: Quartzite rock near plate collision area not cheaked origin
STOP # 5:
Location: KKH Sikandarabad
Coordinate: 36 14 15.6N 7219 35.4E
Elevation: 1833m
Tectonic:
MKT boundary pointed there by some people between plutonic rocks
and Yaseen group mete-sediment.

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Petrology and Mineralogy:


Yaseen group meta-sediment observes there. It considered

that it is

flysh type deposit deposited in back arc basin. There are old sediment rocks
metamorphosed into different grade of metamorphic rocks.
At this location the fine grains texture
shiny surface called Phylite.

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having clay and mica minerals gives

Day 5
STOP#1:
Location: Diamir bhasha dam
The lecture about this location was conducted in shangrila hotel by Dr
Ihsanullah .We observe the site of dam and their feature.

STOP#2:
Our fellows stop at this place but we miss it and this was Kamila
amphibolites.

Day 6:
STOP#1:
Location: Near Besham city Besham shangla
Coordinate: 3452 11.3N 7255 24.5 E
Elevation: 617m
Petrology and Mineralogy:
Metasedimentary rocks covered by vegetation in Besham area the
outcrop. The rock surface is highly weathered. The rocks of Besham complex
quartzite observed in the area intruded by granite or some other veins.

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Pic: Quartzite near Besham observed highly weathered surface


STOP#2:
Location: Maki masjid Mewa
Coordinate: 34 50 47.6N 7258 28.E
Elevation: 711m
Petrology and Mineralogy:
Sedimentary rocks metamorphosed at some places gnesis developed
quartz veins intruded it formed complex lithology .The schist in area exist in
three different form. There may observe graphic schist, carbonate schist, and
quartzite schist from outcrop and samples.
Structure geology:
Thakot fault existed in this area.
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STOP#3:
Location: shinjibala
Coordinate: 34417.1"N 725923.4"E
Elevation: 962m
Petrology and mineralogy:
Rocks give homogeneous look overall .Originally it is part of Mansehra
batholiths which are metamorphosed. It was high grade metamorphic rocks
gnesis developed and is due to minerals elongation. The lens like structure
developed in this rocks texture and the genesisty or segregation also
developed we give it name orthogenesis or special named augenesis.

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CHAPTRER 05
Conclusion:
It was very special field for us studying tectonic of the Besham, Chillas,
and Kohistan-Gilgit area.
Petrology of Mansehra, Oghi, Batgram, BeshamKohistan (upper lower)
Chillas, Gilgit rock and work on it. The main rock were peridotite, dunite,
gabbros, gabbronorite, pegmatite, quartz vein, basalt, diorite, granodiorite,
hornblendite and granite
Metamorphic rock observed there were Phylite, schist, gnesis, quartzite
and granolite. Structurally observe

different faults, folds features.

Geomorphologically observed stream morphology alluvial fans, land sliding.


Geotectonically if the area different thrusting passed from this area
MMT, MCT, MKT. triple junction, plate collision zone etc. Mapping can do at
different area location of Kohistan along roadside.
Two lectures about Dasu dam project andBasha dam with the senior
geologist and mainly some rocks intruded some megmatized some
metamorphosed and check all texture, and composition.
Mineralogy we observed there were quartz feldspar, garnet, micas, chlorite,
diapsoide, hornblende, olivine, pyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase.

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