Você está na página 1de 73

Tabela de Conversao Numerica

De
Para
Bin
Int
0
0
Bin
Hexa
1
0001
Bin
Octa
1
0001
Dec
Bin
0
0
Int
Hexa
7
0007
Int
Octa
7
0007

De
Hexa
A
Hexa
2101
Hexa
1
Octa
7
Octa
7
Octa
7

Para
Bin
00001010
Int
8449
Octa
0001
Bin
0111
Int
7
Hexa
0007

10
Qntd Bits
Valor Int
Bit
0
0000000000

10

Posicao Binaria
7
6
0

inaria
5

Endereco ModBus
END MODBUS BASE 0 END MODBUS BASE 1
3584
3585
4096
4097
2049
2050
0
1
1536
1537
1024
1025
1280
1281

TIPO
C
D
M
S
T
X
Y

NUM
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

MIN HEXA (C)


3584
4096
2048
0
1536
1024
1280

MAX HEXA (C)


1903
5631
47615
1023
1791
1279
1535

MIN INT (C)


0
0
0
0
0
0
0

MAX INT (C)


255
1535
4095
1023
255
377
377

LADDER
INSTRUO
%I (1 256)
2

SCADABR
MODBUS

BIT

256

%AI (257 16640)


2
%Q (16641 16896)

FORM
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

16640

16896

29184

61824

%AQ (16897 29184)


2
%R (29185 61824)
2
%M (61825 62080)
2

1. Coloque o nmero da instru


no Ladder na primeira coluna.
2. E a tabela retornar o endere
correspondente em modbus nas
verdes E o bit nas clulas azuis.
3. Lembrando que o ScadaBR u
base 0 o que diminui de uma un
endereo e o bit.

Exemplo:
A memria M1 do ladder em mo
seria 61825 bit 1, porm como
o resultado se torna 61824 bit 0
M16 fica como 61824/15 e M17

1. Coloque o nmero da instruo usada


no Ladder na primeira coluna.
2. E a tabela retornar o endereo
correspondente em modbus nas clulas
verdes E o bit nas clulas azuis.
3. Lembrando que o ScadaBR utiliza a
base 0 o que diminui de uma unidade o
endereo e o bit.
Exemplo:
A memria M1 do ladder em modbus
seria 61825 bit 1, porm como a base 0
o resultado se torna 61824 bit 0, assim
M16 fica como 61824/15 e M17 61825/0.

Range
Unid. Eng
Sinal Controle
Pv

Controle Linear (Distributiva)


Min
Max
Resultado
0
4000
1600.00
0
100
40

Range
Sinal Controle
Unid. Eng

Controle Linear (Distributiva)


Min
Max
Offset
750
3750
300000.00
4
20

Range
Sinal Controle
Unid. Eng

LSB uA
5.0
LSB mV
1.25

Min
1
0.0

% Erro
8000.00

Controle Linear (Distributiva)


Max
Resultado
% Correcao
1
1.000
100.00
1

Valor para Mov Isp (somente D/A)


# mA #
Valor
4
800
#V#
5

Valor
4000

1. Insira o valor de 1 Lsb para Tenso


e/ou Corrente contido no manual do
Clp ou Modulo.
2. Insira o valor de controle.
3. Copie o resultado do campo Valor e
cole na instruo Mov do ISP.

Tipo
P
P+I
P+I+D

PID Ziegles Nicols


Kp
Ki
Kd
79
0
0
71.1
83.333333333
0
94.8
50
12.5

Resistores para Schneider


mA
Resistor
Modelo
12.0
1750
6ht
1530
4lt 8ht
1990
2ht 3ht
% Correcao Eng
-1

Ku
Pu

158
100

Limit Sup
9

Limit Inf
0

Calculo de Integral
dx
x
y
Integral
0.045
2
2.6457513111 0.119058809

Peso e Massa especifica em Funcao da Temperatura


Temperatura C
Kg/m C
1.23
4
1.23
Massa Kg/m
12.062
Peso N/m
Peso e Massa especifica de Substancias
Substancia
Massa Kg/m
Peso N/m
Um Newton
cido carbnico
0.00198
0.01942
9.80665
cido clordrico
1.19
11.66991
cido ptico
1.22
11.96411
cido ntrico (4)
1.52
14.90611
cido olico
0.89
8.72792
cido sulfrico (4)
1.85
18.14230
cido sulfuroso (0,atm)
0.0029
0.02844
cido sulfuroso (lq.)
1.49
14.61191
cido saliclico crist.
2.60
25.49729
cido saliclico amorfo
2.20
21.57463
cido fnico (0)
1.085
10.64022
Acetona (4)
0.79
7.74725
Ao
7.80
76.49187
Acar branco
1.61
15.78871
gata
2.65
25.98762
gua destilada (4)
1.000
9.80665
gua do mar (0)
1.026
10.06162
lcool etlico (4)
0.79
7.74725
lcool metlico (4)
0.81
7.94339
Aldedo (0)
0.80
7.84532
Alumen
1.90
18.63264
Alumnio laminado
2.725
26.72312
Alumnio fundido
2.60
25.49729
Alvaiade
6.70
65.70456
Alvenaria de tijolo fresca
1.635
16.03387
Alcatro
1.20
11.76798
Amianto (asbesto)
2.45
24.02629
Amido
1.53
15.00417
Amlgama natural
13.90
136.31244
Antimnio
6.70
65.70456
Antracita
1.55
15.20031
Apatita
3.19
31.28321
Ar (4, 1atm)
1.23
12.06218
Areia fina seca
1.525
14.95514
Areia fina mida
1.975
19.36813
Argamassa
2.30
22.55530
Argila seca
2.125
20.83913

Argila xistosa
Arroz
Aragonita
Ardsia xistosa
Arsnico
Asfalto
Aveia
Azeite
Azoto (0, 1 atm)
Brio
Basalto
Barro
Batata
Benzina (0)
Bismuto puro
Bismuto fundido
Bismuto fundido fluido
Blenda de zinco
Brax
Boracita
Bronze (3 a 10% de alumnio)
Bronze (8 a 14% de estanho)
Bronze
Borracha Natural
Borracha Nitrlica (NBR)
Borracha Neoprene (CR)
Cal virgem
Cal hidratada
Cal seca (argamassa)
Cal mida (argamassa)
Cnhamo seco
Clcio
Cdmio
Caulim
Carvo fssil
Carvo antracita
Carvo de lenha branca
Carvo de lenha vermelha
Carbeto de clcio
Centeio
Cerveja
Cera
Cimento em p
Cinabro
Cloro

2.82
0.81
3.0
2.675
5.75
1.215
0.46
0.8905
0.001257
3.75
2.95
2.25
1.095
0.90
9.78
9.82
10.55
4.05
1.75
2.95
8.65
8.15
8.80
0.94
1.00
1.23
1.10
1.20
1.65
1.78
1.50
1.58
8.60
2.20
1.35
1.55
0.1575
0.21
2.26
0.735
1.03
0.9675
1.60
8.12
1.33

27.65475
7.94339
29.41995
26.23279
56.38824
11.91508
4.51106
8.73282
0.01233
36.77494
28.92962
22.06496
10.73828
8.82599
95.90904
96.30130
103.46016
39.71693
17.16164
28.92962
84.82752
79.92420
86.29852
9.21825
9.80665
12.06218
10.78732
11.76798
16.18097
17.45584
14.70998
15.49451
84.33719
21.57463
13.23898
15.20031
1.54455
2.05940
22.16303
7.20789
10.10085
9.48793
15.69064
79.63000
13.04284

Clorofrmio
Cloreto de clcio
Cloreto de sdio
Cloreto de Zinco
Cola
Corda
Concreto (argamassa)
Cobalto
Cobre fundido
Cobre fundido fluido
Cobre laminado
Cobre trefilado
Cobre eletroltico
Cortia
Couro seco
Chumbo
Chumbo fundido
Cristal de rocha puro
Cristal artificial
Cristal (vidro)
Cromo qum. Puro
Diamante (bras.)
Diorito
Dolomita (magnesita)
Essncias diversas
Escria de alto forno
Esmeralda (verde)
Esmerilho
Espato calcreo
Estanho fundido
Estanho fundido fluido
Estanho laminado
Esteatita
Estrncio
Etileno Propileno (EPDM)
Farinha de trigo
Fcula
Feldspato
Ferro qum. Puro
Ferro comum
Ferro fundido homogneo
Ferro fundido fluido
Ferro magntico natural
Ferro gusa branco
Ferro gusa cinza

1.49
2.22
2.31
2.75
1.20
1.555
2.125
8.60
8.80
8.22
8.95
8.90
8.925
0.24
0.86
11.31
10.37
2.60
3.15
4.365
6.50
3.525
3.01
2.95
0.90
2.75
2.705
4.0
2.7
7.2
7.025
7.4
2.7
2.5
0.86
0.45
1.5
2.65
7.88
7.80
7.85
6.88
5.05
7.4
7.15

14.61191
21.77076
22.65336
26.96829
11.76798
15.24934
20.83913
84.33719
86.29852
80.61066
87.76952
87.27919
87.52435
2.35360
8.43372
110.91321
101.69496
25.49729
30.89095
42.80603
63.74323
34.56844
29.51802
28.92962
8.82599
26.96829
26.52699
39.22660
26.47796
70.60788
68.89172
72.56921
26.47796
24.51663
8.43372
4.41299
14.70998
25.98762
77.27640
76.49187
76.98220
67.46975
49.52358
72.56921
70.11755

Ferro gusa fundido (mdia)


Ferro gusa fundido fluido
Fsforo amarelo branco
Fsforo vermelho
Fsforo cristalizado
Fosfato de clcio
Gasolina (15)
Glena de chumbo
Gsso calcinado
Gsso comprimido
Gsso peneirado
Gsso impast. seco
Gelo
Glicerina
Gneiss do R. de Janeiro
Grafite
Granito
Graxa
Grs
Guta-percha
Hidrognio (0, atm)
Hypalon (CE)
Hulha
Ido
L de carneiro
Lava basltica
Lato
Leite (15)
Madeira (Aroeira do serto)
Madeira (Ip)
Madeira (Jatob)
Madeira (Cabriva)
Madeira (Angico)
Madeira (Jacarand)
Madeira (Peroba)
Madeira (Canela)
Madeira (Imbuia)
Madeira (Pinho brasileiro)
Madeira (Cedro)
Madeira (Jequitib)
Magnsia
Magnsio
Mangans
Manteiga
Marfim

7.25
6.95
1.83
2.18
2.34
3.18
0.825
7.45
1.81
2.3
1.25
0.97
0.9
1.28
2.6745
2.1
2.78
0.93
2.6
0.975
0.000089
1.12
1.32
4.95
1.320
2.90
8.55
1.03
1.185
0.995
0.935
0.925
0.905
0.815
0.795
0.63
0.65
0.565
0.50
0.54
3.20
1.74
7.725
0.96
1.86

71.09821
68.15622
17.94617
21.37850
22.94756
31.18515
8.09049
73.05954
17.75004
22.55530
12.25831
9.51245
8.82599
12.55251
26.22789
20.59397
27.26249
9.12018
25.49729
9.56148
0.00087
10.98345
12.94478
48.54292
12.94478
28.43929
83.84686
10.10085
11.62088
9.75762
9.16922
9.07115
8.87502
7.99242
7.79629
6.17819
6.37432
5.54076
4.90333
5.29559
31.38128
17.06357
75.75637
9.41438
18.24037

Mrmore comum
Mrmore de carrara
Metal delta
Metal branco
Milho em gro
Nquel
Naftalina
Neve
Nitrato do Chile
leo de cnfora
leo de algodo (15)
leo de linhaa
leo de oliva
leo de rcino
leo de terebentina
Osso
Ouro puro
Ouro fundido
Ouro laminado
xido de clcio
Palha (em feixe)
Parede de tijolos cheios
Parede de tijolos furados
Parede de pedra
Papel
Paldio
Parafina
Pedra calcrea
Pedra fogo
Pedra pome
Petrleo
Platina
Porcelana
Pirita (de ferro)
Potssio
Prata fundida
Prata fundida fluido
Prata laminada
Resina
Reblo
Rdio
Salitre
Sal gema
Slica seca
Slica mida

2.685
2.72
8.60
7.10
0.75
8.525
1.15
0.125
2.26
0.91
0.92
0.94
0.92
0.97
0.96
1.80
19.33
19.25
19.325
3.13
0.065
1.60
1.075
2.35
0.925
11.50
0.89
2.655
2.70
0.65
0.80
21.30
2.32
5.00
0.87
10.48
9.51
10.55
1.070
1.425
11.00
2.02
2.35
1.80
2.00

26.33086
26.67409
84.33719
69.62722
7.35499
83.60169
11.27765
1.22583
22.16303
8.92405
9.02212
9.21825
9.02212
9.51245
9.41438
17.65197
189.56254
188.77801
189.51351
30.69481
0.63743
15.69064
10.54215
23.04563
9.07115
112.77648
8.72792
26.03666
26.47796
6.37432
7.84532
208.88165
22.75143
49.03325
8.48275
102.72466
93.26124
103.46016
10.49312
13.97448
107.87315
19.76040
22.99659
17.65197
19.61330

Siderita
Sdio
Sulfato de sdio
Sulfato de carbono (0, atm)
Sulfureto de carbono (4)
Talco
Terra argilosa seca
Terra silicosa seca
Tijolo de carvo prensado
Tijolo comum
Tijolo bem cozido
Topzio
Turmalina
Trigo
Tungstnio
Vapor de gua (100, atm)
Vinho
Vidro de janela
Vidro de garrafa
Vidro verde
Vidro flint
Vidro Cristal
Viton (FPM)
Zamak
Zircnio (18, 95%)
Zinco fundido
Zinco fundido fluido
Zinco laminado

2.70
0.98
2.25
3.40
1.29
2.70
1.85
1.35
1.25
1.475
1.80
3.55
3.09
0.765
19.55
0.000606
1.031
2.50
2.60
2.64
3.525
3.15
1.80
6.60
6.40
6.86
6.48
7.165

26.47796
9.59090
22.06496
33.34261
12.65058
26.47796
18.14230
13.23898
12.25831
14.46481
17.65197
34.81361
30.30255
7.50209
191.72001
0.00594
10.11066
24.51663
25.49729
25.88956
34.56844
30.89095
17.65197
64.72389
62.76256
67.27362
63.54709
482.01548

ra
N/m C
12.062

Densi. S
0.00123
0.012062

Temp C
28.2
21.6

Ts
Tu

Constantes
Pressao Atm
760
0.000667
101.3247
0.0008
2505.0082
94000

es Ts C
28.7665
3.8364
3836.3770

Pa

Kpa

mca

mmca

inch WC

2490.00

2.49

0.25391028

253.91028

9.9964287

Kpa

Pa

mca

mmca

inca

0.6

600

0.0611832

60.71832

2.408778

mca

Kpa

Pa

mmca

inca WC

9.80665

9806.65

1000

39.3701

mmca

Kpa

mca

Pa

inca WC

10

0.0980665

0.01

98.0665

0.393701

inch WC

Kpa

mca

mmca

Pa

10

2.49089

0.254

254.00

2490.8900

Bar

Kpa

mca

mmca

inca WC

10

1000

101.972

101972

4014.63

mbar

Kpa

mca

mmca

inca WC

0.6

0.0611832

61.1830

2.4087786

mmHg

Kpa

mca

mmca

inca WC

0.133322

0.0135951

13.5951

0.535239

InHg

Kpa

mca

mmca

inca WC

3.38638

0.345316

345.316

13.5951

atm

Kpa

mca

mmca

inca WC

101.325

10.3323

10332.3

406.782

psi

Kpa

mca

mmca

inca WC

150

1034.214

105.4605

105460.5

4151.985

Kgf/cm2

Kpa

mca

mmca

inca WC

98.0665

10

10000

393.701

es Tu C
19.3954
2.5866
2586.6187

Clculos Psicromtricos
Press Vapor (ea)
Deficit Vapor Ts C
15.3826
13.38
2.0516
1.78
2090.2987
1746.08

Dew Point C
17.86
17.87
18.16

Temp Ebul C
5.53
5.53
5.53

Bar

mbar

mmHg

InHg

atm

0.0249

24.9

18.6765687

0.737787

0.0245744325

Bar

mbar

mmHg

InHg

atm

0.006

4.50038

0.17718

0.00592155

Bar

mbar

mmHg

InHg

atm

0.0980665

98.0665

73.556

2.8959

0.0967842

Bar

mbar

mmHg

InHg

atm

0.000980665

0.980665

0.73556

0.028959

0.000967842

Bar

mbar

mmHg

InHg

atm

0.0249089

24.90889

18.6832

0.73556

0.0245832

Pa

mbar

mmHg

InHg

atm

1000000

10000

7500.63

296.30100

9.8692500

Bar

kgf/cm2

mmHg

InHg

atm

0.006

0.0061182

4.500369

0.17778

0.0059214

Bar

mbar

Pa

InHg

atm

0.00133322

1.333224

133.322

0.0393701

0.00131579

Bar

mbar

mmHg

Pa

atm

0.0338638

33.86389

25.4

3386.38

0.0334211

Bar

mbar

mmHg

InHg

Pa

1.01325

1013.25

760

29.9213

101325

Bar

mbar

mmHg

InHg

atm

10.34214

10342.1355

7757.25

305.403

10.206915

Bar

mbar

mmHg

InHg

atm

0.0980665

980.665

735.56

28.9591

0.967842

UA es Tu g/m

UA es Ts g/m

UA g/m

18.6

27.6

15.0

psi

Kgf/cm2

0.36114462

0.025391028

psi

Kgf/cm2

0.0870228

0.00611832

psi

Kgf/cm2

1.42233

0.1

psi

Kgf/cm2

0.0142233

0.001

psi
0.361273

0.0254

psi

Kgf/cm2

145.038

10.1972000

psi

Pa

0.0870228

600

psi

Kgf/cm2

0.0193367

0.00135951

psi

Kgf/cm2

0.491153

0.0345315

psi

Kgf/cm2

14.6959

1.03323

Pa

Kgf/cm2

1034214

10.54605

psi

Pa

14.2233

98066.5

UR%
53.5
53.5
54.5

Pressao
0

dr
1

h Tanque
2

Diam Tanque
1

Raio Tanque
0.5

Ab Tanque m
0.785

Pressao
5.85

dr
1.3

h Tanque
5

Diam Tanque
2

Raio Tanque
1

Ab Tanque m
3.142

Pressao
0

dr
1

h Tanque
10

Elev Zero
0.00

Range Lrv - 0%
0.00

Pressao
-2

Pressao
-66.50

Pressao
-66.50

Pressao

dr
1

dr
1.7

h Tanque
85

h Tanque
35

Sup Zero
10.00

Sup Zero
25.00

Elev Zero
8.00

Nivel com Elevacao de Zero com


Range Urv - 100%
10.00

h Perna Liq
95.00

Nivel com Superssao d


Range Lrv - 0%
-75.00

d Selo Rem
1.9

Nivel com Sup


h Selo Rem
60.00

d Selo Rem
1.9

Nivel com Ele


h Selo Rem
27.00

dr
1.7

h Tanque
35

dr
1

Nivel com Metodo de Borbulhamento


h Tanque
h Coluna
% na Col
13
62.00
20

P de Ar
15.60

Pressao em Tanque Aberto


Vol Tanque m
Lts Atual Tanque
Nivel m
1.571
0.54
0.6875

Vol Tanque m
15.708

Nivel com Supressao de Zero


Lts Atual Tanque
Nivel m
38.79
12.35

acao de Zero com Perna Seca


Nivel
Sinal de Controle
4

om Superssao de Zero com Perna Liquida


Range Urv - 100%
Nivel
0.00

20

Range Urv - 100%


2.00

Sup Zero
4.50

Range Lrv - 0%
5.85

# Controle
4.00

%
0.00

Sinal de Controle
4
20

Nivel com Supressao de Zero com Selo Remoto


Range Lrv - 0%
Range Urv - 100%
-66.50
-7.00

Nivel

Nivel com Elevacao de Zero com Selo Remoto


Range Lrv - 0%
Range Urv - 100%
-66.50
-7.00

Nivel

h Tanque
8

Range Lrv - 0%
0.00

Sinal de Controle
4
20

diam
4

# Controle
19.57

Sinal de Controle
20

Calculo de Capacitancia
raio
Ab
2
12.57

Sinal de Controle
4
20

Range Urv - 100%


12.35

# Controle
4.00

Sinal de Controle
4
20

%
97.33

# Controle
4.00

%
0.00

# Controle
4.00

%
0.00

V
101

Capacitancia
12.57

%
0.00

# Controle
4.00

%
0.00

Freq
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60

V1 m/s
0
0.6
1.6
2.9
4
5
6.5
7.6
8.7
10.2
11.5
12.1
13.8

V2 m/s
0
0.4
1.6
2.7
3.8
5.1
6.2
7.2
8.5
9.6
10.5
11.7
12.8

L
12

Dimeno Quadrado
H
18

Ab
216

Vel
0.07

Vazao em funo da Velocidade


Area
Q
19.63
1.374

Q_Max
250000

P_Max
1245

K Projeto
7085.253

Q_Max
23970

P_Max
180

Fator K Projeto
1786.618

Q_Max Projeto
19526

P_Max Projeto
1078

Fator K
594.708

h Tanque
10

diam
4

raio
2

Velocicades
V3 m/s
0
0.5
1.4
2.7
3.8
4.8
5.9
6.8
7.9
9.1
10.1
11.2
12.5

Dp
0.0049
Vazao em funo de Dp
K processo
6329.621

Vazao em funcao de Dp e Compessa


Fator K Processo
133.167
Vazao em funo de Dp
Dp_max Process
570

Vazao em funo do
Ab
12.57

Bocal do Vent e Gabinete do Vent


Qm
Hz

2430
dP

Vel

Fct K

40
45
50
55
60

Qm
Hz
40
45
50
55
60

63
79
108
128
143

10.5
12.1
13.7
15.1
15.7

306.15
273.40
233.83
214.78
203.21

Bocal do Vent e Gabinete do Isuflameto


2720
dP
Vel
Fct K
90
11.4
286.71
115
12.7
253.64
140
14.2
229.88
167
15.2
210.48
190
16.1
197.33

Velocicades
V4 m/s
0
0.3
1.5
2.4
3.9
4.6
5.4
6.6
7.4
8.8
9.5
10.3
11.6

V5 m/s
0
0.2
1.1
2
2.8
3.7
4.5
5.5
6.3
6.9
8.1
8.8
9.7

diam
5

raio
2.5

V6 m/s
0
0.3
1.2
2.7
3.6
4.2
5.9
7.1
8
9.2
10.3
11.2
12.5
Dimeno Circulo
h
2

Vm/s
0.000
0.383
1.400
2.567
3.650
4.567
5.733
6.800
7.800
8.967
10.000
10.883
12.150
Ab
19.63

Pressao
Dp
0.000
0.147
1.960
6.588
13.323
20.854
32.871
46.240
60.840
80.401
100.000
118.447
147.623
Vol
39.270

Vazao em Porcentagem (%S = 10* (Sqrt(%E))


Fator K
Dp %
Q%
10
50
70.711
em funo de Dp
Pressao
1560

Dp
39.497

Rh
1

azao em funcao de Dp e Compessao de Temp e Presso


Pressao Estatica
Pa
Temp (C)
10
12.066
20

Q
250000

Ta (K)
293.15

Dp
180

Fator K
948.683

Nivel
10

o de Dp
Raiz Dp
23.875

Rh
1

Vazao em funo do Nivel


V
Q_Max
126
3000

Q Lida

dP

Q
14198

L_Max
10

1742
1870
2115
2320
2430

Q Lida
1950
2180
2380
2610
2720

110
146
156
189
205

dP
90
112
140
160
180

FATOR
K
nulo
< 0,3
0.90
1.65
1.58
2.95
1.87
1.47
1.27
1.29
1.29
1.18
1.09

Err
nulo
0.6
0.75
-0.07
1.37
-1.08
-0.4
-0.2
0.02
0
-0.11
-0.09

Rh
1

Q
4863.005

Sqrt(Nivel)
3.1622776602

Q
3000

300
250 254 248

239

200

226
192

210

172
150

226

239

248 254 255 254 248

239

226

192

150

150
127

100

127

30

0
1

8 Bits =
10 Bits =
12 Bits =
16 Bits =

*
*
*
*

Seno R
Seno T
Seno S

-1

17
4

8
5

2 0 2
6 7 8 9

1
2
8.013692
128.2524
1
127
254
64

226

17

127

106
84

46

192

210

248 254 255 254

172 172
150 150
106

64

192

172

127

50

210

239

30

106

84
64 64
46 46

106
84

84
64

30

17

30

64
30

17
8
2 0 2
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
8

17

46

150 172 192 210 226 239 248 254 255 254 248 239
248 239 226 210 192 172 150 127 106 84 64 46
46 30 17
8
2
0
2
8 17 30 46 64

10

11

12

511,444,379,315,256,200,150,106,68,39,17,4,0,4,17,39,68,106,150,200,256,315,379,44

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

0
0.09983342
0.19866933
0.29552021
0.38941834
0.47942554
0.56464247
0.64421769
0.71735609
0.78332691
0.84147098
0.89120736
0.93203909
0.96355819
0.98544973
0.99749499

0.841471
0.891207
0.932039
0.963558
0.985450
0.997495
0.999574
0.991665
0.973848
0.946300
0.909297
0.863209
0.808496
0.745705
0.675463
0.598472

0.56
0.64
0.72
0.78
0.84
0.89
0.93
1
1
1
1
1
1
0.95
0.91
0.86

1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6
6.1
6.2
6.3

0.9995736
0.99166481
0.97384763
0.94630009
0.90929743
0.86320937
0.8084964
0.74570521
0.67546318
0.59847214
0.51550137
0.42737988
0.33498815
0.23924933
0.14112001
0.04158066
-0.0583741
-0.1577457
-0.2555411
-0.3507832
-0.4425204
-0.5298361
-0.6118579
-0.6877662
-0.7568025
-0.8182771
-0.8715758
-0.9161659
-0.9516021
-0.9775301
-0.993691
-0.9999233
-0.9961646
-0.9824526
-0.9589243
-0.9258147
-0.8834547
-0.8322674
-0.7727645
-0.7055403
-0.6312666
-0.5506855
-0.4646022
-0.3738767
-0.2794155
-0.1821625
-0.0830894
0.0168139

0.515501
0.427380
0.334988
0.239249
0.141120
0.041581
-0.058374
-0.157746
-0.255541
-0.350783
-0.442520
-0.529836
-0.611858
-0.687766
-0.756802
-0.818277
-0.871576
-0.916166
-0.951602
-0.977530
-0.993691
-0.999923
-0.996165
-0.982453
-0.958924
-0.925815
-0.883455
-0.832267
-0.772764
-0.705540
-0.631267
-0.550686
-0.464602
-0.373877
-0.279415
-0.182163
-0.083089
0.016814
0.116549
0.215120
0.311541
0.404850
0.494113
0.578440
0.656987
0.728969
0.793668
0.850437

0.81
0.75
0.68
0.6
0.52
0.43
0.33
0.24
0.14
0.04
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.4
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7
-0.8
-0.8
-0.9
-0.9
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-0.9
-0.9
-0.8
-0.8
-0.7
-0.6
-0.6
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0.02
0.12
0.22
0.31
0.4
0.49
0.58

6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
9
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
10
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
11
11.1

0.1165492
0.21511999
0.31154136
0.40484992
0.49411335
0.57843976
0.6569866
0.72896904
0.79366786
0.85043662
0.8987081
0.93799998
0.96791967
0.98816823
0.99854335
0.99894134
0.98935825
0.96988981
0.94073056
0.90217183
0.85459891
0.79848711
0.7343971
0.66296923
0.58491719
0.50102086
0.41211849
0.31909836
0.22288991
0.12445442
0.02477543
-0.0751511
-0.1743268
-0.2717606
-0.3664791
-0.4575359
-0.5440211
-0.6250706
-0.6998747
-0.7676858
-0.8278265
-0.8796958
-0.9227754
-0.956635
-0.9809362
-0.9954363
-0.9999902
-0.9945526

0.898708
0.938000
0.967920
0.988168
0.998543
0.998941
0.989358
0.969890
0.940731
0.902172
0.854599
0.798487
0.734397
0.662969
0.584917
0.501021
0.412118
0.319098
0.222890
0.124454
0.024775
-0.075151
-0.174327
-0.271761
-0.366479
-0.457536
-0.544021
-0.625071
-0.699875
-0.767686
-0.827826
-0.879696
-0.922775
-0.956635
-0.980936
-0.995436
-0.999990
-0.994553
-0.979178
-0.954019
-0.919329
-0.875452
-0.822829
-0.761984
-0.693525
-0.618137
-0.536573
-0.449647

0.66
0.73
0.79
0.85
0.9
0.94
1
1
1
1
1
1
0.94
0.9
0.85
0.8
0.73
0.66
0.58
0.5
0.41
0.32
0.22
0.12
0.02
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7
-0.8
-0.8
-0.9

11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
12
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
13

-0.9791777
-0.9540192
-0.9193285
-0.8754522
-0.8228286
-0.7619836
-0.6935251
-0.6181371
-0.5365729
-0.4496475
-0.3582293
-0.2632318
-0.1656042
-0.0663219
0.03362305
0.13323204
0.23150983
0.32747444
0.42016704

-0.358229
-0.263232
-0.165604
-0.066322
0.033623
0.133232
0.231510
0.327474
0.420167

248 254 255 254 248

239

226

210 210
192 192

172

226

239

248 254 255

172

150

Seno R

150

127
106
64
30

17

Seno S

106 106
84 84

84
46

Seno T

127

17

30

46

64

2 0 2
3 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

226 210 192 172 150 127


30 17
8
2
0
2
84 106 127 150 172 192

13

14

15

16

17

18

106
8
210

84
17
226

19

20

64
46
30
46
239 248

21

22

30
64
254

17
84
255

8
106
254

2
127
248

0
150
239

2
172
226

23

24

25

26

27

28

256,315,379,444,511,578,643,707,767,822,872,916,954,983,1005,1018,1022,1018,1005,983,954,916,872,

8
192
210

17
210
192

30
226
172

29

30

31

46 64 84 106
239 248 254 255
150 127 106 84

32

33

34

35

,983,954,916,872,822,767,707,643,578,511

Clock Interno AVR


Freq uC
8,000,000

Prescaler
8

Clock Intern uS
1.000

Clock Freq Hz
1,000,000

Timer AVR (Modo Frequencia)


T wave uS
0.0005

F wave Hz (Saida)
1,953

OCR Value
255

OCR Value
255

Note: Divide the PWM frequency by 2 for an 8MHz clock, multipl


For Arduino Uno, Nano, Micro Magician, Mini Driver, Lilly Pad and any o
//TCCR0B=TCCR0B&B11111000|B00000001;//settimer0divisorto
//TCCR0B=TCCR0B&B11111000|B00000010;//settimer0divisorto
//TCCR0B=TCCR0B&B11111000|B00000011;//settimer0divisorto

//TCCR0B=TCCR0B&B11111000|B00000100;//settimer0divisorto

//TCCR0B=TCCR0B&B11111000|B00000101;//settimer0divisorto

//-------------------------- Set PWM frequency for D9 & D10 -//TCCR1B=TCCR1B&B11111000|B00000001;//settimer1divisorto


//TCCR1B=TCCR1B&B11111000|B00000010;//settimer1divisorto
//TCCR1B=TCCR1B&B11111000|B00000011;//settimer1divisorto
//TCCR1B=TCCR1B&B11111000|B00000100;//settimer1divisorto
//TCCR1B=TCCR1B&B11111000|B00000101;//settimer1divisorto

//---------------------------- Set PWM frequency for D3 & D11 //TCCR2B=TCCR2B&B11111000|B00000001;//settimer2divisorto


//TCCR2B=TCCR2B&B11111000|B00000010;//settimer2divisorto
//TCCR2B=TCCR2B&B11111000|B00000011;//settimer2divisorto
//TCCR2B=TCCR2B&B11111000|B00000100;//settimer2divisorto
//TCCR2B=TCCR2B&B11111000|B00000101;//settimer2divisorto
//TCCR2B=TCCR2B&B11111000|B00000110;//settimer2divisorto
//TCCR2B=TCCR2B&B11111000|B00000111;//settimer2divisorto

For Arduino Mega1280, Mega2560, MegaADK, Spider or any other board


//------------------------------ Set PWM frequency for D4 & D13
//TCCR0B=TCCR0B&B11111000|B00000001;//settimer0divisorto
//TCCR0B=TCCR0B&B11111000|B00000010;//settimer0divisorto
//TCCR0B=TCCR0B&B11111000|B00000011;//settimer0divisorto
//TCCR0B=TCCR0B&B11111000|B00000100;//settimer0divisorto
//TCCR0B=TCCR0B&B11111000|B00000101;//settimer0divisorto

//----------------------------- Set PWM frequency for D11 & D12


//TCCR1B=TCCR1B&B11111000|B00000001;//settimer1divisorto
//TCCR1B=TCCR1B&B11111000|B00000010;//settimer1divisorto

//TCCR1B=TCCR1B&B11111000|B00000011;//settimer1divisorto
//TCCR1B=TCCR1B&B11111000|B00000100;//settimer1divisorto
//TCCR1B=TCCR1B&B11111000|B00000101;//settimer1divisorto

//-----------------------------Set PWM frequency for D9 & D10 //TCCR2B=TCCR2B&B11111000|B00000001;//settimer2divisorto


//TCCR2B=TCCR2B&B11111000|B00000010;//settimer2divisorto
//TCCR2B=TCCR2B&B11111000|B00000011;//settimer2divisorto
//TCCR2B=TCCR2B&B11111000|B00000100;//settimer2divisorto
//TCCR2B=TCCR2B&B11111000|B00000101;//settimer2divisorto
//TCCR2B=TCCR2B&B11111000|B00000110;//settimer2divisorto
//TCCR2B=TCCR2B&B11111000|B00000111;//settimer2divisorto

//----------------------------- Set PWM frequency for D2, D3 & D


//TCCR3B=TCCR3B&B11111000|B00000001;//settimer3divisorto
//TCCR3B=TCCR3B&B11111000|B00000010;//settimer3divisorto
//TCCR3B=TCCR3B&B11111000|B00000011;//settimer3divisorto
//TCCR3B=TCCR3B&B11111000|B00000100;//settimer3divisorto
//TCCR3B=TCCR3B&B11111000|B00000101;//settimer3divisorto

//----------------------------- Set PWM frequency for D6, D7 & D


//TCCR4B=TCCR4B&B11111000|B00000001;//settimer4divisorto
//TCCR4B=TCCR4B&B11111000|B00000010;//settimer4divisorto
//TCCR4B=TCCR4B&B11111000|B00000011;//settimer4divisorto
//TCCR4B=TCCR4B&B11111000|B00000100;//settimer4divisorto
//TCCR4B=TCCR4B&B11111000|B00000101;//settimer4divisorto

//----------------------------- Set PWM frequency for D44, D45 &


//TCCR5B=TCCR5B&B11111000|B00000001;//settimer5divisorto
//TCCR5B=TCCR5B&B11111000|B00000010;//settimer5divisorto
//TCCR5B=TCCR5B&B11111000|B00000011;//settimer5divisorto
//TCCR5B=TCCR5B&B11111000|B00000100;//settimer5divisorto
//TCCR5B=TCCR5B&B11111000|B00000101;//settimer5divisorto

Clock Select Bit from AVR (Prescaler)


CSn2 CSn1 CSn0
Description From Timers
0
0
0 No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped)
0
0
1 clk I/O /1 (No prescaling)
0
0
1
1
1
1

1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1

clk I/O /8 (From prescaler)


clk I/O /64 (From prescaler)
clk I/O /256 (From prescaler)
clk I/O /1024 (From prescaler)
Ext clock src on T0 pin. Clk on falling edge
Ext clock src on T0 pin. Clk on rising edge

8MHz clock, multiply by 1.25 for a 20MHz clock.


Lilly Pad and any other board using ATmega 8, 168 or 328
timer0divisorto1forPWMfrequencyof62500.00Hz
timer0divisorto8forPWMfrequencyof7812.50Hz
timer0divisorto64forPWMfrequencyof976.56Hz

timer0divisorto256forPWMfrequencyof244.14Hz

timer0divisorto1024forPWMfrequencyof61.04Hz

ency for D9 & D10 -----------------------------timer1divisorto1forPWMfrequencyof31372.55Hz


timer1divisorto8forPWMfrequencyof3921.16Hz
timer1divisorto64forPWMfrequencyof490.20Hz
timer1divisorto256forPWMfrequencyof122.55Hz
timer1divisorto1024forPWMfrequencyof30.64Hz

uency for D3 & D11 -----------------------------timer2divisorto1forPWMfrequencyof31372.55Hz


timer2divisorto8forPWMfrequencyof3921.16Hz
timer2divisorto32forPWMfrequencyof980.39Hz
timer2divisorto64forPWMfrequencyof490.20Hz
timer2divisorto128forPWMfrequencyof245.10Hz
timer2divisorto256forPWMfrequencyof122.55Hz
timer2divisorto1024forPWMfrequencyof30.64Hz

r or any other board using ATmega1280 or ATmega2560


quency for D4 & D13 -----------------------------timer0divisorto1forPWMfrequencyof62500.00Hz
timer0divisorto8forPWMfrequencyof7812.50Hz
timer0divisorto64forPWMfrequencyof976.56Hz
timer0divisorto256forPWMfrequencyof244.14Hz
timer0divisorto1024forPWMfrequencyof61.04Hz

uency for D11 & D12 ----------------------------timer1divisorto1forPWMfrequencyof31372.55Hz


timer1divisorto8forPWMfrequencyof3921.16Hz

timer1divisorto64forPWMfrequencyof490.20Hz
timer1divisorto256forPWMfrequencyof122.55Hz
timer1divisorto1024forPWMfrequencyof30.64Hz

uency for D9 & D10 -----------------------------timer2divisorto1forPWMfrequencyof31372.55Hz


timer2divisorto8forPWMfrequencyof3921.16Hz
timer2divisorto32forPWMfrequencyof980.39Hz
timer2divisorto64forPWMfrequencyof490.20Hz
timer2divisorto128forPWMfrequencyof245.10Hz
timer2divisorto256forPWMfrequencyof122.55Hz
timer2divisorto1024forPWMfrequencyof30.64Hz

uency for D2, D3 & D5 --------------------------timer3divisorto1forPWMfrequencyof31372.55Hz


timer3divisorto8forPWMfrequencyof3921.16Hz
timer3divisorto64forPWMfrequencyof490.20Hz
timer3divisorto256forPWMfrequencyof122.55Hz
timer3divisorto1024forPWMfrequencyof30.64Hz

uency for D6, D7 & D8 --------------------------timer4divisorto1forPWMfrequencyof31372.55Hz


timer4divisorto8forPWMfrequencyof3921.16Hz
timer4divisorto64forPWMfrequencyof490.20Hz
timer4divisorto256forPWMfrequencyof122.55Hz
timer4divisorto1024forPWMfrequencyof30.64Hz

uency for D44, D45 & D46 -----------------------timer5divisorto1forPWMfrequencyof31372.55Hz


timer5divisorto8forPWMfrequencyof3921.16Hz
timer5divisorto64forPWMfrequencyof490.20Hz
timer5divisorto256forPWMfrequencyof122.55Hz
timer5divisorto1024forPWMfrequencyof30.64Hz

escaler)

om Timers
ter stopped)

)
n falling edge
n rising edge

WG
Mode
0
1

WGM13
0
0

WGM12 (CTC1)
0
0

WGM11 (PWM11)
0
0

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1

1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0

14
15

WGM Wavw Form Generator


WGM10(PWM10)
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

Timer/Counter Mode of Op.


Normal
PWM, Phase Correct, 8 bit

TOP
0xFFFF
0X00FF

Update of OCR1X
Immediate
TOP

PWM, Phase Correct, 9 bit


PWM, Phase Correct, 10 bit
CTC
FAST PWM, 8 bit
FAST PWM, 9 bit
FAST PWM, 10 bit
PWM, Phase and Freq Correct
PWM, Phase and Freq Correct
PWM, Phase Correct
PWM, Phase Correct
CTC
Reserved

0X01FF

TOP
TOP
Immediate
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
TOP
TOP
Immediate
-

FAST PWM
FAST PWM

0X03FF
OCR1A
0X00FF
0X01FF
0X03FF
ICR1
OCR1A
ICR1
OCR1A
ICR1
ICR1
OCR1A

BOTTOM
BOTTOM

TOV1 Flag Set On


MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
MAX
TOP
TOP
TOP
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
MAX
TOP
TOP

Ciclo de Maquina e Peridod - PIC


Fosc Hz
8,000,000

Hz Trabalho
2,000,000

Ciclo Maq uS
500

Prescaler Timer
4

Clock Select Bit from PIC (Prescaler - Vide Datasheet)


T0PS2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

T0PS1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0

T0PS0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

clk
clk
clk
clk
clk
clk
clk
clk
clk

I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O

Description From Timers


/1 (From prescaler)
/2 (From prescaler)
/4 (No prescaling)
/8 (From prescaler)
/16 (From prescaler)
/32 (From prescaler)
/64 (From prescaler)
/128 (From prescaler)
/256 (From prescaler)

PWM (Vide Datasheet)


Periodo PWM
PR2
1

Prescaler
4

Tosc
0.000000125

Duty Cycle PWM


CCPL1L
205

Duty Cycle uS
0.00

Duty Cycle %
102.50

Periodo uS
4

Freq Hz
250,000

m Timers

Clock Interno PIC 16 Bits


Resolucao
65536

TMR Inicial
15536

TMR Final
50000

TMRH/TMRL
3CB0

6 Bits
Overflow uS
400,000,000,000

Freq kHz
7.63

Tempo Max Seg


131072000

Prescaler Timer
4

Clock Interno PIC 8 Bits


Resolucao
256

TMR0 Inicial
255

TMRL
FF

Overflow uS
20.00000000

Freq kHz
1,953

Estouro EEPROM (vide datasheet PIC)


Tempo Max Seg
512,000

N Max Escrita
1,000,000

Estoura em x Dias
11.6

Ciclo de Maquina e Peridod - ARM


Fosc Hz
8,000,000

Hz Ciclo
0.05

Periodo uS
20.0

Yk (%Saida) Y(k-1) (%Saida Anterior)


Kp
6000
50
Sentido
Direto
Reverso

Ki
10

Kd
4

Ta (Sample)
0
0.05

Ek (Erro) E(k-1) (Erro Anterior)


Sp (%)
X (PV)
10
10
51
50