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International Journal on Communications (IJC) Volume 3, 2014

Fractionally Spaced Equalizer for Indoor

Visible Light Communication System
*Chen Jiaxing1, Zhao Hua1, Jin Huilong1, Li Shaohua2, Lv Qing1, Liu Jinxing3
1.Hebei Normal University, Career Technical College, Hebei Shijiazhuang,050024; 2.The first hospital of Hebei
Medical University, Hebei , Shijiazhuang, 050031; 3. Hebei University Of Science and Technology, Department of
electronic and communication engineering, Hebei Shijiazhuang,050024
zhaohualunwen@126.com; 213930194955@163.com; 313131145063@163.com;41051388359@qq.com



Indoor visible light communication, as an emerging
broadband wireless access technology, is currently in the
stage of scientific research. We can see that indoor visible
light communication which is based on white LED lighting
technology evolved is often used in LED lighting process to
finish data transmission. With the enhancement of scientific
research, the interior visible network communication
technology is gradually ma-turing, combined with the
increasing market demand for increasingly large data, with
the demand for mobile broadband communications is in the
stage of the rapid growth, therefore, indoor visible light
communication technology has been widely gained
extensive attention in academia and industry. There-fore,
indoor visible light communication te-chnology, which is an
important subject of great research value, needs to be made
further study. This paper focuses on researching fractionally
spaced equalizer for indoor visible light communication
system, and studies have shown that equalization of indoor
visible light communication -"multipath interference" to the
quality of the communication in-terference hadgood
inhibitory effect.
Visible Light Communication;
Fractionally Spaced; Equalization



Access to relevant literature to research and analysis,
we can find that current research scholars from various
countries in the technical aspects of channel
equalization are concentrated in the areas of radio, and
rarely study visible indoor channel equalization
transmission channel of optical communication differ
from the radio communication. Thus, channel
equalization techniques used in radio communications
is not available for visible light communication system.
For visible light communication system, it requires to
develop a new equilibrium technology to suppress the
interference. This paper develops fractionally spaced
equalizer for indoor visible light communication


The Spread of Indoor Visible Light

When Indoor visible light communicates, the
environment of dissemination of information is
different from that of the outdoor, which is airtight, not
influenced by wind, the sunshine, the jungle and
background light, and the loss in the process of light
propagation can be basically ignored. However, when
the LED is used as the light source, because of each
LED lamp is a light source, with a large number of
light source, location and the direction of light
propagation are inconsistent, and so it has many
different optical signal stream between the signal
transmitter and receiver. It is due to the inconsistency
of visible light transmission path, which makes
different paths to spread the light signal, and the
existence of optional path difference, that forms
multipath effect, the serious inter symbol
interference. Related research results shows that, with
the existence of inter symbol interference in the visible
light communication, the effect of communication will
be governed by a certain degree. In order to improve
this phenomenon, improve the communication quality
of indoor visible light communication technology, it
can be used to compensate the channel characteristic
by setting equalizer in the receiver so as to improve the
ability of the whole system to suppress the inter
symbol interference. When adopting the equalizer to
make the actual compensation for the channel
characteristics, it needs to analyze and research the
channel state information in advance, then, using the
effective channel equalization to make compensation;
therefore, one of the key technologies in the
development of visible light communication
technology is channel equalization technology.
System Model
At present, the common visible light communication

International Journal on Communications (IJC) Volume 3, 2014

system is shown in figure 1.


FSE Balancing Algorithm

Before adopting FSE channel equalization algorithm to
calculate the optical channel, optical receiver will
sample the output channel. Sampling process be
simplified, T / L of the k-th sampling time period
represented in rk. In the above formula x (nT) with x
(n) represents, c (t-nt) = c (kT / L-nT) by ck, n
represents, (t) = (kT / L) is represented by k.
Therefore, using a time signal k can be expressed as:



Indoor visible communication system model uses the

light LED array as a signal transmission source and the
signal is unipolar, and adopted intensity modulation /
direct detection (IM / DD) as the way of modulation
and demodulation. White light signals emitted by the
LED lighting are made the intensity-modulation in the
signal transmitter (the signal light has an instantaneous
power, as same as the binary "1, no time, and then "0"
is the same). The modulated visible light signals at
different optical transmission path is transmitted to the
signal receiving end, receiving terminal will do direct
detection for the received signal, and decode related
optical power information so as to export the
transmission infor-mation .
In this system, the relevant signals mathematically
expressed as follows:
In the time domain, the indoor and ambient visible
light communication signal transmission of visible
light can adopt the corresponding real channel impulse
function c (t) to describe.
Mathematically, the visible light signal received by the
signal receiver can be represented by r (t), emitted light
signal can be represented by x(t) (x (t) of non-negative),
a channel of optical noise can be represented by (t),
signal convolution can be represented by .
The relationship between them is:
r(t)=x(t) c(t)+(t)


In the process of signal transmission, channel noise

consists of shot noise and amplifier noise in receiver.
Relevant scientific research shows that, in optical
communications, on the case of the presence of channel
noise, the formula of visible light signal above can be
expressed as: in the formula (1) , T is the circle symbol,
represents data input symbol in time n, Lk represents a
channel length.

L k 1

xn ck ,u + k

n =1


After the signal is acquired, it needs to make a filtering

process, which requires to send the signal to the FIR
equalizer, an equalizer tap interval of T / L, the signal
finishes being filtered needs to be extracted before
being outputted by decimation L .
Balancing Algorithm
In the FIR equalizer, the convolution between the
sample sequence and the weight coefficient of
equalizer can be expressed sequences of the filtering
process by the equalizer, therefore, the output signal of
the equalizer can be expressed as:
sk =

L N f 1

i =1

fi rk i


Where, fi is fractionally spaced equalizer weights, Nf is

the equalizer symbols, L Nf is the equalizer length.
A transmission signal of the equalizer for the sample,
sampling the output signal is expressed as:
yn s=

L N f 1

i =1

fi rLn i


The (2) into (4), the matrix expression is obtained

sampled output signal: y (n) = (xT (n) C + wT (n)) f (5)
FSE Coefficient Optimization
When designing the equalizer, using the MMSE
criterion, therefore, for the systematic error, the
followings will be in accordance with the following
e (n) = y (n)-x (n-)


Where, is the error in the calculation of the variable,

which can be optimized.
The (5) into (6), we obtain a formula for the error:
e (n) = xT (n) (Cf-h) + wT (n) f


Analyzing the formula (7), using the method of source



International Journal on Communications (IJC) Volume 3, 2014

normalization, FSE coefficient minimum, the minimum

mean square error, the equalizer coefficient vector and
the best delay required to meet the optimization of
publicity f = A-1CHh, to optimize the results , we
know that the minimum mean square error:
hH ( I CA1C H )h


Computational Analyses
An algorithm for calculating the amount of the process
is not very precise evaluation of the data, and the evaluation methods used in the computation algorithm is
typically bound on the number of basic operations
evaluated. In this paper, in order to calculate the Npoint signal input through the fractionally spaced
equalizer output after the number of multiplications
required to calculate the amount to account for the size,
the size of the amount calculated by using the O to
measure. Calculating the multiplication by using the
FSE method is O ((LN) 2) + O (L3Nf3), the multiplication calculation of the MMSE algorithm in O (N2) + O
(Lf3). From the analysis of the above formula, the FSE
algorithms to perform a calculation are related of the
calculation amount and the size and length of the
equalizer sampling interval, and the calculation with
two variables constitutes the polynomial. Therefore, a
reasonable amount of computation balancing
algorithm used in this paper, in practice is feasible.

Simulation Analysis
In this paper, computer simulation technology is
adopted to evaluate FSE equalization algorithm, and
the evaluation index is used in the bit error rate (BER)
and mean square error (MSE).
Linear relationship (OSNR) between the following
picture two and three, respectively, the following
figure shows the two equalizers MSE and BER
performance and optical signal to noise ratio.
As can be seen from the two figures, the spacing of the
linear channel equalizer to compensate for inter symbol
interference caused by the communication quality does
not completely eliminate, but the fractionally spaced
equalizer is able to better compensate for the channel
distortion of the visible light communication and to
suppress inter-symbol interference.
Indoor visible light communication technology is
currently a hot research field of communication, whose
technical difficulties should be focused on. For visible
light communication technology which is currently
due to "multipath effect" caused by communication
quality, we use fractionally spaced channel
equalization compensation technology research,
hoping to promote research and development in
related fields.

1. und Project of Hebei Province Education Office:

2. Hebei Normal University Youth Fund Project:
3. Hebei Normal University Doctoral Fund Project:


Ding Ju Peng. Indoor visible light communication channel

mod-eling and performance optimization [D]. Beijing
University of Posts and Telecommunications, 2013.
He Shengyang research of key technologies indoor visible
light communication system [D]. Harbin Institute of
Technology, 2013.
Wang Junbo, Xiexiu Xiu, Cao Lingling, Sheng Ming, Feng
Min. Indoor visible light communication fractionally


spaced equa-lizer technology [J]. Optics and Precision


International Journal on Communications (IJC) Volume 3, 2014

Xiexiu Xiu Jiao Yuan, Cao Lingling, Feng Min, Sheng Ming.
Indoor visible light communication in the linear






Information Research,2011,-02:29 -32 +38.

Zhao Hua (1980.10 -- ), male, Hebei Normal University,
Career Technical College, master, lecturer, director of the
Department of communication engineering, research direction: the visible light communications, mobile communications, optical fiber communications, weak signal detection-.
Address: Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province, Sou-th Second
Ring Road No. 20, zip code: 050024, the mailbox:
zhaohualunwen@125.com, Tel: 13483186301.
Chen Jiaxing (1977.01-- ), male, Department of science and


technology, Hebei Normal University, Professor,research

direction: spread spectrum communication,visible light communication, distributed sensor
Jin Huilong (1973.07-- ), male, Hebei Normal University,
Career Technical College, Ph. D, associate professor, Dean,
research direction: spread spectrum communication, coding
Li Shaohua (1982.09-- ), female, the first hospital of Hebei
Medical University, master, doctor, lecturer,research direction: medical electronic communication, chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease.
Lu Qing (1981.06--),female, Hebei Normal University,Career
Technical College, PhD, lecturer, research direction:
electromagnetic field and microwave technology.