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Logic Gates

Analogue circuit: The circuits in which the voltage signals vary continuously with time are called analogue
circuits.

Digital circuits: The circuit in which the voltage signals vary continuously but have only two level low or high(0
or 1) are called digital circuits.

A logic gate is a digital circuit that follows certain logical relationship between one or more than one input and
output.
Truth Table is a table that shows all possible input combinations and the corresponding output for a logic gate.
Boolean Expression It is an algebraic expression which deals with the logical combination of input and output
for a given logic gate.
Basic Logic Gates
1. OR Gate
Boolean Expression:
Y=A+B
Symbolic Representation:

A
0
0
1
1

Analog circuit of an OR gate

B
0
1
0
1

Output Y = A+B
0
1
1
1

2. AND Gate
Boolean expression:
Symbolic Representation:

Y= A. B
Truth Table of a 2 input OR gate

A
0
0
1
1

Analog circuit of an AND gate

B
0
1
0
1

Output Y = A . B
0
0
0
1

3. NOT Gate
Boolean expression:

Y = A

Symbolic Representation:

A
0
1

Y = A

Y=A
1
0

Analog circuit of an NOT gate:

Combination of Gates

Universal Gates: NAND and NOR gates are called universal gates because by using NAND and NOR gates
alone the outputs of OR, AND and NOT gates can be obtained.
1) NOR Gate

Truth table of NOR

A

X = A+B

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

0
1
1
1

Y = X = A+B
1
0
0
0
3

2) NAND Gate

=
Truth table of NAND
A
0
0
1
1

X = A.B

0
1
0
1

Y = X = A.B
1
1
1
0

0
0
0
1

Using NOR gate

A. Realising an OR gate using NOR gate

Using NAND gate

A. Realising an OR gate using NAND gate

C. Realising NOT gate using NAND gate

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
The concept of fabricating an entire circuit (consisting of many passive components like R and C and active
devices like diode and transistor) on a small single block (or chip) of a semiconductor has revolutionised the
electronics technology. Such a circuit is known as Integrated Circuit (IC).
The most widely used technology is the Monolithic Integrated Circuit. This, in effect, means that the entire
circuit is formed on a single silicon crystal (or chip).
Depending on nature of input signals, ICs can be grouped in two categories: (a) linear or analogue ICs and (b)
digital ICs.

a) Linear or analogue ICs

The linear ICs process analogue signals which change smoothly and continuously over a range of
values between a maximum and a minimum.
The output varies linearly with the input.
One of the most useful linear ICs is the operational amplifier

b) Digital ICs

The digital ICs process signals that have only two values.
They contain circuits such as logic gates.
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Depending upon the level of integration (i.e., the number of circuit components or logic gates), the ICs
are termed as
1) Small Scale Integration, SSI (logic gates < 10)
2) Medium Scale Integration, MSI (logic gates < 100)
3) Large Scale Integration, LSI (logic gates < 1000); and
4) Very Large Scale Integration, VLSI (logic gates > 1000).