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Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety ()

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Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ecoenv

Investigation on environmental factors of waste plastics into oil and its


emulsion to control the emission in DI diesel engine
P. Senthil Kumar a,n, G. Sankaranarayanan b
a
b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Velammal Institute of Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sree Sastha Institute of Engineering and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 3 December 2014
Received in revised form
17 November 2015
Accepted 26 January 2016

Rapid depletion of conventional fossil fuel resources, their rising prices and environmental issues are the
major concern of alternative fuels. On the other hand waste plastics cause a very serious environmental
dispute because of their disposal problems. Waste plastics are one of the promising factors for fuel
production because of their high heat of combustion and their increasing availability in local communities. In this study, waste plastic oil (WPO) is tested in DI diesel engine to evaluate its performance and
emission characteristics. Results showed that oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission get increased with WPO
when compared to diesel oil. Further, the three phase (O/W/O) plastic oil emulsion is prepared with an
aid of ultrasonicater according to the %v (10, 20 & 30). Results expose that brake thermal efciency (BTE)
is found to be increased. NOx and smoke emissions were reduced up to 247 ppm and 41% respectively,
when compared to diesel at full load condition with use of 30% emulsied WPO.
& 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Waste plastics
Pyrolysis
Emulsion
Engine
Performance
Combustion
Emission

1. Introduction
Alternate fuels provide a huge supporting channel for depleting
conventional fossil fuel resources. The present technology depends
on a sustainable product in replacing the fossil products such as
coal, petrol, diesel, etc. Bender (2000). Plastic usage has become a
crucial part in today's world, because of their light weight durability, faster rate of production and design exibility. Discarding
of the waste plastics create an enormous risk to the surroundings.
It takes nearly 8 years for degrading the waste plastic resources.
Increasing quantity of waste plastic adversely pollutes the environment. Plastics are ltered from petroleum derivatives containing hydrocarbons, anti-oxidants and other stabilizers. These
materials affect the human beings and animals to a larger extent
(Williams and Williams, 1990). Nearly 2.7 million tons of plastics
are recycled every year. As in India, the usage of indispensable
plastics has witnessed approximately 8 million tons in the year
2008 and it is expected to grow signicantly by a factor of 6 within
the year of 2030. The disposable plastic wastes are increasing relatively faster than the consumption of plastics because of their
increase in usage for sustainable life and the lower recycling rates
Abbreviations: PW10, Plastic oil water10% Surfactants; PW20,
oil water20% Surfactants; PW30, Plastic oil water30%Surfactants
n
Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: kallakurichisenthilkumar@gmail.com (P.S. Kumar),
gs2000narayanan@gmail.com (G. Sankaranarayanan).

(Naik et al., 2010). Land lling is not a suitable option for disposing
plastic wastes because of their slow degradation rates. The use of
incinerator generates some pollutants to the air, which also cause
environmental issues. Therefore, recycling and recovering methods have been used to minimize the environmental impacts and to
reduce the damage of plastic wastes. Aguado et al., (2007) Because
of the existing after effects of the waste plastics, these materials
can be transformed into an alternate fuel with the aid of conversion processes like thermal cracking and catalytic pyrolysis
cracking methods (Al-Salem et al., 2009; Walendziewski, 2002).
Diesel engines are the most preferred power plants due to their
excellent drive ability and higher thermal efciency. From the last
few decades strict emission norms are followed to cut back the
environmental pollutions. The major pollutant of diesel engine is
NOx which affects human health and environment adversely. Investigation on alternate fuel is enhanced in recent years because of
the depletion of available fuel resources and increase in production of automotive vehicles. Recent works have been conducted in
diesel engine with use of WPO and the results shows that NOx
emission is found to be increased; with reduction in brake thermal
efciency when compared to diesel (Mani et al., 2009).
1.1. Emulsied oil as an alternate fuel for diesel engine

Plastic

Water and oil are immiscible, but with the help of mechanical
stirring, magnetic or ultrasonic vibrator, these two substances can
be temporarily dissolved together. The use of a suitable surfactant

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.01.021
0147-6513/& 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article as: Kumar, P.S., Sankaranarayanan, G., Investigation on environmental factors of waste plastics into oil and its
emulsion to control the emission in DI diesel engine. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.01.021i

P.S. Kumar, G. Sankaranarayanan / Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety ()

can further reduce the surface tension between water and oil,
leading to the formation of an emulsion (Lin and Wang, 2003).
Ultrasonic homogenizing is the most commonly used technique
for emulsion preparation in the industry sectors. The emission of
NOx, CO and PM are reduced using the emulsied fuels instead of
neat diesel (Nadeem et al., 2006). This work aims the use of
emulsied waste plastic oil as an alternate fuel for single cylinder
DI diesel engine to analyze the performance and emission
characteristics.

2. Methodology
2.1. Pyrolysis process
Pyrolysis is a thermal degradation process in the absence of
oxygen, performed to obtain WPO by using silica alumina as a
catalyst. Different sizes and shapes of waste plastics are collected
and crushed with shredder for ease of handling the process. The
ne crushed plastic particles are fed in a reactor chamber. The
copper coil placed around the chamber is heated and maintained
at a temperature range of 320 C500 C for 34 h duration. At this
high temperature, waste plastic gets vaporized and passes through
the condenser devices. Because of the cold water present inside
the condenser, latent heat transfer occurs by condensing the waste
plastic vapour (Guntur et al., 2011; Hariharan et al., 2013).Condensed waste plastic vapour is then stored in the oil collector in
the form of plastic oil. From the pyrolysis treatment the following
output products were collected: Waste Plastic Oil 75% to 90%,
Gas 5% to 20% and Residual coke 5% to 10%.

of WPO decreases by 7 C when compared to diesel while the re


point of emulsied plastic oil increases by 923 C.

3. Experimental setup
An experimental setup of 4.4 kW single cylinder air cooled
direct injection diesel engine. U-tube pressure gauge is tted with
anti-pulsating drum to observe the mass ow rate. A specication
of the test engine is shown in Table 1. AVL software is used for
combustion analysis and DAQ card placed in between the computer and the engine converts the analog signal into digital value.
AVL365C angle encoder is attached to the engine measures the
crank angles for different piston positions. AVL Pressure transducer
GH14D is used to indicate the pressure level in the combustion
chamber. K-2 type thermo couple is used to measure the exhaust
gas temperature (EGT). Test engine coupled with electrical dynamometer to apply load on the engine. Electrical Dynamometer
consists of electrical power bank which applies 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%,
100% loads on an engine and it is controlled with the aid of ammeter and voltmeter. Engine is connected with the computer to
record and analyze the output data. The combustion parameters
such as cylinder pressure, instant heat release rate and ignition
delay are evaluated. AVL DiGas 444 exhaust gas analyzer is used to
measure engine emissions such as NOx, unburnt hydro carbon
(UBHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and Carbon dioxide (CO2). Smoke
opacity of the exhaust gas is measured with the use of AVL 437C
smoke meter.

2.2. Prepared the waste plastic oil emulsion


For the emulsication method of ultrasonic vibration, an ultrasonically vibrating tank with a capacity of 500 ml is used to
prepare two-phase and three-phase emulsions. The vibrating frequency and the input power of the ultrasonic waves are set to be
25 kHz and 650 W, respectively. The proportion of Span 80 and
Tween 80 emulsier is selected based on the HLB value required
for a three phase O/W/O emulsion. The two-stage emulsication
technique is applied to produce the O/W/O emulsions. In the rst
stage, the two-phase O/W emulsion is produced with aid of Tween
80. In the second stage, the WPO is mixed with Span 80 and dispense into the ultrasonically vibrating tank. The O/W emulsion is
then fed into the tank and ultrasonically vibrated together with
the mixture of WPO and Span 80 (Lin and Chen, 2006). Three
different emulsions are prepared to test a diesel engine.
1. Waste Plastic oil 88%, water 10% and surfactant 2% (span-1% and
Tween-1%)
2. Waste Plastic oil 78%, water 20% and surfactant 2% (span-1% and
Tween-1%)
3. Waste Plastic oil 68%, water 30% and surfactant 2% (span-1% and
Tween-1%)
2.3. Properties of fuels
The properties of diesel, WPO and their emulsion are tested
based on IS and ASTM standards. Density of pyrolysis plastic oil is
845 kg/m3 and its density increases with water emulsication as
follows: PW10, PW20, PW30 is 908 kg/m3, 915 kg/m3 and 926 kg/
m3 respectively. Viscosity of the WPO is 3.254cSt and its viscosity
increases with emulsied water as follows: PW10, PW20, PW30 is
3.36cSt, 3.61cSt and 4.27cSt. Flash point decreases by 9 C for WPO
as compared to diesel and in case of emulsied plastic oil. It is
found to be increased by 1025 C compared with WPO. Fire point

4. Error analysis
Error analysis is performed to identify the accuracy of the
measuring instruments. Errors can occur due to many factors
which include environmental conditions, calibration, observation,
instruments and test planning. The percentage uncertainties of
NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2, EGT and smoke opacity.
Percentage of uncertainties present in experiments is
square root of ((uncertainty of pressure transducer)2
(uncertainty of angle encoder)2 (uncertainty of NOx)2 (Uncertainty
of HC)2 (uncertainty of CO)2 (uncertainty of CO2)2 (uncertainty
of O2)2 (uncertainty of smoke opacity)2 (uncertainty of K-2
thermocouple)2 (uncertainty of stop watch)2 (uncertainty of
manometer)2 (uncertainty of burette)2)
square root of ((0.01)2 (0.2)2 (0.2)2 (0.2)2 (0.3)2
(0.2)2 (0.3)2 (1)2 (0.2)2 (0.2)2 (2)2 (1.5)2) square root of
(7.6701) 72.769%.
Table 1
Single cylinder DI diesel engine specications.
Particulars

Specications

Name of the manufacturer


Bore and stroke
Number of cylinder
Rated speed
Rated Brake power
Displacement volume
Cooling system
Compression ratio
Nozzle opening pressure
Injection timing

Kirloskar TAF-1
87.5 mm, 110 mm
1
1500 rpm
4.4 kW
661.45 cc
Air-cooled
17.5:1
200 bar
23 bTDC

Please cite this article as: Kumar, P.S., Sankaranarayanan, G., Investigation on environmental factors of waste plastics into oil and its
emulsion to control the emission in DI diesel engine. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.01.021i

P.S. Kumar, G. Sankaranarayanan / Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety ()

5. Results and discussion

800
Diesel

5.1.1. Cylinder pressure


It is observed that, peak pressure for diesel is 63.82 bar occurring at 10oCA after TDC followed by WPO peak pressure is 68.35
bar occurring at 8CA after TDC, PW10 peak pressure is 65.33 bar
occurring at 9CA after TDC, PW20 peak pressure is 62.39 bar
occurring at 9CA after TDC and PW30 peak pressure is 59.02 bar
occurring at 9CA after TDC. The peak pressure of plastic oil blend
increases because of the vapour content present inside the working cylinder and due to the high combustion rate. It is also observed from the results that, earlier occurrence of peak pressure
leads to the damage of engine durability and formation of knocks
(Kumar et al., 2001). These parameters could be fairly controlled
when the peak pressure occurs beyond 7CA after TDC.
5.1.2. Ignition delay
Ignition delay period of test fuel is said to be the time lag between the start of injection and start of ignition. Higher fuel
viscosity causes slower mixing and reduced cone angle that result
in longer ignition delay (EL-Kasaby and Nemit-allah, 2013). Also
Low Cetane value of fuel results in a longer ignition delay. Fuels
when injected before ignition start leads to rapid burning rate
which results in auto ignition. This phenomenon is called as engine knocks. Hydro carbon derived emulsied plastic oil has high
Cetane number which results in better ignition quality and
smoother engine operation. The Cetane value of plastic oil is 53
and their emulsions PW10, PW20 and PW30 are 49, 45 and 43
respectively. The ignition delay for diesel is 8.65CA at full load
condition, whereas for plastic oil it is 8.2oCA and their emulsions
PW10, PW20 and PW30 are 9.3CA, 9.64CA and 9.71CA at full
load condition respectively. The reason for increase in ignition
delay for emulsion is due to the increase in re point and decrease
in heat release rate.
5.1.3. Rate of heat release rate
The variation of heat release rate with crank angle for diesel,
plastic oil and plastic oil with emulsions are shown in Fig. 1. It can
be observed from the gure that maximum heat release rate for
diesel is 71.56 J/CA, plastic oil is 91.93 J/CA and their emulsion
PW10, PW20, and PW30 corresponding values are 80.65 J/CA,
77.68 J/CA and 72.35 J/CA respectively. Maximum heat release
rate and EGT of plastic oil is higher than diesel because of their
longer ignition delay. Sahoo and Das (2009) Heat release rate and
EGT is reduced by emulsied plastic oil, due to the atomized water
molecules disperse with WPO in the combustion chamber that
tends to increases the ignition delay compared with neat diesel oil.

NOx emission (ppm)

700

5.1. Combustion parameters

600

Waste Plastic oil


PW10
PW20

500

PW30

400
300
200
100
0

25

50

75

100

Engine load (%)


Fig. 2. NOx emission for different engine loads.

5.2. Emissions
5.2.1. Oxides of nitrogen
Formation of NOx mainly depends on higher temperature presents in the exhasut gas. The variataion of NOx emission with
engine load for diesel,WPO and WPO emulsions are shown in
Fig. 2. NOx formation 668 ppm for full load conditions while operating with diesel. NOx emission of WPO increases at all load
conditions relative to diesel fuel because of the higher heat release
rate and higher combustion temperature (Hussain et al., 2012). It
produces 685 ppm of NOx emission at full load condition. This is
reduced with plastic oil emulsion: the corresponding NOx emission values of PW10, PW20, PW30 are 473 ppm, 353 ppm,
247 ppm at full load operating condition. The reason behind reduced NOx emission, it is the presence of water which absorbs heat
to evaporate thereby bringing down the peak temperature of the
ame.
5.2.2. Unburned hydrocarbon
The variation of UBHC with engine load for diesel, WPO and
WPO emulsion is shown in Fig. 3. Hydro carbon emission of
22 ppm for 25% load varies to 29 ppm for full load condition of
diesel. In case of WPO it varies from 34 ppm at 25% load to 48 ppm
for full load condition. The increase in hydro carbon emission is
because of the higher fumigation rate and non-availability of
oxygen present in the combustion chamber (Pradeep and Sharma,
2005). For 10% of plastic-water blend HC varies from 35 ppm to
60 ppm at full load condition. For 20% plastic oilwater blends HC
varies from 37 ppm to 63 ppm for full load condition. For 30%
plastic oilwater HC emission varies from 39 ppm to 67 ppm for
full load condition. From this study, results showed that the hydro
70
Diesel

Unburned hydrocarbon (ppm)

100
Diesel

Heat release rate (J/oCA

80

Waste plastic oil


PW10

60

PW20
PW30

40
20
0
-20
-20

60

Waste Plastic oil


PW10

50

PW20
PW30

40
30
20
10
0

-15

-10

-5

10

Crank angle ()
Fig. 1. Heat release rate for different Crank angle.

15

20

25

50

75

100

Engine load (%)


Fig. 3. Unburned hydro carbon emission for different engine loads.

Please cite this article as: Kumar, P.S., Sankaranarayanan, G., Investigation on environmental factors of waste plastics into oil and its
emulsion to control the emission in DI diesel engine. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.01.021i

P.S. Kumar, G. Sankaranarayanan / Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety ()

carbon emission of WPO and its blends is higher than diesel oil at
all load conditions due to more water content which leads to
longer ignition delay and incomplete combustion.
5.2.3. Carbon monoxide
It can be observed from the gure that the CO emission is
higher for WPO emulsions than diesel at full load condition. The
percentage of CO varies from 0.03% vol at 25% engine load to 0.22%
vol at full load for diesel oil whereas CO emission varies from
0.05% vol at 25% engine load to 0.26% vol at full load for WPO.
Correspondingly PW10, PW20 and PW30 produce 0.69% vol, 0.78%
vol and 0.81% vol for full load conditions. Increase in CO emissions
for WPO is because of the incomplete combustion due to reduced
cylinder temperature (Sorathia et al., 2013). Drastic variation in CO
occurs at full load condition which is due to higher brake specic
fuel consumption (BSFC). Because of the presence of water, the
ame temperature of the emulsion fuel is lower than the diesel;
there is not sufcient temperature to convert the CO in to CO2.
Therefore, a higher CO emission is experienced for emulsion fuel at
all load condition.
5.2.4. Smoke intensity
The variation of smoke percentage present in the exhaust gas
with respect to engine load for diesel, WPO and WPO emulsions
are shown in Fig. 4. Smoke percentage in the exhaust gas is higher
due to the plastic oil derived from pyrolysis process. It is observed
from the gure that PW10: 47.9%; PW 20: 39.6% and PW30: 30.5%
of smoke content at full load condition. Thus it is concluded that
PW30 produces 41% of less smoke content when compared to
diesel. It is believed that the micro explosion of the emulsion fuel
signicantly enhances the evaporation of the fuel and improves
the mixing with air, as a result less smoke is formed and also
smoke reduction is due to the availability of premixed waste
plastic oil inside combustion chamber with longer ignition delay
(Nagarajan et al., 2012).
5.3. Performance
5.3.1. Exhaust gas temperature
The variation of the EGT with engine load for Diesel, WPO and
WPO emulsions are shown in Fig. 5. The EGT varies from 235 C at
25% load to 470 C at full load condition for diesel whereas in case
of WPO it varies from 250 C at 25% load to 480 C at full load
condition. It is also observed from the results that EGT increases
with increase in engine load from 25% load condition to full load
condition. Whereas for PW10, EGT varies from 225 C at 25% load
to 461 C at full load condition, for PW20 EGT varies from 220 C at
25% load to 445 C at full load condition and for PW30 EGT varies
from 210 C at 25% load to 434 C at full load condition. The

600
Diesel

Exhaust gas temperature (C)

500

Waste Plastic oil


PW10

400

PW20
PW30

300
200
100
0
25

50

75

100

Engine load (%)


Fig. 5. Exhaust gas temperature for different engine loads.

decrease of EGT in emulsion is due to the lower heat release rate


and water molecules present in the WPO emulsions initially evaporate due to the thermal degradation (Kim et al., 2002). This
resists the temperature of the working uid in the combustion
chamber.
5.3.2. Brake thermal efciency
The variation of BTE with the engine load for diesel and WPO
emulsions are shown in Fig. 6. It is observed from the gure that
efciency of the diesel varies from 14.73% at 25% of engine load to
24.96% at full load. The WPO efciency varies from 13.34% at 25%
of load to 22.61% at full load condition. PW10 efciency varies
from 15.12% at 25% of load to 25.57% at full load; PW20 efciency
varies from 15.39% at 25% of load to 26.55% at full load; PW30
efciency varies from 16.16% at 25% of load to 27.11% at full load
condition. The BTE of WPO is slightly lower than the diesel at rated
load conditions. The reason for this low BTE for WPO is the higher
EGT and heat loss (Mani et al., 2011). This is due to the fact that the
heating value of the emulsion fuels is lower than that of diesel and
WPO, less energy is released during combustion, resulting in a
lower brake power output. However, we can see that the BTE of
the emulsion fuel is higher than that of diesel. This is the effect of
micro-explosion of the water droplets contained in the emulsion
fuel, which helps to break the larger size droplets oil into smaller
one, accelerating fuel evaporation and mixing with air, thereby
resulting in a faster combustion process and the higher BTE.

6. Conclusion
The following conclusions are derived from the tests conducted
on DI diesel engine with plastic oil and water.

70
Diesel

50

PW10
PW20

40

Diesel

30

Waste Plastic oil

Brake thermal efficiency (%)

Smoke opacity (%)

60

PW30

30
20
10

Waste Plastic oil


PW10
25

PW20
PW30

20

15

10

0
25

50

75

Engine load (%)


Fig. 4. Smoke intensity for different engine loads.

100

25

50

75

100

Engine load (%)


Fig. 6. Brake thermal efciency for different engine loads.

Please cite this article as: Kumar, P.S., Sankaranarayanan, G., Investigation on environmental factors of waste plastics into oil and its
emulsion to control the emission in DI diesel engine. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.01.021i

P.S. Kumar, G. Sankaranarayanan / Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety ()

 NOx emission is reduced up to 247 ppm while operating with








30% of plastic oil-water blends.


The UBHC and CO emission from the WPO emulsions are higher
than that of diesel at all engine load condition.
Smoke opacity of PW30 is 67% lesser than diesel at full load
conditions.
Brake thermal efciency of PW30 emulsion is increased up to
3% at full load operating conditions when compared to diesel.
The EGT is reduced by 36 ppm while operating with 30% of
WPO water blends compared with diesel.
Heat release rate and cylinder pressure reduced WPO water
blends.

It found that, PW30 has better performance than the other


blends. And thus it can be used as an alternate fuel in DI diesel
engine without any engine modication.

Acknowledgment
Author sincerely thanks Sri Venkateswara College of engineering for offering the setup of IC engine for experimental
studies.

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Please cite this article as: Kumar, P.S., Sankaranarayanan, G., Investigation on environmental factors of waste plastics into oil and its
emulsion to control the emission in DI diesel engine. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.01.021i