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Advanced Communication Laboratory

EXPERIMENT No. : 03
PULSE CODE MODULATION
Aim:
i) To study sampling and multiplexing techniques in the fast mode.
ii) To study sampling and multiplexing techniques in the slow mode.
Apparatus Used:
1. PCM modulation / demodulation trainer.
2. C.R.O
3. Connecting leads
4. Power supply.
Theory:
In Pulse Modulation, analog message is transmitted in discrete time. First of all,
sampling of the message signal should be performed. Considering the sampling process, the
sampled signal appears as a train of samples which is a form of PAM (Pulse Amplitude
Modulation) signal. When M levels are used to quantize this signal, this modulation is called
M-PAM. If those pulses were converted to digital numbers, then the train of numbers so
generated would be called as Pulse Code Modulated PCM signal. In PCM, modulation
process is executed in three steps:
1. Sampling
2. Quantizing
3. Coding
These steps are shown in Figure 1 with a block diagram:

As stated before, in PCM, the information signal x(t) is first sampled with the appropriate
sampling frequency (sampling frequency fs 2highest frequency of the information signal
(fx) ), then the sampled levels are quantized to appropriate quantization levels. In the last
step, each quanta level is demonstrated by a two-code word, that is by a finite number of
{0,1} sequence. After this step, the signal is called as PCM wave.

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Advanced Communication Laboratory

Block Diagram:

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Advanced Communication Laboratory

MUX Output
Unity Gain Amplifier

TM1

TM1

CH1

CH0

00

11
10

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01

Advanced Communication Laboratory

Tabulation:

Signals

Amplitude (V)

500 Hz Input Signal


1kHz Input Signal

Sampling Signal
Sample and Hold output
500 Hz Demodulated
Signal
1kHz Demodulated Signal

ModelGraph

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Timeperiod(sec)

Advanced Communication Laboratory

500 Hz Input Signal


Amplitude (V)

time (sec)

500 Hz Demodulated Signal


1 kHz Input Signal
time (sec)
1 kHz Demodulated Signal

time (sec)

1 kHz Sampling Signal

time (sec)
time (sec)

Modulated Output Signal


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time (sec)

Advanced Communication Laboratory

Procedure:
1. Connect 500 Hz to CH0 and 1kHz to CH1.
2. Power on the unit with +12 V, -12 V and +5 V supply provided.
3. Set the speed selection switch to fast mode.
4. Convert the slope to CH0 and CH1 for observing the channel inputs.
5. Convert the slope to the sampling signals at TPS.
6. Observe the output at TP12 with respect to the sampling signal.

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

Advanced Communication Laboratory

Result:
Thus the sampling and multiplexing technique in the fast mode and the slow mode has been
studied and the output is verified.

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering