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Aircraft Flight Dynamics


Robert Stengel, Princeton University, 2010

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Point-Mass Dynamics
Aviation History
Configuration Aerodynamics
Flight Performance
6-DOF Equations of Motion
Longitudinal and LateralDirectional Motions

Science & math (3/4)


Case studies, historical context (1/4)
~6-8 homework assignments
Office hours: MW, 1:30-2:30pm, or any time
the door is open
Assistant in Instruction: Oren Breslouer
(obreslou@princeton.edu): Office hours: TT
4:30-5:30pm (after class)

! Analysis of Linear Systems


! Airplane Stability and Control
! Flight Testing and Flying Qualities
Criteria
! Maneuvering, Aeroelasticity, Problems
of High Speed and Altitude
! Atmospheric Hazards to Flight

Syllabus, First Half


Introduction, Math Preliminaries
Point Mass Dynamics
Aviation History
Aerodynamics of Airplane Configurations
Cruising Flight Performance
Gliding, Climbing, and Turning Performance
Nonlinear, 6-DOF Equations of Motion
Linearized Equations of Motion
Longitudinal Dynamics
Lateral-Directional Dynamics
Details, reading, homework assignments, and references at
http://blackboard.princeton.edu/

Class participation: 10%


First-Half Exam (take-home): 15%
Assignments: 30%
Second-Half Exam (take-home): 15%
Term Paper: 30%

Quick Quiz (5 min): ?%

Lecture slides
pdf for current (2010) lecture will be available
on Blackboard after the class
pdfs from all 2008 lectures are available now at
http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/MAE331.html

Copyright 2010 by Robert Stengel. All rights reserved. For educational use only.
http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/MAE331.html

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GRADING

Syllabus, Second Half


! Analysis of Linear Systems

! Time Response
! Root Locus Analysis of Parameter Variations
! Transfer Functions and Frequency Response

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Configuration and Power Effects on Flight Stability


Aircraft Control and Systems
Flight Testing
Advanced Problems in Longitudinal Dynamics
Advanced Problems in Lateral-Directional Dynamics
Flying Qualities Criteria
Maneuvering and Aeroelasticity
Problems of High Speed and Altitude
Atmospheric Hazards to Flight

Inhabited Air Vehicles


Primary Learning Objectives
! Introduction to the performance, stability, and control of
fixed-wing aircraft ranging from micro-uninhabited air vehicles
through general aviation, jet transport, and fighter aircraft to
re-entry vehicles.
! Understanding of aircraft equations of motion, configuration
aerodynamics, and methods for analysis of linear and nonlinear
systems.
! Appreciation of the historical context within which past aircraft
have been designed and operated, providing a sound footing for
the development of future aircraft.

Uninhabited Air Vehicles


(UAV)

Quick Quiz #1
First 5 Minutes of
Second (i.e., next) Class
! Briefly describe the differences between one
of the following groups of airplanes:

! Boeing B-17 vs. Northrop YB-49 vs. North American


B-1
! Piper Super Cub vs. Beechcraft Bonanza vs. Cirrus
SR20
! Douglas DC-3 vs. Boeing 707 vs. Airbus A320
! Lockheed P-38 vs. General Dynamics F-102 vs.
McDonnell Douglas F/A-18

! Suggestions

! Use Wikipedia
! Be sure to bring a pencil and paper to class

Airplane Components
Introduction to
Flight Dynamics

Airplane Rotational
Degrees of Freedom

Airplane Translational
Degrees of Freedom

Side Velocity

Normal
Velocity
Axial Velocity

Gliding Flight

Phases of Flight

Configuration Aerodynamics

Simplified Longitudinal Modes of Motion


Phugoid (Long-Period) Mode
Airspeed

Flight Path Angle

Pitch Rate

Angle of Attack

Simplified Longitudinal Modes of Motion

Simplified Lateral Modes of Motion

Short-Period Mode

Dutch-Roll Mode

Airspeed

Note change in
time scale

Flight Path Angle

Sideslip Angle

Yaw Rate
Pitch Rate

Angle of Attack

Simplified Lateral Modes of Motion


Roll and Spiral Modes

Stability and Control Case Studies


F-100

Ercoupe

Roll Rate

Roll Angle

Electra

Flight Tests Using Balsa Glider and


Microsoft Flight Simulator

Luke Nash!s Biplane Glider


Flight #1 (MAE 331, 2008)

Can determine height, range, velocity,


flight path angle, and pitch angle from
sequence of digital photos (QuickTime)

Determine the Flight Envelope


Maximum speed
Altitude ceiling
Stall speed,

Determine Performance
Time to climb
Minimum sink rate,

Determine Turning Characteristics


Maximum turn rate,

Text and References


Principal textbook:
Flight Dynamics, RFS, Princeton
University Press, 2004
Used throughout

Supplemental reference
Airplane Stability and Control, Abzug
and Larrabee, Cambridge University
Press, 2002
Used toward the end of the course

Math Preliminaries

Notation for Scalars and Vectors


Scalar: usually lower case: a, b, c, , x, y, z
a = 12; b = 7; c = a + b = 19; x = a + b 2 = 12 + 49 = 61

Matrices and Transpose


Matrix: usually bold capital or capital: F or F
Dimension = (m x n)

!
! p $
#
&
#
x = # q &; A = #
#
# r &
#
%
"
#"

Vector: usually bold or with underbar: x or x


Ordered set
Column of scalars
Dimension = n x 1

a
d
g

( 3 ! 1)

"
" x1 %
" 2 %
$
'
$
a = $ !7 ' ; x = $ x2 ' ; y = $
'
$
$
$ x '
$# 16 '&
$
# 3 &
#

a
b
c
d

%
'
'
'
'
&

b
e

c $
&
f &
k &
&
n &%

( 4 ! 3)

Transpose: interchange rows and columns


x = ! x1
"
T

x2

x3 #
$

! a d
#
A =# b e
# c f
"
T

l $
&
h m &
k n &
%
g

Mathematical Model of
a Dynamic System

Dynamic Systems

Continuous-time dynamic process:


Vector Ordinary Differential Equation

dx(t)
x! (t) "
= f[x(t), u(t), w(t), p(t),t]
dt
Output Transformation
Dynamic Process: Current state depends on
prior state
x
= dynamic state
u
= input
w
= exogenous disturbance
p
= parameter
t or k
= time or event index

Observation Process: Measurement may


contain error or be incomplete
y
= output (error-free)
z
= measurement
n
= measurement error

All of these quantities are vectors

y(t) = h[x(t),u(t)]

dim ( x ) = ( n ! 1)
dim ( f ) = ( n ! 1)

dim ( u ) = ( m ! 1)
dim ( w ) = ( s ! 1)
dim ( p ) = ( l ! 1)

dim ( y ) = ( r ! 1)

dim ( h ) = ( r ! 1)

Measurement with Error

z(t) = y(t) + n(t)

dim ( z ) = ( r ! 1)

dim ( n ) = ( r ! 1)

Examples of Airplane
Dynamic System Models

Ordinary Differential Equations

Nonlinear, Time-Varying

dx(t)
= f [ x(t), u(t), w(t), p(t),t ]
dt

dx(t)
= F(t)x(t) + G(t)u(t) + L(t)w(t)
dt

dx(t)
= f [ x(t), u(t), w(t)]
dt

Operands must be conformable


Multiplication of vector by scalar is associative, commutative, and
distributive

! ax1 $
&
#
ax = xa = # ax2 &
# ax &
3
%
"

a ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) a = ( ax + ay )
dim ( x ) = dim ( y )

axT = ! ax1 ax2


"

Could we add

(x + a)

Small amplitude motions


Perturbations from a dynamic
flight path

Linear, Time-Invariant
Small amplitude motions
Perturbations from an
equilibrium flight path

dx(t)
= F x(t) + G u(t) + L w(t)
dt

Multiplication

Linear, Time-Varying

Nonlinear, Time-Invariant
Large amplitude motions
Negligible change in mass

Large amplitude motions


Significant change in mass

ax3 #
$

Only if dim ( x ) = (1 ! 1)

Addition
Conformable vectors and matrices are added term by
term

! c $
! a $
;
z
=
x=#
#
&
&
" d %
" b %
! a+c $
x+z= #
&
" b+d %

Inner Product

Inner (dot) product of vectors produces a scalar result

xT x = x x = ! x1
"

x2

(1 ! m)(m ! 1) = (1 ! 1)

Vector Transformation

Matrix-vector product transforms one vector into another


Matrix-matrix product produces a new matrix

"
$
y = Ax = $
$
$
#

! x1 #
&
%
x 3 # % x2 &
$
% x &
" 3 $

= (x + x + x )
2
1

2
2

2
3

Derivatives and Integrals


of Vectors

(n ! 1) = (n ! m)(m ! 1)

"
$
$
! x dt = $
$
$
#

%
! x1 dt '
'
! x2 dt '
'
! x3 dt '&

" ( 2x + 4x + 6x )
1
2
3
$
$ ( 3x1 ! 5x2 + 7x3 )
=$
$ ( 4x1 + x2 + 8x3 )
$
$# ( !9x1 ! 6x2 ! 3x3 )

% "
' $
' $
'=$
' $
' $
'& #

y1 %
'
y2 '
y3 '
'
y4 '
&

Matrix Identity and Inverse

Derivatives and integrals of vectors are vectors of


derivatives and integrals
$
! dx1
#
dt &
&
dx # dx2
&
=#
dt
dt #
&
&
# dx3
#"
dt &%

2 4 6 %" x %
1
'
'
3 !5 7 ' $
$ x2 '
4 1 8 '$
x '
!9 !6 !3 '& # 3 &

Identity matrix: no change


when it multiplies a
conformable vector or matrix

A non-singular square matrix


multiplied by its inverse forms
an identity matrix

! 1 0 0 $
&
#
I3 = # 0 1 0 &
#" 0 0 1 &%

y = Iy

AA !1 = A !1A = I
# cos"
AA !1 = % 0
%
%$ sin "
# cos"
=% 0
%
%$ sin "

0 ! sin " & # cos"


(%
1
0
(% 0
0 cos" '( %$ sin "

0 ! sin " &


(
1
0
(
0 cos" '(

0 ! sin " & # cos"


(%
1
0
0
(%
0 cos" (' %$ ! sin "
# 1 0 0 &
=% 0 1 0 (
(
%
%$ 0 0 1 ('

0 sin "
1
0
0 cos"

!1

&
(
(
('

Matrix Inverse
x 2 = Ax1

Transformation

! x $
! cos'
&
#
#
y
=
&
#
# 0
#" z &%
#" sin '
2

Inverse Transformation

! x $ ! cos'
& #
#
0
# y & =#
#" z &% #" ( sin '
1

Next Time:
Point-Mass Dynamics and
Aerodynamic/Thrust Forces

0 ( sin ' $ ! x $
&#
&
1
0
&# y &
0 cos' %& # z &
%1
"

x1 = A !1x 2

0 sin '
1
0
0 cos'

$! x $
&# y &
&
&#
&% #" z &%
2

Flight Dynamics Book


and Computer Code

More Learning Objectives


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Detailed evaluation of the linear and nonlinear flight characteristics of a


specific aircraft type.

Improved skills for presenting ideas, orally and on paper.

Improved ability to analyze complex, integrated problems.

Demonstrated computing skills, through thorough knowledge and


application of MATLAB.

Facility in evaluating aircraft kinematics and dynamics, flight envelopes, trim


conditions, maximum range, climbing/diving/turning flight, inertial properties,
stability-and-control derivatives, longitudinal and lateral-directional transients,
transfer functions, state-space models, and frequency response.

All programs are accessible from the Flight Dynamics web


page

... or directly
Errata for the book are listed there
6-degree-of-freedom nonlinear simulation of a business jet
aircraft (MATLAB)

Linear system analysis (MATLAB)

Paper airplane simulation (MATLAB)

Performance analysis of a business jet aircraft (Excel)

http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/FlightDynamics.html

http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/FDcodeB.html
http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/FDcodeC.html
http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/PaperPlane.html
http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/Example261.xls

Helpful Resources
Web pages
http://blackboard.princeton.edu/
http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/MAE331.html
http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/FlightDynamics.html

Princeton University Engineering Library (paper and online)


http://lib-terminal.princeton.edu/ejournals/by_title_zd.asp

NACA/NASA and AIAA pubs


http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp