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PROJECT ON
THE PRODUCTION OF TEXCOAT PAINT
PRESENTED BY
NAMES

REGISTRATION

NUMBERS
AGU CHUKWUNONSO .S.

CHE/H2008/111

EHIKWE GLORY ANWIRIN

CHE/H2008/118

OGBODO EUCHARIA .R.

CHE/H2008/242

ROBINSON ROGERS E.A

CHE/H2008/273

OKAFOR IZUCHUKWU .J

CHE/H2008/317

PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL


ENGINEERING
INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY
(IMT) ENUGU.

SUBMITTED
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT
FOR THE AWARD OF HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA
(H.N.D)

AT
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY (IMT)
ENUGU

SUPERVISED BY:

ENGR. EDE. M.I.

DECEMBER, 2010
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Department of chemical Engineering,
Institute of Management and Technology,
Enugu.
21st December, 2010.
Head of Department,
Chemical Engineering Department,
Institute of Management and Technology,
Enugu.
Sir,
SUBMISSION OF HND RESEARCH PROJECT
The project on the production of texcoat paint was carried out,
written by the under listed students, and we hereby present the
report to the department of chemical engineering, IMT, Enugu,
in partial fulfillment for the award of Higher National Diploma
(HND) in Chemical Engineering.
Yours faithfully,
AGU CHUKWUNONSO .S.

CHE/H2008/111

EHIKWE GLORY ANWIRIN

CHE/H2008/118

OGBODO EUCHARIA .R.

CHE/H2008/242

ROBINSON ROGERS E.A

CHE/H2008/273

OKAFOR IZUCHUKWU .J

CHE/H2008/317

CERTIFICATION/APPROVAL

This project, titled production of texcoat paint, meets the


regulations governing the award of Higher National Diploma
(HND) in chemical Engineering in the Institute of Management
and Technology, Enugu and it is approved for its contribution
and literary presentation.
Engr. M.I. Ede

Supervisor
Engr. B.N. Abalu

Head of Department

External Supervisor

DEDICATION

To God be the Glory

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are grateful to God almighty who has brought us thus far.


We are so much appreciative of the fact that he gave us the
strength, health, and above all things, life for the achievement
of this project.
We are also thankful to our able supervisor, Engr. M.I. Ede,
whose presence and corrections encouraged the hard work and
oneness enjoyed during this project. We also extend the heart
felt

gratitude

to

the

head

of

department

of

chemical

engineering whose immense contributions to the academic


lives of student will never be forgotten in years to come.
To parents, friends and relatives whose support has led to the
success of this project, may the blessings of God continue to be
abundant in their lives. Amen.

ABSTRACT
Texcoat paint is a substance that consist of a pigment and
marble dust suspended in a liquid or solvent such as water, etc.
Text coat paint is quite different from other kinds of paints. It
possesses a distinguishing characteristic of rough texture and
appearance. Texcoat paint consist of other raw materials such
as, Nitrosol, Acrylic, Calgon, Ammonia, Nepaid, Dolomite,
Colour paste, etc. The aim of the project is focused on the
production of a texcoat paint.
These raw materials were first formulated in the right
proportion and volume. It was the tabulated formulation that
was used in the manufacture because a targeted quantity and
quality is expected. Many vital conditions for production such
as the use of clean water, continuous stirring, etc were always
observed. Stirring was maintained at a uniform speed through
out the production process.
When clean water was first added to the reactor, stirring
began, and other raw materials were sequentially added and

stirred to satisfaction until a texcoat paint was formed. Then,


the temperature and other parameters to be tested were
observed, recorded and compared with the Nigeria industrial
standard specifications. It is important to note that after the
production at large quantity, then colours were added to the
proportion needed. Other standard and uncommon colours
were produced by mixing the primary colours at the right
proportion.
The product was packaged in a plastic container at different
quantities and colours. As days go, samples were collected
from the packaged product to test and make observations as
and when necessary.

Additionally, colour comparison with a

colour chart was done to confirm the colour standard produced.


No parameter was left unchecked because failure of any
parameter to meet with the standard specification defaults the
quality of the paint.
The result below is the result obtained from the analysis carried
out during and after production. They are as follows:

Table 1
a

Parameters
Composition
paint

in

solvent
in No lump(s), skin and offensive

Condition

c
d
e
f
g
h
i

container
PH value
Temperature
Specific gravity
Viscosity at 26oc 20c
Fastness to light analysis
Water drop text
Resistant to stains

j
k

after drying
Dilution stability
Normal dilution
Storage for 1 month (4 No
sign
of

weeks)
Drying time

degradation after some weeks


42 minutes surface dry, 1hrs

Net weight
Colour
PVC content
Refractive index
Appearance on application

45minutes hard dry


239g
Assorted colours produced
20% by volume
1.32
Normal and smooth

m
n
o
p

of

Result obtained
Homogenously dispersed

odour
8.0
26oc
1.06
Nil
Little colour change at drying
No sign of film breaking
No signs of chalking stains

biochemical

Brushability

Normal and smooth

10

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page

Letter of Transmitted -

ii

Certification/Approval -

iii

Dedication

iv

vi

1.3 Aims and Objectives

1.4 Definition of Terms -

1.4.0Decoration

Acknowledgement
v
Abstract -

Chapter one
1.0 Introduction

1.1 Historical Background


1
1.2 Statement of Problem
4

4
1.4.2Emulsion -

11

1.4.3Texture

1.4.4Patent

1.4.5Stabilizer -

1.4.6Synthetic -

1.4.7Polymers -

1.4.8Poisonous -

1.4.9Pigment

1.5.0Corrosion -

1.5.1Opacity

1.5.2Insoluble -

1.5.3Binders

1.5.4Volatile

1.5.5Pollution -

1.5.6Formula

1.5.7Ingredients
6
1.5.8Grinding -

1.5.9Let Down -

1.6.0Shading

1.6.1Thinning -

12

1.7 Research Method

1.8 Scope and Limitation of Study -

1.9 Significance of Study

2.10 Raw Materials for Paint Production -

Chapter Two
2.0 Literature Review

9
2.1.1Metallic Pigments

10

12

2.2.0Types of Texcoat

10
2.1.2Binders

2.1.3Volatile Solvent
11
2.1.4Additives -

12

13

2.3.0General qualities of Texcoat Paint

13
2.4.0Texcoat Paint Formulation-

14

2.5.0Production Method -

14

2.6.0Commercial Production

15
2.6.1Grinding -

15

2.6.2Let Down -

16

2.6.3Shading

16

2.6.4Thinning -

16

17

3.1 Instruments used in Production

3.2 Raw Material for Texcoat Paint Production

Chapter Three
3.0 Methodology

17

18
3.3 Production Procedure

18
3.4 Colours and their Production
19

14

3.4.1Blue -

19

3.4.2Lemon Green

20

3.4.3Sea Green

20

4.0 Experimental Result -

21

4.1.0Table 1

20
3.4.4Ash Colour
20
3.4.5Yellow

Chapter Four

21

5.0 Discussion

26

6.0 Conclusion

Chapter Five

24
5.1 Table III
Chapter Six

28
Chapter Seven

15

7.0 Recommendation

32

30
8.0 Reference -

CHAPTER ONE
1.0

INTRODUCTION

1.1

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Paint is a term used to describe a number of substances that


consist of a pigment suspended in a liquid such as oil or water.
With a brush, roller, or a spray gun, paint is applied in a thin
coat to various surfaces such as wood, metal, concrete or
stone. Although the primary purpose is to protect the surface to
which paint is applied and provide decoration of surface.
Texcoat paint on the other hand is a kind of paint which has a
different character from emulsion and gloss paint. The paint is
known to possess a distinguishing character of rough texture
and rough appearance on any surface applied. The roughness
is provided by the materials used in the manufacture which are

16

not found in emulsion paint. This distinguishing character is


provided by the present of sharp marble dust.
Samples of the first known texcoat paint was made between
20,000 and 25,000 years ago. As a protective coating, paint
was first used by the Egyptians and the Hebrews who applied
pitches and balsams to the exposed wood of their ships. During
the middle ages, some inland wood also received protective
coating of paints, but due to the scarcity of paint, this practice
was generally limited to store fronts and signs. In Boston,
around 1700, Thomas Child built the earliest American paint
mill. The twentieth century has seen the most changes in paint
composition and manufacture.
The first paint was issued for a product that improved white
wash, a water slaked lime, often used during the early days of
the United States. In 1865, D.P. Flinn, obtained a patent for
water based paint that also contained zinc-oxide, potassium
hydroxide, ream, milk and linseed-oil.

17

In 17th century, in the 1620s the Dutch greatly increased


availability of white lead and lowered cost by invention of the
stack process. All white lead paints included chalk in their
undercoats, reserving purer white lead finish coats. Later in the
century, vermilion, a man made type of cinnabar, was
developed as was King yellow a manmade type of Orpiment.
In the 18th century, the discovery of Prussian blue provided a
much needed intense deep blue, readily available after 1724.
There was still no pigment resembling spectrum yellow and
consequently no brilliant green other than that produced from
arsenic. In 1778, a much less poisonous green was invented,
Scheeles Green; A break through came in 1781 with turners
patent yellow, though this still required varnish to preserve the
colour. In 19th century, the real water shed in the search for a
strong, light fast yellow came with the discovery of water
resistant chrome yellow in 1818.
Today, the twentieth century has seen the most changes in
paint composition and manufacture. At present, synthetic
pigments and stabilizers are commonly used to mass produce

18

uniform batches of paints. New synthetic materials developed


from polymers such as polyurethane, and styrene butadiene
emerged during the 1940s Alkyl resins were synthesized, and
they have dominated production service. Before 1930, pigment
was ground with stone nulls, and these were replaced by steel
balls. Today, sand nulls and high speed dispersion mixers are
used to grind easily dispersible pigments. Highly colourative
texcoat paint are produced, which have attracted high demand.

1.2.1

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The statement of the problem is the production of texcoat


paint.

1.3

AIMS OF OBJECTIVES

The aim of this project is for the student to know the production
of texcoat paint.
1.4.0

DEFINITION OF TERMS:

1.4.1

DECORATION:

Something pretty that you put onto

some thing else is order to make it more attractive.

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1.4.2

EMULISION:

mixture

of

liquids

that

do

not

completely combine, such as oil and water, (2) a type of paint


used inside buildings on walls or ceilings that is not shiny when
it dries.
1.4.3

TEXTURE: The way a surface, substance or material

feels when you touch it, especially how smooth or rough it is.
1.4.4

PATENT: A legal protection given to a product to avoid

unlawful duplication of the product.


1.4.5

STABILIZER:

A chemical that helps something to

remain in the same state.


1.4.6

SYNTHETIC:

Combination

of

different

artificial

substances rather then natural.


1.4.7

POLYMERS: A chemical compound with a simple

structure of large molecules.


1.4.8

POISONOUS: Full of unpleasant and unfriendly feelings

and sense.
1.4.9

PIGMENT: A dry coloured powder mixed with oil, water


to make paint.

20

1.5.0

CORROSION: A state of deterioration in metals caused

by oxidation or chemical action.


1.5.1

OPACITY: The phenomenon of not permitting the

passage of electromagnetic radiation.


1.5.2
1.5.3

INSOLUBLE: Ability not to dissolve in a liquid.


BINDERS:

This is the liquid that holds other raw

materials together.
1.5.4

VOLATILE: The ability of a liquid to change into

vapour under atmosphere conditions.


1.5.5

POLLUTION: The release of unwanted and life

threatening substances into the environment.


1.5.6

FORMULA: This is an arranged quantity of raw

materials used in the production to achieve a desired results.


1.5.7

INGREDIENTS:

The raw materials used in the

production.
1.5.8

GRINDING: This is the reduction into small and uniform

sizes of raw materials.


1.5.9

LET DOWN: Removal of ground materials from the mill.

1.6.0

SHADING: Is a confirmation of colours.

1.6.1

THINNING: Thickness adjustment.

21

1.7

RESEARCH METHOD

Going by the nature and demands of this topic, a broad


research method were used to guide and adequately provide
pieces of information needed. Such method include the
internet, text books in advance chemistry, the encyclopedia
Americana, World books project of other graduated students,
enquires from paint producers, enquires from raw material
sellers and paint sellers. Research and laboratory institutes in
Enugu was of major relevance.
1.8

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

This research topic has sincerely added much knowledge as far


as production and branding of a product is concerned. The
brand name as simple as it sounds, is comparatively difficult to
form. Inasmuch as we desired to originated the name from the
group.
Time greatly was an inevitable limitation to the success of the
study. Sacrifices were made so that the deadline was met.
Since we know that time is incompromiseable, more effort was
directed to the study.

22

Money on the other side became a deciding factor to the


success of the study. The decision to use foreign raw materials
in the production became contributive to the limitations
presented by money. And as students, faced with other
academic

financial

responsibilities

and

demands,

the

immediate financial response demanded by the study, was


temporarily put on hold for some time.
Also, the hiring of a competent and reliable production
equipment and tutor was second to none. Having known that
there are numerous road side paint producers, efforts to
identify an experienced and reliable producer proved abortive
for some time. Even at the time paint producing companies in
Enugu could not help in putting us through for the time being.
1.9
A

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

chemical

engineer

by profession

is ground with

the

knowledge of converting raw materials and wastes to finished


products. To this the production of texcoat paint means to

23

expose the students to production norms and ethics, bearing in


mind the uncertainty of future.
A graduate of chemical engineer should be a provider of jobs
for other engineers and marketers, accountants, etc, without
much dependence on government for job and assistance
immediately after graduation.

24

CHAPTER TWO
2.0

LITERATURE REVIEW

According to George J. Danker, World book (2001), paint is a


substance that colours and protects a wide variety

of

substances. Also, texcoat pant is a paint used on inside walls


and outside of buildings, applied to a surface and forms a tin
solid layer when dried. The qualities and properties of texcoat
paints depend on the pigment and other solvents used in the
production. Texcoat paint can be manufactured from different
raw materials depending on the used of the paint.
2.1 RAW

MATERIALS

USED

IN

TEXCOAT

PAINT

PRODUCTION
Richard, Encyclopedia Americana (2001) states that texcoat
paint is made and designed for special application and to
withstand unsual environmental conditions such as extreme
heat and cold, chemical attacks, fungus growth and high
humidity, etc. For this above listed purposes and more, texcoat
paint contains the following raw materials.
- Metallic pigment (aluminum, Zinc, and bronze)

25

- Binders or vehicles
- Volatile solvents
- Additives
2.1.1

METALLIC PIGMENT:

As Richard stated in Encyclopedia Americana (2001) that paint


are materials that impart colour and opacity to paint film. It
provides other essential properties such as hardness, film
strength, durability and corrosion resistance. Dyes a time are
used to impact colour, but they differ from pigments in their
solubility characteristics. While pigments are insoluble and are
dispersed in the paint binder, but dyes are dissolved in the
volatile material before being mixed with the binder. Some
pigments such as white lead for white pigment, titanium
dioxide, zinc oxide, zinc sulfide, have led to the production of
multi-pigment texcoat paint. Lead pigments are no longer used
in paint production because of their toxicity to life if ingested.
2.1.2

BINDERS:

26

Richard, Encyclopedia Americana (2001), continued by saying


that binders are the portion of the paint formula that hold the
other ingredients together and serve to form the solid film of
the paint. Also, the properties of the paint are controlled to
greater degree by the type of binder used. And such properties
are, drying rate, thickness and hardness of film, its durability
and weather resistivity and chemical resistance. Importantly,
the following are used as texcoat paint binders, vegetable oil,
seed oil, tungoil, soybean oil, castor oil, coconut oil, fish oil.
Others are, alkyd resins, vinyl types and amino, epoxy,
polyurethame,

silicone,

fluorocarbon,

polyamide,

resins,

polymers and copolymers, etc.


2.1.3

VOLATILE SOLVENT:

Also, Richard Encyclopedia Americana (2001) continued by


saying that volatile solvent or thinners are used in texcoat
paints to facilitate their application. Since most resins, oils, and
polymers used as binders are quite viscous, the viscosity must
be reduced so that the texcoat coating can be applied in a
uniform and smooth film. Water is also now used as volatile

27

solvent because of its universal availability and low cost,


freedom from air-polluting properties.

2.1.4

ADDITIVES:

In his findings, Richard, Encyclopedia (2001) said that additives


are added to paints mostly texcoat, to accomplish the specific
functions not accomplished by pigments, binders and volatile
solvents.

Additives

are

always

incorporated

in

small

percentages of the total formula to perform a variety of


important functions. Such functions performedby additives are
promotion of drying, promote the wetting of pigments to aid
pigment dispersion, prevent colour floating and flooding,
prevent uneven colour patterns in paint films, prevent pigment
from settling in paint containers, prevent skin formation in the
can, increase flow ability, prevents loss of drying ability during
storage, resist mildew growth on exterior exposure, help
prevent spoilage.
2.2.0

TYPES OF TEXCOAT PAINTS

28

George J. Danker, World book (2001) found that texcoat paint is


known to be of many types, depending on the ingredients used
in the production. The following are the types:
a.

SANDLESS TEXCOAT: George J. Danker World book


(2001), said that this is a kind of texcoat paint produced
with more of sandless dust as an additive. The distinctive
feature of this kind of texcoat is the smooth and sand less
appearance on application. And the ability to form a thin
layer on application.

b.

ROUGH TEXCOAT: George J. Danker World book (2001),


found that this is another kind of texcoat paint which
possess a rough appearance and thick film on application.
The production involves the use of marble dust of large
sizes.

2.3.0

GENERAL QUALITIES OF TEXCOAT PAINT

George J. Danker World book (2001), discovered that texcoat


paints are produced for house hold and industrial uses. They
include:

29

i.

Roughness and standard colour

ii.

High dry rate

iii.

Chemical resistance

iv.

Temperature resistance

v.

Weather resistance

vi.

Thickness

vii.

Long shelf life

viii. Uniform colouration and opacity


ix.

Flowability on application

x.

Resistance to fungus attack

xi.

Brushability on application etc.

2.4.0

TEXCOAT PAINT FORMULATION

Arthur Grebetz, World book (2001), define formulation as the


listing of all the raw materials to be used in the production of
high quality texcoat paint. The listing of the raw materials must
be to the correct proportion in quantity, and must be tabulated.
Texcoat paint formulation is therefore a question of balancing
the chosen components to the right proportion to produce paint
of desired properties. Therefore, it is very important in paint

30

formulating to have a fair and precise knowledge of the


properties expected of the paint.
2.5.0

PRODUCTION METHOD

According to J. Richard Encyclopedia Americana, (2001) texcoat


paint can be produced in different ways. Each production
method defines a desirable quality and finished product state.
Such methods are conventional liquid paint method and
powder coating method.
Powder coaling method is a method which does not require a
solvent to keep the binder and filler parts in a liquid
suspension. The coaling is applied elestrostatically and erred
under heat to allow it flow or form a skin. Powder coaling does
not emit any volatile organic compound(s), does not run or sag
when applied, easily recycle when over sprayed,etc.
Conventional liquid paints involves the use of solvent in its
production. Other properties include, the emission of organic
compound, runs or sags when applied, cannot be recycle when
sprayed.

31

2.6.0

COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION

Arthur Grebetz world book (2001), shows that texcoat paint


production involves four (4) basis steps, namely grinding, let
down, shading and thinning.
2.6.1

GRINDING:

This

involves

the

loading

of

an

appropriate amount of pigment, resin and various liquid


chemicals into a grinding mill. The mill grinds the ingredients
into a fine uniform material known as mill paste. The mill to be
used depends on the hardness of the paint and the fineness of
the grind required. The mill paste is produced either in batches
or continuously.
2.6.2

LET DOWN: After the pigment has been ground, more

resins are added to the paste in the mill along with a small
amount of solvent. The paste is then pumped out of the mill
through a strainer to a holding tank.
2.6.3

SHADING (TINTING): This is the most critical among

all steps involved in the manufacturing processes. This involves


comparing

produced

texcoat

paint

samples

with

colour

32

standard. Small amount of shading paste are added to the


texcoat paint to adjust the colour to the standard when
necessary.
2.6.4

THINNING: After the texcoat paint has been shaded to

the specification, the texcoat paint is thinned to the desired


viscosity (thickness) by carefully adding solvents to it. Finally,
the paint is filtered and canned for shipment

33

CHAPTER THREE
3.0

METHODOLOGY

3.1

INSTRUMENTS USED IN PRODUCTION

The production of texcoat paint was carried out by first


providing the needed equipment. The pieces of equipment
used are hereby listed as follows:
- Reactor
- Wooden paddle
- A transparent bucket with calibration (Litre)
- Hand gloves
- Chemical respirators
- A scale
-

Glass measuring cylinder

- Thermometer
- Plastic cup

3.2 RAW MATERIAL FOR TEXCOAT PAINT PRODUCTION

34

The raw materials used are as follows: Clean water, marble


dust, Nepacid, white titan, Dolomite, colour paste, Acrylic,
formation, calgon, nitrosol, Ammonia, Anti-foam, etc.
3.3 PRODUCTION PROCEDURE
Texcoat paint is known to be quite different from other types of
paints such as emulsion, gloss, etc. As a result, the raw
materials involved are different because of the major physical
properties texcoat paint possesses like rough texture, etc.
The process started with the measuring out of 25 litres of clean
water. The clean water was poured into a reactor. On stirring
the water, 6 table spoonful of calgon was added into the water.
The calgon is to help dissolve other ingredients to be added.
On continual stirring, 0.4kg of formalin was measured and
added into the reactor. Followed by the addition of 0.4kg of
white titan at two (2) minutes interval. Stirring continued until
the mixture turned white. The process continued with the
addition of 1.5kg of anti-foam, which makes the mixture
foamless on addition of other ingredients.

35

After this, 20kg of dolomite was added on continues stirring.


The reaction of dolomite was exothermic, involving the
evolution of heat at increased stirring. At the reduction of the
evolution of heat, 25kg of marble dust was added, and well
stirred to avoid clogging of the mixture. The mixture was
observed to be stronger and difficult to stirring. 4.5kg of acrylic
was added to the mixture, enabling all the ingredients to gum
together. Nitrosol of 5kg was dissolved in water and added to
the reactor on continued stirring. And finally, 4litres of
ammonia (NH3) was added and turned completely.
It is important to note that stirring of the mixture never
stopped even for a second till the mixture was confirmed a
texcoat paint of high quality. The resulting texcoat paint was
white in colour, from which other colours such as blue, orange,
chocolate, yellow, cream, etc were obtained. On the contrary,
the process did not involve filtration as recorded in the
literature review.
3.4 COLOURS AND THEIR PRODUCTION

36

3.4.1

Blue: The already produced white texcoat paint

was where 4 litres was measured out and poured into a reactor.
About 5ml of blue paste was added and stirred completely until
homogeneous colour was obtained.
3.4.2

LEMON GREEN COLOUR

4 litres of white texcoat paint was measured out and poured


into a reactor. An equal quantity of blue and yellow, 2.5ml
each, was measured and added, while the mixture was stirred
completely to obtain a homogeneous mixture.
3.4.3

SEA GREEN COLOUR

This colour was produced by first producing lemon green colour


paint. To which 5ml dark green paste was added and stirred.
3.4.4

ASH COLOUR

This was produced using a black emulsion paste and added it


into the white texcoat paint at measurable quantity.
3.4.5

YELLOW

This was achieve by adding a 5ml yellow paste into a 4litre of


white texcoat paint and properly stirred.

37

Finally, nepacid was added to all the paint before it is stored

38

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0

EXPERIMENTAL RESULT

A texcoat paint of good quality is expected to meet the


standard of the Nigerian industrial standard specifications. The
Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS) specifications are tabulated
below in comparison with the analysis result.
4.1.0

TABLE II

Parameters
Composition

Nigeria Industrial
Standard (NIS)
Specification
Should be

Result obtained
from product
paint
Homogenously

homogenously

dispersed

dispersed in the

solvent

solvent
Condition of paint Free from

lumps No

in

lump(s)skin

in container

skin, and offensive and

offensive

PH Value
Temperature
Specific gravity
Viscosity at

odour
7.0 to 8.5
260c + 2 0c
1.03 1.10
Nil

odour
8.0
260c
1.06
Nil

260c 20c
Fastness to light

Should possess

Little colour

39

analysis

little or no colour

change

Water drop test

change at drying
Should be free from

At drying
No sign of film

wrinkling and film

breaking

breaking
Resistant to stains Should be free from

No sign of

chalking stains after chalking stains


Dilution stability

drying
Diluted to normal

after drying
Normal dilution

Storage for 4

stability
Free from

No sign of

weeks 1 months

suspension,

biochemical

offensive odour and

degradation and

biochemical

offensive odour

degradation
45 minutes surface

after some weeks


42 minutes

dry and 2hrs hard

surface dry and 1

dry (maximum)

hour 45 minutes

Drying time

Net weight
colour
PVC Content
Refractive index
Appearance on

hard dry
220g 240g
239g
Any standard colour Assorted colours
20% max 19% min
1.33
No lumps, normal

produced
20% by volume
1.32
All properties met

40

application

flow, smooth with

Brush ability

brush
Normal and smooth

Normal and
smooth

41

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0

DISCUSSION

Paints generally are known and used for beautifying objects,


mostly buildings and the likes. A quality paint depends on the
materials used and their formulation. Texcoat paint has a single
distinguishing characteristic which on touch or application
stands out among others. This is as a result of the use of
marble dust in the production.
However, before any paint is made the first things is the
formulation of the paint or raw materials so as to meet the
desired quality and quantity. The formulation is done in a
tabular manner and in specified quantity of the raw materials
to be used. The production properly commences when this raw
materials are proportionally and sequentially mixed with each
other. Bringing about a chemical reaction to bind them together
to yield a product which finally becomes a texcoat paint.
At some point in time, observations as result of chemical
reaction are made, such as, evolution of heat, change in colour,

42

bubbles and foam formation, change in thickness etc. these


indicated the progress of the production processes, and all
these must be at steady stirring of the solution. Raw materials
must be correctly measured and as well added on time.
The production was aimed at producing at most 60litres of
texcoat paint of different colours. And to this, a batch method
of production was used others, like continuous method of
production would have been appropriate if it were for
commercial

purpose.

All

equipment

used

was

not

contamination, and was neat in order not to interfere with the


colour and quality.
Colours of texcoat paints are basically gotten by the addition of
single primary colour(s) as the case may be. Other uncommon
colours are not primarily gotten from primary colours, rather
they are produced by the combination of different primary
colours at the right proportion.
Paints are identified by the colour code on the labels such
colours like gray, calabash, lemon, etc have different colour
codes. Even colours which appear to look alike are coded

43

differently. The colours to be used could be in the form of paste


or dye. But must be well dissolved and properly mixed so as to
achieve a uniform colour.

A batch method was used in the production which enabled for


the actualization of the aim. The batch method enabled the
thorough mixing of all the raw materials used. Truly, this
method involves higher energy consumption but was effective
in making observations and other needed parameters to the
tested.
In addition, the raw material formulation used is shown in the
table below.
5.1

TABLE III
Step
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII

Raw Materials
Clean water
Calgon
Formalin
White titan
Anti- foam
Dolomite
Marble dust
Acrylic
Nitrosol
Ammonia
Nepacid
Colours

Quantity
25 litres
6 spoonful
0.4kg
0.4kg
1. 5kg
20kg
25kg
4.5kg
5kg
4litres
0.5litres
5ml each

44

45

CHAPTER SIX

6.0

CONCLUSION

The production of the texcoat paint was successfully completed


using

patch

formulation.

The

method
whole

of

production

process

was

and
found

tabulated
interesting,

comprehensive and easy, as if the production were never the


first time. This is because the formulation table and the labels
on the raw materials helped in reducing the time which would
have been wasted in locating each raw material.
Considering the huge energy consumption involved in stirring
the mixture, the batch method used in the production
contributed in producing lumbless texcoat paint. The batch
method was also useful in loading a controllable quantity of raw
materials.
On the other hand, the raw materials were carefully handled
during the production. Some which were in powdered form
were properly dissolved in a solvent before they were added to

46

the mixture. Other things which contributed to achieving the


result include; steady turning, accurate measurement, etc. the
water used in the production was a clean, and no raw material
was left out, omitted or wrongly substituted.
The containers used in packaging the product were properly
washed and rinsed with clean water. All these above explained
production method and precautions which must be adhered to
if a good texcoat paint is to be produced.
It is important to state clearly that the raw materials and the
method used in the production, met all the qualities stated in
the literature review. Such qualities like preventing skin
formation, preventsing colour floating and flooding, preventing
uneven colour pattern in paint films etc. was tested and
confirmed.

47

CHAPTER SEVEN

7.0

RECOMMENDATION

Having locally produced a texcoat paint by using batch method,


the paint meets the specification of the Nigeria Industrial
Standard (NIS): a body regulating the standards of industrial
products. I hereby recommend that;
i.

A coincised and accurate formulation must be first

prepared before

production commences.

ii.

Raw materials to be used must be accurately measured.

iii.

A continuous stirring must be observed until the product is


formed, packaged and sealed.

iv.

Time interval for each reactant should be maintained at


minimum of three (3) minutes.

v.

It will be a step in the right direction if the government


can encourage and support more research work in texcoat
paint production so as to improve made in Nigeria texcoat

48

paints and curtail the importation of foreign texcoat paints


into the country.
vi.

A mechanized reactor with an electrically powered stirrer


should be used. This is because manual stirring is energy
and time consuming.

49

REFERENCE
Osei Yaw Ababio (1997), New school chemistry
New Edition, Africana Fep- Publishers,
Onitsha Pp 323-328
Mc Gaw Hill (1971),

Encyclopedia of science and


Technology, New Edition, Vol. 12
Pp 444-450

Gilbert W. Castellan (1975),

Physical Chemistry 2 nd Edition,


Addition

Wesley publishing company,


Tokyo Pp 267-269
George .T. Austin (1976), Shreves Chemical industries,
5th Edition, Mc Graw hill company,
New totk, Pp 141-144
Berendsen A.M (1989)

Marine painting manual.


2nd Edition, London Trotman. P.113-

114

50

Bently J. (1997),

Introduction to paint chemistry and


principles of paint technology. Vol 3,
P244-250