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Elijah C.


Topic: The Cell

Biochemistry Sec 1B

1. Identify the two major parts of a eukaryotic cell.

The two major parts of a Eukaryotic Cell are the cytoplasm and the organelles.
The cytoplasm is a thick solution that fills each cell and is enclosed by the cell
membrane. It consists of all the contents outside the nucleus and enclosed within the
cell membrane of a cell. An organelle is a tiny cellular structure that performs specific
functions within a cell. Organelles are embedded within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic and
prokaryotic cells. In eukaryotic cells, organelles are often enclosed by their own

2. Define cytoplasm and organelles.

The cytoplasm consists of all the contents outside of the nucleus and enclosed within
the cell membrane of a cell.
Organelles are tiny cellular structures that perform specific functions within a cell. An
organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions, suspended in the
cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell.

3. Describe cytoplasm and the different organelles.

The cytoplasm is clear in color and has a gel-like appearance. It is composed mainly of
water and also contains various enzymes, salts, organelles, and various organic
molecules. In prokaryotic cells, the cytoplasm consists of all the contents of the cell
inside the plasma membrane. In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm consists of the cytosol,
organelles and cytoplasmic inclusions.
Endoplasmic Reticulum is a part of an extensive network of interconnecting membranes
that extend from the nuclear envelope to the plasma membrane. It consists of
membranes with a smooth appearance in some parts and rough in other places.
Golgi Apparatus is a network of flattened smooth membrane stacks cisternae and
vesicles. It works in consort with the reticulum where proteins for specific destinations
are synthesized.

Mitochondria In an electron micrographs, mitochondria appear as rods, spheres, or

filamentous bodies; some of these differences in shape may be due to the preparation
of the tissue or cell for microscopic evaluation.
Lysosomes are responsible for intracellular digestion of both extracellular and
intracellular substances. Encapsulated in theses organelles is a class of glycoprotein
enzymes, hydrolases.
Peroxisomes has the ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. They have a single
membrane and are small spherical or oval with a fine network of tubules in their matrix.
Cystoskeleton microtubules, intermediate filaments, and actin filaments as parts of a
cytoskeletal framework, or scaffolding of the cytoplasm.

4. Briefly discuss the important functions of cytoplasm and organelles.

The cytoplasm functions to support and suspend organelles and cellular molecules.
Many cellular processes also take place in the cytoplasm. Some of these processes
include protein synthesis, the first stage of cellular respiration known as glycolysis,
mitosis, and meiosis. In addition, the cytoplasm helps to move materials, such as
hormones, around the cell and also dissolves cellular waste.
Endoplasmic Reticulum the main function of ribosomes on rough endoplasmic
reticulum is biosynthesis of proteins for incorporation into membranes and cellular
organelles, and for export outside the cell. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is involved in
lipid synthesis and contains cytochromes, which catalyse hydroxylation of a variety of
endogenous and exogenous compounds.
Golgi Apparatus is the major site of new membrane synthesis and participates in
formation of lysosomes and peroxisomes. Vesicles originating from the golgi apparatus
transport proteins such as hormones, blood plasma proteins, and digestive enzymes to
the plasma membrane for secretion. The Golgi apparatus has a role in movement of
lipids in the cell.
Mitochondria are well established as the powerhouse of the cell, responsible for
synthesis of over 90% of the required ATP of cells. They also have important roles in
diverse cellular functions, including apoptosis, formation of reactive oxygen species, cell
signalling, and various metabolic processes.
Lysosomes they function as the digestive system of the cell, serving both to degrade
material taken up from outside the cells and to digest obsolete comonents of the cell

Peroxisomes are essential for oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids and synthesis of
glycerolipids, glycerol ether lipids, and isoprenoids.
Cytoskeleton has a role in maintenance of cellular morphology, intracellular transport
of vesicles and organelles, cell motility and cell division.

5. Briefly give the difference between the eukaryotic cell and a prokaryotic cell.
Prokaryotes lack a defined nucleus or internal membrane structures. They are usually
unicellular but in some cases form colonies or filaments. Prokaryotes have a variety of
shapes and sizes and can live under a variety of conditions, some very extreme. The
plasma membrane is often invaginated. The DNA of prokaryotes is a single circular
strand and often segregated into a discrete mass in the cell, the nucleoid region, which
is not surrounded by a membrane or envelope. Even without defined membrane
compartments, the intracellular milieu of prokaryotes is organized into functional
Eukaryotes Include single-cell organisms such as yeasts, fungi, and multicellular plants
and animals. Their cell volume is 1000 to 10,000 times larger than most prokaryotic
cells. Eukaryotes have a defined nucleus with a well-defined membrane that contains
the bulk of the cells DNA. They also have extensive membrane systems and
intracellular organelles surrounded by membranes. These intracellular membrane
systems establish distinct cellular compartments permitting a unique degree of
subcellular organization. By compartmentalization, different chemical reactions that
require different environments can occur simultaneously.
Some of the noteworthy differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes include
chemical composition and biochemical activities. Prokaryotes do not contain histones, a
highly conserved class of proteins in all eukaryotes that complex with DNA. There are
also differences in enzyme content and in the ribonucleic acid-protein complexes, called
ribosomes involved in biosynthesis of proteins. A major difference between prokaryotes
and eukaryotes is the presence of intracellular membrane systems and organelles in
eukaryotes. This permits another level for facilitation and control of enzyme catalysed
chemical reactions.