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# Discrete Mathematics

Chapter 1

## Sets and Logic

Discrete Mathematics

Contents
1.1 Sets

1.2 Propositions
1.3 Conditional Propositions and Logical Equivalence

1.5 Quantifiers

## 1.6 Nested Quantifiers

Discrete Mathematics

## Logic is the study of reasoning; it is

especially concerned with whether
reasoning is correct. Logic focuses on
the relationship among statements as
opposed to the content of any particular
statement.

Discrete Mathematics

## Consider, for example, the following argument:

All mathematicians wear sandals.
Anyone who wears sandals is an algebraist.
Therefore, all mathematicians are algebraists.

## Technically, logic is of no help in determining whether

any of these statements is true; however, if the first two
statement are true, logic assures us that the statement,
All mathematicians are algebraists,
is also true.

## Logic is essential in reading and developing proofs,

which we explore in detail in Chapter 2.
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1.1 Sets

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1.1 Sets

Example 1.1.13

The set R-Q, called the se of irrational numbers, consists of all real
numbers that are not rational.
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1.1 Sets

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## Sets X and Y are disjoint if X Y=.

A collection of sets S is said to be pairwise disjoint if,
whenever X and Y are disjoint sets in S, X and Y are disjoint.

Example 1.1.16

The sets {1, 4, 5} and {2, 6} are disjoint. The collection of sets
S={ {1,4,5}, {2,6}, {3}, {7,8} }
is pairwise disjoint.
Given a universal set U and a subset X of U, the set U-X is called
the complement of X and is written

Discrete Mathematics

1.1 Sets

John Venn
(1834-1923)
British
logician,
philospher

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1.1 Sets

Example 1.1.19

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1.1 Sets

Example 1.1.20

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1.1 Sets

Theorem 1.1.21

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1.1 Sets

## Theorem 1.1.21 (cont.)

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## We define the union of an arbitrary family S of sets to be those

elements x belonging to at least one set x in S. Formally,

## Similarly, we define the intersection of an arbitrary family S of

sets to be those elements x belonging to every set X in S.
Formally,

## S={ x | x X for all X S }

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1.1 Sets

Example 1.1.24

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## Exercises 76, 80, 82, 91

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1.2 Propositions

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1.2 Propositions

Definition 1.2.1

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1.2 Propositions

Example 1.2.2

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1.2 Propositions

Definition 1.2.3

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1.2 Propositions

Definition 1.2.6

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P exor q

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1.2 Propositions

Definition 1.2.9

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Exercises 19, 25

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## 1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Definition 1.3.1

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## 1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Example 1.3.2

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## 1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Definition 1.3.3

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## 1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Example 1.3.4

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## 1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Definition 1.3.8

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## It is traditional in mathematical definitions

to use if to mean if and only if Consider,
for example, the definition of set equality: If
sets X and Y have the same elements, then X
and Y are equal. The meaning of this
definition is that sets X and Y have the same
elements if and only if X and Y are equal.

## An alternative way to state p if and only if q

is p is necessary and sufficient condition for
q . The proposition p if and only if q is
sometimes written p iff q
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## 1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Definition 1.3.10

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## 1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Example 1.3.11

Augustus De Morgan(18061871)
British mathematician, logician

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## 1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Example 1.3.13

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## 1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Example 1.3.15

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## 1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Definition 1.3.16

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## 1.3 Conditional Propositions & Logical Equivalence

Theorem 1.3.18

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## Exercises 16, 31, 34, 60, 63, 77

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## 1.4 Arguments and Rules of Inference

Definition 1.4.1

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## 1.4 Arguments and Rules of Inference

Example 1.4.2

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## 1.4 Arguments and Rules of Inference

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## 1.4 Arguments and Rules of Inference

Example 1.4.3

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## 1.4 Arguments and Rules of Inference

Example 1.4.5

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Exercises 11, 12

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1.5 Quantifiers

Definition 1.5.1

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1.5 Quantifiers

Definition 1.5.4

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1.5 Quantifiers

Definition 1.5.9

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1.5 Quantifiers

Theorem 1.5.14

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Example 1.5.15

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Example 1.5.18

Example 1.5.19

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1.5 Quantifiers

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Example 1.5.21

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## Exercises 12, 15, 18, 49, 52

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## 1.6 Nested Quantifiers

Example 1.6.2

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## 1.6 Nested Quantifiers

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## 1.6 Nested Quantifiers

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Example 1.6.3

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Example 1.6.6

Example 1.6.7

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## 1.6 Nested Quantifiers

Example 1.6.9

Example 1.6.10

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Example 1.6.11

Example 1.6.12

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Exercises
37, 40,42, 45, 48, 51, 54, 57

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Q&A

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