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Expansion Of Functions

Taylors Series

Solved Problems

Q 1 : Using Taylors series, find the values of f (x) is shown


below :
(i) f(x) = x1 3x3 + 2x2 x + 4 in the powers of (x 1) and
hence find f (1.1).
(ii) tan

x in
4

the powers of x and hence find the value

of tan (45 1) if 1 = 0.01745 radiants.

Taylors series is given by


f(x) = f(a) + f(a)

(x a)
1!

+ f(a)

(x a)2
2!

Here a = 1,
Differentiate successively w.r.t. x,
Let f (x) = x4 3x3 2x2 x+ 4 f (1) = 1
f (x) = 4x3 9x2 4x 1,

f (1) = 10

f (x) = 12x2 18x 4

f(1) = 10

f(x) = 24x 18,

f (1) = 6

f (x) = 24,

f (1) = 24
1

+ f(a)

(x a)3
3!

Expansion Of Functions

Taylors Series

Solved Problems

Putting the values of the derivatives, in the Taylors series,


we get
f (x) = 1 10 (x 1)
or

10
2

(x 1)2

6
3!

(x 1)3 +

24
4!

(x 1)4

f (x) = 1 10 (x 1) 5 (x 1)2 (x 1)3 + (x 1)4


Now

x = 1.1 = 1 + 0.1
x 1 = 0.1

f (1.1) = 1 10 0.1 5 0.001 + 0.0001


= 2.04090

(ii) Taylors series is given by


f (x +a) = f (a) + x

f ' (a)
1!

+ x2

f ' ' (a)


2!

+ x3

f ' ' ' (a)


3!

Let f (x + a) = tan (x + /4)


Here

a =

Differentiate successively w.r.t. x,


f (x) = tan x

f 4 = 1

f (x) = sec2x,

f 4 = 2

f (x)= 2 sec2x tanx

=4

f (x) = 2 sec4x + 4 sec2x tan2x f

=
4

16

Putting the values of the derivatives, in the Taylors


series, we get
2

Expansion Of Functions

Taylors Series

x =
4

tan

x =
4

Solved Problems

1 + 2x + 2x2 + 8 x3 +
3

Now we want tan (4501)

x + a = 450

Let
f

0 .01745 =
4

+ 0.01745

1 + 2 (0.01745) + 2 (0.01745)2 +

8
3

(0.01745)3 +
= 1.03552

Q.2 : Using Taylors series, find the values of f (x) is shown


below :
(i) f(x) = x1 3x3 + 2x2 x + 4 in the powers of (x 1) and
hence find f (1.1).
(ii) f (x) = x3 + 7x2 + 6x 6 in the power of (x + 1) and
hence f (1.1).
(iii) tan

x in
4

the powers of x and hence find the value

of tan (450 1) if 1 = 0.01745 radiants.

Expansion Of Functions

Taylors Series

Solved Problems

Soln.:
(i) Taylors series is given by
f(x) = f(a) + f(a)

(x a)
1!

+ f(a)

(x a)2
2!

+ f(a)

(x a)3
3!

Here a = 1,
Differentiate successively w.r.t. x,
Let f (x) = x4 3x3 2x2 x+ 4 f (1) = 1
f (x) = 4x3 9x2 4x 1,
f (x)= 12x2 18x 4
f(x) = 24x 18,

f (1) = 10
f(1) = 10
f (1) = 6

f (x) = 24,

f (1) = 24

Putting the values of the derivatives, in the Taylors


series, we get

f (x) = 1 10 (x 1)

10
2

(x 1)2

6
3!

(x 1)3 +

24
4!

(x 1)4
or

f (x) = 1 10 (x 1) 5 (x 1)2 (x 1)3 + (x

1)4
Now

x = 1.1 = 1 + 0.1
x 1 = 0.1
f (1.1) = 1 10 0.1 5 0.001 + 0.0001
= 2.04090

(ii) Taylors series is given by


f (x) = f(a) + f(a)

(x a)
1!

+ f(a)

(x a)2
2!

+ f(a)

(x a)3
3!

Expansion Of Functions

Here

Taylors Series

Solved Problems

a= 1

Differentiate successively w.r.t. x,


f (x) = x3 + 7x2 + 6x 6,

f (1) = 6

f(x) = 3x2 + 14x + 6,

f (1) = 5

f(x) = 6x + 14,

f (1) = 8

f (x) = 6,

f (1) = 6

Putting the values of the derivatives, in the Taylors


series, we get
f (x)= 6 + (x + 1) ( 5) + (x + 1)2

(8 )
2!

+ (x +1)3

5
f (x)= 6 5 (x + 1) + 4 (x + 1)2 + (x + 1)3
Now

x = 1.1 = 1 0.1

or

x + 1= 0.1

f (1.1)= 6 5 (0.1) + (0.01) 0.001


= 6.46

(iii) Taylors series is given by


f (x +a) = f (a) + x

f ' (a)
1!

+ x2

f ' ' (a)


2!

+ x3

Let f (x + a) = tan (x + /4)


Here

a=

Differentiate successively w.r.t. x,


f (x) = tan x

f 4 = 1

f (x) = sec2x,

f 4 = 2

f (x) = 2 sec2x tanx

f
5

=4

f ' ' ' (a)


3!

(6 )
Tip
3!

Expansion Of Functions

Taylors Series

f(x) = 2 sec4x + 4 sec2x tan2xf

Solved Problems

=
4

16

Putting the values of the derivatives, in the Taylors


series, we get Tip 5

x =
4

tan

x =
4

1 + 2x + 2x2 + 8 x3 +
3

Now we want tan (4501)


x + a = 450 + 1 =

Let

0 .01745 =
4

+ 0.01745

1 + 2 (0.01745) + 2 (0.01745)2 +

(0.01745)3 +
= 1.03552

8
3

Expansion Of Functions

Taylors Series

Solved Problems

Example 2 : Expand the following functions using Taylors


series :
(i)

tan1x in the powers of (x 1).

(ii) log cos x about x = /3.


Soln.:
(i) Taylors series is given by
f (x) = f (a) + f (a)

(x a)
2!

+ f (a)

(x a)2
2!

+ f (a)

(x a)3
3!

Here a = 1
Differentiate successively w.r.t. x
f (1) = tan1 1 =

Let f (x) = tan1 x


f (x) =
f (x) =
f (x) =
=

1
1 x2

2x
(1 x 2 )2

f (1) =

1
1 1

1
2

f (1) = 2 = 1

2(1 x 2 )2 2 x 2(1 x 2 ) 2 x
(1 x 2 )4

2(1 x 2 ) 8 x 2
(1 x 2 )3

f(x) =

1
2

Putting the values of the derivatives, in the Taylors


series, we get
f (x)= f (1) + (x 1)
=

1
2

f ' (1)
1!

+ (x 1)2

(x 1)

1
2

f ' ' (1)


2!

+ (x 1)3

(x 1)2 +

(x 1)3
12

f ' ' ' (1)


3!

Expansion Of Functions

Taylors Series

Solved Problems

(ii) Taylors series is given by


f (x) = f (a) + f (a)

(x a)
+
1!

f(a)

(x a)2
2!

+ f(a)

(x a)3
3!

Here expansion is to be taken about x = /3 which


means the expansion of the function in (x /3). i.e. here a
= Tip 2
3

Differentiate successively w.r.t. x


f (x) = log cos x
f(x) =

1
cos x

f (/3) = log

1
2

( sinx) = tanx f(/3)= tan

f (x) = sec2x

f (/3) = sec2 = 4

f(x) = 2 sec2 tan x

f(/3) = 8

Putting the values of the derivatives in the Taylors


series, we get
cos x= log
+
=

1
2

x
3

x
3

)+

x
3

( 4)

( (83! 3 ) ) +

4 3

log 2 x 4 x
3
3
3

....
3