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# Heat exchanger theory leads to the heat exchanger design equation that

relates the overall heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer surface area, and log
mean temperature difference to the rate of heat transfer. This heat exchanger
design equation is used to find the area needed for heat exchangers.

Introduction
The heat exchanger design equation can be used to calculate the required
heat transfer surface area for a variety of specified fluids, inlet and outlet
temperatures

and

types

and

configurations

of

heat

exchangers,

including

counterflow or parallel flow. A value is needed for the overall heat transfer
coefficient for the given heat exchanger, fluids, and temperatures. Heat exchanger
calculations could be made for the required heat transfer area, or the rate of heat
transfer for a heat exchanger of given area.

## The Heat Exchanger Design Equation

Heat exchanger theory leads to the basic heat exchanger design equation:

Q=UA T lm
WhereQ is the rate of heat transfer between the two fluids in the heat
exchanger in But/hr,
U is the overall heat transfer coefficient in Btu/hr-ft2-oF,
A is the heat transfer surface area in ft2,
Tlm is the log mean temperature difference in oF, calculated from the
inlet and outlet
temperatures of both fluids.
For design of heat exchangers, the basic heat exchanger design equation can
be used to calculate the required heat exchanger area for known or estimated
values of the other three parameters, Q, U, and T lm.

## Log Mean Temperature Difference

The driving force for any heat transfer process is a temperature difference.
For heat exchangers, there are two fluids involved, with the temperatures of both
changing as they pass through the heat exchanger, so some type of average
temperature difference is needed. Many heat transfer textbooks have a derivation

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

showing that the log mean temperature difference is the right average temperature
to use for heat exchanger calculations. That log mean temperature is defined in
terms of the temperature differences as shown in the equation at the right. T Hin and
THout are the inlet and outlet temperatures of the hot fluid and T Cin and TCout are the
inlet and outlet temperatures of the cold fluid. Those four temperatures are shown
in the diagram at the left for a straight tube, two pass shell and tube heat
exchanger with the cold fluid as the shell side fluid and the hot fluid as the tube side
fluid.

## Heat Transfer Rate

Heat exchanger calculations with the heat exchanger design equation require a
value for the heat transfer rate, Q, which can be calculated from the known flow
rate of one of the fluids, its heat capacity, and the required temperature change.
Following is the equation to be used:

Q=m hot c p hot ( T Hin T Hout )=m cold c p cold (T CoutT cin )
Wheremhot = mass flow rate of hot fluid, slugs/hr,
Cp hot = heat capacity of the hot fluid, Btu/slug-oF
Mcold = mass flow rate of cold fluid, slugs/hr,
Cp cold = heat capacity of the cold fluid, Btu/slug-oF,
The required heat transfer rate can be determined from known flow rate, heat
capacity and temperature change for either the hot fluid or the cold fluid. Then
either the flow rate of the other fluid for a specified temperature change, or the
outlet temperature for known flow rate and inlet temperature can be calculated.

## Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

The overall heat transfer coefficient, U, depends on the conductivity through
the heat transfer wall separating the two fluids, and the typical values for U
convection coefficients on both sides of the heat transfer wall. For a shell and tube
heat exchanger, for example, there would be an inside convective coefficient for the
tube side fluid and an outside convective coefficient for the shell side fluid. The heat

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

## transfer coefficient for a given heat exchanger is often determined empirically by

measuring all of the other parameters in the basic heat exchanger equation and
calculating U.

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

## COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS

The term compact is often confused with meaning small; however,
individual heat exchangers can be in excess of 8 metres length and 100 tons
weight; assemblies can comprise tens of exchangers, so compact heat exchangers
can be of appreciable size. Compact more accurately refers to the higher duties
that are achieved in smaller sizes than (say) shell and tube heat exchangers. This
compactness is achievable through higher surface densities (i.e. heat transfer
surface area per unit volume of heat exchanger), and through enhancement of heat
transfer coefficients by selection of heat transfer surface geometries.
Compact heat exchangers are available with a range of surface types,
generally intended to enhance surface density and heat transfer coefficients, and
which also assist mechanical design (for example, fins form many attachment points
between adjacent parting sheets).

## A gas-to-fluid heat exchanger is referred to as compact heat exchanger if it

incorporates heat transfer surface having a surface area density above about 700
m2/m3 (213 ft.2/ft.3) or a hydraulic diameter Dh = 6 mm (0.25 in.) on at least one
of the fluid sides that usually has gas flow. It is referred to as a laminar flow (or
meso) heat exchanger if the surface area density is above about 3000 m2/m3 (914
ft.2/ft.3) or 100 mm, Dh = 1 mm, and as a micro heat exchanger if the surface area
density is above about 15,000 m2/m3 (4570 ft.2/ft.3) or 1 mm , Dh = 100 mm. A
liquid/two-phase heat exchanger is referred to as compact heat exchanger if the
surface area density on anyone fluid side is above about 400 m2/m3 (122 ft.2/ft.3).

## PLATE & FIN/MATRIX HEAT EXCHANGER

Introduction:
A plate-fin heat exchanger is a type of heat exchanger design that uses
plates and finned chambers to transfer heat between fluids. It is often categorized
as a compact heat exchanger to emphasise its relatively high heat transfer surface
area to volume ratio. Plate-fin exchangers consist essentially of plates separated by
corrugated sheets, which form the fins. They are made up in a block and are often
referred to as matrix exchangers This type of heat exchanger uses "sandwiched"
passages containing fins to increase the effectiveness of the unit. The designs
include crossflow and counterflow coupled with various fin configurations such as
straight fins, offset fins and wavy fins. Their compact size and low weight have led
to some use in offshore applications.

Figure A1. Basic Components of a Plate Fin Exchanger (Shah & Webb, 1983)

Function/Working Principle:
The concept is shown in Figure A2. Corrugated metal fins are placed between
flat plates. The structure is joined together by brazing. The fins have the dual
purpose of holding the plates together, thus containing pressure, and of forming a
secondary (fin) surface for heat transfer. At the edges of the plates are bars, which
contain each fluid within the space between adjacent plates. The heights of
corrugations and bars may vary between plates, as shown. For a liquid stream we
can use a low height corrugation, matching high heat transfer coefficient with lesser
surface area while for a low pressure stream we can use a high corrugation height,
matching low coefficient with higher surface area but also giving larger through
area to achieve lower pressure drop. An industrial unit contains about 1000 m2 of
surface per cubic meter.

Figure A2. Basic Construction of Plate Fin Exchanger (source: Martson, Ltd.)
Corrugations are also made with heat transfer enhancement devices.

Plain corrugation is the basic form and is used normally for low pressure drop
streams.
Perforated corrugation shows a slight increase in performance over plain
corrugation, but this is reduced by the loss of area due to perforation. The main
use is to permit migration of fluid across fin channels, usually in boiling duties.
Serrated corrugation is made by cutting the fins every 3.2 mm and displacing
the second fin to a point half way between the preceding fins. This gives a
dramatic increase in heat transfer.
Herringbone corrugation is made by displacing the fins sideways every 9.5
mm to give a zig-zag path. Performance is intermediate between the plain and
serrated forms. The friction factor continues to fall at high Reynolds numbers,
unlike the serrated, showing advantages at higher velocities and pressures.

The designer can, therefore, vary fin heights, fin pitch and fin thickness together
with four standard fin types giving great versatility of design.

## Figure A3a. Types of Corrugation (source: Martson Ltd.)

Figure A3b. Types of Plate Fin Surface (a. Plain Triangular, b. Plain Rectangular, c.
Wavy Fin, d. Offset Strip Fin, e. Multiouver Fin, f. Perforated Fin, Talukdar n.d)
Plate-fin units are normally arranged for counterflow heat exchange. Cross
flow units are used for vehicle radiators and cross counterflow is used for liquid
subcoolers.
Characterization of which corrugation will be used is determinded by Figure
A4:

## Figure A5. Plate Fin HX Equipment Diagram & Flow Mechanism

Type of Material:
It is used for rapid cooling or heating of heat sensitive materials and others
such as:

Clear Fluids
Low Viscosity Fluids
Tight Temp. Control
Slurry with Fine Particles

Consideration/Limitation:
Plate and fin heat exchangers are usually made of aluminum alloys, which
provide high heat transfer efficiency. The material enables the system to operate at
a lower temperature difference and reduce the weight of the equipment. The brazed
aluminum construction is limited to pressures up to around 60 bar and
temperatures up to 150C. The units cannot be mechanically cleaned, so their use is
restricted to clean process and service steams.
Aluminum units use material AS3003 in the exchanger block. Braze material
is AS3003 + silicon. Plates are purchased with a thin film of braze metal on both
sides. The unit is built and placed in a vacuum furnace. The braze takes place under
vacuum and at a temperature of 580C. The parts of the block are then firmly
attached together. Stainless steel units are made of AISI type 321. Braze material is
essentially nickel and can be applied to the plates by spraying. Brazing takes place
under vacuum at temperatures up to 1050C.

## Aluminum units operate with design pressures up to 100 bars and at

temperatures from absolute zero to 65C. Above 65C a change of header material
will allow operation to 120C with reduced design pressures. Stainless steel units
are currently limited to 50 bars design pressure and temperatures up to 750C.
Advantages of plate and fin heat exchangers:

## High heat transfer efficiency especially in gas treatment

Larger heat transfer area
Approximately 5 times lighter in weight than that of shell and tube heat
exchanger.
Able to withstand high pressure
Simple and compact in size (up to 5900m2/m3)
Turbulent flow help to reduce deposits
No extra space is required for dismantling
Capacity can be increased by introducing plates in pairs of heat exchanger.
Use to handle low heat transfer coefficient fluids
Used for cooling and heating of vast quantity of gases

## Might cause clogging as the pathways are very narrow

Difficult to clean the pathways
Slurry fluids cannot be handled
Deposition of particle at fin corner
High pressure drop

Industry Application:
Plate and fin heat exchangers are mostly used for low temperature services
such as natural gas, helium and oxygen liquefaction plants, air separation plants
and transport industries such as motor and aircraft engines.
These are called as extended surface exchangers it is used in the conditions
where when a process fluid is having very low heat transfer coefficient when
compared to other fluids because the overall heat transfer coefficient decreases
which affect the capacity of heat transfer by the available surface area so the area
of contact is to be increase. We come across this type of problem when heat
transfer is dealt with heating of air or gas streams and for cooling viscous liquids
like engine oil.
The cost of plate-fin heat exchangers is generally higher than conventional
heat exchangers due to a higher level of detail required during manufacture.
However, these costs can often be outweighed by the cost saving produced by the
added heat transfer. Plate-fin heat exchangers are generally applied in industries
where the fluids have little chances of fouling. The delicate design, as well as the

thin channels in the plate-fin heat exchanger, makes cleaning difficult or impossible.
Applications of plate-fin heat exchangers include:

## Natural gas liquefaction

Cryogenic air separation
Ammonia production
Offshore processing
Nuclear engineering
Syngas production

Design Calculation:
1. Number of Passes (source: Design of Compact Plate Fin Heat Exchanger by
Dewatwal, 2009)

## The number of passed could be obtained as:

where:
b = fin thickness
L3 = heat exchanger height
w = distance between the plate and fin

Dewatwal, 2009)

1. Hot Fluid
nf =
2. Cold Fluid

L1 N
pf

N
nf =

L2 ( p+1)
pf

## 3. Number of Transfer Units (source: Compact Heat Exchangers by Haslego,

2002)
The logarithmic mean temperature difference will be given by:

Where:
Th = Hot Fluid, Tc = Cold Fluid

## SPIRAL HEAT EXCHANGER

Introduction:
The spiral-plate heat exchanger (SHE) may be one exchanger selected
primarily on its virtues and not on its initial cost. SHEs offer high reliability and online performance in many severely fouling services such as slurries.
The SHE is formed by rolling two strips of plate, with welded-on spacer studs,
upon each other into clock-spring shape. This forms two passages. Passages are
sealed off on one end of the SHE by welding a bar to the plates; hot and cold fluid
passages are sealed off on opposite ends of the SHE. A single rectangular flow
passage is now formed for each fluid, producing very high shear rates compared to
tubular designs. Removable covers are provided on each end to access and clean
the entire heat transfer surface. Pure countercurrent flow is achieved and LMTD
correction factor is essentially = 1.0.
Since there are no dead spaces in a SHE, the helical flow pattern combines to
entrain any solids and create high turbulence creating a self-cleaning flow passage.
There are no thermal-expansion problems in spirals. Since the center of the
unit is not fixed, it can torque to relieve stress. The SHE can be expensive when only
one fluid requires a highalloy material. Since the heat-transfer plate contacts both
fluids, it is required to be fabricated out of the higher alloy. SHEs can be fabricated
out of any material that can be cold-worked and welded.
Spiral Heat Exchangers (SHE), which may refer to a helical (coiled) tube
configuration, more generally, the term refers to a pair of flat surfaces that are
coiled to form the two channels in a counter-flow arrangement. Each of the two
channels has one long curved path. A pair of fluid ports is connected tangentially to
the outer arms of the spiral, and axial ports are common, but optional.
The channel spacings can be different on each side to match the flow rates
and pressure drops of the process design. The spacer studs are also adjusted in
their pitch to match the fluid characteristics. As the coiled plate spirals outward, the
plate thickness increases from a minimum of 2 mm to a maximum (as required by

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

12

pressure) up to 10 mm. This means relatively thick material separates the two fluids
compared to tubing of conventional exchangers.
The concept of a spiral heat exchanger is as simple as it is sophisticated. Two
or four long metal strips, onto which spacer studs are welded, are wound around a
core, thus creating two or four equally spaced single passage channels. The
concentric shape of the flow passages and the studs yield turbulence already at low
Reynolds numbers. By optimizing the flow pattern heat transfer is enhanced, whilst
fouling is reduced.
The main feature of this exchanger type is that there is a single passage for
each fluid.
The main advantage of the SHE is its highly efficient use of space. This
attribute is often leveraged and partially reallocated to gain other improvements in
performance, according to well known tradeoffs in heat exchanger design. A
compact SHE may be used to have a smaller footprint and thus lower all-around
capital costs, or an over-sized SHE may be used to have less pressure drop, less
pumping energy, higher thermal efficiency, and lower energy costs.
The most fascinating feature of SHE is that due to its geometry, there is very
limited fouling. As the fluid flows in a spiral, deposition on the walls f the heat
exchanger is negligible. This means lower down time as compared to the
conventional Shell and Tube heat exchangers.

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

13

## In shell-and-tube heat exchangers the flow enters different tubes in parallel.

When tubes foul, the local pressure drop increases pushing the fluid to find
alternative flow paths. The result is that fouling and clogging of the tubes happens
very quickly. This is not the case with SHEs! The design of an SHE is particularly
suitable for use with fluids that tend to cause fouling. Its single channel geometry
and turbulence, with resulting high shear stress, dramatically reduce fouling and
make SHEs to a large extent self-cleaning
Function/Working Principle:
The spiral heat exchanger is a circular heat exchanger with two spiral
channels, each in one closed chamber ensuring that what comes in also comes out.
The flow of the two products is counter-current, which makes it possible to have a
close temperature approach between the two medias being treated in the heat
exchanger.

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

14

One fluid enters the centre of the unit and flows towards the periphery. The
other fluid enters the unit at the periphery and moves towards the centre. The
channels are curved and have a uniform cross section. The product channel is
normally open on one side and closed on the other. The heating/cooling medium
channel can sometimes be closed on both sides, depending on the cleanliness of
the heating/cooling medium. Each channel has one connection in the centre and
one on the periphery of the heat exchanger.
Spiral heat exchangers have high waste heat recovery. The secret is the true
counter-current flow. It enables crossing temperature situations where the cold fluid
can be heated to temperatures very close to those of the hot fluid. The closer the
temperature approach between two fluids, the more heat is recovered. This effect is
enhanced by the high turbulence in the unit due to the single channel geometry and
the arrangement of the studs.
The heat transfer capacity of the exchanger was dictated by the width of the
channels. Right up until the 1960s, this effectively meant a maximum capacity of
200 m2 since steel strip was only available in relatively narrow widths. Attempts to
increase capacity by fabricating larger areas met with only limited success, since
they resulted in long, thin channels with excessively high pressure drops. Once
wider materials became available and wider channels could be formed, however,
heat transfer capacity was progressively increased. Today, practical maximum
capacity of a standard Spiral Heat Exchanger is 400-600 m 2. Currently the spiral is
manufactured in a winding process using a D-shaped mandrel with the two strips
being welded to a central plate and distance studs have replaced the steel bars.
Alternatively tubular centers are becoming more common.
Usually, alternate edges of the passages are closed and covers fitted to both
sides of the spiral assembly.

Type of Material:

## It does accommodate materials such as:

Sludges
Liquids in Suspension

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

Clear Fluids

15

## Medium to High Viscosity

Fluids
Slurry with Coarse Particles

Refrigerants
Thermal Fluids
Tight Temp. Control
High Scaling Material

Consideration/Limitation:
Spiral Heat Exchanger is almost always a liquid/liquid heat exchanger.

In most cases it is mounted horizontally and can be opened at each end. Each
channel circuit is seal welded on one side and open on the other. The open channel
is sealed by the gasket face of the end cover. The flid in the two channels always
follows the spiral direction, from the outside towards the centre, or the centre to the
outside. The flow arrangement is counter-current. The unit is preferably mounted
horizontally. In the vertical position there is a risk of solid material settling by
gravity to the bottom of the channel. Also, for cleaning it needs to be rotated to the
horizontal position.

Performance data

## Because of the special manufacturing techniques and multi-product

usage of stainless steel tubing, it offers the unique ability to provide a welded 304
stainless steel spiral tube bundle. Additionally, we specialize in spiral tube heat
exchangers with 316L stainless steel and a variety of exotic alloy materials
including Hastelloy, Inconel, Incoly and specialty stainless steels to name just
a few.

Industry Application:

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

16

## The SHE is good for applications such as pasteurization, digester

heating, heat recovery, pre-heating and effluent cooling. Spiral heat exchangers are
particularly effective for handling sludges, liquids in suspension including slurries,
and a wide range of viscous fluids. Their design and fabrication make them well
suited for controlling viscosity, a vital parameter when abrasive or corrosive fluids
must be handled. The spiral heat exchanger is also used as a condenser and
evaporator.

## Industries where an SHE can be used:

Petrochemical
Refinery
Steel making
Pulp and paper
Mineral processing (metals, ore)

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

Wastewater

## (municipal and industrial)

Pharmaceutical
Vegetable oil refiing
Natural gas transportation

treatment

17

Design Calculation:

2002)

Where:

Eq. 11-81)

## 4. Pumping Power (source: Heat Exchanger Dimensioning, LUT Energy)

where:

P = Pumping Power
p = Pressure Drop
= density
= Efficiency

## DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER

Heat Exchange
Equipment
Double Pipe Heat
Exchanger

Double
pipe
heat exchangers are the
simplest exchangers used in
industries. These are also
known as hairpin, jacketed
pipe, jacketed U-tube and
concentric pipe. In its simplest
form, it is just one pipe inside
another larger pipe. The inner
pipe can be plain or have
longitudinal fins attached to
increase the surface area
available for heat transfer.
Fins can be attached to the
pipe by welding, soldering, by
mechanical
insertion
into
grooves or can be integral with
the piping. One fluid flows
through the inside pipe and
the other flows through the
annulus between the two
pipes. The wall of the inner
pipe is the heat transfer
surface. The pipes are usually
doubled back multiple times in
order to make the overall unit

## Type of Material Being

Limitations and
Fed
Considerations
The material to be fed in These heat exchangers are cheap
a double pipe heat
for both design and maintenance,
exchanger could be any
making them a good choice for
clean fluid or any highly
small industries.
viscous medium.

as required

## The double pipe may have a bundle

of inner tubes rather than a single
tube (up to 64 tubes) and the
diameter of the outer pipe/tube is
less than 200 mm.

## Double Pipe Exchanger with

Finned Pipe Surface
Double pipe heat exchangers are
designed to provide counter

## current flow and they are used for

low heat duties with surface area
requirements less than 50 m2.
When larger heat exchange duty
is required a number of these units
can be connected in series or
parallel to fit into the space
available.

## The pipe/shell can be made out of

carbon steel, stainless steel, CrMo alloy, C-Mo alloy, Ni alloys or

Industrial
Application
Double Pipe
Heat
Exchanger is
used
in
Petroleum
industry,
Chemical
industry,
Food
industry and
Pharmaceuti
cal industry
for
the
following
operations/pr
ocesses:
Pasteurization
Digester
Heating
Heat Recovery
Pre-heating
Effluent cooling

more compact.

The
most
widely used double pipe heat
exchanger is the hair pin. The
high stresses produced by
differential thermal expansion
between outer and inner pipes
are more easily handled.
Manifolding of a multiple hairpin
setup
is
easily
accommodated. When using
multiple hair-pin double pipe
heat exchangers all the
exchangers do not have the
same dimension.

Double
pipe
exchangers
can
either be single-tube
or multiple-tube. The
single-tube consists
of a single tube or
pipe, either finned or
bare, inside a shell.
Multiple tube double
pipe
sections
consist of 7 to 64
tubes,
bare
or
longitudinally finned
with the outer pipe
shell.

## Al and the pipe may also be made

out of any of the aforementioned
materials including Cu-Ni alloy or
Al-brass alloy, depending on the
properties of the fluids being
handled.

## It has low efficiency coupled with the

high space occupied in large
scales.

## It can be operated in a true

counterflow pattern, which is
the most efficient flow pattern.
That is, it will give the
highest overall
heat
transfer
coefficient. When operating in true
counterflow, it can operate with a
temperature cross, that is, where
the cold side outlet temperature is
higher than the hot side outlet
temperature.
It can handle high pressures (up to
100 MPa) and temperatures (up to
1,100 ) well by virtue of its

Exchanger

## relatively small diameter, allowing

the use of small flanges and thin
wall sections.

## For very low flow rate applications, it

can give good enough velocity

Exchanger

## Tube Fin Heat

Exchanger

In this type of
exchanger,
round
and
rectangular
tubes are the most
common, although
elliptical tubes are
also used. Fins are
generally used on
the outside, but they
may be used on the
inside of the tubes
in
some
applications. They

## required to get good enough heat

transfer coefficients and also

## It is used when the flow rates of the

fluids and the heat duty are small
(less than 500 kW)

## The use of fin tubes in double pipe

sections are normally economical
if the annular heat transfer
coefficient is less than 75% of the
tube side coefficient. The fin
efficiency
increases
with
decreasing annular coefficient and
increasing fin thermal conductivity.

## Tube fin heat exchangers Usually at least one of the fluids is a

can accommodate gas- gas or specific liquid that has low h
to-gas or gas-to-fluid
heat exchange
Fluids must be clean and relatively

## noncorrosive because of small

hydraulic-diameter
(DH)
flow
passages and no easy techniques

## Individually finned tubes

The fluid pumping power (i.e.,

## heat transfer rate

Operating
pressures
and
Individually finned tubes
temperatures are somewhat limited

These
exchangers
are
extensively
used
as
condensers
and
evaporators
in
airconditioning
and
refrigeration
applications,
as
condensers
in
electric

## are attached to the

tubes by a tight
mechanical (press)
fit, tension winding,
soldering, brazing,
welding,
or
extrusion.
Depending upon the
fin type, the tube-fin
exchangers
are
categorized
as follows: (1) an
individually
finned
tube exchanger or
simply a finned tube
exchanger(2)
a
tube-finexchanger
having
flat
(continuous)
fins;
the fins can be
plain,
wavy,
or
interrupted, and the
array of tubes can
have
tubes
of
circular,
oval,
rectangular, or other
shapes; and (3)
longitudinal fins on
individual tubes.
The
having

exchanger
flat

compared
to
shell-and-tube
exchangers due to joining of the
fins to plates or tubes such as
brazing and mechanical expansion

## Flat or continuous fins on

an array of tubes

## With the use of highly compact

surfaces, the resultant shape of a
gas-to-fluid exchanger is one
having a large frontal area and a
short flow length

## Tube-fin exchangers can withstand

high pressures on the tube side.
The highest temperature is again
limited by the type of bonding,
materials employed, and material
thickness.

## Tube-fin exchangers with an area

density of about 3300 m2/m3 (1000
ft2/ft3) are commercially available.

## On the fin side, the desired surface

area can be employed by using the
proper fin geometry. The typical fin
densities for flat fins vary from 250
to 800 fins/m (6-20 fins/in), fin
thicknesses vary from 0.08 to 0.25
mm (0.003-0.010 in), and fin flow
lengthsfrom 25 to 250 mm (1-10
in). A tube-fin exchanger having flat
fins with 400 fins/m (10 fins/in) has
a surface area density of about 720

power
plants, as oil
coolers
in
propulsive
power
plants, and
as air-cooled
exchangers
(also
referred
to
as a fin-fan
exchanger)
in
process.and
power industries.

(continuous) fins on
tubes has been
variously referred to
as a plate-fin and
tube,
plate-finned
tube,and tube in
plate-fin exchanger
in the literature. In
order
to
avoid
confusion with a
plate-fin exchanger
defined above, we
will refer to this type
as
a
tube-fin
exchanger
having
flat (plain, wavy, or
interrupted)
fins.
Individually finned
tubes are probably
more rugged and
practical in large
tube-fin exchangers.
Shell-and-tube
exchangers
sometimes employ
low finned tubes to
increase the surface
area
on
the
shellside when the
shellside
heat
transfer coefficient is
low compared to the
tubeside coefficient.
The exchanger with

Studded Tube

## The tube can be made out of carbon

steel, stainless steel, Cr-Mo alloy,
C-Mo alloy, Ni alloys or Al and the
fins can be made out of any of the
aforementioned
materials
in
addition to Cu-Ni alloy or Yellow
brass, depending of the properties
of the fluids being handled.

## flat fins is usually

less expensive on a
unit heat transfer
surface area basis
because
of
its
simple and massproduction-type
construction
features.
Longitudinal fins are
generally used in
condensing
applications and for
viscous
fluids in double pipe
heat exchangers.
The
unique
characteristics
of
compact extended
surface exchangers
such as tube fin
heat exchanger as
compared with the
conventional shelland-tube
exchangers, are: (1)
there are many
surfaces available
with different orders
of magnitude of
surface area
density; (2) there is

flexibility
in
distributing surface
area on the hot and
cold
sides
as
warranted by design
considerations; and
(3) there is generally
substantial
cost,
weight, or volume
savings.

## As with any process the analysis of a heat exchanger begins with an

energy and material balance. Before doing a complete energy balance a
few assumptions can be made. The first assumption is that the energy
lost to the surroundings from the cooling water or from the U-bends in
the inner pipe to the surroundings is negligible. We also assume
negligible potential or kinetic energy changes and constant physical
properties such as specific heats and density. These assumptions also
simplify the basic heat-exchanger equations.

## The determination of the overall heat-transfer coefficient is

necessary in order to determine the heat transferred from the inner
pipe to the outer pipe. This coefficient takes into account all of the
conductive and convective resistances (k and h, respectively) between
fluids separated by the inner pipe, and also takes into account thermal
resistances caused by fouling (rust, scaling, i.e.) on both sides of the
inner pipe. For a double-pipe heat exchanger the overall heat transfer
coefficient, U, can be expressed as:

R
d
R
1
1
1
1
=
+ fo +
ln( i , o )+ fi +
U A A o ho A o 2 kl
d i , i Ai A i h i

Where:

## In a heat exchanger the log-mean temperature difference is the

appropriate average temperature difference to use in heat transfer
calculations. The equation for the log-mean temperature difference is

T LM =

( T o , iT i ,o ) (T o , oT i, i)
( T o ,i T i , o )
ln

(T o ,o T i , i)

323, Eq. 11.15

Where:

## Fluid properties such as density, viscosity and heat capacity are

evaluated at the average temperatures. The average is found by using
the inlet and outlet values

T i , a=

T i , o +T i , i
2

T o ,a=

T o ,o +T o ,i
2

Where:

## Thermal conductivity, k, can be evaluated at the average of the

average temperatures. In a double-pipe heat exchanger the inner pipe
is made of a conductive metal and is thin.

## The problem can be further simplified if the equipment is assumed to

be clean, which means that no scaling exists. This is a poor
simplification with the double-pipe heat exchanger in the laboratory,
because it is many years old. The fouling factors R foand Rfican be looked
up from various sources, including Standards of the Tubular Exchange
Manufacturers
experimentally.

Association,

or

lumped

together

and

determined

## The only part of the overall heat-transfer coefficient that needs to be

determined is the convective heat-transfer coefficients. Correlations are
used to relate the Reynolds number to the heat-transfer coefficient. The
Reynolds number is a dimensionless ratio of the inertial and viscous
forces in flow.

i=

di , i m
i
i ai

Where:

## ai =Cross sectional area of inner pipe, ft2

In the inner pipe if the Reynolds is less than 2000 this is considered to
be laminar flow and the Nusselt number is equal to 4.36. If the Reynolds
number is greater than 10,000, the Nusselt number is given by

347, Eq. 12.32

Where:

328, Eq. 11.22

Where:

## The convective heat transfer coefficient in the annulus is more difficult

to determine. The hydraulic diameter is used to find the Reynolds
number. The hydraulic diameter is defined as the cross-sectional area
perpendicular to flow divided by the wetted perimeter. With the
Reynolds number calculated the same correlations apply and with these
ho can be determined. Once all the separate heat-transfer coefficients
are calculated an overall heat transfer coefficient is calculated. Now
everything that was necessary for an energy balance is available. With
the previous assumptions made earlier the dynamic equations would be

Where:

Design Problem

## Data and Assumptions

1. Benzene(hot stream)

To,i= 75C

To,o=50C

## Specific heat capacity =1.88

kJ/kg C
Viscosity=0.37cP

o
o
o

ID = 41 mm
OD = 48 mm
Thermal conductivity =
0.154 W/m-K

## Thermal conductivity = 0.623

W/m K.

2.Water(cold stream)

## Inner tube Specifications:

o
o

Ti,i= 30C
Ti,o=40C
Specific heat capacity = 4.186

Viscosity=0.8cP

Wall thickness=2.2mm
o

kJ/kg C

ID =21mm
OD =25.4mm

Thermal conductivity of
wall= 74.5 W/m K

## 3. The heat exchanger operates under steady stateconditions.

4. No phase change occurs; both fluids are single phase and are unmixed.

section.

## 8. The fouling resistance is negligible.

Design Considerations

## 1. Counter current flow is selected because it reduces the required surface

area.

2. Water will be taken in the tube side to cause lesser damageto the heat
exchanger since it causes a lot of fouling and corrosion.

Design Requirements

## 4. Heat Transfer Area (Tube Side)

5. Tube Length

6. Pressure Drop

Design Calculations

## For counter-current flow:

T LM =

( T o , iT i ,o ) (T o , oT i, i)
( T o ,i T i , o )
ln

(T o ,o T i , i)

( 7540 )(5030)
( 7540 )
ln
(5030)

= 26.80

m
C p dT
Q=

2. Heat Duty

Q benzene=Qwater

= 47,000 kJ/h

=1122.79 kg/h

## velocity = volumetric flow rate / flow area

= (0.0003119 m3/s)/ (0.021 m)2/4

= 0.9 m/s

Reynolds number, Re = Dv /

## = (0.021m)(0.9 m/s)(1000 kg/m3)/(8 x 10-4kg/m-s)

=23,625

Prandtl number, Pr = Cp /k

= 5.38

## Using Dittus-Boelter equation:

Nu = hiDi/k = 0.023(Re)0.8(Pr)0.3

## = (0.023)(23,625)0.8 (5.38)0.3 =120.13

Thus, hi = Nu(k/Di)

= 120.13(0.623 W/mC)/(0.021 m)

= 3563.86 W/m2-C

Flow area =

IDo2
OD i2

4
4

## 0.041 m)2 (0.0254 m)2]

= 0.00081355 m2

Wetted Perimeter =

( ID o +ODi )

( 0.041 m+0.0254 m )

= 0.2086 m

## Hydraulic Diameter (DH) = 4(Flow area/Wetted Perimeter)

= 4(0.00081355 m2/0.2086 m)

= 0.0156 m

= 0.397 m/s

## = (0.0156 m)(0.397 m/s)(860 m/s)/(0.00037 kg/m-s)

= 14395.01

Prandtl number,Pr = Cp /k

= 4.52

## Using Dittus-Boelter equation:

Nu = hoDH/k = 0.023(Re)0.8(Pr)0.4

=(0.023)(14395.01)0.8(4.52)0.4 = 89.2

ho= Nu(k/DH)

= 89.2(0.154 W/m-oC/0.0156 m)

880.54 W/m2oC

## inside area of tube = Ai = IDL =

(0.0254)(L)
(0.021)(L)

Am=(A0 - Ai)/ln(OD/ID)

= 0.023( L)

A0/Am = 1.098
A0/Ai = 1.21

1
1 A r r A 1
= + o o i+ o
U o ho Am k w
A i hi

1
0.0022
1.21
+1.098
+
880.54
74.5 3563.86

= 663.30 W/m2-oC

Q = UoAoTLM

Ao = Q/UoTLM

= 0.73 m2

Use: 0.75 m2

5. Tube Length

Ao =

L=

A o / OD

ODL

= 9.40 m

Design
Function

H
a
i
r
p
i

## It is the union of two legs;

hairpin construction is
preferred because it requires
less space

## To heat the water at

30 degrees Celsius to
40 degrees Celsius
using a benzene
heating liquid at 75
degrees Celsius

View

## The packing and gland provides

sealing to the annulus and support the
&
inner pipe.

P
a
c
k
i
n
g

g
l
a
n
d
R
e
t
u
r
n
b
e
n
d
S
u
p
p
o
r
t
l
u
g
s
F
l
a
n
g
e

## The opposite ends are joined

by a U-bend through welded
joints.

## Support lugs may be fitted at

these ends to hold the inner
pipe position.

## The outer pipes are joined by

flanges at the return ends in
order that the assembly may
be opened or dismantled for
cleaning and maintenance.

U
n
i
o
n
j
o
i
n
t
N
o
z
z
l
e
s
G
a
s
k
e
t
s

with U-bend.

## Small sections of pipes

welded to the shell or to the
channel which acts as the
inlet or outlet of the fluids are
called nozzles.

## Gaskets are placed between

the two flanges to make the
joint leak-free.

Design Dimensions

1. Process Fluid
Flowrate

2. Heating Fluid
Flowrate

3. Heat Duty

## 4. Heat Surface Area

11
22
.7
9
kg
/h
10
00
kg
/h
47
,0
00
kJ/
h
0.75

Inside
Diameter

Outside
Diameter

m2

5. Inside
Diameter

6. Outside Diameter

7. Length

8. BWG
Schedule

21
m
m
25
.4
m
m
9.
4
m
1
B
W
G
16

Ma

41mm

48
mm

Ma

Acc

Inlet
Temperat
ure
Outlet
Temperat
ure

Tube Dimensions

Pipe Dimensions

30 oC

40 oC

Inlet
Temperat
ure

75oC

Outlet
Temperat
ure

50 oC

## SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

Introduction

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (STHE) is the most commonly used
type of heat exchanger in the chemical and allied industries. Its flexibility
in design allows its operation for a wide range of pressures and
temperatures.

## Basically, a STHE is made up of a number of tubes mounted inside a

cylindrical shell. In here, two fluids exchange heat; a fluid flows over the
outside of the tubes while the other fluid flows inside the tubes.

Function

## STHE allows two process streams or process fluids to exchange heat

wherein a fluid flows outside the tubes (shell-side) and another fluid flows
inside the tubes (tube-side). Due to its versatility, STHE can function as
follows:

## Chiller Cools a liquid to a temperature below that obtainable if water

only were used as a coolant. It may also use refrigerants such as ammonia
and Freon.

## Vaporizer A heater which vaporizes a part of the liquid

Type of Material

STHE can handle a broad range of process fluids due to its versatility
on its construction. It can handle process fluids at a wide range of
temperature and pressure; fluids that are corrosive, viscous, toxic and
lethal fluids.

Design Consideration/Limitation

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

44

## According to Sinnott, the advantages of this type include: (a) the

configuration gives a large surface area in a small volume; (b) good
mechanical layout: a good shape for pressure operation; (c) uses wellestablished fabrication techniques; (d) can be constructed from a wide
range of materials; (e) easily cleaned; and (d) well-established design
procedures.

## The disadvantages of using STHE according to include: (a) it requires

large site (footprint) area for installation and often need extra space to
remove the bundle; (b) heavy construction; and (c) the use of a Plate Heat
Exchanger is more appropriate for pressure below 16 bar (230 psi) and
temperature below 200C (392F).

## Construction Details and Standards

Design Standards

Tubular

Exchanger

Manufacturers

Association

(TEMA)

standards are followed in most countries of the world for the design of shell
and tube heat exchangers. TEMA published a widely accepted standard of
designing a STHE. This standard is intended to supplement the American
Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) as well as other boiler and
pressure vessel codes. The TEMA standards are applicable to unfired shell
and tube heat exchangers with inside diameters not exceeding 60 in. (1524
mm). Each section is identified by an uppercase letter symbol, which
precedes the paragraph numbers of the section and identifies the subject
matter.

## Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 660 is the national adoption of ISO

16812:2002 Petroleum and natural gas industriesShell and tube heat
exchangers. This International Standard specifies requirements and gives
recommendations for the mechanical design, material selection, fabrication,
inspection, testing, and preparation for the shipment of shell and tube heat
exchangers for the petroleum and natural gas industries.

## To give a better view on the types of STHEs and its construction

details, it is better to familiarize ourselves with its parts. The STHE is mainly
Heat Transfer Equipment
Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

45

divided into four major parts: front header, shell, tube bundle, and rear
Front header this is where the fluid enters the tube-side of the
exchanger.
Shell this contains the tube bundle
Tube Bundle this is made up of the tubes, tube sheets, baffles,
tie rods, etc. It holds the bundle together.
Rear Header this is where the tube-side fluid leaves the
exchanger; or in the case of a multiple tube-side passes, this is
where it is returned to the front header.

given below:

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

46

1. Shell

2. Shell cover

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

47

## 3. Shell flange (channel

end)
4. Shell flange (cover end)
5. Shell nozzle or branch
6. Floating tube sheet
7. Floating head cover
8. Floating head flange
9. Floating head gland
10. Floating head backing
ring
11. Stationary tube sheet
12. Channel or stationary
13. Channel cover
14. Channel nozzle or
branch
15. Tube (straight)

## 18. Transverse (or cross)

baffles or support plates
19. Longitudinal baffles
20. Impingement baffles
21. Floating head support
22. Pass partition
23. Vent connection
24. Drain connection
25. Instrument connection

## 28. Lifting lugs

29. Weir

30.
Liquid
connection

level

Types

TEMA provides a
summarized in the table below:

standard

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

designation

system

that

48

is

## With the TEMA standard designation system, three major

combinations are made: fixed-tubesheet STHE, U-tube STHE, and

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

49

## In a fixed tubesheet STHE, the tubesheet is welded to the

shell. This results in a simple and economical construction and the tube
bores can be cleaned mechanically or chemically. However, the outside
surfaces of the tubes are inaccessible except to chemical cleaning.

## If large temperature differences exist between the shell

and tube materials, it may be necessary to incorporate an expansion
bellows in the shell, to eliminate excessive stresses caused by
expansion. Such bellows are often a source of weakness and failure in
operation. In circumstances where the consequences of failure are
particularly grave U-Tube or Floating Header units are normally used.

## This is the cheapest of all removable bundle designs, but

is generally slightly more expensive than a fixed-tube design at low
pressures.

U-Bend STHE

## In a U-Bend STHE any of the front header types may be

used and the rear header is normally an M-Type. The U-tubes permit
unlimited thermal expansion, the tube bundle can be removed for
cleaning and small bundle to shell clearances can be achieved.
However, since internal cleaning of the tubes by mechanical means is
difficult, it is normal only to use this type where the tube side fluids are
clean.

## In this type of exchanger the tubesheet at the Rear

Header end is not welded to the shell but allowed to move or float. The
tubesheet at the Front Header (tube side fluid inlet end) is of a larger
diameter than the shell and is sealed in a similar manner to that used
in the fixed tubesheet design. The tubesheet at the rear header end of
the shell is of slightly smaller diameter than the shell, allowing the
bundle to be pulled through the shell. The use of a floating head means
that thermal expansion can be allowed for and the tube bundle can be
removed for cleaning. There are several rear header types that can be
used but the S-Type Rear Head is the most popular. A floating head
exchanger is suitable for the rigorous duties associated with high
temperatures and pressures but is more expensive (typically of order
of 25% for carbon steel construction) than the equivalent fixed
tubesheet exchanger.

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

50

STH
E
Typ
e
Fix
edTub
esh
eet

## Table 2. Features of the Three Major Configuration of STHE

Typic
al
TEMA
Code
BEM,
AEM,
NEN

Utub
e

BEU,
AEU

Provides
maximum
heat
transfer area for
a given shell and
tube diameter;

Outer part
of
tubes
are
inaccessible for
mechanical
cleaning;

Provides
for
single
and
multiple
tube
asses to assure
proper velocity;

## Less costly than

removable
bundle designs

Allows
differential
thermal
expansion
between
the
shell and tube
bundle as well as
for
individual
tubes;
Both the tube
bundle and the
shell side can be
inspected
and
cleaned
mechanically;

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

No provision to
allow
for
differential
thermal
expansion
developed
between
the
tube
and
the
shell side. This
can
be
taken
care by providing
expansion
joint
on the shell side.
Some tubes are
omitted at the
center
of
the
tube bundle;
Tubes can be
only cleaned by
chemical
methods;
Individual tube is
difficult
to
replace;
No single
pass
or

51

tube
true

## Less costly than

floating
designs.

countercurrent
flow is possible;

Flo
atin
g
Hea
d

AEW,
BEW,
BEP,
AEP,
AES,
BES

Allows
differential
thermal
expansion
between
shell and
bundle;

for

the
tube

bundle and the
shell
can
be
inspected
and
cleaned
mechanically.

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

Tube
wall
thickness at the
U-bend is thinner
than at straight
portion of the
tubes;
Draining of tube
circuit is difficult
when positioned
with the vertical
position with the
side
upward.
To provide the
floating
cover,
it
is
necessary to bolt
it
to
the
tubesheet.
The
bolt
circle
requires the use
of space where it
would
be
possible to place
a large number
of tubes;
Tubes
cannot
expand
independently so
that
huge
thermal
shock
applications
should
be
avoided;
Packing
materials
produce limits on
design pressure
and temperature

52

Materials of Construction

## pressure parts must have the appropriate specification as given in Indian

Standards (IS): 4503 Appendix C. The materials of construction should be
compatible with process fluids and others parts of materials and also should
be cost effective. The maximum permitted operating fluid temperatures
should not exceeds for the various pressure-retaining components as
specified by IS:4503 given in Table 3. High chrome-Mo-Ni alloys (Cr content
12-27%) can be used for high temperature services up to 2100C. Use of any
carbon or low alloy steel is not recommended for the construction of heat
exchangers for the service below 0C.

## Table 3. Materials of constructions.

Materials

of

construction

Allowable

fluid

temperature, C (F)

Carbon steel

540 (1004)

C-Mo steel

590 (1094)

Cr-Mo steel

650 (1202)

590 (1094)

590 (1094)

650 (1202)

(< 6 % Cr)

Alloy

steel

(<17 % Cr)

Austenitic

Cr-

Ni steel

Cast iron

200 (392)

Brass

200 (392)

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

53

Tubes
Tubes of circular cross section are exclusively used in STHE.

Since the desired heat transfer in the exchanger takes place across the tube
surface, the selection of tube geometric variables is important from the
performance point of view. Important tube geometrical variables include
tube size and tube arrangement. Also, tubes must be able to withstand
the following: (1) operating temperature and pressure on both sides; (2)
thermal stresses due to the differential thermal expansion between the shell
and the tube bundle; and (3) corrosive nature of both the shellside and
tubeside fluids.

Tube Size
Tube size is specified by its outside diameter and wall thickness.

In line with the principles of heat transfer, the smaller diameter tubes
yield higher heat transfer coefficients and result in a more compact
exchanger and cheaper exchanger. The smaller diameters that are
preferably used in most duties are from 5/8 to 1 in. (16 25 mm). However,
larger tubes are easier to clean, more rugged, and they are used
when the allowable pressure drop in the tubeside is small.

## The common tube diameters and gages for tubes of copper,

steel and alloy set by TEMA is given in Table 4. The sizes presented in Table 4
gives the best performance and are most economical in most applications.
The most used sizes are the 3/8-in. and 4/3-in. For clean fluids, use -in. If
the tubes are subjected to mechanical cleaning, use -in. When fouling is
expected, use 1-in. Falling film exchangers and vaporizers generally use 1.5in. and 2-in. tubes.

## Table 4. Tube Diameters and Gages

Source: TEMA, 9th edition, page 5.2-1

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

54

The

tube

wall

thickness

is

generally

identified

by

the

Birmingham wire gauge (BWG). The BWG and its corresponding tube wall
thickness is given in Table 5. Tube wall thickness must be checked against the

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

55

## internal and external pressures separately, or maximum differential pressure

across the wall. However, in many cases, the pressure is not a governing
factor in determining the wall thickness. For the cases when pressure
governs, the wall thickness is selected on the following basis: (a) providing an
adequate margin against corrosion; (b) fretting and wear due to flow-induced
vibration, (c) axial strength, particularly in fixed exchangers; (d) standardized
dimensions; and (e) cost.

## Table 5. Birmingham Wire Gage Table

Source: engineeringtoolbox.com

Bir
min
gha
m
Wir
e
Ga
ge
BW
G

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

(in
ch
es
)

(
m
m
)

0.
10
9

2.
76
9

0.
09
5

2.
41
3

0.
08
3

2.
10
8

0.
07
2

1.
82
9

0.
06
5

1.
65
1

0.
05
8

1.
47
3

0.
04
9

1.
24
5

0.

1.

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

56

04
2

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

06
7

0.
03
5

0.
88
9

0.
03
2

0.
81
3

0.
02
8

0.
71
1

0.
02
5

0.
63
5

0.
02
2

0.
55
9

0.
02
0

0.
50
8

0.
01
8

0.
01
6

## For a given surface area, the most economical exchanger is

possible with a small shell diameter and long tubes, consistent with the
space. However, for offshore applications, long exchangers, especially with
removable bundles are very difficult to maintain and install because of their
space limitations. The preferred lengths of tubes for heat exchangers are 6 ft
(1.83 m), 8 ft (2.44 m), 12 ft (3.66 m), 16 ft (4.88 m), 20 ft (6.10 m), and 24 ft
(7.32 m). The optimum tube length to shell diameter ratio will usually fall
within the range of 5 to 10.

Tube Arrangements

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

57

## tubes in an exchanger are usually arranged in triangular, rotated triangular,

square, or rotated square pattern. The triangular and rotated square patterns
give higher heat-transfer rates, but at the expense of a higher pressure drop
than the square pattern. A square, or rotated square arrangement, is used for
heavily fouling fluids, where it is necessary to mechanically clean the outside
of the tubes.

## Tube layout pattern are designed so as to include as many tubes

as possible within the shell to achieve maximum heat transfer area. Another
factor of selecting a tube layout pattern is the cleaning requirement.

## arrangement, better shellside heat transfer coefficients, stronger tubesheets,

and are commonly used for clean services. Square and rotated square
layouts are commonly used when mechanical cleaning is necessary on the
shellside. They offer lower pressure drops

Tube Pitch
The recommended tube pitch (distance between tube centers) is

1.25 times the tube outside diameter; this will normally be used unless
process requirements dictate otherwise. Where a square pattern is used for

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

58

## ease of cleaning, the recommended minimum clearance between the tubes is

0.25 in. (6.4 mm).

## Figure 6. Tube Pitch.

Tube-Side Passes
The fluid in the tube is usually directed to flow back and forth in

## a number of passes through groups of tubes arranged in parallel, to

increase the length of the flow path. The number of passes is selected to give
the required tube-side design velocity. Exchangers are built with from one to
up to about sixteen tube passes. The tubes are arranged into the number of
passes required by dividing up the exchanger headers (channels) with
partition plates (pass partitions).

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

59

## Figure 7. Sample of tubeside passes layout.

Shells
The TEMA standards cover exchangers up to 60 in. (1520 mm)

diameter. Up to about 24 in. (610 mm), shells are normally constructed from
standard, close tolerance pipe; above 24 in. (610 mm) they are rolled from
plate. For high-pressure applications the shell thickness would be sized
according to the pressure vessel design standards. The minimum allowable
shell thickness is given in the TEMA standards, found in Table 6.

## Table 6. Minimum Shell Thickness

Source: Chemical Engineering Design, p. 647

## Tube-Sheet Layout (Tube Count)

The bundle diameter depends not only on the number of tubes

but also on the number of tube passes, as spaces must be left in the pattern
of tubes on the tube sheet to accommodate the pass partition plates.

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

60

## The letters E, F, G, H, J of the TEMA standards are those used to

designate the various types. The E shell is the most commonly used
arrangement. Two shell passes (F shell) are occasionally used where the shelland tube-side temperature differences are unsuitable for a single pass;
however, it is difficult to obtain a satisfactory seal with a shell-side baffle and
the same flow arrangement can be achieved by using two shells in series.
The divided flow and split-flow arrangements (G and J shells) are used to
reduce the shell-side pressure drop where pressure drop, rather than heat
transfer, is the controlling factor in the design.

Others

Baffles

Baffles are used in the shell to direct the fluid stream across the

tubes, to increase the fluid velocity and to improve the rate of heat transfer.
There are three types of baffle: single segmental, double segmental and
doughnut or disc baffle. The most commonly used type of baffle is the single
segmental baffle.

## Figure 8. Types of baffles: (a) Single segmental; (b) Double

segmental; and (c) Doughnut or disc

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

61

## The term baffle cut is used to specify the dimensions of a

segmental baffle. The baffle cut is the height of the segment removed to form
the baffle, expressed as a percentage of the baffle disc diameter. Baffle cuts
from 15% to 45% are used. Generally, a baffle cut of 20% to 25% will be the
optimum, giving good heat-transfer rates, without excessive pressure drop.
There will be some leakage of fluid around the baffle as a clearance must be
allowed for assembly.

The baffle spacings used range from 0.2 to 1.0 shell diameters.

A close baffle spacing will give higher heat-transfer coefficients, but at the
expense of higher pressure drop. The optimum spacing will usually be
between 0.3 to 0.5 times the shell diameter.

Design Calculations

## Shell and tube heat exchanger is designed by trial and error

calculations. The main steps of design following the Kern method are
summarized as follows:

Step

#1. Obtain

the

required

thermophysical

properties

(viscosity,

## density, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, specific gravity) of

hot and cold fluids at the arithmetic mean temperature.

1
Arithmetic Mean Temperature= (T 2T 1)
2

Step #2. Calculate heat duty (Q) of the exchanger assuming that there is
no heat loss to the surrounding.

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

62

## Step #3. Assume a reasonable value of overall heat transfer coefficient

Uest. The value of Uest with respect to the process hot and cold fluids can be
obtained from table 7.

## Table 7. Typical Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficients in Tubular Heat

Exchangers
Source: Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook, 7 th edition, p. 11-25

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

63

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

64

## Step #4 . Decide tentative number of shell and tube passes (np).

Determine the log mean temperature difference (LMTD) and the correction
factor FT. FT normally should be greater than 0.75 for the steady operation
of the exchangers. Otherwise it is required to increase the number of
passes to obtain higher FT values.

LMTD=

ln (

T hi T co
)
t hot ci

## Step #5. Calculate the heat transfer area required:

A=

Q
U est x LMTD x FT

Step #6. Select tube material, decide the tubes inside (d i) and outside
(do) diameter, its wall thickness (t) and tube length (L). Calculate the
number of tubes (nt) required to provide the taken heat transfer area
calculated:

nt =

A
d o L

## Calculate tube side fluid velocity (u),

np
)
nt
u=
d 2i
4 m(

where m, and are mass flow rate, density and viscosity of tube side
fluid.

If u <1 m/s, fix np so that the Reynolds number, Re, be greater than or
equal to 104. ,

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

65

np
)
nt
=
d i
4 m(

However, this is subject to allowable pressure drop in the tube side of the
heat exchanger.

Step #7. Decide type of shell and tube exchanger (fixed tubesheet, Utube, floating head). Select the tube pitch (PT), determine inside shell
diameter (Ds) that can accommodate the calculated number of tubes (nt).
Use the standard tube counts table given in table 8.

## Table 8.A Shell Tube Count Data for Square Pitch

Source: Process Heat Transfer by Kern, p.841

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

66

## Table 8.B. Shell Tube Count Data for Triangular Pitch

Source: Process Heat Transfer by Kern, p.842

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

67

Step #9 . Assign fluid to shell side or tube side. Select the type of baffle
(segmental, doughnut etc.), its size (i.e. percentage cut, 25% baffles are
widely used), spacing (B) and number. The baffle spacing is usually chosen
to be within 0.2Ds to Ds.

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

68

Step #10 . Determine the tube side film heat transfer coefficient (hi) using
the suitable form of Sieder-Tate equation in laminar and turbulent flow
regimes.

## Estimate the shell-side film heat transfer coefficient (h0) from:

Select the outside tube (shell side) dirt factor (Rdo) and inside tube
(tube side) dirt factor (Rdi) in Table 9.

## Table 9. Fouling Factors

Source: Process Heat Transfer by Kern, p.845

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

69

## Calculate overall heat transfer coefficient (Uo,cal ) based on the outside

tube area (you may neglect the tube-wall resistance) including dirt factors:

Step #11 . If

## , go the next step # 12 . Otherwise go

to step #5, calculate heat transfer area ( A ) required using Uo,cal and
repeat the calculations starting from step #5 .

If the calculated shell side heat transfer coefficient (ho) is too low, assume
closer baffle spacing (B) close to 0.2 Ds and recalculate shell side heat
transfer coefficient. However, this is subject to allowable pressure drop
across the heat exchanger

## Step #12 . Calculate % overdesign. Overdesign represents extra surface

area provided beyond that required to compensate for fouling. Typical
value of 10% or less is acceptable.

## A= design area of heat transfer in the exchanger; Areqd = required heat

transfer area.

Step #13 . Calculate the tube-side pressure drop (PT ): (i) pressure drop
in the straight section of the tube (frictional loss) (Pt) and (ii) return loss
(Prt) due to change of direction of fluid in a multi-pass exchanger'.

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

70

Step #14 . Calculate shell side pressure drop (PS): (i) pressure drop for
flow across the tube bundle (frictional loss) (Ps) and (ii) return loss (Prs)
due to change of direction of fluid.

Total

shell

side

pressure

## drop: PS = Ps+ Prs

(1.9)

If the tube-side pressure drop exceeds the allowable pressure drop for the
process system, decrease the number of tube passes or increase number
of tubes per pass. Go back to step #6 and repeat the calculations steps.

## If the shell-side pressure drop exceeds the allowable pressure drop, go

back to step #7 and repeat the calculations steps.

Sample Problem

## 150000 lb per hour of kerosene will be heated from 75 to 120F by

cooling a gasoline stream from 160 to 120F. Inlet pressure will be 50 psia
for each stream and the maximum pressure drop of 7 psi for gasoline and
10 psi for kerosene are permissible. Published fouling factors for oil refinery
streams should be used for this application. Design a shell and tube heat
exchanger for this service. The thermophysical properties of the two fluids
at their arithmetic mean temperature is given below:

Viscosity, lb/ft-hr
Density, lb/ft3
Thermal
Conductivity,
Btu/hr-ft-deg-F
Specific Heat Capacity,
Btu/lb-ft
Specific Gravity

Keros
ene
3.872
49.8

0.083

0.48

0.80

Gasol
ine
0.2
42.7

0.075
0.57
0.685

Given data :

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

71

Hot

fluid

inlet

Hot

fluid

outlet

Cold

fluid

## Fouling factor of cold fluid

(Rdk) = 0.001 (for kerosene)

inlet

Cold

fluid

outlet

## (Subscripts k' for kerosene and g ' for gasoline)

) = 150000 lb.h-1

=3240000 Btu/h

## 150000 0.48 (120-75) = mg 0.57 (160-120)

mg = 142105 lb h-1

## Calculation of heat transfer area and tube numbers

Iteration #1:

The first iteration is started assuming 1 shell pass and 2 tube passes shell
and tube exchanger with following dimensions and considerations.

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

72

## Tube length ( Lt)=16'

Tube ID ( di ) = 0.834''

## Fluid arrangement: Kerosene is placed in tube side because it has the

higher fouling tendency

The log mean temperature correction factor (FT) for 1-2 shell and tube
exchanger :

where,

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

73

= 42.75F

## The value of overall heat transfer coefficient ( Uo,assm ) of 60 Btu h-1 ft

1

-1

is assumed to initiate the design calculation for the kerosene and gasoline

heat exchanger.

= 1586.36 ft

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

74

= 502

## nt = 518 is taken corresponding to the closest standard shell ID OF 35" for

fixed tube sheet, 1-shell and 2-tube passes exchanger with 1" tube OD on
1" square pitch. You may refer to standard heat transfer books ( [3]
page 841-842 ) for the selection of suitable shell ID.

As Re<<10

= 2740.2<10

## returned to meet the Reynolds number criteria subject to allowable

pressure drop in the tube side of the heat exchanger.

Iteration #2:

Assumptions:

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

75

Tube ID=0.834

No. of tubes:

nt = 335

## nt = 368 is taken corresponding to the closest standard shell ID of 31 for

fixed tube sheet, 1-shell and 6-tube pass exchanger with 1 tube OD on
1 square pitch.

Fluid velocity:

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

76

## = 12945.15 ft/h (3.59 ft/s)

= 1.04 m/s (so the design velocity is within the acceptable range)

Assumptions:

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

77

(for square

pitch)

=0.082ft

## Shell side cross flow area,

C = Tube clearance

C = PT - d0

C = 1 -1=0.25

= 0.675 ft

Mass velocity,

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

-2

78

=35668

## Now for the shellside,

(1.5)

jH =110 for the shell side fluid at Re=35668 with 25% cut segmental baffles
( [3] page 838 )

ho = 155.3 Btu h

-1

ft

-2

-1

Fouling

## factor, Rdk =0.001 h ft2 F Btu

0.0005 h ft 2 F Btu

-1

-1

for

kerosene

and Rdg =

(1.6)

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

79

Let

select,

brass
-1

as

tube

material

with

thermal

ft-1 F-1 .

-1

ft

-2

F-1

Now,

## Therefore, the calculated overall heat transfer co-efficient is well

within the design criteria.

## Tube side pressure drop:

Friction factor f = 0.00028 x 144 for Re = 0.04032 ft2 /ft2 for Re=11571.4

= 0.232 ft

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

80

## Frictional pressure drop:

= 5.81 psi

Return loss Prt : (due to change in flow direction of the tube side fluid)

= 0.73 psi

=5.81+0.73

## =6.54 psi<10 psi

Therefore the tube side pressure drop is within the maximum allowable
pressure drop of 10 psi.

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

81

Spacing, B =15.5

as = 0.444 ft2

## Mass velocity, GS = 210526 lb. h-1.ft-2

Re = 35668

No of baffles,

Friction factor, f = 0.0017 X 144= 0.2448 ft2 / ft2 with 25% cut segmental
baffles ( [3] page 839 )

= 1.4 psi

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

82

Therefore the shell side pressure drop is within the maximum allowable
pressure drop of 7 psi.

Over surface =

## Uc = 66.98 Btu hr -1 ft-2 F-1

% Over surface =

=20% (acceptable)
Over design:

24368=2312 ft2

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

83

24335=2105 ft2

## % Overdesign=9.8% which is within the acceptable limit.

Equipme
nt

Shelland-Tube
Heat
Exchang
er

Function

Allows two
fluids
to
exchange
heat;
a
fluid flows
over the
outside of
the tubes
while the
other fluid
flows
inside the
tubes.

Can
function
as: chiller,
condenser
,
partial
condenser
,
final
condenser
,
cooler,
exchanger
, heater,
reboiler,
thermosip
hon
reboiler,
forcedcirculation
reboiler,

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

Type of
Material

Consideration/L
imitation

It
can
handle
process
fluids at a
wide
range of
temperatu
re
and
pressure;
fluids that
are
corrosive,
viscous,
toxic and
lethal
fluids.

Construction
Details
and
Standards
or
TEMA
standards

Selection
of
Flow Path
Tubeside fluids
that
are
corrosive, dirtier,
at high pressure
Shellside fluids
that are more
viscous or gases

84

steam
generator

## Heat Transfer Equipment

Baluyot, B., Sablan, A.A., Sangalang, K.P., Sarsoza, A.

85

## A regenerator consists of a matrix through which the hot stream

and cold stream flow periodically and alternatively. First the hot fluid
gives up its heat to the regenerator. Then the cold fluid flows through the
same passage, picking up the stored heat. The passing of hot fluid stream
through a matrix is called the hot blow and the cold flow is called the cold
blow. Thus, by regular reversals, the matrix is alternatively exposed to the
hot and cold gas streams, and the temperature of the packing, and the
gas, at each position fluctuates with time. Under steady-state operating
conditions, a number of cycles after the start-up of the regenerator, a
condition of cyclic equilibrium is reached where the variations of
temperature with time are the same during successive cycles and the
period of hot blow and the cold blow should ensure sufficient time to
absorb and release heat. From this, the regenerators can be distinguished
from recuperators. In the case of recuperators, heat is transferred between
two fluid streams across some fixed boundary, and conditions at any point
depend, during steady-state operation, only on the position of that point,
whereas in the case of regenerators, the heat transport is transient and
conditions depend on both position and time.

Function

## Regenerators are commonly used to recover waste heat. Substantial

gains in fuel efficiency can be achieved by recovering the heat contained in
the flue gas by the following four means [4]:

## 1. Reheating process feedstock.

2. Waste heat boiler and feed water heating for generating steam (lowtemperature recovery system).
3. Preheating the combustion air (high-temperature recovery system).
4. Space heatingRotary heat exchanger (wheel) is mainly used in building
ventilation or in the air supply/discharge system of conditioning equipment.
The wheel transfers the energy (cold or heat) contained in exhaust air to the

fresh air supply to indoor. It is one important equipment and key technology
in the field of construction energy saving.

Design Consideration/Limitation

1.
2.
3.
4.

## Can use compact heat transfer materials

Can use less expensive heat transfer surfaces
Are self-cleaning because of periodic flow reversals
Can use simpler header designs

## In contrast, there are several major disadvantages of the periodic flow

regenerators. They are as follows:

## 1. Seals suitable for pressure differentials of 47 bar represent a major problem;

the necessity of provision of seals between the hot fluids due to high-pressure
differential, and the leakage problem enhanced due to the thermal expansion
and contraction of the matrix.
2. Many more changes of flow direction are required as compared to the
recuperators, resulting in flow losses and requiring expensive ducting.
3. Restrictions in pressure drop make necessary a large flow area with the usual
matrix surface. As a consequence, the advantage of small matrix volume is
somewhat nullified by the requirement of bulky approach ducting.
4. Carryover and leakage losses, especially for the high-pressure compressed air
that has absorbed the compressor work.
5. Always some amount of mixing of the two fluids due to carryover and bypass
leakages. Where this leakage and subsequent fluid contamination is not
permissible (e.g., cryogenic systems), the regenerator is not used.
6. The high thermal effectiveness, approaching unity, provided

by the

## regenerator demands a heat capacity of the matrix considerably larger than

that of the working fluid. This requirement restricts the use of regenerators to
gases only.
7. The rotary designs require a drive and support system.

## FLUIDIZED BED HEAT EXCHANGER

Introduction:
Heat transfer in the fluidized bed is, apart from the particle and gas

mixing, the most important process contributing to the intensity of the physical and
chemical processes. In fact, several different processes can be distinguished:
particle-gas heat transfer, heat transfer between different points in the bed, heat
transfer between the fluidized bed particles and the larger particles floating in the
bed and the heat transfer to the submerged surfaces in contact with the bed. All of
these heat transfer processes are very intensive in fluidized beds.

## In the case of uniform fluidization, the temperature difference between

points in the bed does not exceed 2-5C, with mean bed temperatures of several
hundred, even 1000C. Gas temperature, when leaving the bed, is practically the
same as the particle temperature. These facts tell us of the great capability of the
solid particles to exchange heat with the fluidizing gas. Intensive heat transfer is,
first of all, a consequence of the large specific heat transfer surface (3000 to 45000
m2/m3), although heat transfer coefficients to the particles in the bed are relatively
small, 6-25 W/m2C. The large heat capacity of the solid particles also makes the
temperature difference between gas and particles small. Gas temperature follows
the particle temperature.

## solids. It is an indirect heat-transfer version. An application disadvantage is the

need for batch operation unless some short circuiting can be tolerated. Solidscooling applications are few, as they can be more effectively accomplished by the
fluidizing gas via the contactive mechanism. Heating applications are many and
varied. These are subject to one shortcoming, which is the dissipation of the heat
input by carry-off in the fluidizing gas. Heat-transfer performance for the indirect
mode to solids has been outstanding, with overall coefficients in the range of 570 to
850 W/(m2C) [100 to 150 Btu/(hft2F)]. This device with its thin film does for
solids what the falling-film and other thin-film techniques do for fluids, as shown by
Holt (Pap. 11, 4th National Heat-Transfer Conference, August 1960). In a design

## innovation with high heat-transfer capability, heat is supplied indirectly to the

fluidized solids through the walls of in-bed, horizontally placed, finned tubes.

Fluidized beds are used as a technical process which has the ability to

promote high levels of contact between gases and solids. In a fluidized bed a
characteristic set of basic properties can be utilised, indispensable to modern
process and chemical engineering, these properties include:

Extremely high surface area contact between fluid and solid per unit bed

volume
High relative velocities between the fluid and the dispersed solid phase.
High levels of intermixing of the particulate phase.
Frequent particle-particle and particle-wall collisions.

## The main difference between the heat transfer in a conventional and a

fluidized bed heat exchanger is in the particle convection. Gas convection and
radiation also form a significant part of the total heat transfer.

Function/Working Principle:

## The operating principle of a FBHE is relatively simple: hot solids are

brought into a chamber, in which they are fluidised with air or re-circulated flue gas
as a slowly bubbling fluidised bed. Heat exchanger elements, often in the form of
tube coils, are located inside this fluidised bed, see Figure C1.

## Figure C1. Principle for Fluidized Bed Heat Exchanger

The hot particles colliding with the heat transfer surfaces effectively

release their thermal energy, thus increasing significantly the external heat transfer
coefficient. At the same time, the continuous collisions slightly erode the surface,
thus preventing deposition of harmful ashes. The benefits of such heat exchanger
are clear:

more efficient heat transfer than in the gas channel => smaller heat transfer

area is required
possibility to control the heat transfer, both by the bed temperature in the

## chamber and the fluidisation velocity

the atmosphere contains much less harmful substances than the gas-phase
in the flue gas channel.

## In a fluidized-bed heat exchanger, one side of a two-fluid exchanger is

immersed in a bed of finely divided solid material, such as a tube bundle immersed
in a bed of sand or coal particles. If the upward fluid velocity on the bed side is low,
the solid particles will remain fixed in position in the bed and the fluid will flow
through the interstices of the bed. If the upward fluid velocity is high, the solid
particles will be carried away with the fluid. At a proper value of the fluid velocity,
the upward drag force is slightly higher than the weight of the bed particles. As a
result, the solid particles will float with an increase in bed volume, and the bed
behaves as a liquid. This characteristic of the bed is referred to as a fluidized
condition. Under this condition, the fluid pressure drop through the bed remains
almost constant, independent of the flow rate, and a strong mixing of the solid
particles occurs. This results in a uniform temperature for the total bed (gas and
particles) with an apparent thermal conductivity of the solid particles as infinity.
Very high heat transfer coefficients are achieved on the fluidized side compared to
particle-free or dilute-phase particle gas flows.

Type of Material:
Due to the high thermal load and the special environment, the

## materials for fluidised bed heat exchangers have to be selected according to

different criteria than in conventional units. The materials used for heat transfer

## surfaces are usually selected according to their creep strength. Resistance to

internal or external oxidation is also among the selection criteria.

## Units perform well in various chemical reactions, including:

Calcinations
Activations
Oxidations

Reductions
Pyrolysis

FBHE have been designed and built for many different materials,

## including catalysts, metal powders, metal oxides, carbons, ceramics, glasses,

pigments, fine chemicals, polymers, foodstuffs and many others.

Consideration/Limitation:

## FBHE offers specially-designed high-temperature fluid bed reactors for

processing powders and granular materials up to 1200C, in virtually any
atmosphere, be it oxidizing, reducing, inert, or otherwise.

Industry Application:

## cracking and reforming of hydrocarbons (oil), carbonization and gasification of coal,

ore roasting, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, polyethylene manufacturing, limestone
calcining, aluminum anhydride production, granulation, vinil-chloride production,
combustion of waste, nuclear fuel preparation, combustion of solid, liquid and

gaseous fuels, drying, adsorption, cooling, heating, freezing, conveying, storing and
thermal treating of various particulate solid materials. Chemical reaction is common
on the fluidized side in many process applications, and combustion takes place in
coal combustion fluidized beds. The common applications of the fluidized-bed heat
exchanger are drying, mixing, adsorption, reactor engineering, coal combustion,
and waste heat recovery.

Design Calculation:

## 1. Zabrodski Relation (source: Heat Transfer in Fluidized Beds, 2006)

The factor with the greatest influence on the heat transfer, apart from the
fluidization velocity, is the particle size. Particle size influences the change of
the relative contribution of various mechanisms in the overall heat transfer. In
the fluidized bed with small (< 0.1 mm) particles, convection by particles
account for 90% of the overall heat transfer, while in the beds of large
particles (> 1 mm) only 20% of the heat transfer is done by particle
convection. Particle heat capacity is also important for the amount of heat
transfered by particle convection. The maximum heat transfer coefficient is
often calculated from the Zabrodski relation:

= 35.80.20.6/d0.36

where:

## = heat transfer coefficient

= particle density
d = particle diameter

2006)

## Supposing there is no heat loss for the environment, a vertically

uniform bed temperature at x position (Tb,x) and plug flow for the solid material,
the energy balance for a control volume of length x provides:

Where:

## AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS

Air cooled heat exchangers are used to transfer heat from a process
fluid to ambient air. The process fluid is contained within heat conducting
tubes. Atmospheric air, which serves as the coolant, is caused to flow
perpendicularly across the tubes in order to remove heat. In a typical air
cooled heat exchanger, the ambient air is either forced or induced by a fan or
fans to flow vertically across a horizontal section of tubes. For condensing
applications, the bundle may be sloped or vertical. Similarly, for relatively
small air cooled heat exchangers, the air flow may be horizontal across
vertical tube bundles.
In order to improve the heat transfer characteristics of air cooled
exchangers, the tubes are provided with external fins. These fins can result in
a substantial increase in heat transfer surface. Parameters such as bundle
length, width and number of tube rows vary with the particular application as
well as the particular finned tube design.
Air-cooled heat exchangers are generally arranged in banks with
several exchangers installed side by side. The height of the bundle
aboveground must be one-half of the tube length to produce an inlet velocity
equal to the face velocity. This requirement applies both to ground-mounted
exchangers and to those pipe-rack-installed exchangers which have a fire
deck above the pipe rack. (Perrys)

location.

## 5. Maintenance may be reduced due to elimination of water fouling

characteristics which could require frequent cleaning of water cooled heat
exchangers

## 6. Air cooled heat exchangers will continue to operate (but at reduced

capacity) due to radiation and natural convection air circulation should a
power failure occur

## 7. Temperature control of the process fluid may be accomplished easily

through the use of shutters, variable pitch fan blades, variable speed drives,
or, in multiple fan installations, by shutting off fans as required.

1. Since air has relatively poor thermal transport properties when compared
to water, the air cooled heat exchanger could have considerably more heat
transfer surface area. A large space requirement may result

## 2. Outdoor operation in cold winter environments may require special

consideration to prevent freezing of the tube side fluid or formation of ice on
the outside surface.

## 3. The movement of large volumes of cooling air is accomplished by the

rotation of large diameter fan blades rotating at high speeds. As a result,
noise due to air turbulence and high fan tip speed is generated.

## FORCED AND INDUCED DRAFT

The forced-draft unit, which is illustrated in Figure 4.1 pushes air across the
finned tube surface. The fans are located below the tube bundles. The
induced-draft design has the fan above the bundle, and the air is pulled
across the finned tube surface. In theory, a primary advantage of the forceddraft unit is that less power is required. This is true when the air-temperature
rise exceeds 30C (54F).
The forced-draft design offers better accessibility to the fan for onstream
maintenance and fan-blade adjustment. The design also provides a fan and Vbelt assembly, which are not exposed to the hot-air stream that exits from
the unit. Structural costs are less, and mechanical life is longer.

## Induced-draft (Figure 4.2.) design provides more even distribution of air

across the bundle, since air velocity approaching the bundle is relatively low.
This design is better suited for exchangers designed for a close approach of
product outlet temperature to ambient-air temperature.

## Figure 4.2. Induced-draft air-cooled heat exchanger

Induced-draft units are less likely to recirculate the hot exhaust air, since the
exit air velocity is several times that of the forced-draft unit. Induced-draft
design more readily permits the installation of the air cooled equipment
above other mechanical equipment such as pipe racks or shell-and-tube
exchangers. In a service in which sudden temperature change would cause
upset and loss of product, the induced-draft unit gives more protection in that
only a fraction of the surface (as compared with the forced draft unit) is
exposed to rainfall, sleet, or snow.
Induced Draft coolers utilize fans located on the topside of the tube bundle.
These fans draw cooling air up through the tube bundle to provide a more
efficient distribution of airflow. The advantages of this induced design include
greater protection to the tube bundle as a result of the plenum positioning
above the bundle, reduced potential for recirculation of hot air and reduced
noise levels at ground level.
FINNED TUBES
Common to all air cooled heat exchangers is the tube, through which the
process fluid flows. To compensate for the poor heat transfer properties of air,

which flows across the outside of the tube, and to reduce the overall
dimensions of the heat exchanger, external fins are added to the outside of
the tube. A wide variety of finned tube types are available for use in air
cooled exchangers. These vary in geometry, materials, and the methods of
construction, which affect both air side thermal performance and air side
pressure drop. In addition, particular combinations of materials and/or fin
bonding methods may determine maximum design temperature limitations
for the tube and limit environments, in which the tube might be used. The
use of a particular fin tube is essentially a matter of agreement between the
air cooled heat exchanger manufacturer and the user.

## Finned-Tube Construction The following are descriptions of commonly used

finned-tube constructions (Figure 4.3.)
1. Embedded. Rectangular-cross-section aluminum fin which is wrapped
under tension and mechanically embedded in a groove 0.25 - 0.05 mm
(0.010 - 0.002 in) deep, spirally cut into the outside surface of a tube.
2. Integral (or extruded). An aluminum outer tube from which fins have been
formed by extrusion, mechanically bonded to an inner tube or liner.
3. Overlapped footed. L-shaped aluminum fin wrapped under tension over the
outside surface of a tube, with the tube fully covered by the overlapped feet
under and between the fins.
4. Footed. L-shaped aluminum fin wrapped under tension over the outside
surface of a tube with the tube fully covered by the feet between the fins.
The L-foot fin covers the tube more or less completely to protect the base
tube against corrosive attack, but still leaves a potential corrosive site at the
base of the fin adjacent to the preceding fin.
5. Bonded. Tubes on which fins are bonded to the outside surface by hot-dip
galvanizing, brazing, or welding.

## Typical metal design temperatures for these finned-tube constructions are

399C (750F) embedded, 288C (550F) integral, 232C (450F) overlapped
footed, and 177C (350F) footed.
Tube ends are left bare to permit insertion of the tubes into appropriate holes
in the headers or tube sheets. Tube ends are usually roller-expanded into
these tube holes.
TUBE BUNDLE
A typical tube bundle arrangement is illustrated in Figure 4.4. The finned
tubes are assembled into the tube bundle. Tube lengths range from about
1.83 m long to as much as 12.2 m long. The number of tube rows deep in the
bundle is a function of the performance required and generally ranges
between 3 and 30. The ends of the tubes are not finned. This permits the
tubes ends to be inserted into tubesheets, located at each end of the bundle.
The tubesheets separate the cooling air on the fin side from the process fluid
on the tube side. Generally, the tube ends are roller expanded into the tube
holes in the tubesheet to form the joint, although for higher pressure
applications these may be welded joints.
The tubesheets are attached to tube side headers, which contain the
tubeside fluid and distribute it to the tubes. The headers may be designed to

permit any number of tube side passes for the process fluid. For multipass
tube bundles, the headers contain partition plates, which divide the bundle
into separate passes. However, these may be limited by the operating
temperature conditions. If there is a large temperature difference per pass,
then the hotter tubes may expand lengthwise to a much greater extent than
the tubes in succeeding passes. This could result in high stresses on the tube
joint, resulting in leakage at the joint. If differential expansion between
passes is excessive, split headers may be necessary. The tube bundle is
normally permitted to float independently of the supporting structure due to
overall bundle expansion.

Figure 4.4. Typical tube bundle (two pass) using box headers with tube
plugs opposite each tube end. Key: (1) Tube; (2) Tube Sheet; (3) Inlet/Outlet
Nozzles; (4) Vent; (5) Drain; (6) Tube Plugs; (7) Side Frame; (8) Pass Rib

End plates on the tube side headers frequently include removable plugs.
These can be pipe tap plugs or straight threads with gasket seals. The plugs
are located opposite each tube end to permit access for each tube for rerolling of the tube to tubesheet joint, should leaks, occur and for cleaning the
tubes if this should be necessary. If the tubes are welded into the tubesheets
and the process fluid conditions are non-fouling, these plugs are not
necessary.

## The tube bundle is fabricated as a rigid structure to be handled as an

individual assembly. Structural steel side members and tube supports are
used for this purpose. Such supports are used beneath the bottom of the
tubes to prevent the bundle from sagging; between tube rows to maintain

tube spacing and prevent meshing or deformation of the fins; and across the
top row of tubes to keep the tubes in proper position. The supports are
spaced evenly along the bundle length at intervals, not exceeding about 1.5
meters.

Tube bundles are designed to be rigid and self-contained and are mounted so
that they expand independently of the supporting structure. The face area of
the tube bundle is its length times width. The net free area for air flow
through the bundle is about 50 percent of the face area of the bundle.
The standard air face velocity (FV) is the velocity of standard air passing
through the tube bundle and generally ranges from 1.5 to 3.6 m/s (300 to
700 ft/min).
TUBING
The 25.4-mm (1-in) outside-diameter tube is most commonly used. Fin
heights vary from 12.7 to 15.9 mm (0.5 to 0.625 in), fin spacing from 3.6 to
2.3 mm (7 to 11 per linear inch), and tube triangular pitch from 50.8 to 63.5
mm (2.0 to 2.5 in). Ratio of extended surface to bare-tube outside surface
varies from about 7 to 20. The 38-mm (1a-in) tube has been used for flue-gas
and viscous-oil service.
Tube size, fin heights, and fin spacing can be further varied. Tube lengths vary
and may be as great as 18.3 m (60 ft). When tube length exceeds 12.2 m (40
ft), three fans are generally installed in each bay. Frequently used tube
lengths vary from 6.1 to 12.2 m (20 to 40 ft).
FANS
Axial-flow fans are large-volume, low-pressure devices. Fan diameters are
selected to give velocity pressures of approximately 2.5 mm (0.1 in) of water.
Total fan efficiency (fan, driver, and transmission device) is about 75 percent,
and fan drives usually have a minimum of 95 percent mechanical efficiency.
Usually fans are provided with four or six blades. Larger fans may have more
blades. Fan diameter is generally slightly less than the width of the bay.

## At the fan-tip speeds required for economical performance, a large amount of

noise is produced. The predominant source of noise is vortex shedding at the
trailing edge of the fan blade. Noise control of aircooled exchangers is
required by the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA). API Standard 661
(Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Services, 2d ed., January
1978) has the purchaser specifying sound-pressure-level (SPL) values per fan
at a location designated by the purchaser and also specifying sound-powerlevel (PWL) values per fan. These are designated at the following octave-

band-center frequencies: 63, 125, 250, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000, and also the
dBa value (the dBa is a weighted single-value sound-pressure level).

Reducing the fan-tip speed results in a straight-line reduction in air flow while
the noise level decreases. The API Standard limits fan-tip speed to 61 m/s
(12,000 ft/min) for typical constructions. Fan-design changes which reduce
noise include increasing the number of fan blades, increasing the width of the
fan blades, and reducing the clearance between fan tip and fan ring.
Both the quantity of air and the developed static pressure of fans in air-cooled
heat exchangers are lower than indicated by fan manufacturers test data,
which are applicable to testing-facility tolerances and not to heat-exchanger
constructions.
The axial-flow fan is inherently a device for moving a consistent volume of air
when blade setting and speed of rotation are constant. Variation in the
amount of air flow can be obtained by adjusting the blade angle of the fan
and the speed of rotation. The blade angle can be either (1) permanently
fixed, (2) hand-adjustable, or (3) automatically adjusted. Air delivery and
power are a direct function of blade pitch angle.
Fan mounting should provide a minimum of one-half to three fourths diameter
between fan and ground on a forced-draft heat exchanger and one-half
diameter between tubes and fan on an induced-draft cooler. Fan blades can
be made of aluminum, molded plastic, laminated plastic, carbon steel,
stainless steel, and Monel.
FAN DRIVERS
Electric motors or steam turbines are most commonly used. These connect
with gears or V belts. (Gas engines connected through gears and hydraulic
motors either direct-connected or connected through gears are in use. Fans
may be driven by a prime mover such as a compressor with a V-belt takeoff
from the flywheel to a jack shaft and then through a gear or V belt to the fan.
Direct motor drive is generally limited to small-diameter fans.
V-belt drive assemblies are generally used with fans 3 m (10 ft) and less in
diameter and motors of 22.4 kW (30 hp) and less.
Right-angle gear drive is preferred for fans over 3 m (10 ft) in diameter, for
electric motors over 22.4 kW (30 hp), and with steam-turbine drives.

## FAN RING AND PLENUM CHAMBERS

The air must be distributed from the circular fan to the rectangular face of the
tube bundle. The air velocity at the fan is between 3.8 and 10.2 m/s (750 and
2000 ft/in). The plenum-chamber depth (from fan to tube bundle) is
dependent upon the fan dispersion angle (Figure 4.5), which should have a
maximum value of 45.
The fan ring is made to commercial tolerances for the relatively large
diameter fan. These tolerances are greater than those upon closely machined
fan rings used for small-diameter laboratory performance testing. Fan
performance is directly affected by this increased clearance between the
blade tip and the ring, and adequate provision in design must be made for
the reduction in air flow. API Standard 661 requires that fan-tip clearance be a
maximum of 0.5 percent of the fan diameter for diameters between 1.9 and
3.8 m (6.25 and 12.5 ft). Maximum clearance is 9.5 mm (r in) for smaller fans
and 19 mm (e in) for larger fans.
The depth of the fan ring is critical. Worsham (ASME Pap. 59-PET- 27,
Petroleum Mechanical Engineering Conference, Houston, 1959) reports an
increase in flow varying from 5 to 15 percent with the same power
consumption when the depth of a fan ring was doubled. The percentage
increase was proportional to the volume of air and static pressure against
which the fan was operating.
When making a selection, the stall-out condition, which develops when the
fan cannot produce any more air regardless of power input, should be
considered.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
1. Design dry-bulb temperature. The typically selected value is the
temperature which is equaled or exceeded 2a percent of the time during the
warmest consecutive 4 months. Since air temperatures at industrial sites are
frequently higher than those used for these weather-data reports, it is good
practice to add 1 to 3C (2 to 6F) to the tabulated value.
2. Air recirculation. Prevailing winds and the locations and elevations of
buildings, equipment, fired heaters, etc., require consideration. All air-cooled
heat exchangers in a bank are of one type, i.e., all forced-draft or all induceddraft. Banks of air-cooled exchangers must be placed far enough apart to
minimize air recirculation.
3. Wintertime operations. In addition to the previously discussed problems of
winterization, provision must be made for heavy rain, strong winds, freezing
of moisture upon the fins, etc.
4. Noise. Two identical fans have a noise level 3 dBa higher than one fan,
while eight identical fans have a noise level 9 dBa higher than a single fan.
Noise level at the plant site is affected by the exchanger position, the
reflective surfaces near the fan, the hardness of these surfaces, and noise
from adjacent equipment. The extensive use of aircooled heat exchangers
contributes significantly to plant noise level.
5. Ground area and space requirements. Comparisons of the overall space
requirements for plants using air cooling versus water cooling are not
consistent. Some air-cooled units are installed above other equipmentpipe
racks, shell-and-tube exchangers, etc. Some plants avoid such installations
because of safety considerations, as discussed later.
6. Safety. Leaks in air-cooled units are directly to the atmosphere and can
cause fire hazards or toxic-fume hazards. However, the large air flow through
an air-cooled exchanger greatly reduces any concentration of toxic fluids.
Segal [Pet. Refiner, 38, 106 (April 1959)] reports that air-fin coolers are not
located over pumps, compressors, electrical switchgear, control houses and,
in general, the amount of equipment such as drums and shell-and-tube
exchangers located beneath them are minimized. Pipe-rack-mounted aircooled heat exchangers with flammable fluids generally have concrete fire
decks which isolate the exchangers from the piping.
7. Atmospheric corrosion. Air-cooled heat exchangers should not be located
where corrosive vapors and fumes from vent stacks will pass through them.
9. Process-side cleaning. Either chemical or mechanical cleaning on the inside
of the tubes can readily be accomplished.

## 10. Process-side design pressure. The high-pressure process fluid is always in

the tubes. Tube-side headers are relatively small as compared with watercooled units when the high pressure is generally on the shell side. Highpressure design of rectangular headers is complicated. The plug-type header
is normally used for design gauge pressures to 13,790 kPa (2000 lbf/in2) and
has been used to 62,000 kPa (9000 lbf/in2). The use of threaded plugs at
these pressures creates problems. Removable cover plate headers are
generally limited to gauge pressures of 2068 kPa (300 lbf/in2). The expensive
billet-type header is used for high pressure service.
11. Bond resistance. Vibration and thermal cycling affect the bond resistance
of the various types of tubes in different manners and thus affect the amount
of heat transfer through the fin tube.
12. Approach temperature. The approach temperature, which is the
difference between the process-fluid outlet temperature and the design drybulb air temperature, has a practical minimum of 8 to 14C (15 to 25F).
When a lower process-fluid outlet temperature is required, an airhumidification chamber can be provided to reduce the inlet air temperature
toward the wet-bulb temperature. A 5.6C (10F) approach is feasible. Since
typical summer wet-bulb design temperatures in the United States are 8.3C
(15F) lower than drybulb temperatures, the outlet process-fluid temperature
can be 3C (5F) below the dry-bulb temperature
13. Mean-temperature-difference (MTD) correction factor. When the outlet
temperatures of both fluids are identical, the MTD correction factor for a 1:2
shell-and-tube exchanger (one pass shell side, two or more passes tube side)
is approximately 0.8. For a single-pass aircooled heat exchanger the factor is
0.91. A two-pass exchanger has a factor of 0.96, while a three-pass
exchanger has a factor of 0.99 when passes are arranged for counterflow.
14. Maintenance cost. Maintenance for air-cooled equipment as compared
with shell-and-tube coolers (complete with cooling-tower costs) indicates that
air-cooling maintenance costs are approximately 0.3 to 0.5 those for watercooled equipment.
15. Operating costs. Power requirements for air-cooled heat exchangers can
be lower than at the summer design condition provided that an adequate
means of air-flow control is used. The annual power requirement for an
exchanger is a function of the means of airflow control, the exchanger
service, the air-temperature rise, and the approach temperature.
When the mean annual temperature is 16.7C (30F) lower than the design
dry-bulb temperature and when both fans in a bay have automatically

controllable pitch of fan blades, annual power required has been found to be
22, 36, and 54 percent respectively of that needed at the design condition for
three process services. Alternatively, when fans have two-speed motors,
these deliver one-half of the design flow of air at half speed and use only oneeighth of the power of the full-speed condition.