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Dietary carbohydrate,

performance
during
11 i/ham

M Sherman,

ABSTRACT
diets

J Andrew

The

on muscle

muscle glycogen,
7 d of training13

effects

glycogen

Dole,

David

of moderate-

and

R La,nb,

and

or high-carbohydrate

performance

in runners

and

and exercise

Richard

H Strauss

centration
cyclists

on training

uncertain

over 7 consecutive
days
biopsies
were performed

of training
were determined.
Muscle
on 4 separate
days before
exercise
for

(5 g carbohydratekg

I h at

75i)

consumption

hydrate

1-mm

sprints.

peak

or cycled
cyclists

After

the

training

to exhaustion
and

was

(V02)

session

at 80%

runners

peak
<

by five,

7, subjects

ran

glycogen

for

. Muscle

with

(P

reduced
30-36%
diet. All subjects

on day

V02

maintained

followed

with the
all training

0.05)

moderatesessions.

This

cogen,

7.

on trainAm J

athletic

training,

exercise

Introduction
exercise

at intensities

70-80%

substantially

(VOmax)

of maximal

lowers

muscle

ox-

glycogen

concentrations
( 1 ). Associated
with reduced
muscle
glycogen
is
the inability
to maintain
exercise
intensity
at 70-80%
VO2max
( I ).It is usually
assumed
that muscle
glycogen
must be restored
between

daily

pabilities

The

training

sessions

carbohydrate

content

concentration.

Costill

cogen

progressively

declined

training
spite

to facilitate

optimal

training

ca-

(2. 3).

cogen

when
of the

subjects
43%

ofathletes

diets

affects

muscle

gly-

et al (4) reported

that

muscle

gly-

over

selfselected

decline

there was no consistent


pattern
ing. Nevertheless,
it has been
diet containing
moderate
glycogen
concentrations

3 consecutive
a 43%

in muscle

d of running

carbohydrate

glycogen

over

diet.
those

of fatigue
over the days
inferred
that consumption

amounts
ofcarbohydrate
and thereby
impairs

In

days,
of trainof a

sociation
appears
.,1n1

between
clear

J C/in Nuir

but

training.
In this rowing
study
rowing
ability
was maintained.
dietary
the

effects

1993:57:27-31.

carbohydrate

and

of reduced
Printed

effects

and

high-

) carbohydrate

and

and

diets

maximal

cyclists over

of moderate(10
on

g carbo-

muscle

gly-

performance

7 d of intense

capa-

training.

muscle
glycogen
Thus,
the asmuscle

muscle

in USA.

men

volunteered

to serve

according
an honorarium

to institutional
for their

as subjects

provided

This project
was approved
by the Biomedical
Subjects
Review
Committee
of The Ohio
Subjects

previous

those

subject

also

was

applicable
The physical
provided

termine
phase.

weekly

imposed

training

required

to achieve

exercise
mode.
and physiological
in Table

loads

by the experimental
a V02

Each
in the

Sciences,
State
Uni-

were

similar

protocols.
peak

characteristics

1. Hydrostatic

to
Each

4 L/min
of the

weighing

was

for

subjects

used

to de-

lean body mass of the subjects


on day 1 of the control
Vital capacity
was used to estimate
residual
volume
(6).

Repeated
measures
of vital capacity
were determined
until the variability
The

and

guidelines.
participation

means

for the

three

highest

and hydrostatic
of the readings

values

Siri

equation
(7) was used to calculate
Exercise
mode-specific
peak oxygen
was determined
by using a progressive
also allowed
determination
maximal
heart
rate. V02
open-circuit
volumes
Equipment,
(Warren

system
were

that

measured
Wilton,

E Collins,

was

VT)
Boston).

averaged,

V02

every

a gasometer

calibrated
Expired

and

percent
body fat.
consumption
(peak
workload
protocol

of the ventilatory
determined
with

calculated
with

were

weighing
was
4%.
the
VO2)
that

threshold
and
an automated
20 s. Inspiratory

(RAM-9200:

against

a Tissot

oxygen

and

Rayfield
spirometer

carbon

dioxide

lowers muscle
both training
ca-

pabilities
and maximal
exercise
performance
ability.
This thesis,
however.
was not supported
by Simonsen
et al (5) for rowers
who consumed
a moderate-carbohydrate
diet while undertaking
twice-daily
intense
was reduced
but

the

wt.d)

compliance,

or exceeded

are

consumption

wt1

consent
was paid

versity.

1993:57:27-31.

Endurance

to compare

body

kg body

Thirty-six

the

ygen

is

Subjects

study.
Human

has no apparent
benefit
exercise
performance.

exertion.

designed

bilities of runners

tains muscle
ing capability

Physical

was

training

informed
subject

WORDS

study

diet over 7 d of intense


training
reduces
muscle
glycogen
but
has no apparent
deleterious
effect on training
capability
or highintensity
exercise
performance.
A high-carbohydrate
diet main-

KEY

capabilities

Methods

there were no differences


in times to exhaustion
on day
cyclists
and runners.
consuming
a moderate-carbohydrate

C/in Nutr

performance

the high-carbohydrate

completed

glycogen.
but this
or high-intensity

exercise

glycogen

glycogen

1993 American

conSociety

I From
the Exercise Physiology
Laboratory,
School of Health, Physical
Education,
and Recreation,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus.
OH.
2 Supported
by the Gatorade
Sports Science Institute,
Chicago.
3 Address
Education,

reprint requests
and Recreation,

to WM Sherman.
School of Health. Physical
337 West 17th Avenue,
Columbus,
OH

May 29, 1992.


for publication

August

43210.

Received
Accepted
for Clinical

Nutrition

12. 1992.
27

Downloaded from www.ajcn.org by on April 4, 2006

diet but was


carbohydrate
and
For

oxygen

and

(3).

28

SHERMAN

TABLE
Physical

ET

AL

sumed

and physiological

characteristics

Age

ofthe

subjects*

Body
fat

VO2max

L/inin

between

Raw

VO2max

body

wt

inL . kg

30 3
253

11 2

30
34

11

10

9 for each

treatment

4.2

91

0.2

59

61

60

4.30.2

583

4.2 0.2

4.5 0.1

Blood

SE. n

diet: MOD

CHO.

group.

moderate-carbohydrate

HI CHO.

Blood

measured

burgh,

and

with
LB-2:

calibrated

with

electric

analyzers

Beckman,

Fullerton,

a National

the concentrations

(S-3A/l

Bureau

ofwhich

CA).

Pitts-

analyzers

were

calibration

gas,

The

of Standards

were

Ametek,

confirmed

with

chemical

9 for each

and

design

diet

the effects

to assess

cle glycogen

and

dietary

to either

were

period,

ofdietary

to assess

alternating

legs

carbohydrate

content
over

both

exercise

and

intense

diet

tively. Runners
ran up a +6%
to favor concentric
contractions

incline
and

before
the start of the training
Velodyne
ergometers
(Schwinn,
this

were
40, 40,
respec-

control

Cyclists
exercised
IL) fitted with

phase,

subjects

During

provided
during
the control
period
with liquid
dietary
supplementation.

the 7-d training

laboratory.

Subjects

exercised

I h at 75% peak VO2


peak V02 interrupted
grade

period.
daily

followed
by 1-mm

remained

mL

250

cooled

During
oratory.

the

every

Heart

rate

period

consumed

During

the
or 830

training
mL (high)

environmental
Subjects
during

food

diets

meal

between

I 630

period,

subjects

ofthe
and

1 800

sprints
at
For runners
ratings

also

for

100%
the

then

samples

was

provided

containing

either

liquid

1 730.

consumed
supplement

Breakfast

conditions
consumed

and

in the

lab-

5 or

10 g

supplemented
(GatorLode).
660
with

lunch

1645
the

lateralis

or lateral

glycogen

head

in

were

from

without

proximal
the
ofa

liquid

glycogen

potential
subsequent

nitrogen

effects of
biopsy.

and

concentration,

suc-

(> 3 cm)

stored

frozen

at

muscle

into three
pieces
(5-10
mg) under
(to the nearest
0.01 mg at -20 #{176}C).

of the

synthase

utilization

obtained

in 2 mol

same

HCI/L

muscle

( 1 1 ) in

activity

analyzed

h at

100

sample

and

8.4%

The interassay
CV
per kg wet tissue.
the vastus

lateralis

in a subset
of four
on day 1 of the
was 2.2%.

enzymatically

available
kit
and interassay

(2

the glucose
concenenzymatically
with
of variation
(CV)

of the same
muscle.
results
were expressed

using a commercially
The duplicate
sample

at
7 of

vastus

lateralis

were

hydrolyzed

for duplicates

citrate

the

at progressively

for

(Boehringer,
CVs were

and

runners
training

glucose

by

Indianapolis).
1 .4% and 3.9%,

respectively.

TABLE 2
Characteristics
carbohydrate
for a typical

ofthe
(CHO)
subject

control,
moderate
(MOD). and high (HI)
diets during the control and training phases

Expe rimental

of per-

exercise.

carbohydrate
. kg
. d (Table
2). All diets were
with a beverage
containing
I 8% maltodextrins
erate)

2.2%

Blood
a

in the

and

and

muscle

body and legs (9) were recorded


the I-h session
and immediately

20 mm

7-d training

Subjects

1600

muscle
biopsies

frozen

first divided
and weighed
was

on

to famil-

supervised

by five 1-mm
rest intervals.

of each sprint.
The
50% relative
humidity.
water

was

between

at +6%.

ceived
exertion
for the whole
after
15 and 45 mm during
before
cessation
were 25 #{176}C
and

exercise

from

the vastus

gastrocnemius
muscles
was analyzed
and four cyclists
in muscle
obtained
period.
The CV for duplicate
samples

on
their

consumed

sample

Muscle

on a motor-driven
treadmill
to minimize
muscle
damage

phase
(8).
Excelsior,

quick

for triplicate
samples
was 3. 1 %. Glycogen

diet containing
8 g carbohydrate
kg
d
(67% ofenergy
from
carbohydrates,
I 5% from protein,
and 18% from fat: Table
2).
An 1 8% carbohydrate
beverage
(GatorLode,
The Quaker
Oats
Co. Chicago)
was
iarize the subjects

Each

was
period,

obtained

obtained

1 . 3. 5, and

#{176}C)
and neutralized
with NaOH.
Finally.
tration
of the hydrolyzate
was determined
fluorometry
(10). The intraassay
coefficient

on mus-

Subjects
exercised
for 60,
VO2 for control
days 1-5,

During

in a

7 d of

supervised
in the laboratory.
20, and 20 mm at 75% peak

bicycles.

and

assigned

were

#{176}C.
To determine

samples
were
liquid
nitrogen

or high-carbohydrate

capabilities

training.
control

cyclists

randomly

a moderate-

performance

cycling
or running
During
the 5-d

control

group)

also

Muscle

Samples

on

designed

supplements

were
days

sites to the previous


biopsy
to eliminate
previous
biopsies
on the glycogen
content

anal-

was

mL

(mod-

the evening
were

con-

Control/
control
Energy intake (J)
CHO energy (% oftotal)
CHO from typical foods
(gCHO/d)
(% total energy)
Liquid supplement
(gCHO/d)
(CHOas%totalenergy)
(mL/d)

14.7
67

phase

Training!
MOD CHO
14.7
42

and diet
Training!
HIGH CHO
14.7
84

539
61

234

565

27

65

46
6
230

132
15
660

166
19
830

Downloaded from www.ajcn.org by on April 4, 2006

exercise

(n

ofmineral

on

either

session.

from

study

for the runners.


A subset
of nine cyclists
underwent
a muscle
biopsy
on day 1 after

the training

design

double-blind

treadmill

from

carbohydrate

the

biopsies

were

session

-80

a 5-d

dietary

that

session

training

tion

yses.
E.vperimnental

muscle

Biopsies
and

as snacks.
body weight
the potential

biopsies

exercise

period.

provided

workout,
minimize

about

informed

macc/c
and

the

of the gastrocnemius
and nine runners

were

own

samples

for the cyclists

oxygen

the

After

and

before

training

consumption.

runners

analysis

daily

high-carbohydrate

diet: O2 max. maximal

were

were

the afternoon
100 g. To

knowledge

they

1200 and 1300. respectively.

celery)

to determine
the effects oftwo
types
muscle
glycogen
and performance.

Runners

HI CHO
MOD CHO

and

before
nearest

of subject

performance.

Cyclists

HI CHO
MODCHO

(carrots

Before breakfast
and
was recorded
to the
influence

0600 and 0800 and

vegetables

DIETARY
To

measure

session
two

exercise

on day
maximal

haustion.

performance.

7. each

subject

two

after

rested

performance

The

the

for 5 mm

trials

performance

CARBOHYDRATE

at

80%

trials

normal

before
peak

were

ergometer

or to keep

pace

VO2

until

ex-

separate

the treadmill

of variance

measure
(time)
were used to assess
ments
on the dependent
variables
least-significant-difference
cant

pair-wise

175

the subject
revolutions

E
E

150

the effects
for cycling

procedure

differences

committing

a Type

are reported

as mean

was

among

I error

was

with

ofthe
and

dietary
running.

used

means.

Lu

125

0.05.

<

75

treatThe

signifi-

probability

DAY

of

Group

.f* #

_#

100

-J
C,

repeated

to locate

The

to P

held

(diet)

%%h1I

speed.

C-)

analyses

CYCLISTS-MOD

--.-.

200

C,
0

one-way

CYCLISTS-HI

a)

by 5 mm

Statistical imialisis
Two

29

GLYCOGEN

.--

training

separated

with

MUSCLE

undertaking

of rest. Exhaustion
was identified
as the time at which
was unable
to maintain
the prescribed
rate ofpedal
on the cycle

AND

data

SE.

FIG 1. Effects of consuming


a moderateor high-carbohydrate
diet
on muscle glycogen concentration
over 7 d ofcycling
training.
< 0.05
vs day
1: #P < 0.05 vs comparison
diet; n = 9 per treatment;
values are
g SE.

Results
subjects

All

completed

d of the training
75% ofmaximal

the

prescribed

period.
On average.
heart rate and peak

daily

training

ofwhole-body

perceived

exertion

79% and
throughduring
the
on average.
responses

or leg perceived

for either

the

cyclists

(results
not shown).
Interestingly,
despite
during

the

or runners

similar

5-d control

period.

in cyclists

compared

with

in runners

for either

eralis

muscles.

I 12.6

8.9

trocnemius

For

exercise
muscle

consistent

104.0

6.4

and

vastus

lateralis

<

either

dietary
was

0.05).

1 . muscle

mmol/kg,

before
cyclists.

of runners

and after
muscle

and

exercise
glycogen

cyclists

lat-

and

73.7

between

4.2

the

mmol/kg.

pre-

and

postexercise

tions were 0. 18. 0.41. and


and cyclists,
respectively.
For cyclists
did not decline

for the

significantly

reduced

was

<

0.05)

a significant

on days

difference

in muscle

second

Similarly,

perfor-

was no effect
for either
cy-

when

performance

second
trials were summed,
there was no
the cyclists
or runners.
Mean (SE)
total

for the

cyclists

on

the

moderate-

and

high-

were 550 85 and 6 13 45 s, respectively.


times
for the runners
consuming
the moddiets

(data

not

averaged

effects

ofthe

6 13 36 and
dietary

treatments

560
for

shown).

are

often

advised

to consume

a high-carbohydrate

to maintain
muscle
glycogen
(2). The results
of the present

that for cyclists


and runners
load, a moderate-carbohydrate

concentrations
study
clearly

undertaking
diet

a constant
(5 g - kg body

-e--

RUNNERS-HI

--.-

RUNNERS-MOD

coefficients

glycogen

7 compared

and

For
the

concentra-

150
a)

runners.

diet, muscle
glycogen
7-d training
period
(Fig 1).

3, 5, and

not shown).

no significant

training
levels

demonstrate
daily training

mmol/kg,
106.7 3.9

10.9

were

diet,

were
glucose

Athletes

biopsies

for all subjects,

moderate-carbohydrate

(data

times

diet during
at optimal

not change
significantly
over the
In contrast.
for the moderate-carbohydrate

significantly
difference
bohydrate

blood

high- and moderate-carbohydrate


diets
For runners
on the high-carbohydrate
did

for the first and


ofdiet
for either

synthase

period.
and after

correlation

muscle

0.8 1 (P

on the high-carbohydrate
significantly
over the

In contrast,
There

Spearman

or runners

times
effect

first

period.
There
performances

Discussion

muscles
for
28.2 3.2

muscle

13.1 and 70.1


values for runners

The

averaged

citrate

on day I of the training


concentrations
before

training
sessions
were
186.7
respectively.
Corresponding

for the

for the gas-

Muscle

underwent

clists

There

higher
was

activity
was similar
(P > 0.05) in the vastus lateralis
the cyclists
and runners,
averaging
30.7 2.0 and
j.imol#{149}min
g, respectively.
A subset

recorded

erateand high-carbohydrate
106 5, respectively.

effect

respectively,

muscles.

diet

or vastus
glycogen

were

carbohydrate
diets
Total
performance

controls
65%

This

the gastrocnemius

on day

and

and
glycogen

(P

runners

runners

consuming

times

trials on day 7 ofthe


training
for either
the first or second

performance

exertion
for the daily training
sessions
(results
not shown).
There
were also no differences
in body weight
over the 7-d training
period

Exercise
mance
of diet

glycogen
with

glycogen

on days 5 and
diet, muscle

was
day
for

1.
the

7.
glycogen

7-d training
period
(Fig 2).
diet. glycogen
was

reduced
on days 5 and 7. There
was a significant
in muscle
glycogen
for the high- and moderate-cardiets on days 5 and 7.

E
z

I 25

100

Lu

C,
0
C.)

75

>-

-I
C,

50
0

DAY

FIG 2. Effects of consuming


a moderateor high-carbohydrate
diet
on muscle glycogen concentration
over 7 d ofrunning
training.
P < 0.05
vs day I : #P < 0.05 vs comparison
diet; n = 9 per treatment:
values are
.SE.

Downloaded from www.ajcn.org by on April 4, 2006

out the daily I-h training


sessions.
Similarly,
exercise
5-mm
sprints
elicited
90% of maximal
heart
rate
There
were no significant
effects
of diet on heart-rate
or on ratings

on all 7

exercise
elicited
VO2, respectively,

30

SHERMAN
d

during

) significantly
days

5-7

containing
muscle

muscle

bohydrate

have
diet

training

load

decline

(40%)

body

similar

muscle

over

Costill

in muscle

wt

days

maintains

days

when

when

the

both

design.

runners

and

Subjects

carbohydrate(5
mm at 75%

self selected

consumed

and

and

Other
drate on
increased.
over

a diet

with

containing

a crossover

45%

of energy

there

as

daily for 60
1 3% over

were

no differences

in responses

examined

the

of dietary

between

cyclists.

muscle
Costill

glycogen
when
the training
load was
et al (1 3) doubled
daily swim training
subjects

consumed

had

runners

consuming

a self

double

either

5 of the study.
of the present

14) demonstrate

that

a diet

daily

even

doubled
and
by 1 .47-fold
duced
when

and

those

jects reported
the performance

training
muscle

sessions.
glycogen

euenergetic

dined

this time
Similarly,

carbohydrate

kg

containing

(4,

consumption

results

in lower

8 g carbohydrate

kg

petitive

endurance

events

during

the

by the

performance

final

experiment

stages

were

(3, 4, 12-14).
Importantly,
the present
study demonstrates
the
time course
of the effects
of consuming
different
amounts
of
dietary
carbohydrate
on muscle
glycogen
when
daily
training

of an endurance
hydrate
diet and

event.
resultant

did

maximal

load

high-carbohydrate

is constant.

tains
drate

Consuming

muscle
-

kg

5 through

glycogen,
.

whereas

significantly

day

Early
glycogen

10 g carbohydrate

consuming

reduces

kg

muscle

enhance

tions
in muscle
glycogen
do
Nevertheless,
high-carbohydrate

the relationship
between
low
and fatigue
during
endurance

muscle
perfor-

performance

of a healthy
ported
athletic

lifestyle

(16),

detrimental
performance,

and

mance
(1 , 1 5). This has led to the presumption
that reduced
muscle
glycogen
that resulted
from consuming
a moderateor
low-carbohydrate
diet over days or weeks
of training
would
de-

consume
a high-carbohydrate
The reasons
for the different

crease

capabil-

between

subjects,

period

ities.

training

compliance

As indicated

from

and

maximal

the results

performance

for a subset

of nine

training
on day 1 of the experimental
period
reduced
muscle
glycogen
by 1 1 7 and 33 mmol/kg
for the cyclists
and runners,
respectively.
Presumably,
this amount
of muscle
glycogen
or
less

was degraded

Interestingly,
concentrations
the subjects
day 7 after

on a daily

in spite
by days
completed
the daily

basis

during

of significantly
5 and

7 for

increased

cardiovascular
daily training

perception
strain
or the

both

training
muscle

cyclists

and

session.
glycogen

of effort

on
in

performance
tests between
diets. Subjects
neither
renor

exhibited

(eg, heart
rate) on day 7 during
maximal
performance
tests.

increased
either

are

same

diet

75%

ofthe

the

and

not
was

than

those

ofthe

there

muscles
status

muscle
glycogen
is possible
that
glycogen

for

the

ofthe
do not

two

been

no

on
to

period

the

intensity

the runners

However,

ran

was
uphill

the potential
in( I 7- 1 9). Trained
untrained
muscles
this

synthase

muscle.
It
were more

is not consistent
activities

in the

and cyclists;
thus. differences
to explain
the differences

between
conditions
modes

runners
did not
or

re-

experimental

control

exercise

VO2 . Also,

runners
appear

exercise

reduc-

concentrations

ofthe

the

relative

in citrate

concentration
the control
the

have

glycogen

During

runners.

similarities

the

to influence

diet-induced

on the first day

peak

Perhaps

brief

bias the exercise


to minimize
damage
on muscle
glycogen

the observed

quadriceps
in training

phases

a high-carboconcentrations

impair
athletic
performance.
diets are recommended
as part

diet.
muscle

and

mode-specific

present

these

carbohydrate
consumption
prudent
to advise
athletes

apparent.

consumed,

followed

too

has a higher
glycogen
content
than
be argued
that the cyclists
quadriceps

trained
with

cyclists

readily

to concentrically
fluence
of muscle
muscle
might

runners,

all daily training


sessions.
Similarly,
training
session
there was no difference

the time to fatigue during


the maximal
the high- and moderate-carbohydrate
ported

each

reduced

runners

bout
7 of the

performance.
was

dis-

day

or less simulate

because

effects ofhigh
it remains

fixed

training

short-term
not

present

exercise

these
conditions,
muscle
glycogen

or perhaps

the

intensity

on

regimen

athletic

day

The

endurance

dietary

carbohy-

7 of training.

studies
established
concentrations

not

to more
Under
higher

in the

to traverse

of higher

event.

from

glycogen

main-

used

athletes

undertaken

selected

reduced

or from

and time to fatigue during


the other
hand,
most com-

a period

of the
trials

required

ifthe

deficit

tasks

require
with

muscle

the

not appropriate
to detect
the
concentrations
on maximal
a close association
between

concentration
( 1 , 1 5). On

as fast as possible

when

intake
decreased
significantly
de-

energy

performance

the preexercise
glycogen
constant
power
exercise
tances

completing
of perceived

completed

the

12-

muscle

the

difficulty
ratings

(1 3) it is uncertain

the
ex-

influ-

was suddenly

energy
compliance

from

and other
studies
(4, 1 3, 14) were
effects ofdiffering
muscle
glycogen
performance.
Early studies
reported

when
training
Notably,
a diet

capabilities.

volume

consumption

inadequate
training

in this case

that

glycogen

on training
compliance
expenditure.
Although
sub-

subjects

capability
resulted
muscle
glycogen.

It is possible

kg

muscle

on training

training

oxygen

(14),

When
by 20%,

no
levels

declined
by 15% (1 3) or differed
still no systematic
effect of the re-

higher

reduced

(1 3). However,

training
reduced

distance

glycogen

in which

glycogen
there was

slightly

that

to increased

when

local muscular
fatigue
and
sessions
( 1 3) or increased

and

performance

reported

regard

ofexertion

muscle
glycogen
concentration
energy
intake
matched
energy

suddenly
volume

of others

over 3-10
d of training
or suddenly
increased.

muscle

glycogen

1 to day 3 of training.
On the other
not systematically
study
the effects

in muscle

( 14),

on maximal

with

days

muscle

or low-carbohydrate

et al (4)

observed

in studies

was

training

was

13% reduction

However,

glycogen

82 and
12 1 mmol/kg
for
diets, respectively,
before

5 g carbohydrate

than

their

study

dietary

ences
muscle
glycogen
volume
is either constant
containing

ofthe

and
Costill

successive

carbohy-

3.9 or 8.0 g carbohydrate

d . Muscle
glycogen
averaged
moderateand high-carbohydrate
ercise on day
The results

selected

kg . d.
During
I 30 to I 10 mmol/kg.
.

compliance
unusual.

pattern
with

of lowered

a moderate-

that

in

and cyclists.
It
equate
muscle
carbohydrate

is

Downloaded from www.ajcn.org by on April 4, 2006

8.2 g carbohydrate
declined
from

et al (14)

for 5 d while

effects

from

training
is not

exertion

have

10 d when

glycogen

study

studies

diet containing
muscle
glycogen
Kirwan

in a 3-d

g . kg body wt . d ) and exercised


VO2max
. Muscle
glycogen
declined
by

the 3-d period


runners

cyclists

on daily

capabilities
offatigue

effect

resulting

decreased
by 40% from day
hand,
Pascoe
et al ( 1 2) did

a diet containing
43% of energy
from carbohydrate
over 3 d of
training.
The daily
training
was running
for 73 mm at 80%
VO2max
followed
by a VO2max
test. Similarly,
Pascoe
et al (12)
used

of a systematic

consistent

a progressive

subjects

lack

concentrations
diet

Two

of a moderate-carseveral

AL

The

diet

oftraining.

et al (4) observed

glycogen

30-36%
ofa

5-7

effects

glycogen

was constant.

by

consumption

during

reported

on

kg

concentrations

studies

glycogen

In contrast,

10 g carbohydrate
glycogen

other

reduces

oftraining.

ET

DIETARY
somehow

stored

Nevertheless,
cyclists

and

centration
etary
lack

differently
because

runners,
does

not

carbohydrate
ofeffect

between

comparisons
this
negate
intake

on training

cyclists
were

initially
the

CARBOHYDRATE

different

compliance

(20).
between

glycogen

of the effects

glycogen
and

runners
made

muscle

observations

on muscle

and
not

and

maximal

AND

conof di-

the resultant
performance

13

capabilities.
We acknowledge
the assistance
of Mike Wilson and Ashley
The cooperation
of the subjects in the study is appreciated.

Blostein.

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