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CampbellBiology:Chapter7TestPreparation
1. Whowas/werethefirsttoproposethatcellmembranesarephospholipidbilayers?
A)H.DavsonandJ.Danielli
B)I.Langmuir
C)C.Overton
D)S.SingerandG.Nicolson
E)E.GorterandF.Grendel
Answer:E
2. Someregionsoftheplasmamembrane,calledlipidrafts,haveahigherconcentrationof
cholesterolmolecules.Asaresult,theselipidrafts
A)aremorefluidthanthesurroundingmembrane.
B)aremorerigidthanthesurroundingmembrane.
C)areabletoflipfrominsidetooutside.
D)detachfromtheplasmamembraneandclogarteries.
E)havehigherratesoflateraldiffusionoflipidsandproteinsintoandoutofthelipidrafts.
Answer:B
3. SingerandNicolson'sfluidmosaicmodelofthemembraneproposedthat
A)membranesareaphospholipidbilayer.
B)membranesareaphospholipidbilayerbetweentwolayersofhydrophilicproteins.
C)membranesareasinglelayerofphospholipidsandproteins.
D)membranesconsistofproteinmoleculesembeddedinafluidbilayerofphospholipids.
E)membranesconsistofamosaicofpolysaccharidesandproteins.
Answer:D
4. Whichofthefollowingtypesofmoleculesarethemajorstructuralcomponentsofthecell
membrane?
A)phospholipidsandcellulose
B)nucleicacidsandproteins
C)phospholipidsandproteins
D)proteinsandcellulose
E)glycoproteinsandcholesterol
Answer:C
5. Whenbiologicalmembranesarefrozenandthenfractured,theytendtobreakalongthe
middleofthebilayer.Thebestexplanationforthisisthat
A)theintegralmembraneproteinsarenotstrongenoughtoholdthebilayertogether.
B)waterthatispresentinthemiddleofthebilayerfreezesandiseasilyfractured.
C)hydrophilicinteractionsbetweentheoppositemembranesurfacesaredestroyedon
freezing.
D)thecarboncarbonbondsofthephospholipidtailsareeasilybroken.
E)thehydrophobicinteractionsthatholdthemembranetogetherareweakestatthispoint.
Answer:E
6. Thepresenceofcholesterolintheplasmamembranesofsomeanimals
A)enablesthemembranetostayfluidmoreeasilywhencelltemperaturedrops.
B)enablestheanimaltoremovehydrogenatomsfromsaturatedphospholipids.
C)enablestheanimaltoaddhydrogenatomstounsaturatedphospholipids.
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D)makesthemembranelessflexible,allowingittosustaingreaterpressurefromwithinthe
cell.
E)makestheanimalmoresusceptibletocirculatorydisorders.
Answer:A
7. Accordingtothefluidmosaicmodelofcellmembranes,whichofthefollowingisatrue
statementaboutmembranephospholipids?
A)Theycanmovelaterallyalongtheplaneofthemembrane.
B)Theyfrequentlyflipflopfromonesideofthemembranetotheother.
C)Theyoccurinanuninterruptedbilayer,withmembraneproteinsrestrictedtothe
surfaceofthemembrane.
D)Theyarefreetodepartfromthemembraneanddissolveinthesurroundingsolution.
E)Theyhavehydrophilictailsintheinteriorofthemembrane.
Answer:A
8. Whichofthefollowingisoneofthewaysthatthemembranesofwinterwheatareableto
remainfluidwhenitisextremelycold?
A)byincreasingthepercentageofunsaturatedphospholipidsinthemembrane
B)byincreasingthepercentageofcholesterolmoleculesinthemembrane
C)bydecreasingthenumberofhydrophobicproteinsinthemembrane
D)bycotransportofglucoseandhydrogen
E)byusingactivetransport
Answer:A
9. Inorderforaproteintobeanintegralmembraneproteinitwouldhavetobe
A)hydrophilic.
B)hydrophobic.
C)amphipathic,withatleastonehydrophobicregion.
D)completelycoveredwithphospholipids.
E)exposedononlyonesurfaceofthemembrane.
Answer:C
10. Whenamembraneisfreezefractured,thebilayersplitsdownthemiddlebetweenthetwo
layersofphospholipids.Inanelectronmicrographofafreezefracturedmembrane,the
bumpsseenonthefracturedsurfaceofthemembraneare
A)peripheralproteins.
B)phospholipids.
C)carbohydrates.
D)integralproteins.
E)cholesterolmolecules.
Answer:D
11. Whichofthefollowingisareasonableexplanationforwhyunsaturatedfattyacidshelp
keepanymembranemorefluidatlowertemperatures?
A)Thedoublebondsformkinksinthefattyacidtails,preventingadjacentlipidsfrom
packingtightly.
B)Unsaturatedfattyacidshaveahighercholesterolcontentandthereforemorecholesterol
inmembranes.
C)Unsaturatedfattyacidsaremorepolarthansaturatedfattyacids.
D)Thedoublebondsblockinteractionamongthehydrophilicheadgroupsofthelipids.
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E)Thedoublebondsresultinshorterfattyacidtailsandthinnermembranes.
Answer:A
12. Whichofthefollowingistrueofintegralmembraneproteins?
A)Theylacktertiarystructure.
B)Theyarelooselyboundtothesurfaceofthebilayer.
C)Theyareusuallytransmembraneproteins.
D)Theyarenotmobilewithinthebilayer.
E)Theyserveonlyastructuralroleinmembranes.
Answer:C
13. Theprimaryfunctionofpolysaccharidesattachedtotheglycoproteinsandglycolipidsof
animalcellmembranesis
A)tofacilitatediffusionofmoleculesdowntheirconcentrationgradients.
B)toactivelytransportmoleculesagainsttheirconcentrationgradients.
C)tomaintaintheintegrityofafluidmosaicmembrane.
D)tomaintainmembranefluidityatlowtemperatures.
E)tomediatecelltocellrecognition.
Answer:E
14. Ananimalcelllackingoligosaccharidesontheexternalsurfaceofitsplasmamembrane
wouldlikelybeimpairedinwhichfunction?
A)transportingionsagainstanelectrochemicalgradient
B)cellcellrecognition
C)maintainingfluidityofthephospholipidbilayer
D)attachingtothecytoskeleton
E)establishingthediffusionbarriertochargedmolecules
Answer:B
15. Intheyearssincetheproposalofthefluidmosaicmodelofthecellmembrane,whichofthe
followingobservationshasbeenaddedtothemodel?
A)Themembraneisonlyfluidacrossaverynarrowtemperaturerange.
B)Proteinsrarelymove,eventhoughtheypossiblycandoso.
C)Unsaturatedlipidsareexcludedfromthemembranes.
D)Theconcentrationofproteinmoleculesisnowknowntobemuchhigher.
E)Theproteinsareknowntobemadeofonlyacidicaminoacids.
Answer:D
16. Aproteinthatspansthephospholipidbilayeroneormoretimesis
A)atransmembraneprotein.
B)anintegralprotein.
C)aperipheralprotein.
D)anintegrin.
E)aglycoprotein.
Answer:A
17. Whichofthesearenotembeddedinthehydrophobicportionofthelipidbilayeratall?
A)transmembraneproteins
B)integralproteins
C)peripheralproteins
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D)integrins
E)glycoproteins
Answer:C
18. ThecellmembranesofAntarcticicefishmighthavewhichofthefollowingadaptations?
A)verylongchainfattyacids
B)branchedisoprenoidlipids
C)ahighpercentageofpolyunsaturatedfattyacids
D)ahigherpercentageoftransfattyacids
E)nocholesterol
Answer:C
19. Inaparamecium,cellsurfaceintegralmembraneproteinsaresynthesized
A)inthecytoplasmbyfreeribosomes.
B)byribosomesinthenucleus.
C)byribosomesboundtotheroughendoplasmicreticulum.
D)byribosomesintheGolgivesicles.
E)byribosomesboundtotheinnersurfaceoftheplasmamembrane.
Answer:C
20. Theformulationofamodelforastructureorforaprocessserveswhichofthefollowing
purposes?
A)Itasksascientificquestion.
B)Itfunctionsasatestablehypothesis.
C)Itrecordsobservations.
D)Itservesasadatapointamongresults.
E)Itcanonlybearrivedatafteryearsofexperimentation.
Answer:B
21. Cellmembranesareasymmetrical.Whichofthefollowingisthemostlikelyexplanation?
A)Thecellmembraneformsaborderbetweenonecellandanotherintightlypackedtissues
suchasepithelium.
B)Cellmembranescommunicatesignalsfromoneorganismtoanother.
C)Thetwosidesofacellmembranefacedifferentenvironmentsandcarryoutdifferent
functions.
D)The"innerness"and"outerness"ofmembranesurfacesarepredeterminedbygenes.
E)Proteinscanonlybeassociatedwiththecellmembranesonthecytoplasmicside.
Answer:C
22. Whichofthefollowingistrueoftheevolutionofcellmembranes?
A)Cellmembraneshavestoppedevolvingnowthattheyarefluidmosaics.
B)Cellmembranescannotevolveifthemembraneproteinsdonot.
C)Theevolutionofcellmembranesisdrivenbytheevolutionofglycoproteinsand
glycolipids.
D)Allcomponentsofmembranesevolveinresponsetonaturalselection.
E)Anindividualorganismselectsitspreferredtypeofcellmembraneforparticular
functions.
Answer:D
23. Whyarelipidsandproteinsfreetomovelaterallyinmembranes?
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A)Theinteriorofthemembraneisfilledwithliquidwater.
B)Lipidsandproteinsrepulseeachotherinthemembrane.
C)Hydrophilicportionsofthelipidsareintheinteriorofthemembrane.
D)Thereareonlyweakhydrophobicinteractionsintheinteriorofthemembrane.
E)Moleculessuchascellulosecanpulltheminvariousdirections.
Answer:D
24. Whatkindsofmoleculespassthroughacellmembranemosteasily?
A)largeandhydrophobic
B)smallandhydrophobic
C)largepolar
D)ionic
E)monosaccharidessuchasglucose
Answer:B
25. Whichofthefollowingisacharacteristicfeatureofacarrierproteininaplasma
membrane?
A)Itisaperipheralmembraneprotein.
B)Itexhibitsaspecificityforaparticulartypeofmolecule.
C)Itrequirestheexpenditureofcellularenergytofunction.
D)Itworksagainstdiffusion.
E)Ithasfew,ifany,hydrophobicaminoacids.
Answer:B
26. Nitrousoxidegasmoleculesdiffusingacrossacell'splasmamembraneisanexampleof
A)diffusionacrossthelipidbilayer.
B)facilitateddiffusion.
C)activetransport.
D)osmosis.
E)cotransport.
Answer:A
27. Whichofthefollowingwouldlikelymovethroughthelipidbilayerofaplasmamembrane
mostrapidly?
A)CO
B)anaminoacid
C)glucose
D)K
E)starch
Answer:A
28. Whichofthefollowingstatementsiscorrectaboutdiffusion?
A)Itisveryrapidoverlongdistances.
B)Itrequiresanexpenditureofenergybythecell.
C)Itisapassiveprocessinwhichmoleculesmovefromaregionofhigherconcentrationtoa
regionoflowerconcentration.
D)Itisanactiveprocessinwhichmoleculesmovefromaregionoflowerconcentrationto
oneofhigherconcentration.
E)Itrequiresintegralproteinsinthecellmembrane.
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Answer:C
29. Waterpassesquicklythroughcellmembranesbecause
A)thebilayerishydrophilic.
B)itmovesthroughhydrophobicchannels.
C)watermovementistiedtoATPhydrolysis.
D)itisasmall,polar,chargedmolecule.
E)itmovesthroughaquaporinsinthemembrane.
Answer:E
30. Celerystalksthatareimmersedinfreshwaterforseveralhoursbecomestiffandhard.
Similarstalksleftina0.15Msaltsolutionbecomelimpandsoft.Fromthiswecandeduce
thatthecellsofthecelerystalksare
A)hypotonictobothfreshwaterandthesaltsolution.
B)hypertonictobothfreshwaterandthesaltsolution.
C)hypertonictofreshwaterbuthypotonictothesaltsolution.
D)hypotonictofreshwaterbuthypertonictothesaltsolution.
E)isotonicwithfreshwaterbuthypotonictothesaltsolution.
Answer:C
31. Mammalianbloodcontainstheequivalentof0.15MNaCl.Seawatercontainstheequivalent
of0.45MNaCl.Whatwillhappenifredbloodcellsaretransferredtoseawater?
A)Waterwillleavethecells,causingthemtoshrivelandcollapse.
B)NaClwillbeexportedfromtheredbloodcellsbyfacilitateddiffusion.
C)Thebloodcellswilltakeupwater,swell,andeventuallyburst.
D)NaClwillpassivelydiffuseintotheredbloodcells.
E)ThebloodcellswillexpendATPforactivetransportofNaClintothecytoplasm.
Answer:A
32. Whichofthefollowingstatementscorrectlydescribesthenormaltonicityconditionsfor
typicalplantandanimalcells?
A)Theanimalcellisinahypotonicsolution,andtheplantcellisinanisotonicsolution.
B)Theanimalcellisinanisotonicsolution,andtheplantcellisinahypertonicsolution.
C)Theanimalcellisinahypertonicsolution,andtheplantcellisinanisotonicsolution.
D)Theanimalcellisinanisotonicsolution,andtheplantcellisinahypotonicsolution.
E)Theanimalcellisinahypertonicsolution,andtheplantcellisinahypotonicsolution.
Answer:D
33. Inwhichofthefollowingwouldtherebethegreatestneedforosmoregulation?
A)ananimalconnectivetissuecellbathedinisotonicbodyfluid
B)cellsofatidepoolanimalsuchasananemone
C)aredbloodcellsurroundedbyplasma
D)alymphocytebeforeithasbeentakenbackintolymphfluid
E)aplantbeinggrownhydroponically(inawaterymixtureofdesignatednutrients)
Answer:B
34. Whenaplantcell,suchasonefromapeonystem,issubmergedinaveryhypotonic
solution,whatislikelytooccur?
A)Thecellwillburst.
B)Thecellmembranewilllyse.
C)Plasmolysiswillshrinktheinterior.
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D)Thecellwillbecomeflaccid.
E)Thecellwillbecometurgid.
Answer:E
35. WhichofthefollowingmembraneactivitiesrequireenergyfromATPhydrolysis?
A)facilitateddiffusionofchlorideionsacrossthemembranethroughachloridechannel
B)movementofwaterintoacell
C)Naionsmovingoutofamammaliancellbathedinphysiologicalsaline
D)movementofglucosemoleculesintoabacterialcellfromamediumcontainingahigher
concentrationofglucosethaninsidethecell
E)movementofcarbondioxideoutofaparamecium
Answer:C
36. Thephosphatetransportsysteminbacteriaimportsphosphateintothecellevenwhenthe
concentrationofphosphateoutsidethecellismuchlowerthanthecytoplasmicphosphate
concentration.PhosphateimportdependsonapHgradientacrossthemembranemore
acidicoutsidethecellthaninsidethecell.Phosphatetransportisanexampleof
A)passivediffusion.
B)facilitateddiffusion.
C)activetransport.
D)osmosis.
E)cotransport.
Answer:E
37. Glucosediffusesslowlythroughartificialphospholipidbilayers.Thecellsliningthesmall
intestine,however,rapidlymovelargequantitiesofglucosefromtheglucoserichfoodinto
theirglucosepoorcytoplasm.Usingthisinformation,whichtransportmechanismismost
probablyfunctioningintheintestinalcells?
A)simplediffusion
B)phagocytosis
C)activetransportpumps
D)exocytosis
E)facilitateddiffusion
Answer:E
38. Whatisthevoltageacrossamembranecalled?
A)waterpotential
B)chemicalgradient
C)membranepotential
D)osmoticpotential
E)electrochemicalgradient
Answer:C
39. Inmostcells,thereareelectrochemicalgradientsofmanyionsacrosstheplasmamembrane
eventhoughthereareusuallyonlyoneortwoelectrogenicpumpspresentinthemembrane.
Thegradientsoftheotherionsaremostlikelyaccountedforby
A)cotransportproteins.
B)ionchannels.
C)carrierproteins.
D)passivediffusionacrosstheplasmamembrane.
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E)cellularmetabolicreactionsthatcreateordestroyions.
Answer:A
40. Thesodiumpotassiumpumpiscalledanelectrogenicpumpbecauseit
A)pumpsequalquantitiesofNaandKacrossthemembrane.
B)pumpshydrogenionsoutofthecell.
C)contributestothemembranepotential.
D)ionizessodiumandpotassiumatoms.
E)isusedtodrivethetransportofothermoleculesagainstaconcentrationgradient.
Answer:C
41. Whichofthefollowingismostlikelytrueofaproteinthatcotransportsglucoseandsodium
ionsintotheintestinalcellsofananimal?
A)Thesodiumionsaremovingdowntheirelectrochemicalgradientwhileglucoseismoving
up.
B)Glucoseenteringthecellalongitsconcentrationgradientprovidesenergyforuptakeof
sodiumionsagainsttheelectrochemicalgradient.
C)Sodiumionscanmovedowntheirelectrochemicalgradientthroughthecotransporter
whetherornotglucoseispresentoutsidethecell.
D)Thecotransportercanalsotransportpotassiumions.
E)Asubstancethatblockssodiumionsfrombindingtothecotransportproteinwillalso
blockthetransportofglucose.
Answer:E
42. Themovementofpotassiumintoananimalcellrequires
A)lowcellularconcentrationsofsodium.
B)highcellularconcentrationsofpotassium.
C)anenergysourcesuchasATP.
D)acotransportprotein.
E)apotassiumchannelprotein.
Answer:C
43. Ionsdiffuseacrossmembranesthroughspecificionchannels
A)downtheirchemicalgradients.
B)downtheirconcentrationgradients.
C)downtheelectricalgradients.
D)downtheirelectrochemicalgradients.
E)downtheosmoticpotentialgradients.
Answer:D
44. Whichofthefollowingwouldincreasetheelectrochemicalpotentialacrossamembrane?
A)achloridechannel
B)asucroseprotoncotransporter
C)aprotonpump
D)apotassiumchannel
E)bothaprotonpumpandapotassiumchannel
Answer:C
45. ThesodiumpotassiumpumpinanimalcellsrequirescytoplasmicATPtopumpionsacross
theplasmamembrane.Whentheproteinsofthepumparefirstsynthesizedintherough
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ER,whatsideoftheERmembranewilltheATPbindingsitebeon?
A)ItwillbeonthecytoplasmicsideoftheER.
B)ItwillbeonthesidefacingtheinterioroftheER.
C)Itcouldbefacingineitherdirectionbecauseproteinsareproperlyreorientedinthe
Golgiapparatus.
D)Itdoesn'tmatter,becausethepumpisnotactiveintheER.
Answer:A
46. Protonpumpsareusedinvariouswaysbymembersofeverydomainoforganisms:
Bacteria,Archaea,andEukarya.Whatdoesthismostprobablymean?
A)ProtonpumpsmusthaveevolvedbeforeanylivingorganismswerepresentonEarth.
B)Protongradientsacrossamembranewereusedbycellsthatwerethecommonancestor
ofallthreedomainsoflife.
C)Thehighconcentrationofprotonsintheancientatmospheremusthavenecessitateda
pumpmechanism.
D)Cellsofeachdomainevolvedprotonpumpsindependentlywhenoceansbecamemore
acidic.
E)Protonpumpsarenecessarytoallcellmembranes.
Answer:B
47. Severalepidemicmicrobialdiseasesofearliercenturiesincurredhighdeathratesbecause
theyresultedinseveredehydrationduetovomitinganddiarrhea.Todaytheyareusually
notfatalbecausewehavedevelopedwhichofthefollowing?
A)antiviralmedicationsthatareefficientandworkwellwithallviruses
B)antibioticsagainstthevirusesinquestion
C)intravenousfeedingtechniques
D)medicationtopreventbloodloss
E)hydratingdrinksthatincludehighconcentrationsofsaltsandglucose
Answer:E
48. Anorganismwithacellwallwouldmostlikelybeunabletotakeinmaterialsthrough
A)diffusion.
B)osmosis.
C)activetransport.
D)phagocytosis.
E)facilitateddiffusion.
Answer:D
49. Whitebloodcellsengulfbacteriathroughwhatprocess?
A)exocytosis
B)phagocytosis
C)pinocytosis
D)osmosis
E)receptormediatedexocytosis
Answer:B
50. Familialhypercholesterolemiaischaracterizedbywhichofthefollowing?
A)defectiveLDLreceptorsonthecellmembranes
B)poorattachmentofthecholesteroltotheextracellularmatrixofcells
C)apoorlyformedlipidbilayerthatcannotincorporatecholesterolintocellmembranes
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D)inhibitionofthecholesterolactivetransportsysteminredbloodcells
E)agenerallackofglycolipidsinthebloodcellmembranes
Answer:A
51. Thedifferencebetweenpinocytosisandreceptormediatedendocytosisisthat
A)pinocytosisbringsonlywatermoleculesintothecell,butreceptormediatedendocytosis
bringsinothermoleculesaswell.
B)pinocytosisincreasesthesurfaceareaoftheplasmamembranewhereasreceptor
mediatedendocytosisdecreasestheplasmamembranesurfacearea.
C)pinocytosisisnonselectiveinthemoleculesitbringsintothecell,whereasreceptor
mediatedendocytosisoffersmoreselectivity.
D)pinocytosisrequirescellularenergy,butreceptormediatedendocytosisdoesnot.
E)pinocytosiscanconcentratesubstancesfromtheextracellularfluid,butreceptor
mediatedendocytosiscannot.
Answer:C
52. Inreceptormediatedendocytosis,receptormoleculesinitiallyprojecttotheoutsideofthe
cell.Wheredotheyendupafterendocytosis?
A)ontheoutsideofvesicles
B)ontheinsidesurfaceofthecellmembrane
C)ontheinsidesurfaceofthevesicle
D)ontheoutersurfaceofthenucleus
E)ontheER
Answer:C
53. Abacteriumengulfedbyawhitebloodcellthroughphagocytosiswillbedigestedby
enzymescontainedin
A)peroxisomes.
B)lysosomes.
C)Golgivesicles.
D)vacuoles.
E)secretoryvesicles.
Answer:B
54.

Whichcomponentistheperipheralprotein?
A)A
B)B
C)C
D)D
E)E
Answer:D
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55.

Whichcomponentischolesterol?
A)A
B)B
C)C
D)D
E)E
Answer:E
56.

Whichcomponentisthefiberoftheextracellularmatrix?
A)A
B)B
C)C
D)D
E)E
Answer:A
57.

Whichcomponentisamicrofilamentofthecytoskeleton?
A)A
B)B
C)C
D)D
E)E
Answer:C

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58.

Whichcomponentisaglycolipid?
A)A
B)B
C)C
D)D
E)E
Answer:B
59.

ThesolutionsinthetwoarmsofthisUtubeareseparatedbyamembranethatispermeable
towaterandglucosebutnottosucrose.SideAishalffilledwithasolutionof2Msucrose
and1Mglucose.SideBishalffilledwith1Msucroseand2Mglucose.Initially,theliquid
levelsonbothsidesareequal.
Initially,intermsoftonicity,thesolutioninsideAwithrespecttothatinsideBis
A)hypotonic.
B)plasmolyzed.
C)isotonic.
D)saturated.
E)hypertonic.
Answer:C
60.

Afterthesystemreachesequilibrium,whatchangesareobserved?
A)Themolarityofsucroseandglucoseareequalonbothsides.
B)ThemolarityofglucoseishigherinsideAthaninsideB.
C)ThewaterlevelishigherinsideAthaninsideB.
D)Thewaterlevelisunchanged.
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E)ThewaterlevelishigherinsideBthaninsideA.
Answer:C
61.

ThesolutionsinthearmsofaUtubeareseparatedatthebottomofthetubebyaselectively
permeablemembrane.Themembraneispermeabletosodiumchloridebutnottoglucose.
SideAisfilledwithasolutionof0.4Mglucoseand0.5Msodiumchloride(NaCl),andside
Bisfilledwithasolutioncontaining0.8Mglucoseand0.4Msodiumchloride.Initially,the
volumeinbotharmsisthesame.
Atthebeginningoftheexperiment,
A)sideAishypertonictosideB.
B)sideAishypotonictosideB.
C)sideAisisotonictosideB.
D)sideAishypertonictosideBwithrespecttoglucose.
E)sideAishypotonictosideBwithrespecttosodiumchloride.
Answer:B
62.

IfyouexaminesideAafterthreedays,youshouldfind
A)adecreaseintheconcentrationofNaClandglucoseandanincreaseinthewaterlevel.
B)adecreaseintheconcentrationofNaCl,anincreaseinwaterlevel,andnochangeinthe
concentrationofglucose.
C)nonetchangeinthesystem.
D)adecreaseintheconcentrationofNaClandadecreaseinthewaterlevel.
E)nochangeintheconcentrationofNaClandglucoseandanincreaseinthewaterlevel.
Answer:D
63.

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Fivedialysisbags,constructedfromasemipermeablemembranethatisimpermeableto
sucrose,werefilledwithvariousconcentrationsofsucroseandthenplacedinseparate
beakerscontaininganinitialconcentrationof0.6Msucrosesolution.At10minute
intervals,thebagsweremassed(weighed)andthepercentchangeinmassofeachbagwas
graphed.
Whichlineinthegraphrepresentsthebagthatcontainedasolutionisotonictothe0.6M
solutionatthebeginningoftheexperiment?
A)A
B)B
C)C
D)D
E)E
Answer:C
64.

Whichlineinthegraphrepresentsthebagwiththehighestinitialconcentrationofsucrose?
A)A
B)B
C)C
D)D
E)E
Answer:A
65.

Whichlineorlinesinthegraphrepresent(s)bagsthatcontainasolutionthatishypertonic
at50minutes?
A)AandB
B)B
C)C
D)D
E)DandE
Answer:B

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66.

Humanimmunodeficiencyvirus(HIV)infectscellsthathavebothCD4andCCR5cell
surfacemolecules.Theviralnucleicacidmoleculesareenclosedinaproteincapsid,andthe
proteincapsidisitselfcontainedinsideanenvelopeconsistingofalipidbilayermembrane
andviralglycoproteins.OnehypothesisforviralentryintocellsisthatbindingofHIV
membraneglycoproteinstoCD4andCCR5initiatesfusionoftheHIVmembranewiththe
plasmamembrane,releasingtheviralcapsidintothecytoplasm.Analternativehypothesis
isthatHIVgainsentryintothecellviareceptormediatedendocytosis,andmembrane
fusionoccursintheendocytoticvesicle.TotestthesealternativehypothesesforHIVentry,
researcherslabeledthelipidsontheHIVmembranewitharedfluorescentdye.
Whatwouldbeobservedbylivecellfluorescencemicroscopyiftheredfluorescentlipid
dyelabeledHIVmembranefuseswiththetargetcellplasmamembrane?
A)Aspotofredfluorescencewillremainontheinfectedcell'splasmamembrane,marking
thesiteofmembranefusionandHIVentry.
B)Theredfluorescentdyelabeledlipidswilldiffuseintheinfectedcell'splasmamembrane
andbecomedifficulttodetect.
C)Aspotofredfluorescencewillmoveintotheinfectedcell'scytoplasm.
D)Aspotofredfluorescencewillremainoutsidethecellafterdeliveringtheviralcapsid.
E)Fluorescencemicroscopydoesnothaveenoughresolutiontovisualizefluorescently
labeledHIVvirusparticles.
Answer:B
67.

WhatwouldbeobservedbylivecellfluorescencemicroscopyifHIVisendocytosedfirst,
andthenfuseswiththeendocytoticvesiclemembrane?
A)Aspotofredfluorescencewillremainontheinfectedcell'splasmamembrane,marking
thesiteofmembranefusionandHIVentry.
B)Theredfluorescentdyelabeledlipidswilldiffuseintheendocytoticvesiclemembrane
andbecomedifficulttodetect.
C)Aspotofredfluorescencewillmoveintotheinfectedcell'sinterior.
D)Aspotofredfluorescencewillremainoutsidethecellafterdeliveringtheviralcapsid.
E)Fluorescencemicroscopydoesnothaveenoughresolutiontovisualizefluorescently
labeledHIVvirusparticles.
Answer:C
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68.

Usinglivecellfluorescencemicroscopy,researchersobservedthataredfluorescentspot
movedfromtheplasmamembraneintotheinterioroftargetcellswhenredfluorescentdye
labeledHIVwasaddedtothecells.Whatisthebestconclusionfromtheseobservations?
A)ThehypothesisthatHIVentersthecellviafusionwiththetargetcellplasmamembrane
isproved.
B)ThehypothesisthatHIVentersthecellviafusionwiththetargetcellplasmamembrane
isnotsupported.
C)ThehypothesisthatHIVentersthecellviaendocytosisisproved.
D)ThehypothesisthatHIVentersthecellviaendocytosisisnotsupported.
E)Neitherhypothesisissupportedbytheseresults.
Answer:B
69.

IfHIVfirstentersthecellinanendocytoticvesicle,insteadofdirectlyfusingwiththe
plasmamembrane,then
A)HIVinfectionshouldbehinderedbymicrotubulepolymerizationinhibitorssuchas
nocodazole.
B)HIVinfectionshouldbemoreefficientatlowertemperatures.
C)intactcorticalactinmicrofilamentsshouldinterferewithHIVinfection.
D)cellslackingintegrinsshouldberesistanttoHIVinfection.
E)additionofligandsforothercellsurfacereceptorstostimulatetheirendocytosisshould
increasetheefficiencyofHIVinfection.
Answer:A
70.

InanHIVinfectedcellproducingHIVvirusparticles,theviralglycoproteinisexpressedon
theplasmamembrane.Howdotheviralglycoproteinsgettotheplasmamembrane?
A)Theyaresynthesizedonribosomesontheplasmamembrane.
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B)TheyaresynthesizedbyribosomesintheroughER,andarriveattheplasmamembrane
inthemembraneofsecretoryvesicles.
C)Theyaresynthesizedonfreecytoplasmicribosomes,andtheninsertedintotheplasma
membrane.
D)TheyaresynthesizedbyribosomesintheroughER,secretedfromthecell,andinserted
intotheplasmamembranefromtheoutside.
E)TheyaresynthesizedbyribosomesontheHIVviralmembrane,whichfuseswiththe
plasmamembranefrominsidethecell.
Answer:B
71. CysticfibrosisisageneticdiseaseinhumansinwhichtheCFTRprotein,whichfunctionsas
achlorideionchannel,ismissingornonfunctionalincellmembranes.
71)TheCFTRproteinbelongstowhatcategoryofmembraneproteins?
A)gapjunctions
B)aquaporins
C)electrogenicionpumps
D)cotransporters
E)hydrophilicchannels
Answer:C
72. Ifthesodiumionconcentrationoutsidethecellincreases,andtheCFTRchannelisopen,in
whatdirectionwillchlorideionsandwatermoveacrossthecellmembrane?
A)Chlorideionswillmoveoutofthecell,andwaterwillmoveintothecell.
B)Bothchlorideionsandwaterwillmoveoutofthecell.
C)Chlorideionswillmoveintothecell,andwaterwillmoveoutofthecell.
D)Bothchlorideionsandwaterwillmoveintothecell.
E)Themovementofchlorideionsandwatermoleculeswillnotbeaffectedbychangesin
sodiumionconcentrationoutsidethecell.
Answer:B
73. Inthesmallairwaysofthelung,athinlayerofliquidisneededbetweentheepithelialcells
andthemucuslayerinorderforciliatobeatandmovethemucusandtrappedparticlesout
ofthelung.Onehypothesisisthatthevolumeofthisairwaysurfaceliquidisregulated
osmoticallybytransportofsodiumandchlorideionsacrosstheepithelialcellmembrane.
Howwouldthelackofafunctionalchloridechannelincysticfibrosispatientsaffectsodium
iontransportandthevolumeoftheairwaysurfaceliquid?
A)Sodiumiontransportwillincreasehigherosmoticpotentialwillincreaseairwaysurface
liquidvolume.
B)Sodiumiontransportwillincreasehigherosmoticpotentialwilldecreaseairwaysurface
liquidvolume.
C)Sodiumiontransportwilldecreaselowerosmoticpotentialwilldecreaseairwaysurface
liquidvolume.
D)Sodiumiontransportwilldecreaselowerosmoticpotentialwillincreasetheairway
surfaceliquidvolume.
E)Sodiumiontransportwillbeunaffectedlackofchloridetransportstillreducesosmotic
potentialanddecreasestheairwaysurfaceliquidvolume.
Answer:C
74. Apatienthashadaseriousaccidentandlostalotofblood.Inanattempttoreplenishbody
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fluids,distilledwaterequaltothevolumeofbloodlostistransferreddirectlyintooneofhis
veins.Whatwillbethemostprobableresultofthistransfusion?
A)Itwillhavenounfavorableeffectaslongasthewaterisfreeofvirusesandbacteria.
B)Thepatient'sredbloodcellswillshrivelupbecausethebloodfluidhasbecomehypotonic
comparedtothecells.
C)Thepatient'sredbloodcellswillswellbecausethebloodfluidhasbecomehypotonic
comparedtothecells.
D)Thepatient'sredbloodcellswillshrivelupbecausethebloodfluidhasbecome
hypertoniccomparedtothecells.
E)Thepatient'sredbloodcellswillburstbecausethebloodfluidhasbecomehypertonic
comparedtothecells.
Answer:C
75. Youareworkingonateamthatisdesigninganewdrug.Inorderforthisdrugtowork,it
mustenterthecytoplasmofspecifictargetcells.Whichofthefollowingwouldbeafactor
thatdetermineswhetherthemoleculeselectivelyentersthetargetcells?
A)bloodortissuetypeofthepatient
B)hydrophobicityofthedrugmolecule
C)lackofchargeonthedrugmolecule
D)similarityofthedrugmoleculetoothermoleculestransportedbythetargetcells
E)lipidcompositionofthetargetcells'plasmamembrane
Answer:D
76. Inwhatwaydothemembranesofaeukaryoticcellvary?
A)Phospholipidsarefoundonlyincertainmembranes.
B)Certainproteinsareuniquetoeachmembrane.
C)Onlycertainmembranesofthecellareselectivelypermeable.
D)Onlycertainmembranesareconstructedfromamphipathicmolecules.
E)Somemembraneshavehydrophobicsurfacesexposedtothecytoplasm,whileothershave
hydrophilicsurfacesfacingthecytoplasm.
Answer:B
77. Accordingtothefluidmosaicmodelofmembranestructure,proteinsofthemembraneare
mostly
A)spreadinacontinuouslayerovertheinnerandoutersurfacesofthemembrane.
B)confinedtothehydrophobicinteriorofthemembrane.
C)embeddedinalipidbilayer.
D)randomlyorientedinthemembrane,withnofixedinsideoutsidepolarity.
E)freetodepartfromthefluidmembraneanddissolveinthesurroundingsolution.
Answer:C
78. Whichofthefollowingfactorswouldtendtoincreasemembranefluidity?
A)agreaterproportionofunsaturatedphospholipids
B)agreaterproportionofsaturatedphospholipids
C)alowertemperature
D)arelativelyhighproteincontentinthemembrane
E)agreaterproportionofrelativelylargeglycolipidscomparedwithlipidshavingsmaller
molecularmasses
Answer:A
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79. Whichofthefollowingprocessesincludesallothers?
A)osmosis
B)diffusionofasoluteacrossamembrane
C)facilitateddiffusion
D)passivetransport
E)transportofaniondownitselectrochemicalgradient
Answer:D
80.

Basedonthefigureabove,whichoftheseexperimentaltreatmentswouldincreasetherate
ofsucrosetransportintothecell?
A)decreasingextracellularsucroseconcentration
B)decreasingextracellularpH
C)decreasingcytoplasmicpH
D)addinganinhibitorthatblockstheregenerationofATP
E)addingasubstancethatmakesthemembranemorepermeabletohydrogenions
Answer:B

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