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ENGLISH GRAMMAR 101

English Language is basically divided into three moods


1. Indicative mood in English
2. Imperative mood in English
3. Subjunctive mood in English

All of these moods have two voices


1. Active voice
2. Passive voice

They have three tenses except for the subjunctive mood. (The subjunctive mood has only two tenses
past and present tense)
1. Past tense
2. Present tense
3. Future tense

These are again divided into four sub formations


1.
2.
3.
4.

Simple
Continuous
Perfect
Perfect continuous

They will form simple present tense, simple past tense, simple future tense, present continuous
tense, past continuous tense, future continuous tense, present perfect tense, past perfect tense,
future perfect tense, present perfect continuous tense, past present continuous tense and future
perfect continuous tense.
The perfect continuous is also known as perfect progressive tense

The theory of Modern English Grammar can be summarised to a simple table as below. For medieval
English, Shakespeare style grammar much deeper knowledge is necessary.

ACTIVE
VOICE
SIMPLE

INDICATIVE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE


PAST
PRESENT
FUTURE
did +
do/does +
will(aux) +
infinitive
infinitive
infinitive
CONTINUOUS was/were + am/is/are + will be(aux)
ing
ing
+ ing
PERFECT
had + past
have/has + will(aux)
participle
past
have + past
participle
participle
PERFECThad been + have/has
will(aux)
CONTINUOUS ing
been + ing have been
+ ing

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE


PAST
PRESENT
FUTURE
did +
do +
N/A
infinitive
infinitive
were + ing
be + ing
N/A
had + past
participle

have + past
participle

N/A

had been +
ing

have been + N/A


ing

PASSIVE
VOICE
SIMPLE

INDICATIVE MOOD PASSIVE VOICE


SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD PASSIVE VOICE
PAST
PRESENT
FUTURE
PAST
PRESENT
FUTURE
was/were + am/is/are + will(aux) +
were + past be + past
N/A
past
past
be + past
participle
participle
participle
participle
participle
CONTINUOUS was/were + am/is/are + will(aux) +
were +
be + being + N/A
being +
being + past be + being
being +
past
past
participle
+ past
past
participle
participle
participle
participle
PERFECT
had + been have/has + will(aux) +
had + been have + been N/A
+ past
been + past have +
+ past
+ past
participle
participle
been + past participle
participle
participle
PERFECThad + been have/has + will(aux) +
had + been have + been N/A
CONTINUOUS + being +
been +
have +
+ being +
+ being +
past
being + past been +
past
past
participle
participle
being + past participle
participle
participle
NOTE: aux = will, shall, can, could, may, might, must, should, would. When used without auxiliary the
3rd person singular of the simple present in the indicative mood of the active voice has the ending s.
(ex. which means he does work = he works) EXAMPLES IN INDICATIVE MOOD OF ENGLISH
INDICATIVE
MOOD
SIMPLE

ACTIVE VOICE
PAST
PRESENT

FUTURE

PASSIVE VOICE
PAST
PRESENT

FUTURE

HE FINISHED HIS
WORK / HE DID
FINISH HIS
WORK
HE WAS
FINISHING HIS
WORK

HE FINISHES HIS
WORK / HE
DOES FINISH HIS
WORK
HE IS FINISHING
HIS WORK

HE WILL FINISH
HIS WORK

THE WORK WAS


FINISHED BY
HIM

THE WORK IS
FINISHED BY
HIM

THE WORK WILL


BE FINISHED BY
HIM

HE WILL BE
FINISHING HIS
WORK

THE WORK WAS


BEING FINISHED
BY HIM

THE WORK IS
BEING FINISHED
BY HIM

PERFECT

HE HAD
FINISHED HIS
WORK

HE HAS
FINISHED HIS
WORK

HE WOULD
HAVE FINISHED
HIS WORK

THE WORK HAD


BEEN FINISHED
BY HIM

THE WORK HAS


BEEN FINISHED
BY HIM

PERFECTCONTINUOUS

HE HAD BEEN
FINISHING HIS
WORK

HE HAS BEEN
FINISHING HIS
WORK

HE WOULD
HAVE BEEN
FINISHING HIS
WORK

THE WORK HAD


BEEN BEING
FINISHED BY
HIM *

THE WORK HAS


BEEN BEING
FINISHED BY
HIM *

THE WORK WILL


BE BEING
FINISHED BY
HIM *
THE WORK
WOULD HAVE
BEEN FINISHED
BY HIM
THE WORK
WOULD HAVE
BEEN BEING
FINISHED BY
HIM *

CONTINUOUS

NOTE: * These are only used by erudite scholars and rarely by the local modern English users.