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Enviromental

Have you ever looked out of the window of a passenger plane from 30,000 feet at the vast expanses of
empty ocean and uninhabited land, and wondered how people can have any major effect on the Earth? I
have. But it is now becoming pretty clear that we are causing a great deal of damage to the natural
environment. And the planes which rush us in comfort to destinations around the globe, contribute to
one of the biggest environmental problems that we face today global warming.
As usual, people in the developing world are having to deal with problems created mainly by those of us
in developed countries. Beatrice Schell, a spokeswoman for the European Federation for Transport and
Environment says that, "One person flying in an airplane for one hour is responsible for the same
greenhouse gas emissions as a typical Bangladeshi in a whole year." And every year jet aircraft generate
almost as much carbon dioxide as the entire African continent produces.
However there is a way of offsetting the carbon dioxide we produce when we travel by plane. A
company called Future Forests, whose supporters include Coldplay and Pink Floyd, offers a service
which can relieve the guilty consciences of air travellers. The Future Forest website calculates the
amount of CO2 you are responsible for producing on your flight, and for a small fee will plant the
number of trees which will absorb this CO2. Another company, co2.org, offers a similar service, but
invests your money in energy saving projects such as providing efficient light bulbs to villagers in
Mauritius.

Some theories of the purpose of dreams


Freud believed that we dream so that we can release the deep, secret desires that we are not allowed to
express in real life because of the rules of polite society. Most people know about Freudian dream
analysis a dream about a train going into a tunnel is a dream about sexual intercourse. But couldnt it
just be a dream about travelling on a train?
Another theory is that dreams allow us to solve problems that we cant solve in real life. We go to sleep
with a problem and wake up with the answer. This may be more of a way to use our dreams than a
purpose of dreaming. If you believe that your dreams are important then analysing them may help you
to focus your mind on the problem and help you to find the solution.
The modern image is that dreams are the brains way of cleaning up the computers hard disk,
organizing the events of the day into folders and deleting the rubbish that it doesnt want to keep. But
we all know that very little of what we dream every night is concerned with what happened to us that
day.
Another idea is that dreams are the brains way of practising the behaviour that we need to survive. So
we dream about being chased by a monster because one day it might happen! Its a bit like a pianist
practising her scales every day even though she doesnt need to use them at that moment.
Others believe that dreaming is the brains way of exercising the pathways between the brain cells. This
may be an important element in why we sleep rather than why we dream. We die if we dont sleep but
we can live without dreaming. Some patients with brain injuries lose the ability to dream but dont seem
to suffer any ill-effects.
Modern technology has allowed scientists to map the parts of the brain that are active when we dream.
The primitive brainstem is very active, but so are other important areas at the front of the brain. These
are the frontal lobes that control emotion, memory, and experiences that come through the senses like
hearing and vision. If these areas are injured, the person stops dreaming. On the other hand, the areas

that control rational, logical thought are not active at all. This could explain why dreams are so strange.
They have no logical sequence or time, which makes them very difficult to explain to other people when
we wake up. Dreams combine recent events with long past events and our emotions while we are
dreaming are often very strong.

Food
When I was at school, our teacher told the class 'You are what you eat.' My friends and I would laugh
and call each other hamburger and biscuits. Our teacher was trying to show us the importance of
eating the right food to stay healthy.
Japanese people are reputed to be the healthiest in the world because of the food they eat. The healthiest
Japanese people eat rice and fish and vegetables every day. They drink green tea or water when theyre
thirsty, and snack on dried fish, fruit or gingko nuts. The traditional Japanese diet is famous for helping
you to live a longer and healthier life.
So we have proof that you become what you eat. Can you tell what your friends eat just by looking at
them? When you know the effects of different types of food, you can use your knowledge well and eat
what you want to become.
Food has an impact on our physical and emotional health. Have you ever heard any of the following
advice?
Lettuce or milk can make you sleepy.
To stop feeling sleepy you should eat peanuts or dried fish.
To keep your teeth clean you should eat apples often.
Garlic helps you not to catch a cold.
Everyone has their own advice to give, which they have read about or have been told by older relatives.
Some of these pieces of advice seem to contradict each other.
Eating chocolate makes you fat and gives you spots.
Chocolate contains the essential minerals iron and magnesium
What we need to figure out is what type of chocolate to eat to get the benefits and how much of it to eat.
We can do this by reading the list of ingredients on the chocolate bar wrapper. Exactly how much real
chocolate is in there? And how much of that do we need to eat to get the benefits of the minerals it
contains?
Future restaurants might be named after the physical or emotional state they hope to create. Their menus
will list the benefits of each dish and drink. Some restaurants have already started this concept, and list
the nutritional content of their dishes on the menus.

News in the age of information


We are often told that the age of the information economy has arrived. The idea is that intellectual
work is becoming a more important source of wealth than manufacturing. There are already too many
factories for the number of people who want to buy stuff, so the winners in the marketplace need to have
a lead in terms of fashion, or technology to beat the competition. You can easily see this process at work
in important industries like cars and clothing and computers where big companies prefer to concentrate
on promoting their brand and let subcontractors do the less profitable work of manufacturing the
products.
But there is a problem with information as an organising principle in society. It only counts if people pay
attention to it. Together with inventors and designers, the information economy needs Public Relations
executives to make sure customers are getting the right message. So, faced with the increasing claims on
our attention, organisations in other spheres of life have to do more to get their share of it too. So PR
people may work for politicians (then we call them spin doctors) or they may work for artists (then we
call them publicists or pluggers.) A lot of our news is actually compiled from press releases and
reports of events deliberately staged for journalists. Journalists spend their time, not investigating, but
passing on the words of a spokesperson, publicist or other professional propagandist.
Have you ever wished you were better informed?
Maybe the time has come to do something about it, and I dont just mean changing your choice of TV
channel or newspaper. In a world where everyone wants you to listen to their version, you only have two
choices: switch off altogether or start looking for sources you can trust. The investigative journalist of
the future is everyone who wants to know the truth.

What is a Refugee?
A refugee, defined by the United Nations, is a person who is unable or unwilling to return to their
country because of a well-founded fear of persecution based on their race, religion, nationality, political
opinion or because they belong to a particular social group. Why Do They Come?
Most refugees flee their country to escape armed conflict. They often leave with their families and apply
for asylum in another country. Many of them do not want to leave their own country, but have no choice.
The journeys they undertake to reach a safe place may be almost as risky as staying in their own
country. They would do anything to escape their suffering: crossing deserts, mountains, seas and rivers,
sometimes using dangerous means of transport. They also hide in parts of ships that are too cramped,
too hot and too smelly for anyone to check. Many never arrive. World Refugee Day
On the 20th of June each year people celebrate World Refugee Day. An important part of this celebration
is the award given to a person or group who excels in helping refugee causes.
Perhaps politicians should remind themselves of the fact that, whether they are dealing with genuine
asylum seekers or economic migrants, they are dealing with human beings, not numbers, and the people
should be treated humanely.

Information society
The growth in telecommunications is now giving more and more people access to democratic ideas, to
the principles of international law and human rights, to the science that will help their country to
develop or to the medical knowledge that can fight disease. It is starting a real global village which
people only dreamed of a generation ago. Ten years from now, the plan is that everybody in the world
will have a radio or television and that 50% of the worlds population will have access to the internet
from schools and universities, health centres and hospitals, libraries and museums. This will improve
medical care and education, science and agriculture, business opportunities and employment. At the
same time, they say, local communities, languages and cultures will become stronger. Perhaps the spread
of technology means that the old centres of power are also changing. The United States introduced
internet technology in the 1970s. But people are asking why they should continue to be in charge.

Ecotourism
Nowadays, many of us try to live in a way that will damage the environment as little as possible. We
recycle our newspapers and bottles, we take public transport to get to work, we try to buy locally
produced fruit and vegetables and we stopped using aerosol sprays years ago. And we want to take these
attitudes on holiday with us. This is why alternative forms of tourism are becoming more popular all
over the world.
But what is ecotourism?
There are lots of names for these new forms of tourism: responsible tourism, alternative tourism,
sustainable tourism, nature tourism, adventure tourism, educational tourism and more. Ecotourism
probably involves a little of all of them. Everyone has a different definition but most people agree that
ecotourism must:
1 conserve the wildlife and culture of the area.
2 benefit the local people and involve the local community
3 be sustainable, that is make a profit without destroying natural resources
4 provide an experience that tourists want to pay for.
This type of tourism can only involve small numbers of people so it can be expensive. But you can
apply the principles of ecotourism wherever you go for your holiday. Just remember these basic rules.
Be prepared. Learn about the place that you're going to visit. Find out about its culture and history.
Learn a little of the native language, at least basics like 'Please', 'Thank you', and 'Good Morning'. Think
of your holiday as an opportunity to learn something. Have respect for local culture. Wear clothes that
will not offend people. Always ask permission before you take a photograph. Remember that you are a
visitor. Don't waste resources. If the area doesn't have much water, don't take two showers every day.
Remember the phrase "Leave nothing behind you except footprints and take nothing away except
photographs." Take as much care of the places that you visit as you take of your own home. Don't buy
souvenirs made from endangered animals or plants.
Walk or use other non-polluting forms of transport whenever you can. Be flexible and keep a sense
of humour when things go wrong.
Stay in local hotels and eat in local restaurants. Buy local products whenever possible and pay a fair
price for what you buy.

Choose your holiday carefully. Don't be afraid to ask the holiday company about what they do that is
'eco'. Remember that 'eco' is very fashionable today and a lot of holidays that are advertised as
ecotourism are not much better than traditional tourism.

Are you a town mouse or a country mouse?


The debate between town and country is meaningless these days, as so many people live in towns, and
very few people are actually able to choose where they live; this is dictated by their work or birth. The
internet and other mass media have linked country areas to the world, providing access to information
even to remote areas. If
people are to be persuaded to stay in the countryside, other benefits of the city need to be available
(employment, healthcare and education). Conversely, the introduction of city parks and forests, and
traffic free zones, has helped in bringing a little of the countryside to the city streets.
The UN World habitat day (4th October) this year looks at this issue. It emphasises the need for strong
links between town and countryside, and their mutual dependence upon each other.

Ancient cultures
Remains of ancient cultures, like Cuzco in Peru, Angkor in Cambodia, or the famous rock city of Petra
in Jordan. Or old city centres, such as Rome in Italy, or Sana'a in Yemen. Or places of artistic or cultural
significance, like the Stonehenge stone circle in England, or the Tsodilo rock paintings in the Kalahari
Desert in Botswana. But The World Heritage List contains a lot of sites that are not so obvious. Some of
them are well known.
Borders of France and Spain
This is an area of great natural beauty and the mountains have many interesting geological formations.
But it is also an area of small farms. People there still use a type of agriculture that used to be common
in mountainous areas of Europe but has almost completely disappeared in modern times. The WHL has
listed the site because it shows us about 'past European society through its landscape of villages, farms,
fields, upland pastures and mountain roads.'
Dorset and East Devon Coast, United Kingdom
This part of the coast in the South West of England is famous for its fossils and is popular with scientists
and amateur fossil hunters. The cliffs also show rock formations from millions of years ago. The WHL
says that they 'have contributed to the study of earth sciences for over 300 years.

Overpopulation
Doom, version 1: In 1798 Robert Malthus wrote an essay which got economics the name of the dismal
science. It was called The Principle of Population. He said that it was impossible for the number of
people to increase, and even worse, it was impossible for the standard of living to rise. The argument
went like this: 1. population naturally increases geometrically: 2, 4, 8, 16 2. food production increases
arithmetically 2, 4, 6, 8 3. so, population will be controlled by lack of food, the same as it is for
animals. Some people will always be starving.
A lot of people disliked Malthus point of view. Often, because it seemed to go against the idea of
progress, which was so important for other social theories of the time. Anyway, the experience of the

next two centuries shows that something must be wrong with the theory. In the 19th century world
population rose from 1 to 1.7 billion. In the 20th, it increased to about 6 billion.
City life in the developed world At least in the rich countries, the move into cities seems to be connected
with falling fertility rates. It is more expensive to have a child in the city, and children are less useful as
workers. Women receive a better education and are able to work so they have more to lose by
becoming mothers. City life seems to encourage individualism people become more interested in
getting an education and a career. They marry later in life, and divorce more often, so producing smaller
families.

Body
This is a 10cm long piece of the intestines and nobody can really work out what it's for. It's probably a
leftover from the days when our ancestors were vegetarian, and many people have it removed when it
becomes infected.
B A muscular bag which expands to collects urine from the kidneys. It can hold as much as half a litre
before you have to go to the toilet. They used to be kicked around as footballs and played as musical
instruments, although only after the animals had finished using them
C Some people have clefts in theirs, others let hair grow on themYou keep it up to recover from a
misfortune, and use the word twice to toast someone.
D The little depression which appears each side of your mouth when you smile is, like the ability to
make a u-shape with your tongue, genetic. You've either got it, or you haven't
E That most perfect of organs, the biologist's best argument for natural selection, the window to the soul.
In sleep, it is covered by a lid. Close one and you wink, close two and you blink. The third is a symbol
of enlightenment.
F People paint the nails to make themselves more attractive and put rings on them to signify alliance.
They help us read if we cannot see, and help us speak when we cannot hear. They wrote these words
G I've always thought that this sounds like the name of a distinguished Roman Emperor, but it is in fact
the most powerful muscle in the human body. There are two of them and chances are you're probably
sitting on them right now.
H The size of a fist, it beats 70 times a minute without stopping for more than 60 years. So much more
than just a pump for the blood, it symbolizes love and the centre of our being. It can be followed,
broken, even worn on your sleeve!
I It opens and closes in reaction to light and gives colour to the eye. It is now scanned to check people's
identity. The word comes from the woman in Greek mythology who personified the rainbow.
J The bone that opens and closes the mouth and holds your teeth. It drops if you are shocked or
surprised. Snakes can unlock theirs if they're having a particularly big lunch.
K Bend it and you get shorter, get down on it and you show respect. Footballers and skiers put it under
great stress. Children and ventriloquists' dummies tend to use it as a seat. It should jerk if you hit it with
a small hammer.
L Some people fill theirs with smoke, although they are supposed to be used for getting oxygen to the
blood and removing carbon dioxide. The right one is bigger than the left one. They have enough airways
to cover a tennis court.

M There are 650 of these and we move when they get shorter. They often work in pairs. Some you can't
control at all. One you can, supposedly, is the tongue. It takes 17 of them to make a smile.
N The 'wires' which pass messages to and from the brain to all parts of the body by using electrical
pulses and chemical changes. If the blood to them gets cut off, they get irritated and the result is 'pins
and needles'. There are over 70km of them in the skin alone.
O About the size of a nut, there are two of these organs which produce an unfertilised human egg every
month or so for about thirty years. They also release the hormones which change girls into women.
P This is the part of the body that can be moved sensually while dancing and led to the invention of
Hawaiian grass skirts, rock'n'roll and the hula-hoop. It is larger in women for the purposes of childbirth
only because humans insist on having such big heads.
R Twelve pairs in both men and women form a cage to protect various vital organs inside. Some of them
'float' because they don't meet in the middle. If you crack one, you just have to wait until it heals.
S This is our surface covering. It takes a month for each new cell to move through the three layers to the
top, after which it drops off. You lose about 50 kilos of it by the time you are 70. It comes in a variety of
colours to protect us from the sun, and gets more wrinkled as we get older.
T 60,000 litres of water pass down it in the average lifetime and sometimes you get a frog in it. It
contains one pipe for food and one for air. Pressure on the outside can lead to strangulation, a blockage
inside can cause suffocation.
U The thing that hangs down at the back of your mouth. This is what you see when you yawn, and can
sometimes cause people to snore when they are asleep.
V This makes your blood look blue. Medical professionals use them if they need to extract a specimen
for testing. They can become inflamed or varicose if you spend too much time in one position.
W A joint that links fifteen separate bones. It is used to hang an accessory for telling the time, or one to
persuade you to accompany the police to the station.
X A long continuous piece of DNA, containing around 1,000 genes, this is one of the 23 pairs that are
found in human cells. Women have two of them, men one.
Y A long continuous piece of DNA, containing between 70 and 300 genes. Its sequence has now been
mapped by the Human Genome Project. It is found only inside the cells of the male of the species.
Z If you've never heard of this, then you're probably not the only one. Nor had I until I found out it's
another name for the cheekbone.

Ankle

Finger

Bladder

Knee

Pelvis

Vein

Gluteus maximus Lung

Rib

Wrist

Chin

Heart

Muscle

Skin

Xchromosome

Dimple

Iris

Nerves

Throat

Ychromosome

Eye

Jaw

Ovary

Uvula

Zygoma

Weather
It's hardly surprising that weather is a favourite topic for so many people around the world - it affects
where we choose to live, what we wear, our moods, and perhaps even our national characteristics. A
sunny day can relieve the deepest depression, while extreme weather can destroy homes and threaten
lives.
In modern times, human activity seems to be altering weather patterns. Gases produced by heavy
industry change the temperature of the Earths surface, and affect cloud formation. Some researchers say
that factories in Europe and North America may have been one of the causes of the droughts in Africa in
the 1980s.
A recent study by an Australian psychologist suggests that certain people may have a special gift for
predicting the weather. However it is possible that these people would use their talent in another way,
since the same group had considerable success in forecasting changes in another chaotic system the
stock market.

Benefits of ageing population


A hundred years ago, people did not expect to live long after their retirement. However, due to advances
in health care, people are living much longer. This brings many changes, both positive and negative, to
the way we live.
Firstly, we need more people to care for them. Families have to spend time and money taking elderly
relatives to hospitals and helping with household tasks like cooking, cleaning and washing. This may
bring financial problems and stress.
On the other hand, caring for the elderly provides many jobs. More doctors, nurses and carers are
needed. There are also more jobs in the leisure and the tourism industry, as many elderly want to keep
active for as long as possible.
In many ways, the role of old people in society is changing. In the past, people contributed little after
they retired. But nowadays old people help with child care and do a lot of important voluntary work
which benefits the community.
In conclusion, an elderly population has both advantages and drawbacks. Although they require more
care, they provide jobs and do a lot of good work for the community.

Review of Jurassic Park


One of my favourite films which promotes science is Jurassic Park. The film is about some scientists
who manage to recreate dinosaurs. They build a park on a tropical island where visitors can view the
dinosaurs. But the dinosaurs escape and start to kill people Eventually, the visitors escape from the
island.
The film is enjoyable because it is exciting and full of suspense. The acting isnt great, but it has
amazing special effects and I enjoyed every minute of it. Its perfect for families with older children
and adults who like action movies.
Although the film is primarily an adventure film, it helped me to become interested in science. When I
was young, I found science difficult and uninteresting. But this film made me wonder whether it actually
is possible to create dinosaurs. I started to pay more attention in my biology classes, and I even started
to read books on the subject.

Even though I probably wont become a scientist in the future, I appreciate films like Jurassic Park.
They help us understand that science can create both wonderful and terrible things.
Family life
I have two half sisters, but they are much older than me. I havent lived with them since I was five
years old. I spent most of my childhood and all my teenage years so far as an only child.
There are a few advantages of being the only child in the family. First of all, my parents and
grandparents have more money to spend on me. As a result, I can do interesting sports like sailing and
skiing and I can go on exciting holidays. They also have time to spend with me. We have interesting
discussions and they can help me with my homework.
It is boring sometimes though. When I was younger I wanted a brother or sister to play with. Holidays
were especially boring because I couldnt visit my friends. As I got older, I learnt that brothers and
sisters are sometimes annoying, and I stopped minding so much.
On the whole, I think the advantages of being an only child outweigh the drawbacks. But I am aware
that my feelings may change again when I get older!
Email to a language school
Dear Mr Williams,
I saw your advertisement for language courses in London and I am writing to find out more about the
courses you offer. I am thinking of attending a course for two or three weeks in August. Could you
please send me more information and details of prices?
I would particularly like to know how many students attend the school, and how many students there are
in a class. I'd also like to know what resources the school has. For example, is there a library where I can
study in the evenings? Could you tell me something about the staff? Are they all qualified teachers?
I would be interested in having more details of the social and sports
programme. Are the activities included in the price of the course? Could you tell me about the cost of
accommodation too?
Also, can you tell me what amenities there are near the school? For
example, is there a park or cinema nearby?
I look forward to receiving your reply.
Regards,
Argue
In life, we sometimes have disagreements with people. It could be with your partner, with your boss,
with your parents, or with a friend. When this happens, the important thing is to try not to let a
difference of opinin turn into a heated argument. But, of course, its easier said tan done.
The first thing I would say is that the way you begin the conversation is very important. Its much more
constructive to say something like I think wed better have another look about how we divide up the
housework.
My second piece of advice is simple. If youre the person whos in the wrong, just admit it! This is the
easiest and best way to avoid an argument. Just apologize to your flatmate, your parents, or your
husband, and move on. The other person will have much more respecto for you if you do that.
The next tip is dont exaggerate. Try not to say things like you always come home late when my
mother comes to dinner, when perhaprs this has only happened once before. This will just make the
other person get very defensive because what youre saying about them just isnt true.

If you follow these tips, you may often be able to avoid an argumnet. But if an argument does start, its
importante to keep things under control and there are ways to do this.
The most important thing is not to raise your voice. Raising your voice will just make the other person
lose their temper, too. If you find yourself raising your voice, stop for a momento and take a deep breath
and continue calmly. If you can talk calmly and quietly, youll find the other person will be more ready
to thing about what youre saying.
It is also very important to stick to the point. Try to keep to the topic youre talking about. Just
concntrate on solving the one problem youre having, and leave the other things for another time.
And my final tip is that, if necessary, call Time out like in a sports match. If you think that an
argument is getting out of control, then you can say to the other person listen, Id rather talk about this
tomorrow when weve both calmed down. You can then continue talking about it the next day when
perhaps both of you are feeling less tense and angry.
Some people thing that arguing is always bad, but that isnt true. Conflict is a normal part of life, and
dealing with conflicto is an important part of any relationship, whether its three people sharing a flat, a
married couple. Thnk of the smaller arguments as training sessions. Learn how to argue cleanly and
fairly. It will help your relationship become stronger and last longer.
Body
Touching or stroking their neck is a very typical sign that a person is nervous, and is trying to calm
themselves down.
When somebodys standing and they point one of their toes upwards, this is a clear sign that the person
is in a good mood, often because they are thinking about, or have just Heard, something positive. If you
see someone standing talking on the phone and they suddenly point one foot up, you can be sure that
they have just been told some good news.
Crossing their legs, whether theyre sitting or standing, is a sign that a person feels relaxed and
comfortable. If the person is sitting with their legs crossed and their feet towards another person that
shows that they are interested in this person. However, if someone they donlike appears, you may find
that they quickly uncross their legs.
This position, standing with your hands on your hips and your elbows pointing out, is a pose used to
show dominance. If you wath plice officers or soldiers youll notice that they often use this pose. Men
tend to use more tan women.
We all know that thumbs up is a positive sign meaning we feel good or approve of something.
Dowloading music
It is widely known that dowloading music is a crime. Dowloading a song or a book should be punished
and normallu, this crime entails a fine. Nowadays, the law is changing to include new crimes because
dowloading is considered a way of stealing. In my opinin, dowloading music or films without paying
us as much of a crime as stealing from a shop.
Firstly, writers and musicians want to share their arte and get money with their job. Downloading is a
crime and maybe against the autor. In many cases, Young artista think the Internet is their opportunity to
get their dream come true.

Secondly, if we download music, we can enjoy the song, but we dont respect the person who has
created it. In addition, they usually dont have much money although the Price of a CD or a book is
expensive. Maybe, the problem is the people who make business with others art.
In conclusin, we have the opportunity to buy an artists product cheaper on the Internet. The web is the
new market but to get a right or equal Price is necessary to respect the copyright.
People spend too much time and money on fashion
Every season, the great fashion houses of Europe and America present their new collections in the hope
of persuading people to renew their wardrobes by purchasing the latest designs. In my opinion, one does
not have to be a slave to fashion in order to look smart.
To start with, following the latest trends in fashion can be extremely expensive. This is especially true
for those who buy costly designer clothing. There is also the risk of getting into debt in order to keep up
with the latest fashions.
In addition to this, followers of fashion often give up their individuality for the sake of fashion. They
choose clothes which suit neither their figures nor their personalities. This is unfortunate, as the way we
dress should reflect who we really are.
On the other hand, some people argue that it is necessary to dress fashionably in order to create the
correct image for their careers. This is particularly true of those who work with the public, as they
reflect the image of their company. This does not mean that the latest fashions are the most appropriate,
however. Simple but well-made clothes are almost always the best choice for business wear.
To conclude, I strongly believe that it is advisable to dress with style by choosing good quality clothes
which suit you as an individual and have lasting elegance. As the famous designer Coco Chanel put it,
Fashion is made to become unfashionable. So instead of changing your wardrobe constantly, isnt it
better to build up a collection of clothes which you can always wear?
Book
I have been an avid reader ever since I was little. I would safely call myself a bookworm. I remember
spending hours in my room reading all sorts of books. My favourite books at the time were the Famous
Five, Mallory Towers, the Naughtiest Girl, basically anything written by the legendary Enid Blyton. I
also loved the Nancy Drew mysteries.
The love of reading and books has never left me. To this day, I absolutely adore visiting bookshops,
walking past all those bookshelves and leafing through new books. I am always on the lookout for new
authors and books to read.
So, it is only natural for me to talk about my love of books and reading with my clients. Now, not all my
clients are readers but I have spent some wonderful lessons with those who are discussing the latest
book weve read or are reading and making recommendations to each other on what to read next.
There are many different genres in the world of books. The genres can be split between fiction and nonfiction.
Genres In the non-fiction category, you will find genres like biography, art, photography, history, travel,
food and wine, cookbooks, politics, business and finance and many more. In the fiction category, you
will come across genres like thriller, crime, childrens, fantasy, science fiction, contemporary, literary,
chick lit, horror and many more.
What was/is the book like?

Positive comments: The book is/was action-packed, brilliant, easy to read, complex, heartbreaking,
poignant, a page-turner, riveting, thrilling, scary, gripping, spine-tingling. Negative comments: The book
was/is boring, predictable, nonsensical, erratic, confusing, rubbish.
Finally we will say whether we would recommend the book were reading or have read to each other.
Finally, how do you like your books? In paper or digital format? I have to admit that I LOVE my Kindle
and have become an addict of e-books. How about you? It took me a while to get used to having an ereader, but now I wouldnt be without my Kindle.
Crime new
Thieves used a bulldozer to break into a city bank and steal almost a million dollars from the vault.
The manager and one cashier were injured in the raid on the National Bank in Hibiscus Street, but they
have now been released from hospital.
Police say they are still looking for the bulldozer.
The bulldozer was stolen from a nearby building site at lunchtime yesterday and driven straight at the
bank.
Staff and customers inside were horrified when the machine crashed through the front wall and into the
manager's office.
Two men in black masks threatened them with knives while two others attached a heavy chain to the
vault door and tore it open with the bulldozer.
"It was amazing," said customer Fred Harang. "They opened the safe like a tin of fish. Police say the
yellow bulldozer, with the name Crushcorp on the side, was last seen being driven down Oregano Street.
Anyone who has any information about the bulldozer or the robbers can contact the police on 652111.
Pirates and piracy
Piracy - the act of robbery from ships at sea - has existed for thousands of years. It was written about by
the ancient Greeks and has been written about ever since. As long as some people have moved valuable
cargo in ships, other people have wanted to rob them.
However, to most people in Britain and North America, piracy belongs to the Caribbean of the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a time known to some as The Golden Age of Piracy. This is the
era of parrots sitting on shoulders, wooden legs, eye patches, metal hooks instead of hands and men with
beards shouting, Aha me hearties. And people robbing ships.
Many of these ideas and images come from books, such as Stevensons Treasure Island, Defoes King
of Pyrates and Barries Peter Pan. As you may have noticed, pirates are well-represented in films and
cartoons, from Errol Flynn to Walt Disney right up to the Curse of the Black Pearl.

NEWS
Headline: Make your headline short and snappy. Use exciting words, alliteration or rhymes to catch the
reader's attention. Your headline needs to tell the reader what kind of story it's going to be.
First sentence: The first sentence underneath the headline should give the reader more information on
the story, and sum up what it is going to be about.
Paragraphs: Next, split your newspaper report up into paragraphs to help the reader clearly undertand
the information on the story. Each new paragraph should be given a 'subheading'. This is a very short
title that tells the reader a little about what the paragraph is will about.
Past tense: Your newspaper story needs to be written in the past tense because you are reporting on
something that has already happened.
Third person: Write your newspaper reports in the 'third person' because you are writing about
somebody else. This means using the names of the people involved in the story or using 'he' or 'she', not
'I' or 'me'. This makes you similar to a narrator, retelling events without being involved in the story.
Quotations: Adding quotations will make your report more interesting for the reader because it tells the
story from the point of view of the people involved. Don't forget to use speech marks!
Photos and captions: Use a photo/picture with a caption to give the reader more information about the
story you are writing.
Facts and opinions: Fill your newspaper report with both facts and opinions. Facts give the reader all of
the information they need by using the 5 W's. Opinions give the point of view of the writer or of people
involved in the story. With all this information, the reader can then make up their own point of view.
Summing up: Your final paragraph should sum up the story. This is usually a good place to put in your
opinion.
EXPRESSING YOUR OPINION
The introduction. Current situation is and what your opinion is
The main paragraphs: think of at least two or three clear reasons to support your opinin. You could also
include examples to back up your reasons.
The conclusin: think of how to express your conclusin (a summary of your opinion)
FOR & AGAINST ESSAYS
a) Introduction. Paragraph 1: You state the topic. This means that you talk generally about the topic
without giving your opinion.
b) Main body. Paragraph 2: You give the points for (advantages) along with your justification. Paragraph
3: You give the points against (disadvantages) along with your justification.
c) Closing Paragraph 4: You express either a balanced consideration of the topic OR your opinion, that
is, for example, by expressing whether the advantages outweigh the disadvantages or vice versa.