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Capitão equipa Inserido Tuesday 11 September 2007 09:23

Normalmente o capitão de equipa é escolhido pelo treinador, as

vezes opta-se pela votação entre vocês, mas este método nem
sempre escolhe o jogador que tem melhor perfil para ser o capitão.
Por isso eu nas minhas equipas sou eu que escolhe o capitão, e para
mim o capitão tem um papel fundamental para o sucesso da equipa.
Para mim o capitão de equipa tem de ser:
Responsável e com comportamento exemplar dentro e fora de
Deve ser um exemplo para os colegas em disciplina,
Não pode ser introvertido, tem de ser alguém que se sinta à vontade
para falar comigo.
Tem de gostar do clube, e dignifica-lo sempre.
Deve ser amigo de todos os colegas, e fundamental para a integração
dos novos elementos.
Dentro de campo deve ser o principal incentivador dos colegas,
estando sempre a apoia-los, principalmente ao colega que acabou de
Deve ser exemplar perante a equipa de arbitragem, e fazer com que
todos os colegas também o sejam.
Estas são na minha opinião as principais funções e características que
deves ter se quiseres vir a ser o capitão.

Perhaps nowhere is the importance of good leadership as apparent as in a sports team. A

good sports team captain can lead his team to success and recognition; and can help a
moderate team play better; whereas, a weak captain with poor leadership skills can
hinder a team’s chances of competing and bonding successfully.
Why Is A Good Sports Team Captain Important?
An analysis done by various coaches showed that although there are a
variety of reasons why teams do not achieve their potential and ended their
seasons early – such as injuries, conditioning, poor officiating and eligibility –
there is main reason is lack of good leadership. And while leadership does
come from coaches, the real leaders come from within the team itself so
selecting a good team captain is vitally important.

Are You Sure You Want To Be A Sports Team Captain?

Being a sports team captain isn’t just about wearing the cap or being the
boss or even just cheering your friends on. It requires a number of things

• the desire to lead by example

• a passionate belief in team spirit
• the ability to handle the conflicts that invariably arise when a team is
under pressure
• the desire to put more input in planning the team’s strategies
• the ability to handle problems which may arise in a fair and expedient
manner (eg. disqualifications)
• the ability to behave professionally and responsibility despite
personal feelings of frustration and anger
• a thorough knowledge of the rules of the game
• a desire to build relationships with other members of the team, in
good times and bad
• the ability to handle the burden of being captain while still playing in
the team
• the ability to inspire and motivate and raise team morale
If you are able to possess these qualities, then being a sports team captain
can be one of the most rewarding leadership experiences you can have.

How Can I Be A Good Sports Team Captain?

Being a sports team captain is a great opportunity to develop the leadership
traits that will help you succeed in your future career, whether this is as a
sports athlete or in another field of work. But how can you know that you
are providing good leadership?

Here are some tips to help coaches gain confidence in you and help you lead your team
to success:
• Take charge – don’t just rely on the coaches. For example, start the
practice on time, even if the coaches are still getting ready or
temporarily occupied elsewhere.
• Always do more than is expected – stay longer, run farther, play
• Always take responsibility for your actions – don’t play the blame
game. If you make a mistake or cause your team to lose out in some
way, own up, face the consequences and move forward – you will be
respected more than if you try to wriggle your way out with excuses.
• Lead your team by actions, not words. Anybody can talk – it is what
they do that counts.
• Don’t put yourself above the rest of the team – just because you have
the captain title does not mean that you should have any preferential
treatment. A sports team captain is subject to the same rules and
consequences as the rest of the team. See yourself as one of the
team, otherwise there will be a division between yourself and your
In addition, continually try to be self-aware and improve your leadership skills. For
example, think about the captains of various sports teams in the international arena and
consider why they were chosen – was it because they are popular? The best player?
Responsible? Honest? Dependable? A good listener? Motivating and inspiring? Remain
calm and positive under pressure?
See how they lead by example and follow in their footsteps to become a great sports
team captain yourself.

Team Captain's Self Evaluation

Using the one to five scale below, rate yourself on the following 24 questions.
1 = Strongly Disagree
2 = Disagree,
3 = Undecided
4 = Agree
5 = Strongly Agree
1. I am one of the hardest workers on the team 1 2 3 4 5
2. I care passionately about the team's success 1 2 3 4 5
3. I am a competitive person who wants to win 1 2 3 4 5
4. I believe in myself as a person and my ability to lead 1 2 3 4 5
5. I want to perform in pressure situations 1 2 3 4 5
6. I bounce back quickly following mistakes and errors 1 2 3 4 5
7. I stay calm and composed in pressure situations 1 2 3 4 5
8. I stay focused when faced with distractions, obstacles, and adversity 1 2 3 4 5
9. I keep my anger and frustration under control 1 2 3 4 5
10. I consistently do the right thing on and off the court/field 1 2 3 4 5
11. I am honest and trustworthy 1 2 3 4 5
12. I treat my teammates, coaches, and others with respect 1 2 3 4 5
(Add up your score for the first 12 questions to get your LEADER BY EXAMPLE TOTAL)
Encourager - Servant Leader
13. I reach out to teammates when they need help 1 2 3 4 5
14. I take the time to listen to my teammates 1 2 3 4 5
Encourager - Confidence Builder
15. I regularly encourage my teammates to do their best 1 2 3 4 5
16. I regularly compliment my teammates when they succeed 1 2 3 4 5
Encourager - Refocuser
17. I communicate optimism and hope when the team is struggling 1 2 3 4 5
18. I know what to say to my teammates when they are struggling 1 2 3 4 5
Encourager - Team Builder
19. I have developed an effective relationship with each of my teammates 1 2 3 4 5
20. I am a team player who seeks to unify the team 1 2 3 4 5
21. I hold my teammates accountable for following team rules and standards 1 2 3 4 5
22. I constructively confront my teammates when necessary 1 2 3 4 5
23. I am willing to address and minimize conflicts between teammates 1 2 3 4 5
24. I am firm, fair, and direct when dealing with conflicts and problems 1 2 3 4 5
(Add up your score for ALL 24 questions to get your VOCAL LEADER TOTAL - be sure you have
added all 24 questions and not just 13-24.)
The Team Leadership Self Evaluation is divided into two parts.
The top 12 questions help you rate yourself as a Leader by Example.
Then the first 12 questions are combined with the final 12 questions to help you rate yourself as a
Vocal Leader.
Leader By Example Scoring
The Leader by Example Self Evaluation measures the four critical areas you need to be an
effective Leader by Example: Commitment, Confidence, Composure, and Character. To compute
your Leader by Example score, add your ratings for the first 12 questions.
12- 44 = Not a Leader by Example
45 - 52 = Solid Leader by Example
53 - 60 = Spectacular Leader by Example
Your total for the Leader by Example section should ideally be at least 45 if not higher.
Anything 44 and below you are probably not successfully leading yourself to earn the respect of
your coaches and teammates.
The closer you are to 60, the better job you believe you are doing of leading yourself and the
more respect you likely will gain from others.
Vocal Leader Scoring
Once you have computed your Leader by Example score using the first 12 questions, you then
need to add up your score for questions 13-24.
Compute the score for the second half of the evaluation (questions 13 - 24) and add it to your
score for the first half (questions 1-12).
The total score for all 24 questions will give you your rating as a Vocal Leader.
24 - 89 = Not a Vocal Leader
90 - 104 = Solid Vocal Leader
105 - 120 = Spectacular Vocal Leader
Your total as a Vocal Leader should ideally be at least 90 if not higher.
Anything 89 and below you are probably not doing an adequate job of leading yourself or others.
The closer you are to 120, the more you are doing what is necessary to earn your coaches' respect
and your teammates' trust to be an effective leader.
Your Game Plan for Becoming a More Effective Leader
Based on your Team Leadership Self Evaluation, take a moment to highlight your strengths and
your areas for improvement.
What are your strengths as a leader?
What should you continue doing to maintain and build upon these areas as strengths?
What are your areas to improve as a leader?
What are some specific actions you can take to improve these areas?
Of course, the rest of the Team Captains Network website and Team Captain's Leadership Manual
are designed to provide you with dozens of ideas to build on your strengths as well as give you
practical strategies to develop the areas which may need improvement.
What Coaches Think of Their Team Captains.
by Jeff Janssen, M.S.
Janssen Peak Performance
What kind of leadership do you have on your team this year? Are your TOP PREP RECRUITS
leaders prepared to effectively lead your team both on and off the court? The Top Players from
Florida's Treasure Coast
Coaches across the U.S. were recently surveyed to find out how their
thoughts on team captains. The results of this study show that team Florida's Top Players
captains are some of the most important, yet least prepared people on :: Class of 2007
:: Class of 2008
your team. :: Class of 2009
:: Class of 2010
How Important are Team Captains?
Nearly unanimous, coaches believe that team captains/leaders are Recruiting News
Story Archives
pivotal to a program's success. Coaches realize that team captains have
a strong influence on so many factors, especially competitive success. Florida Scoreboard
98% of coaches believe being a team captain/leader is an important job check games by region
Game Reports
98% of coaches also believe an effective team captain can positively daily analysis
impact win/loss records Statewide Team Rankings
regardless of class
by graduating class
High School News,
Recruiting, and Coaching

The Better Basketball Video Series Will Improve Your Game! A 4 tape set
emphasizing 1-on-1 Defense, Ball Handling, Shooting, and Passing.

How Effective are Today's Team Captains?

Just over half of coaches believe that today's team captains are not as effective as they were years ago.
Roughly one quarter of coaches believe today's captains are about the same and another quarter think
today's captains are more effective than they were years ago.
51% of coaches think today's captains are less effective than they were decades ago
26% of coaches think today's captains are about the same as they were decades ago
23% of coaches think today's captains are more effective than they were decades ago
Are Your Captains Prepared to Lead?
Only 37% of coaches believe their captains are prepared to handle the responsibilities and challenges of
leadership. The remaining 63% of coaches are either unsure or convinced that their captains are not
prepared to lead.
43% of coaches believe their captains are not prepared to handle the challenges of leadership
37% of captains believe their captains are prepared to handle the challenges of leadership
20% of coaches are unsure if their captains are prepared to handle the challenges of leadership
Do Your Captains have the Courage to Confront?
Less than half of the coaches surveyed believe that their captains will confront their teammates in three
important areas: adhering to team rules, working hard, and respecting coaches.
47% of coaches report their captains will confront teammates when they break team rules
39% of coaches report their captains will confront teammates when they aren't working hard
33% of coaches report their captains will confront teammates when they criticize the coaches
How Much Leadership Training Does your School Provide?
Presently, the majority of colleges and high schools sponsor no formal leadership training for their student-
athlete leaders. Only 11% of schools provide substantive leadership programming at least 3 hours or longer.
73% of coaches report their schools provide no leadership training for their captains
16% of coaches report their schools provide 1-2 hours of leadership training
11% of coaches report their schools provide 3+ hours of leadership training
How Much Leadership Training Do You Provide as a Coach?
An encouraging finding was that 86% of coaches surveyed report providing some kind of formal leadership
training for their team captains. Further, half of coaches report providing at least 3 or more hours of
leadership training.
14% of coaches report providing no leadership training
36% of coaches report providing 1-2 hours of leadership training
50% of coaches report providing 3+ hours of leadership training
What Resources Do You Use to Train Your Leaders?
The majority of coaches surveyed combine their own insights and experience with ideas from The Team
Captain's Leadership Manual to develop their leaders.
75% of coaches use their own ideas and experience
57% of coaches use The Team Captain's Leadership Manual
19% of coaches use books by John Maxwell
Survey Summary
The overall results of this survey reinforce the fact that coaches believe effective team captains/leaders are a
critical part of a successful athletic program - both on and off the field/court.
Yet, while effective leaders are seen as important, the majority of coaches feel their captains are unprepared
to lead. The area where captains need the most help is constructive confrontation, or the Enforcer role as we
call it.
Too many captains would rather let standards slip, rules be broken, and coaches be bashed rather than
stepping up and confronting the issue. This lack of leadership from your captains should be a major cause of
concern for you because it insidiously erodes your team structure from within.
Other than a minority of enlightened colleges and high schools, little is being done to train student-athletes to
be more effective leaders by schools. It is certainly encouraging that many coaches are attempting to train
leaders on their own.
With these results and those from other surveys as well as the countless conversations I've had with team
captains, coaches, and athletic administrators, we recently launched a new resource that addresses these
concerns and take leadership training to a whole new level.

So You’ve been Elected Team Captain............What’s next?

By Wayne Goldsmith
Everyone is excited. The election for swim team captain is today.
Everyone takes a piece of paper and writes down the name of the person
they want to be the team
captain for the next season. Each swimmer folds their voting paper and
places it carefully inside the
ballot box.
A hush falls over the team as the votes are tallied.
And the winner is...........YOU!
Wow – your team mates have elected you team captain. Congratulations!!!
Now what?
Being elected leader of your swim team, school class or any group is
excellent. Very few people get
the opportunity to learn how to lead. Even fewer are good at it.
1. Surround yourself with great people
All great leaders know a secret...................you can’t do it by yourself!! Now
that you are team
captain, you need to surround yourself with great people who can help you
do the job. A good
leadership team might look like this:
An outstanding senior swimmer
A relatively inexperienced younger swimmer
A really popular “social” type swimmer
Someone who loves computer work
A recently retired older swimmer who wants to give back something to
the sport
Great leadership teams are truly representative of the people they
represent. A common mistake in
swim team leadership groups is to fill it full of only the best and / or oldest
swimmers. This can often
mean that the views, opinions and thoughts of the younger swimmers are
not heard. Everyone has
something to offer!
2. To lead is to serve
Leadership is not just about making speeches and accepting team trophies.
It is about being in a
position to help and serve your team mates in the best way you can. To
paraphrase another great
leader, “Ask not what your swim team can do for you. Ask what you can do
for your swim team”.
3. Listen more than you talk
A lot of people confuse leading with talking. There are times when a leader
needs to talk but there
are many, many more times when leaders need to listen. Listening to the
needs of your team mates
and aiming to help them is critical to good leadership.
Aim first to understand – then to be understood: this is a great phrase that
many leaders use in
their communication. Listening – really listening to the issues that are
important to everyone in the
team is the first step to understanding them and in turn provides insight into
how to best lead
(serve) them.
4. People don’t care how much you know – they want to know how much
you care
Most surveys about leadership show one clear message – people want to
know that their leaders
genuinely care for them as human beings. People want to feel appreciated,
valued and respected by
their leaders. So how can you achieve this?
Learn everyone’s name and use it every time you see them
Remember little things about every person in the team, e.g. their dog’s
name, their birthday,
their school, their favourite football team, their favourite music.
Try to spend 2 minutes one on one with every person in the team each
week – mostly
Recognise little things about every swimmer in the team and their
contribution to the team’s
success. For example, “Hey Julie, I really appreciate your hard work in the
relays today” or
“Jim, your turns were outstanding. Great work. Keep it up.”
As one great leader said, “The thing I’ve learnt about people and little
things...is there are no little
5. Sometimes it is lonely at the top
Sometimes as a leader, you have to make difficult and unpopular decisions.
Sometimes you may
have to be involved in discipline actions involving friends and long time
swimming buddies.
Sometimes you may be involved in a team selection panel which decides a
close friend or team mate
misses out on an opportunity they have wanted.
As team captain, stick to these five leadership principles – the “Be-s” of
BE FAIR – make decisions which are fair and reasonable and just.
BE HONEST – always, always be 100% honest in your dealings with people
and issues.
BE CONSISTENT – apply the same rules to the youngest members of the
team as you do to the
senior swimmers or even other members of your leadership team.
BE CARING – show care, consideration and compassion regardless of the
BE DECISIVE – once you have made your decision – deliver it clearly and
with conviction.
6. A rising tide lifts all the boats
The toughest way to lead is to try and do it all yourself. The easiest way to
perform well at the top is
to be supported from the bottom!
Empower everyone in the team to contribute and to feel comfortable about
speaking up. Encourage
all swimmers to express their views and to show leadership in some way
that contributes to the
success of the team.
The better you can tap into the passion, knowledge, experience and energy
of everyone in the team,
the better you can lead: in fact you lead by not leading! That is, if you
empower and energise people
to take responsibility for their own performance, you have to do little actual
7. If all else fails, stick to the three Ps – PASSION, PERSERVERANCE,
People with little or no actual leadership training have made fantastic team
captains because they
lived the three Ps – Passion, Perseverance and Patience.
Passion – people respect and admire leaders who are passionate about what
they do and who are
passionate about wanting others to succeed.
Perseverance – people will follow leaders who never give up – who are
determined to succeed and
who will fight hard for their team members in tough times and difficult
Patience – no one is perfect. People love leaders who show patience under
pressure and tolerance
and persistence if things go wrong.
So congratulations Captain. An exciting, rewarding and enjoyable
experience awaits you as leader of
the team.

Team captains' perceptions of athlete leadership.

Publication Date: 01-MAR-06
Publication Title: Journal of Sport Behavior

Format: Online
Author: Dupuis, Martin ; Bloom, Gordon A. ; Loughead, Todd M.


Leadership has been defined as "a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to
achieve a common goal" (Northouse, 2001, p. 3). Given its apparent practical appeal, it is not surprising
that leadership has been one of the most studied areas in industrial and organizational psychology
(Northouse, 2001). In sport, the importance of effective leadership has been cited by athletes and
coaches as a vital component to achievement (Chelladurai & Riemer, 1998; Gould, Hodge, Peterson, &
Petlichkoff, 1987) and athlete satisfaction (Riemer & Chelladurai, 1995). Up to this point, most sport
leadership research has focused on coaching effectiveness by identifying their personality traits,
behavioral attributes, and situational determinants (Chelladurai, 1984).

Several models of sport leadership have been advanced, the most noteworthy being Chelladurai's
(1978, 1984, 1993) Multidimensional Model of Leadership (MML), a linear model comprised of
antecedents, leader behaviors, and consequences. The antecedents are factors that influence leader
behavior and can be classified into situational (e.g., team goals, norms), leader (e.g., leader's
experience or personality), and team member characteristics (e.g., gender, ability). These antecedent
variables are believed to influence three states of leader behavior; labeled required, preferred, and
actual. Specifically, situational and member characteristics influence both required (i.e., parameters of
the organization) and preferred (i.e., group member preferences) leader behaviors, while leader
characteristics influence actual leader behaviors. The consequences contained in the MML are group
performance and team member satisfaction which are a function of the degree of congruence among
the three states of leader behavior. In order to examine the hypothesized relationships in the MML,
Chelladurai and Saleh (1980) developed the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS), an inventory that
measures five dimensions of leader behavior: training and instruction, democratic, autocratic, social
support, and positive feedback.

The majority of research using the LSS has focused on the leadership behaviors of coaches. One
approach has examined the influence of the antecedent variables such as gender, personality, age,
sport experience, athlete maturity, organizational goals, culture, and task roles in relation to preferred
and perceived coaching behaviors (cf. Chelladurai, 1993; Chelladurai & Riemer, 1998). Another
approach has examined the congruence between perceived and preferred coaching behaviors in
relation to team performance and/or athlete satisfaction (cf. Chelladurai & Riemer, 1998). Overall, the
results have shown that athletes were most satisfied with coaches who emphasized behaviors aimed at
improving athletic performance by emphasizing the skills, tactics, and techniques of the sport. In
addition, athletes perceived that performance was enhanced by coaches who provided positive
feedback and rewarded good performances (Chelladurai & Riemer, 1998).

Although the leadership behaviors of coaches are fundamental to the satisfaction and performance of
athletes, several researchers (Glenn & Horn, 1993; Kozub & Pease, 2001; Loughead & Hardy, 2005;
Rees & Segal, 1984) have suggested athletes are another important source of leadership within teams.
Given the importance of athlete leadership, it is critical to distinguish between formal and informal
leadership roles (Carron & Hausenblas, 1998). Formal leaders have been designated to their position by
the organization (Loughead, Hardy, & Eys, in press). According to Glenn and Horn, coaches typically
have one or two athletes on a team who provide motivation and direction to their teammates. It is not
uncommon for coaches to either appoint a team captain or have the team elect a captain. In the sport of
ice hockey, the team captain wears the letter "C" on the jersey formally designating his/her leadership
role. In contrast, athletes other than team captains can assume an informal leadership role since this
type of leadership emerges on the basis of their interactions with other team members and is not
formally appointed by the organization (Loughead & Hardy, 2005).

Only a few studies have examined athlete leader behaviors. In particular, these studies were
conceptualized from Chelladurai and Saleh's (1980) LSS and compared the relationship between athlete
leader behaviors and coach leader behaviors. Furthermore, these studies did not distinguish between
formal and informal types of leaders. For example, Kozub and Pease (2001) examined the coach-athlete
leadership relationship in high school basketball. The resuits showed a positive relationship between
athletes strong in task and social leadership behaviors and the coaching behaviors of social support,
training and instruction, democratic behavior, and positive feedback. However, operationalizing athlete
leadership into only task and social dimensions limited the identification of specific leader behaviors
compared to the five leadership behaviors identified in the LSS. In an attempt to address this oversight,
Loughead and Hardy (2005) used the LSS to measure coach's behaviors and a modified version of the
LSS (and its five leadership dimensions) to assess athlete leader behaviors. The results indicated
coaches were perceived by their athletes to exhibit higher levels of training and instruction, and
autocratic behaviors than athlete leaders. On the other hand, athlete leaders were viewed to display
greater social support, positive feedback, and democratic behaviors than coaches. Taken together, the
results indicated that coaches and athlete leaders exhibited different types of leadership behaviors.

Although this research highlighted some unique aspects of athlete leader behaviors, it did not distinguish
between formal or informal leadership roles. This is somewhat unfortunate since the formal athlete
leader, the team captain, assumes a considerable amount of responsibility within the team structure
compared to fellow teammates (Lee, Cobum, & Partridge, 1983). While there is seemingly a lack of
research pertaining to team captains, there is some anecdotal evidence highlighting their importance.
Mosher (1979) suggested that team captains have three main responsibilities: (a) to act as a liaison
between the coaching staff and the players, (b) to act as a leader during all team activities, and (c) to
represent the team at receptions, meetings, and press conferences. In addition to these three
responsibilities, Mosher listed some of the duties team captains were expected to perform. First, team
captains should ensure constant flow of information between the coaching staff and players. To this end,
the captain should establish regular team and/or individual meetings with players and coaches. Second,
team captains should lead by example, such as arriving early for practice, always working hard during
practice, leading warm-up sessions, encouraging teammates, and helping younger players. Third, team
captains should help coaches develop team norms and schedules. Finally, team captains should
conduct themselves in a professional manner before, during, and after games, with respect to their
teammates, opponents, and officials.

Given that the leadership behaviors of athletes are considered to be an important component of team
success (Gould et al., 1987), it is surprising that research on athlete leaders is limited. Moreover,
research on athlete leadership has yet to specifically examine formal athlete leaders and their behaviors.
Using the MML as a guide, the purpose of this study was to address this oversight by identifying and
examining the leadership behaviors of university male ice hockey team captains.



Participants were six former Canadian university male ice hockey team captains who were identified by
current or former Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) coaches as being among the best team captains
they coached. A minimum winning percentage of 50% while they were team captain was required. The
combined record of the teams when the participants were captain was 114 wins, 41 losses, and 15 ties
for a 73.5% winning percentage. In addition, two of the participants won the CIS National Championship
during their tenure as team captain. Aside from coach recognition and team success, the participants
must have played at the university level (CIS) for a minimum of two full seasons and must have
completed a minimum of one full season as team captain at the university level. Table 1 provides a
summary of the participants' history and accomplishments as captain.

Instrument and Procedure

Participants were contacted by email or phone, provided with a brief summary of the study, and asked to
participate. Each team captain was interviewed individually, with each interview lasting between 45-60
minutes. The present study utilized a semi-structured interview approach. This allowed the researcher to
suggest a topic and provided the participant an opportunity to answer freely, with few restrictions (Rubin
& Rubin, 1995). The structure of the interview included introductory, key, summary, and concluding
questions that were created specifically for this study. Questions were developed using Chelladurai's
(1993) MML as a theoretical framework. Introductory questions focused on the leader characteristics
dimension of the MML and were designed to initiate the discussion (e.g., How did you get involved in
university ice hockey?; When and how did you become captain of your university team?). The key
questions primarily focused on the situational characteristics of the MML by exploring the behaviors of
team captains in a variety of settings, including practices, games, lockerroom, and off-ice situations. A
summary question was created to tie together the most important points (e.g., What are the key
behaviors exhibited by a team captain?). Lastly, a concluding question was developed to allow the
participants an opportunity to add any information. It should be noted that follow-up questions and
probes were asked throughout the interview based on the answers of the participants. These questions
explored the different leader behaviors contained in the MML.

Prior to the interview, the participant read and signed a consent form and completed a short
demographic questionnaire. The researcher then informed the participant that the interview would be
audio recorded and that a full verbatim transcript of the interview would be sent to the participant for
approval prior to data analysis. The participant's confidentiality was protected through the use of a
coding system that replaced each of their names with a code (P1-P6).

Data Analysis

The main objective of the data analysis was to create an organized system of categories that emerged
from the unstructured data, regarding the behaviors Of ice hockey team captains. The analysis was
inductive and followed the guidelines outlined by Cote, Salmela, and Russell (1995), which consisted of
three main steps: creating tags, creating properties, and creating and conceptualizing categories.

Prior to data analysis, each interview was transcribed verbatim with only minor edits, such as removing
names that threatened confidentiality and adding relevant information in brackets to clarify ambiguous
pieces of text (Cote et al., 1995). Then, each interview was analyzed and divided into pieces of
information, called meaning units. A meaning unit is a piece of text that expresses a single idea (Tesch,
1990). This portion of text can be a few words, a phrase, or an entire paragraph. Next, each meaning
unit was named or tagged based on its content. Meaning units of the same topic received the same tag.
Fifty-four tags emerged in the current study. Following this, similar tags were grouped into larger
divisions, called properties. Each property was named according to the common features their meaning
units shared (Cote et al., 1995). This process produced nine properties. The final level of classification
consisted of grouping similar properties into higher-level divisions, called categories. These new
categories were also tagged according to the common features of their properties. Three categories
emerged from this process. This step was similar to the earlier stage of creating properties; however it
was carried out at a higher and more abstract level of analysis (Cote et al., 1995). Data were examined
until saturation of information was reached and no new level emerged at each level of classification
(Cote et al., 1995). The QSR NUD*IST software program was used to help organize, code, and analyze
the data. This computer program helped create a computerized index system through which all meaning
units were easily retrieved and sorted.

Issues of Trustworthiness

Establishing trustworthiness is a vital component of any qualitative study (Lincoln & Guba, 1985;
Sparkes, 1998). The present study used several techniques to ensure trustworthiness, such as member
checks and peer review. The first type of member check involved a debriefing session at the end of each
interview. At this time, the researcher summarized the interview and invited the participant to add or
correct any information. A second member check occurred when each participant received a full
verbatim transcript of his interview. Again, each participant had the opportunity to verify, clarify, add, or
remove any portion of the interview. Of the six transcripts that were sent back to the participants, four
participants changed nothing, one had minor edits, and one did not reply. Finally, a third member check
consisted of sending a summary of the results to each participant to allow for additional comments or
clarification (Sparkes, 1998). Of the six summaries that were sent to the participants, four replied
indicating they were satisfied with the results.

Another technique for establishing trustworthiness is peer review. A peer research assistant examined
25% of the meaning units created by the research team and matched each meaning unit with a
previously labeled tag. An agreement rate of 83% was reached for the meaning units. Discrepancies in
classification between the research team and the peer research assistant were discussed until a
consensus was reached. The same peer review process took place with the categorization of properties
and categories. The peer reviewer classified all 54 tags into the nine properties and obtained a 94%
reliability rate. Finally, the reviewer obtained a 100% agreement between the grouping of properties into

Three other techniques were carried out to ensure the trustworthiness of the data. First, two pilot
interviews were conducted with ice hockey team captains to practice and improve interviewing skills,
and to pilot test the interview guide (Maxwell, 1996). Trustworthiness was also enhanced by having the
interviewer attend CIS games and practices to become more familiar with the jargon, environment, and
nature of the interactions between CIS hockey players. Finally, thick descriptions of the participants'
thoughts are provided in the results section by including appropriate meaning units in order to help the
reader interpret the data (Sparkes, 1998).


A total of 425 meaning units emerged from the six interviews. From these 425 meaning units, three
higher-order categories emerged from the data. These categories were labeled interpersonal
characteristics and experiences, verbal interactions, and task behaviors. Each category will be explained
in the following section.

Interpersonal Characteristics and Experiences

The higher-order category of interpersonal characteristics and experiences referred to the team
captains' personal qualities and skills, as well as information pertaining to their sporting/hockey
background and evolution as team captain.

Sporting/hockey background included team captains' personal evolution in sport, especially hockey,
leading up to their university career. In particular, all the participants began playing and enjoying hockey
at a young age, as evidenced in the following quote: I am from Canada. I was young, probably skating
since I was about

three or four years old, and I started playing organized hockey at about five or six years old. I have
played all my life. I was

never pushed into it and I always loved the game and kept playing

through university, and luckily after university. [P1] The team captains also discussed their pre-university
hockey years, including their experiences in Major Junior hockey, a training ground of aspiring
professional players. After their junior eligibility ended, the participants had to choose between playing
Canadian university hockey, playing professionally in Europe, or playing in a North American minor
professional league. The opportunity to earn a university degree was a major factor influencing all of
their decisions to play university hockey, perhaps indicating its importance: "For me, after playing Major
Junior hockey, university hockey was a good option. I wanted to get my degree, so I had something to
fall back on." [P4]

Evolution as team captain encompassed ways the participants acquired knowledge on becoming an
effective team captain. This involved their previous hockey experiences and learning from respected
individuals. For example, these participants had played hockey with many team captains and were able
to explain how these interactions shaped their own leadership style. More specifically, each participant
alluded to the importance of learning from others: I don't think you can teach someone to be a team
captain. I think it has to do with a lot of experiences that you have had throughout your life, and it's
learning from other people. I have played on teams with both great and terrible captains. It is looking at
the qualities that these individuals have and seeing what you want to bring to a team. [PS] Depending
on the coach, the selection of team captain was either coach appointed...
How to Be a Good Team Captain
It's one thing to be a good team player, but it's another to be a good captain. Few will have the
opportunity to feel the weight of the responsibilities and the happiness of knowing you're making
a difference. But if you're fortunate enough to find yourself with the honor or being a captain,
then here are 5 steps you can take to ensure you're being the best captain you could possibly

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[edit ] Steps
1. Treat all of your teammates as teammates. You are the captain, not the coach. This doesn't
mean that you can't be helpful, be a leader, or help teach, this just means that you shouldn't
treat them as if they are beneath you.

2. Be helpful and give constructive criticism. Never put a teammate down, instead lift them up
with words of encouragement and give them advise and pointers that will help them improve.

3. Keep the peace. If you notice that there is tension on the team try to resolve it. A team
cannot properly function if there are problems. So if you see a problem calmly, with the
entire team, address it and together try to find a solution.

4. Help the coach. If the coach has allowed for you to be captain there is a reason. Think of it
this way, there are several of players and normally one coach. And because you are the
captain, a team leader, it is your responsibility to not only help your other teammates but
your coach as well.

5. Be a good role model. Because you are a team leader, the other players on your team will
look up to you for advise and guidance. Set a good example and show them the proper way
to act, be it on the field, court, or street.

6. Remember, you cant be shy, you have to talk to your team as if they were your family and
give advice. You are pretty much the second coach , give them tips but dont boss them
around, for example, "Hey Joey, move a little toward the left, its a lefty up." See how it gave
instruction but didn't say, "JOEY GET OVER HERE!" A good team captain has experience,
dont give tips if you dont know any. Practice alot at whatever sport you are in.

[edit ] Tips
• Try to avoid team clicks, it's a team made up of players, not a team made up of teams.

• Ask for input from your teammates. Sometimes it's hard to please everyone, so to help make
it easier you should ask if there is anything that is on their mind.

• Not matter how difficult or long a day has been, always try to stay positive. A captain is
suppose to set the pace for a team and if you're being negative you can't expect good
results from your team.

[edit ] Warnings
• DO NOT, get power hungry. There is nothing more hated on a team than a power hunger,
controlling, bossy, and conceited player.

Leadership Characteristics
by Karlene Sugarman, M.A.
"Leadership is like gravity. You know it's there, you know it exists, but how
do you define it?" Former San Francisco 49er Tight End, Dr. Jamie Williams

Great leaders come in many forms. In one sense solid leadership is a subjective thing, in
another there are certain characteristics that are, by consensus, typical of quality
leadership. Leadership is the process of influencing team members to work hard
towards, and be committed to, team goals. Leaders can either be task-oriented or
person-oriented. Task-oriented leaders are most interested in training, instructing
behavior, performance and winning. Person-oriented leaders are more interested in the
interpersonal relationships on the team. Great leaders in sports are both task- and
people-oriented, but lean more towards being task-oriented.
Leaders must possess the qualities they are trying to incorporate into their team. For
example, if you want members to be confident, have self-control, be disciplined, etc.,
then you must first possess all these traits. One of the most powerful things you can do
is lead by example. You serve as an influential role model for your players and
everything you do will be watched. Vince Lombardi says, "Leaders are made, they are
not born; and they are made just like anything else has every been made in this country -
by hard work" (Dowling, 1970, p. 179).
Great leaders are often scholars in their field and are intelligent. Like all great scholars,
they aren't know-it-alls, they feel there is always more to learn and have a willingness to
admit mistakes. Outstanding leaders make decisions based on facts, and apply common
sense and simplicity to complex tasks. You must select the right strategy for the right
situation, even when the pressure is overwhelming. They are well organized, detail-
oriented and, due to their thorough preparation, rarely caught off guard. Their great
knowledge allows them to be great educators and motivators. They are also smart
enough to know that many times they will have to alter what they originally planned
due to changing circumstances, so flexibility and having an open mind are crucial to
Successful leaders are not only highly driven and intrinsically motivated but also foster
that same enthusiasm in their associates. Charles Schwab says, "I consider my ability to
arouse enthusiasm among the men the greatest asset I possess, and the way to develop
the best that is in a man is by appreciation and encouragement" (Carnegie, 1964, p. 34).
They have a high energy level, create task excitement and are catalysts for positive
action. One must be a good motivator and have the gift for verbal persuasion to get
athletes to "buy in" to the fact that hard work does pay off and that the pursuit of
excellence, while a tough journey, is a worthwhile one. One cannot take motivation for
granted. Even the players who are always motivated can use some outside motivation
from coaches. They must be encouraged as people and as players.
Great leadership encompasses confidence, assertiveness and mutual respect. Great
leaders take calculated risks and are innovative and confident in their decisions to do so.
They realize that being timid will not get them where they want to go. This confidence
and assertiveness will usually trickle down to the team members. The quality and
effectiveness of a great leader will often show itself by way of the team's effort as a
whole. A coach's confidence in the team can give team members added strength to do
extraordinary things. One also must have respect for the players; if athletes are not
treated with genuine respect, they will respect the coach. Sincerity is important because
players can usually tell if positive talk is phony, and in that case they won't take it to
To get the most out of each player and make the team experience a positive one, one
must understand the individuality of players and the dynamics of group interaction. It is
essential to know members well enough to be able to assess their strengths and
weaknesses and use them to their fullest potential within the context of the team.
Systematic delegation--getting the right players doing the right job--is vital on teams.
For example, the selection of the right person to be team captain can be important. This
is why it is so important for a coach to get to know each of the players as well as
The great leader is a master in the art of communication. He or she is aware of the
strong need for actions to match words. Leaders need to possess a willingness to listen
to input with an open mind. Two-way communication, being approachable and having
an "open door" policy makes for very good team relations. This is crucial in building a
trusting and open environment. It must be an established norm that it is okay to ask for
help and that players can communicate openly without fear of punishment. The way one
communicates with and leads a team may play a big part in their motivation to work
The goal is to push the team to perform to their full potential. The coach, along with the
players, must set obtainable yet demanding team goals. Strong leadership becomes a
moot point if the players are uninterested in the mission and goals. Coaches must
develop a strong rapport which involves trust and confidence on both ends. "Good
leadership consists of motivating people to their highest levels by offering them
opportunities, not obligations" (Tzu, p. 135).
Murray & Mann stated that a proficient leader "has a vision, an intense focus on
outcome and results, a realistic strategy to carry out the vision and the ability to
communicate the vision and rally support of others" (Williams, 1993, p. 87). Leaders
are there to coach, direct and nudge players in the direction of the goals. They have a
strong ability to pass their intensity along to their others. They are always "in the game"
right along with the players.
A leader guides a team, not rules a team. He or she charts a course, gives direction and
develops the social and psychological environment (Martens, 1987). The leader--either
the coach or a player with leadership qualities--provides an atmosphere where others
can learn and grow. A coach must give some responsibility to the group and have the
courage to foster independence. Otherwise the members will feel that they are not
trusted to take care of themselves and will be irresponsible. There must be a balance
where the coach accepts his or her share of responsibility and gives some back to the
team members.
This article has looked at a number of characteristics that seem to go hand in hand with
outstanding leadership. Excellence in leadership is acquired by people who have a
strong sense of vision, have passion and are able to get people to commit 100% and take
the necessary action to see that vision become a reality. Great leaders excel in the art of
communication and motivation, mutual respect, instilling confidence and enthusiasm,
and showing credibility and integrity on a consistent basis.
[Adapted from Winning the Mental Way, by Karlene Sugarman, M.A. For more
information on this book you can contact Step Up Publishing at 650-347-0826, or
Karlene directly at karsug@newsguy.com.]