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Discrete Mathematics

Chapter 1

Sets and Logic

Discrete Mathematics

Contents
1.1 Sets

1.2 Propositions
1.3 Conditional Propositions and Logical Equivalence

1.4 Arguments and Rules of Inference


1.5 Quantifiers

1.6 Nested Quantifiers

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Logic is the study of reasoning; it is


especially concerned with whether
reasoning is correct. Logic focuses on
the relationship among statements as
opposed to the content of any particular
statement.

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Consider, for example, the following argument:


All mathematicians wear sandals.
Anyone who wears sandals is an algebraist.
Therefore, all mathematicians are algebraists.

Technically, logic is of no help in determining whether


any of these statements is true; however, if the first two
statement are true, logic assures us that the statement,
All mathematicians are algebraists,
is also true.

Logic is essential in reading and developing proofs,


which we explore in detail in Chapter 2.
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1.1 Sets

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1.1 Sets

Example 1.1.13

The set R-Q, called the se of irrational numbers, consists of all real
numbers that are not rational.
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1.1 Sets

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Sets X and Y are disjoint if X Y=.


A collection of sets S is said to be pairwise disjoint if,
whenever X and Y are disjoint sets in S, X and Y are disjoint.

Example 1.1.16

The sets {1, 4, 5} and {2, 6} are disjoint. The collection of sets
S={ {1,4,5}, {2,6}, {3}, {7,8} }
is pairwise disjoint.
Given a universal set U and a subset X of U, the set U-X is called
the complement of X and is written

Discrete Mathematics

1.1 Sets

John Venn
(1834-1923)
British
logician,
philospher

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1.1 Sets

Example 1.1.19

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1.1 Sets

Example 1.1.20

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1.1 Sets

Theorem 1.1.21

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1.1 Sets

Theorem 1.1.21 (cont.)

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We define the union of an arbitrary family S of sets to be those


elements x belonging to at least one set x in S. Formally,

S={ x | x X for some X S }

Similarly, we define the intersection of an arbitrary family S of


sets to be those elements x belonging to every set X in S.
Formally,

S={ x | x X for all X S }

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1.1 Sets

Example 1.1.24

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Exercises 76, 80, 82, 91

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1.2 Propositions

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1.2 Propositions

Definition 1.2.1

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1.2 Propositions

Example 1.2.2

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1.2 Propositions

Definition 1.2.3

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1.2 Propositions

Definition 1.2.6

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P exor q

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1.2 Propositions

Definition 1.2.9

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Exercises 19, 25

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1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Definition 1.3.1

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1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Example 1.3.2

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1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Definition 1.3.3

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1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Example 1.3.4

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1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Definition 1.3.8

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It is traditional in mathematical definitions


to use if to mean if and only if Consider,
for example, the definition of set equality: If
sets X and Y have the same elements, then X
and Y are equal. The meaning of this
definition is that sets X and Y have the same
elements if and only if X and Y are equal.

An alternative way to state p if and only if q


is p is necessary and sufficient condition for
q . The proposition p if and only if q is
sometimes written p iff q
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1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Definition 1.3.10

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1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Example 1.3.11

Augustus De Morgan(18061871)
British mathematician, logician

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1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Example 1.3.13

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1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Example 1.3.15

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1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Definition 1.3.16

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1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Theorem 1.3.18

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Exercises 16, 31, 34, 60, 63, 77

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1.4 Arguments and Rules of Inference

Definition 1.4.1

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1.4 Arguments and Rules of Inference

Example 1.4.2

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1.4 Arguments and Rules of Inference

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1.4 Arguments and Rules of Inference

Example 1.4.3

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1.4 Arguments and Rules of Inference

Example 1.4.5

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Exercises 11, 12

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1.5 Quantifiers

Definition 1.5.1

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1.5 Quantifiers

Definition 1.5.4

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1.5 Quantifiers

Definition 1.5.9

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1.5 Quantifiers

Theorem 1.5.14

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Example 1.5.15

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Example 1.5.18

Example 1.5.19

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1.5 Quantifiers

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Example 1.5.21

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Exercises 12, 15, 18, 49, 52

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1.6 Nested Quantifiers

Example 1.6.2

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1.6 Nested Quantifiers

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1.6 Nested Quantifiers

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Example 1.6.3

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Example 1.6.6

Example 1.6.7

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1.6 Nested Quantifiers

Example 1.6.9

Example 1.6.10

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Example 1.6.11

Example 1.6.12

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Exercises
37, 40,42, 45, 48, 51, 54, 57

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Q&A

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