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No Operating System is needed. The MikroTik RouterOS™ is standalone Operating System.

The
OS is Linux kernel based and very stable. Your hard drive will be wiped completely by the
installation process. No additional disk support, just one PRIMARY MASTER HDD or FlashDisk,
except for WEB proxy cache.
How secure is the router once it is setup?
Access to the router is protected by username and password. Additional users can be added to the
router, specific rights can be set for user groups. Remote access to the router can be restricted by
user, IP address. Firewall filtering is the easiest way to protect your router and network.
Installation
How can I install RouterOS?
RouterOS can be installed with CD Install or Netinstall.
How large HDD can I use for the MikroTik RouterOS™?
MikroTik RouterOS™ supports disks larger than 8GB (usually up to 120GB). But make sure the
BIOS of the router's motherboard is able to support these large disks.
Can I run MikroTik RouterOS™ from any hard drive in my system?
Yes
Is there support for multiple hard drives in MikroTik RouterOS™?
A secondary drive is supported for web cache. This support has been added in 2.8, older versions
don't support multiple hard drives.
Why the CD installation stops at some point and does not go "all the way through"?
The CD installation is not working properly on some motherboards. Try to reboot the computer and
start the installation again. If it does not help, try using different hardware.
Logging on and Passwords
What is the username and password when logging on to the router for the first time?
Username is 'admin', and there is no password (hit the 'Enter' key). You can change the password
using the '/password' command.
How can I recover a lost password?
If you have forgotten the password, there is no recovery for it. You have to reinstall the router.
After power failure the MikroTik router is not starting up again
If you haven't shut the router down, the file system has not been unmounted properly. When starting
up, the RouterOS™ will perform a file system check. Depending on the HDD size, it may take
several minutes to complete. Do not interrupt the file system check! It would make your installation
unusable.
How can I access the router if the LAN interface has been disabled?
You can access the router either locally (using monitor and keyboard) or through the serial console.
Licensing Issues
How many MikroTik RouterOS™ installations does one license cover?
The license is per RouterOS installation. Each installed router needs a separate license.
Does the license expire?
The license never expires. The router runs for ever. Your only limitation is to which versions you
can upgrade. For example if it says "Upgradable to v4.x", it means you can use all v4 releases, but
not v5 This doesn't mean you can't stay on v4.x as long as you want.
How can I reinstall the MikroTik RouterOS™ software without losing my software license?
You have to use CD, Floppies or Netinstall procedure and install the MikroTik RouterOS™ on the
HDD with the previous MikroTik RouterOS™ installation still intact. The license is kept with the
HDD. Do not use format or partitioning utilities, they will delete your key! Use the same (initial)
BIOS settings for your HDD!
Can I use my MikroTik RouterOS™ software license on a different hardware?
Yes, you can use different hardware (motherboard, NICs), but you should use the same HDD. The
license is kept with the HDD unless format or fdisk utilities are used. It is not required to reinstall
the system when moving to different hardware. When paying for the license, please be aware, that it
cannot be used on another harddrive than the one it was installed upon.
License transfer to another hard drive costs 10$. Contact support to arrange this.
What to do, if my hard drive with MikroTik RouterOS™ crashes, and I have to install another one?
If you have paid for the license, you have to write to support[at]mikrotik.com and describe the
situation. We may request you to send the broken hard drive to us as proof prior to issuing a
replacement key.
If you have a free demo license, no replacement key can be issued. Please obtain another demo
license, or purchase the base license.
More information available here All_about_licenses
How can I enter a new Software Key?
Entering the key from Console/FTP:
import the attached file with the command '/system license import' (you should upload this file to
the router's FTP server)
Entering the key with Console/Telnet:
use copy/paste to enter the key into a Telnet window (no matter which submenu). Be sure to copy
the whole key, including the lines "--BEGIN MIKROTIK SOFTWARE KEY--" and "--END
MIKROTIK SOFTWARE KEY--"
Entering the key from Winbox:
use 'system -> license' menu in Winbox to Paste or Import the key
I have mis-typed the software ID when I purchased the Software Key. How can I fix this?
In the Account Server choose `work with keys`, then select your mis-typed key, and then choose
`fix key`.
About entering keys, see more on this page
Entering a RouterOS License key
All other information about License Keys can be found here
All_about_licenses
Upgrading
How can I install additional feature packages?
You have to use the same version package files (extension .npk) as the system package. Use the
/system package print command to see the list of installed packages. Check the free space on
router's HDD using the /system resource print command before uploading the package files. Make
sure you have at least 2MB free disk space on the router after you have uploaded the package files!
Upload the package files using the ftp BINARY mode to the router and issue /system reboot
command to shut down the router and reboot. The packages are installed (upgraded) while the
router is going for shutdown. You can monitor the installation process on the monitor screen
connected to the router. After reboot, the installed packages are listed in the /system package print
list.
How can I upgrade?
To upgrade the software, you will need to download the latest package files (*.npk) from our
website (the 'system' package plus the ones that you need). Then, connect to the router via FTP and
upload the new packages to it by using Binary transfer mode.
Then reboot the router by issuing /system reboot command. More information here:
Upgrading_RouterOS
I installed additional feature package, but the relevant interface does not show up under the
/interface print list.
You have to obtain (purchase) the required license level or install the NPK package for this
interface (for example package 'wireless').
If I do upgrade RouterOS, will I lose my configuration?
No, configuration is kept intact for upgrades within one version family. When upgrading version
families (for example, V2.5 to V2.6) you may lose the configuration of some features that have
major changes. For example when upgrading from V2.4, you should upgrade to the last version of
2.4 first.
How much free disk space do I need when upgrading to higher version?
You need space for the system package and the additional packages you have to upgrade. After
uploading the newer version packages to the router you should have at least 2MB free disk space
left. If not, do not try to make the upgrade! Uninstall the unnecessary packages first, and then
upgrade the remaining ones.
Downgrading
How can I downgrade the MikroTik RouterOS™ installation to an older version?
You can downgrade by reinstalling the RouterOS™ from any media. The software license will be
kept with the HDD as long as the disk is not repartitioned/reformatted. The configuration of the
router will be lost (it is possible to save the old configuration, but this option has unpredictable
results when downgrading and it is not recommended to use it).
Another way is to use the /system package downgrade command. This works only if you
downgrade to 2.7.20 and not lower. Upload the older packages to the router via FTP and then use
the /system package downgrade command.
TCP/IP Related Questions
I have two NIC cards in the MikroTik router and they are working properly. I can ping both
networks from the router but can't ping from one network through the router to the other network
and to the Internet. I have no firewall setup.
This is a typical problem, where you do not have routing set up at your main Internet gateway.
Since you have introduced a new network, you need to 'tell' about it your main gateway (your ISP).
A route should be added for your new network. Alternatively, you can 'hide' your new network by
means of masquerading to get access to the Internet. Please take time to study the Basic Setup
Guide, where the problem is described and the solution is given.
There is an example how to masquerade your private LAN:
[admin@MikroTik] ip firewall nat> add chain=srcnat action=masquerade out-interface=Public
[admin@MikroTik] ip firewall nat> print
Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic
0 chain=srcnat out-interface=Public action=masquerade
How can I change the TCP port number for telnet or http services, if I do not want to use the ports
23 and 80, respectively?
You can change the allocated ports under /ip service.
When I use the IP address/mask in the form 10.1.1.17/24 for my filtering or queuing rules, they do
not work.
The rules 'do not work', since they do not match the packets due to the incorrectly specified address/
mask. The correct form would be:
10.1.1.0/24 for the IP addresses in the range 10.1.1.0-10.1.1.255, or,
10.1.1.17/32 for just one IP address 10.1.1.17.
I need to set up DHCP client, but there is no menu '/ip dhcp-client'.
The DHCP feature is not included in the system software package. You need to install the dhcp
package. Upload it to the router and reboot!
Can I statically bind IP's to MAC addresses via DHCP?
Yes, you can add static leases to the DHCP server leases list. However, DHCP is insecure by
default, and it is better to use PPPoE for user authentication and