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Vehicle Dynamics, Handling and Simulation

M.H. Monish Gowda


Hima Kiran Vithal V.
M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Bangalore

What Do We Study ?

Performance

What Do We Study ?

Handling

What Do We Study ?

Ride

Vehicle Dynamics Learning

Principles and Theory


Virtual Modelling and Simulation
Laboratory Testing
Outdoor Testing- Prooving Ground
Accident Investigations

Vehicle Dynamics Learning Resources

Vehicle Dynamics -Books

T. Gillespie, Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, 1992, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)

W. Milliken & D. Milliken, Race Car Vehicle Dynamics, 1995, Society of Automotive
Engineers (SAE)

W. Milliken & D. Milliken, Chassis Design Principles and Analysis, 2002, Society of
Automotive Engineers (SAE)

R. Bosch. Automotive Handbook, 5th edition. 2002. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)

J.Y. Wong. Theory of Ground Vehicles, John Wiley & sons, 2001 (3rd edition).

G. Genta."Motor Vehicle Dynamics. Modeling and Simulation". World Scientific. 1997.

Heinz Heisler, Advanced Vehicle Technology,Butterworth-Heinmann,Oxford,2002

Rajesh Rajamani, Vehicle Dynamics and Control, Springer, 2006

Hans B Pacejka,Tyre and Vehicle Dynamics,Delft University, The Netherlands

Reza N Jazar, Vehicle Dynamics, Theory and Applications,Springer,2007

Julian Happien-Smith, An Introduction to Modern Vehicle Design,Butterworth-Heinmann, 2002


John C Dixon, "Tires, Suspension and Handling" ,Cambridge University Press, 1991
Rao V Dukkipati and others, Road Vehicle Dynamics, SAE,2008

Prof. Dr. Georg Rill, Lecture


regensburg.de/%7Erig39165/

Bruno 'Elvo' Heremans, R/C Car Handling, http://home.tiscali.be/be067749/58/intro.htm

Notes,

Vehicle

Dynamics,

http://homepages.fh-

Vehicle Dynamics Journals

International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility


International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and
Testing
Vehicle System Dynamics
International Journal of Vehicle Design
Journal of Automobile Engineering
International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control

Vehicle Dynamics Simulation Software

MATLAB/SIMULINK
ADAMS
Carmaker
CARSIM

Quarter car model: Bounce Motion


Ms=sprung mass in kg.
Mu= unsprung mass in kg.
Ks=suspension stiffness. N/m
Cs= damping for sprung mass. Ns/m
Kt=tire stiffness. N/m
Zs= displacement of sprung mass into
x direction.
Zu= displacement of unsprung mass
into x direction.
Zr= road excitation.

Equation of motion:

FBD

Data:

Total sprung mass, m=1000kg


Quarter sprung mass, ms=275kg
Total unsprung mass, mut=0.12*m=120kg
Quarter unsprung mass, mu=120/4=30kg
By taking the natural frequency of sprung mass= 1.2 Hz
RR=((1.2*2)^2)*ms=15633 N/m
ks=RR(6/5) (taking the tyre stiffness kt=5*ks)
Cc=2(ks*ms) Ns/m
=0.2
Cs=*Cc Ns/m

Result:
zet
a

Ks(N/m)

Kt/ks

Kt(N/m)

Cs
(Ns/m)

Max.acc Max.di
m/s^2
s
In m

Settling
time in
sec.

0.2

18760

93801

908.54

15.4288

0.1670

0.3

1362.8

18

0.1555

3.5

0.4

1817.1

20

0.1486

0.5

2271.4

21.3244

0.1430

1.5

0.6

2725.6

22.55

0.1371

1.5

882.94

17.9064

0.1640

0.3

132.4

22.0563

0.1521

3.2

0.4

1765.9

25.2157

0.1444

2.3

0.5

2207.4

27.6863

0.1385

1.5

0.6

2648.8

29.5543

0.1335

1.5

0.2

17718

7.5

132880

Zet
a

Ks(N/m Kt/K
)
s

Kt (N/m)

Cs
(Ns/m)

Max.acc Max.dsp.
.
In m
(m/s^2)

Settling
time in
sec.

0.2

17197

171970

869.86

20.9469

0.1624

4.5

0.3

1304.8

25.7031

0.1511

3.1

0.4

1739.7

29.8371

0.1418

0.5

2174.7

33.2139

0.1350

1.5

0.6

2609.6

35.4550

0.1315

1.2

861.9175 23.4888

0.1613

0.3

1292.9

29.5146

0.1496

3.1

0.4

1723.8

34.0531

0.1410

0.5

2154.8

38.0615

0.1345

1.5

0.6

2585.8

40.9852

0.1298

1.2

856.58

25.8153

0.1607

0.3

1284.9

32.891

0.1491

2.5

0.4

1713.2

38.0462

0.1405

0.5

2141.5

42.3668

0.1338

0.6

1569.7

46.9171

0.1291

0.2

0.2

16884

16676

10

12.5

15

211050

250140

Simulink-Model

max.acc. vs kt/ks
50

45

max.acc. (m/s^2)

40

35
zeta=0.2
zeta=0.3

30

zeta=0.4
zeta=0.5
25

zeta=0.6

20

15

10

7.5

10
kt/ks (N/m)

12.5

15

max.dis. vs kt/ks
0.18

0.17

max.dis. (m)

0.16

zeta=0.2
zeta=0.3

0.15

zeta=0.4
zeta=0.5

zeta=0.6
0.14

0.13

0.12

7.5

10
kt/ks (N/m)

12.5

15

setlling vs kt/ks
6

setlling (second)

zeta=0.2
zeta=0.3

zeta=0.4
zeta=0.5
zeta=0.6

7.5

10
kt/ks (N/m)

12.5

15

Side Half car model - Pitching


ms=sprung mass in kg
muf & mur=front & rear unsprung mass
accordingly.
Ksf & Ksr=front and rear suspension
spring stiffness accordingly.
Csf &Csr=front & rear damper
accordingly.
Ktf &Ktr=front & rear tire stiffness
accordingly.
L=wheel base.
b= distance to front axle from CG.
c= distance to rear axle from CG.
= pitch angle.
Zrf &Zrr= front & rear road excitation
accordingly.

For sprung mass bounce:

For sprung mass pitching:

FBD

Front Unsprung mass:

Rear Unsprung mass:

Equations of motion

Data:

Total sprung mass, m=1000kg


Half sprung mass, ms=m/2=500kg
Total unsprung mass, mut=0.12*m=120kg
Quarter unsprung mass, muf and mur, =120/4=30kg
L= 2.4 m
t= wheel track = 1.4 m
Weight distribution 55% on front , 45% on rear.
b=0.45*L =1.08 m
c= L- b =1.32 m
Iyy= ms*b*c = 712.80 kg m^2
msf = mass on front = ms*c/L=275 kg
msr = mass on rear = ms*b/L=225 kg

By taking the natural frequency of front sprung mass fnf= 1.2 Hz


RRf=((1.2*2)^2)*msf= 15633.45 N/m
Ksf= RRf*(6/5)=18760 N/m (Taking the Ktf = 5*Ksf)
Ktf=5*Ksf=93800.7 N/m
Ccf=2(Ksf*msf) = Ns/m
= 0.2
Csf=*Ccf = 908.54 Ns/m
RRr =RRf/0.5 = 31266.9 N/m
Ksr = RRr*(6/5) = 37520.28 N/m (Taking Ktr = Ksr)
Ktr=5*Ksr = 187601.4
Ccr=2(Ksr*msr) Ns/m
Csr=*Ccr = 1162.20 Ns/m

Result:
zeta

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Csf (Ns/m)

908.54

1362.8

1817.1

2271.4

2725.6

RRf/RRr

0.5

RRr (N/m)

31267

Fnr Hz

1.8762

Ksr (N/m)

37520

Ktr (N/m)

187600

Csr (Ns/m)

1162.2

1743.3

2324.4

2905.5

3486.6

(rad)

0.0543

0.0508

0.0481

0.0462

0.0446

(degree)

3.1114

2.9108

2.7561

2.6472

2.5555

frequency

1.2589

1.2440

1.2388

1.1824

1.1303

Z, in m

0.0923

0.0857

0.0806

0.0772

0.0749

Z,
frequency

1.2589

1.2440

1.2388

1.1626

1.1495

zeta

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Csf (Ns/m)

908.54

1362.8

1817.1

2271.4

2725.6

RRf/RRr

0.75

RRr (N/m)

20845

Fnr Hz

1.5319

Ksr (N/m)

25014

Ktr (N/m)

125070

Csr (Ns/m)

948.93

1423.4

1897.9

2372.3

2846.8

(rad)

0.0542

0.0503

0.0476

0.0455

0.0439

(degree)

3.1056

2.8822

2.7274

2.6071

2.5154

frequency

1.1551

1.1339

1.1645

1.1640

1.1655

Z, in m

0.0924

0.0861

0.0816

0.0780

0.0755

Z,
frequency

1.2551

1.2473

1.2399

1.1587

1.1479

zeta

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Csf (Ns/m)

908.54

1362.8

1817.1

2271.4

2725.6

RRf/RRr

0.77

RRr (N/m)

20303

Fnr Hz

1.5119

Ksr (N/m)

24364

Ktr (N/m)

121820

Csr (Ns/m)

936.53

1404.8

1873.1

2341.3

2809.6

(rad)

0.0542

0.0503

0.0475

0.0455

0.0437

(degree)

3.1056

2.8822

2.7217

2.6071

2.5040

frequency

1.2029

1.1700

1.1911

1.1419

1.1419

Z, in m

0.0924

0.0861

0.0816

0.0781

0.0758

Z,
frequency

1.2405

1.2238

1.2482

1.1418

1.1957

zeta

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Csf (Ns/m)

908.54

1362.8

1817.1

2271.4

2725.6

RRf/RRr

RRr (N/m)

15633.45

Fnr Hz

1.3266

Ksr (N/m)

18760

Ktr (N/m)

93801

Csr (Ns/m)

821.8

1232.7

1643.6

2054.5

2465.4

(rad)

0.0545

0.0504

0.0474

0.0452

0.0435

(degree)

3.1228

2.8879

2.71602

2.5899

2.4925

frequency

1.2507

1.1518

1.1422

1.1122

1.0850

Z, in m

0.0921

0.0862

0.0813

0.0786

0.0759

Z,
frequency

1.2277

1.1943

1.2090

1.2135

1.1578

zeta

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Csf (Ns/m)

908.54

1362.8

1817.1

2271.4

2725.6

RRf/RRr

1.25

RRr (N/m)

12507

Fnr Hz

1.1866

Ksr (N/m)

15008

Ktr (N/m)

75041

Csr (Ns/m)

735.04

1102.6

1470.1

1837.6

2205.1

(rad)

0.0549

0.0505

0.0475

0.0451

0.0433

(degree)

3.1457

2.8936

2.7217

2.5842

2.4810

frequency

1.3118

1.2561

1.2316

1.1567

1.0437

Z, in m

0.0918

0.0861

0.0818

0.0788

0.0763

Z,
frequency

1.1933

1.2306

1.1325

1.1567

1.2068

zeta

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Csf (Ns/m)

908.54

1362.8

1817.1

2271.4

2725.6

RRf/RRr

1.5

RRr (N/m)

10422

Fnr Hz

1.0832

Ksr (N/m)

12507

Ktr (N/m)

62534

Csr (Ns/m)

671

1006.5

1342

1677.5

2013

(rad)

0.0553

0.0508

0.0474

0.0450

0.0431

(degree)

3.1686

2.9108

2.7160

2.5785

2.4696

frequency

1.2554

1.3232

1.2637

1.2368

1.1735

Z, in m

0.0913

0.0857

0.0818

0.0788

0.0768

Z,
frequency

1.1485

1.1938

1.1821

1.1647

1.1735

Simulink Model

theta vs RRf/RRr
3.4

3.3

3.2

theta (degree)

3.1

3
zeta=0.2
zeta=0.3

2.9

zeta=0.4
zeta=0.5

2.8

zeta=0.6
2.7

2.6

2.5

2.4

0.5

0.75

0.77

1
RRf/RRr

1.25

1.5

bounce vs RRf/RRr
0.095

0.09

bounce (m)

0.085
zeta=0.2
zeta=0.3
zeta=0.4
zeta=0.5

0.08

zeta=0.6

0.075

0.07

0.5

0.75

0.77
1
RRf/RRr (N/m)

1.25

1.5

Front half car model: Rolling:


msf=sprung mass in kg
mufl & mufr= left & right unsprung
mass accordingly.
Ksfl &Ksfr= left & right suspension
spring stiffness accordingly.
Csfl &Csfr= left & right damper
accordingly.
Ktfl &Ktfr= left & right tire stiffness
accordingly.
L=wheel base.
t= wheel track.
S= lateral separation between
suspensions.
b= distance to front axle from CG.
c= distance to rear axle from CG.
= roll angle.
Zrfl &Zrfr= left & right road
excitation accordingly.

FBD:
For sprung mass bounce.

For sprung mass roll

Unsprung mass left

Unsprung mass right

Equations of motion

Data:

Total sprung mass, m=1000kg


Mass division is 55% on front and 45% on rear.
Total unsprung mass, mut=0.12*m=120kg
Quarter unsprung mass, mufl and mufr, =120/4=30kg
L= 2.4 m
t= wheel track = 1.4 m
S= t-0.2=1.2m
b=0.45*L =1.08 m
c= L- b =1.32 m
sprung mass front, msf=m*c/L=550kg.
sprung mass rear, msr=m*b/L=450 kg.
Height of vehicle = 1.5m
Ixxf= 0.25*msf*t*height of vehicle= 288.75 kg m^2

By taking the natural frequency of sprung mass= 1.2 Hz


RRf=((1.2*2)^2)*(msf/2)= 15633.45 N/m
Ksfl= RRf*(6/5)=18760 N/m (Taking the Ktfl = 5*Ksfl)
Ktfl=5*18760=93800.7 N/m
Ksfr=Ksfl
Ktfr=Ktfl
Ccf=2(Ksfl*(msf/2)) Ns/m
=0.2
Csfl=*Ccf = 908.54 Ns/m
Csfr=Csfl
RRr =RRf/0.77 N/m
Ksrl = RRr*(6/5) N/m = 24363.8 N/m(Taking Ktfr = Ksfr)
Ktrl=5*Ksrl
Ksrr=Ksrl
Ktrr=Ktrl
Ccr=2(Ksrl*(msr/2)) Ns/m
Csrl=*Ccr = 936.53 Ns/m
Csrr=Csrl

Result:
For front half model:
zeta

(rad.)
front

(degree) ,freq
uency

,Setlling Z,bounc
(sec.)
e,(m)

Z,Frequ
ency

Z,Setllin
g (sec.)

0.2

0.1133

6.4920

5.75

1.1663

1.0660

0.6592

Now considering the antiroll bar.


10,000 N/m

10,00,00 N/m

20,000 N/m

8000 N/m

Zeta

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

(rad.)

0.1076

0.068

0.1019

0.1089

(degree.)

6.1654

3.8964

5.8387

6.2399

, frequency

1.3861

2.7525

1.5227

1.2528

, setlling.
(sec.)

6.5

Z, bounce,
(Z)

0.0841

0.096

0.1

0.0816

Z, frequency.

1.4675

2.2810

1.6123

1.3592

Z, setlling.
(sec.)

17-18

9-10

Ksfl

28760

118760

38760

26760

Ksrl

28760

118760

38760

26760

Result:
For rear half model:
zeta

(rad.)
rear.

(degree) ,freq
uency

,Setlling Z,bounc
(sec.)
e,(m)

Z,Frequ
ency

Z,Setllin
g (sec.)

0.2

0.1134

6.4982

4.5

1.4058

1.3442

0.0658

Simulink Model

Data

Ksfl = 18760 + 8000 N/m


Ksfr = 18760 + 8000 N/m
Ktfl = 93800 N/m
Ktfr =93800 N/m
Csfl = 908.53 Ns/m
Csfr = 908.53 Ns/m

Ksrl = 24364 N/m


Ksrr = 24364 N/m
Ktrl = 121820 N/m
Ktrr = 121820 N/m
Csrl = 936.53 Ns/m
Csrr = 936.53 Ns/m

Importance of roll center position:


Lateral force Fy acting on CG of sprung mass.

Data:

Ksfl = 18760 + 8000 N/m


Ksfr = 18760 + 8000 N/m
Ktfl = 93800 N/m
Ktfr =93800 N/m
Csfl = 908.53 Ns/m
Csfr = 908.53 Ns/m

Total sprung mass, ms=1000kg


Total unsprung mass, mut=0.12*m=120kg
Quarter unsprung masses,
mufl = mut / 4 = 30 kg
mufr = 30kg
Murl = 30 kg
Murr = 30 kg
(where mufl, mufr, murl, murr are the unsprung masses for front and
rear.)

Ksrl = 24364 N/m


Ksrr = 24364 N/m
Ktrl = 121820 N/m
Ktrr = 121820 N/m
Csrl = 936.53 Ns/m
Csrr = 936.53 Ns/m

t = wheel track = 1.4 m


S= t-0.2 = 1.2m (lateral separation)
b = 1.08 m
c = b/0.8 = 1.35m
Wheel base L= b+c
Roof height hv = 1.5 m
Ixx = 0.25*ms*t*hv = 525 kg m^2 (roll inertia)
Iyy = ms*b*c kg m^2 (pitch inertia)
hcg = 0.5 m (Sprung mass CG height)
hfrc = 0.08 m (front roll center height)
hrrc = hfrc/0.8 m
sprung mass front, msf=m*c/L kg
sprung mass rear, msr=m*b/L kg.
RRf = (Ksfl*Ktfl)/(Ksfl+Ktfl) N/m
RRr = RRf/0.77 N/m

v=20 km/h
1.03

1.02

phi (degree)

1.01

b/c=0.7

b/c=0.8
b/c=0.9
b/c=1

0.99

b/c=1.1
b/c=1.2
0.98

0.97

0.96

0.7

0.8

0.9

1
hfrc/hrrc

1.1

1.2

v=30 km/h
2.33

2.31

2.29

phi (degree)

2.27
b/c=0.7

2.25

b/c=0.8
b/c=0.9
2.23

b/c=1
b/c=1.1

2.21

b/c=1.2

2.19

2.17

2.15

0.7

0.8

0.9

1
hfrc/hrrc

1.1

1.2

v=40 km/h
4.1

phi (degree)

4.05

b/c=0.7
b/c=0.8
b/c=0.9
b/c=1

3.95

b/c=1.1
b/c=1.2

3.9

3.85

0.7

0.8

0.9

1
hfrc/hrrc

1.1

1.2

v=50 km/h
6.5

6.45

6.4

6.35

phi (degree)

6.3

b/c=0.7
b/c=0.8

6.25

b/c=0.9
b/c=1

6.2

b/c=1.1
b/c=1.2

6.15

6.1

6.05

0.7

0.8

0.9

1
hfrc/hrrc

1.1

1.2

v=60 km/h
9.2

9.1

phi (degree)

9
b/c=0.7
b/c=0.8
b/c=0.9

8.9

b/c=1
b/c=1.1

b/c=1.2

8.8

8.7

8.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1
hfrc/hrrc

1.1

1.2

Yaw moment:
yaw vs caf/car at v=20 km/h
1.15

1.1

1.05

yaw angle (degree)

0.95

b/c=0.8
b/c=0.9
b/c=1

0.9

b/c=1.1
b/c=1.2

0.85

0.8

0.75

0.7

0.8

0.9

1
Caf/Car

1.1

1.2

yaw vs caf/car at v=30km/h


2.7

2.5

yaw angle (degree)

2.3

b/c=0.8
b/c=0.9

2.1

b/c=1
b/c=1.1

b/c=1.2

1.9

1.7

1.5

0.8

0.9

1
Caf/Car

1.1

1.2

ADAMS Modelling for Vehicle Simulation

3D-Track Models

Single Bump Condition

Vertical Accln. Vs Time


57

Pitch Condition

Vertical Accln. Vs Time


58

Roll Condition

Vertical Accln. Vs Time


59

Heave Condition

Vertical Accln. Vs Time


60

Warp Condition

Vertical Accln. Vs Time


61

Front Suspension Ride Analysis

Rear Suspension Ride Analysis

Front Suspension Roll Analysis

Rear Suspension Roll Analysis

Steer Analysis

Demo-1: Forces Acting at the tires


Acceleration -performance
Spinning of vehicle
Traction simulation

Braking- simulation
Antilock braking simulation
Simulations
Suspension Simulation

Understeer simulation
Oversteer simulation
Lane-change simulation

Vehicle Dynamics Test Facility

Vehicle Centre of Gravity


c

Wr

Wfs= Wc/L
Wrs=Wb/L

Wf

Height of CG

Wf
W

Wr

Wf= Wfs W (h/L) (can be written as tan)


h= (L/W)[Wfs-Wf](1/tan]
L= Wheel Base Length
W= Total weight in N
Wfs= Load on front wheel on level ground= Wc/L in N
Wf= Load on front wheel when raised by angle in N

Vehicle Inertia

Vehicle Inertia Measuring Machine

VIMM
The VIMM will measure all 10 inertia parameter of a Vehicle:
- Vehicle mass
- Moments of Inertia Ixx, Iyy, Izz
- Center of Gravity
- Deviation Moments Ixy, Ixz, Iyz

System Architecture

Power Train Inertia

Drive Train Inertia


CW

CCW

Engine

clutch

Te

Tc

Je

Jc

Gear

Tg

PS

Tps

Jg Ng Jps

FD

Axle

Wheel

Tfd

Ta

Tw

Jfd Nf

Ja

Jw

Tnet= Te-{(Je +Jc+ Jg Ng+Jps +Jfd Nf+Ja +Jw ) +c +k)}

Drive Train Inertia


Fx

Te N tf tf
r

{( I e I t ) N tf2 I d N 2f I w }

ax
r2

g
[ Fx Rx DA W sin Rhx ]
W
Te N tf tf
a
Ma x [
{( I e I t ) N tf2 I d N 2f I w } 2x Rx DA W sin Rhx ]
r
r
Te N tf tf
ax
2
2
Ma x {( I e I t ) N tf I d N f I w } 2 [
Rx DA W sin Rhx ]
r
r
Te N tf tf
ax [
Rx DA W sin Rhx ] /( M M r )
r
ax

Ta = Torque on the axles


Fx = Tractive force at the ground
r = Radius of the wheels
Iw = Rotational inertial of the wheels and axles shafts
w = Rotational acceleration of the wheels
Id = Rotational inertia of the drive shaft
d = Rotational acceleration of the drive shaft
Nf = Numerical ratio of the final drive

Drive Train Inertia

Attach pdf from Engine inertia folder

Springs

Damper

Damping Ratio: =0.2 to 0.4

Damper

Damper

Elastomers

Elastomers Characteristics

Elastomer Testing

Steering Test Rig

Four Post Road Simulation System

Durability Testing
Squeak and Rattle Testing
Noise Vibration and Harshness Testing

Suspension System Test System

Wheel and Brake Assembly Test Rig

Tyre Testing

Kinematics and Compliance

Vehicle Testing

Prooving Ground

Rectilinear and Rotational Motion


Rectilinear

Rotational

Displacement- x

Angular Displacement-

Velocity- v=dx/dt

Angular velocity -=d/dt

Acceleration =a=dv/dt=d2x/dt2

Angular Acceleration==d2/dt2

Mass-m

Mass moment of inertia-J=mk2

Force =F=ma

Torque= T= J

Linear velocity V

Angular Velocity= r

Linear Acceleration a

Angular Acceleration= r

V=DN, =2N, P=2NT =T= FV, Impulse= Ft= mv; Inertia= ma=J

Inertia
1. Area moment of Inertia
2. Polar moment of Inertia
3. Mass moment of Inertia

Area Moment of Inertia

Bending Equation

M E

I
R y
From the general beam bending equation, M is the bending moment, I is the second
moment of area, sigma is tensile and compressive bending stress, y is the perpendicular
distance from the neutral axis, E is Young's modulus of elasticity, and R is radius of
curvature.

Torsion Equation

T G

J
L
r

Moments of Inertia-Car