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The 81111nternatic>nal Conference on Educational Research:


11-12 September 201.'5, Faculty ofEducation, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

Development Characteristics of Entrepreneur through Social Studies to


Foster the Spirit of Entrepreneurship Education
Waspodo Tjipto Subroto
(waspodotjipto@yahoo.co.id)
Faculty of Economic, State University of Surabaya
Abstract
Social studies education want to increase social sciences belonging to economy
studies, who seek students to become good citizenship or welfare citizenship. For become
welfare citizenship need development of characteristics entrepreneur and spirit of
entrepreneurship so the student can be welfare. Through social studies education,
characteristic entrepreneur of student can be develop and spirit entrepreneurship until welfare
of student increased and become welfare citizenship. With spirit of' social studies education
can be develop and spirit about entrepreneur of student with result that they can become good
and welfare citizenship. Through social studies education, especially about knowledge of
econom.ic and entrepreneurship, potential of student about characteristic and spirit of
entrepreneurship can be develop to increase skill and attitude of entrepreneurship, with hope
can be foster about welfare student and become good citizenship.

Keyword: Characteristic of entrepreneur, Social Studies Education, spirit of


entrepreneurship

I. INTRODUCTION

Entrepreneur role in determining the nation/state advancement has been demonstrated


by some developed countries like the United States, Japan, Singapore and several other
developed countries. In the United States, until now more than 12 percent of the population
become entrepreneurs. Growing phenomenon, showing 1 of the 12 Americans move directly
in the entrepreneur activities. This condition accounts for the United States as a country
whose economy is very strong. Japan has more than 10 percent of the population have
entrepreneurial activities and more than 240 small-scale enterprises, medium and large
enterprises in the developing world. Although it has a n.arrow area, with minimal natural
resources, but with the spirit and soul of entrepreneurship make Japan as economic
superpower in Asia.
In globalization era, the spirit of nation building in various parts of the world go into
increased prosperity harmonious as a central issue in a democratic pluralist society. Said by
Ohmae (1999) that the struggle to achieve prosperity, human rights and social justice for all
people in the world continues to evolve with the changing times. The globalization era has
drove democratization, liberalization and transparency are substantially full of the spirit of
competition, requires all parties to work to improve competitiveness in order to actively
participate in accordance with the profession.
Entrepreneurship as one of the professions become spearhead in the global competition
needs to be imparted to students as young generation. Characteristics of the natu.re and
attitude of entrepreneurs need to be developed and implanted to the students in order to spirit
of creativity and innovation to be able to create new goods and services or utilize any
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opportunities that exist in the surrounding area in order to obtain profit or benefit. According
Ciputra (2008), an entrepreneur must be careful in looking at opportunities and skilled to
utilize these opportunities to take profits. Reviewed from the economic aspect, according
Zimmerer (2008) an entrepreneur is the person who has skills in combining resources, labor,
material and other equipment to increase higher value than before because of a touch of
creativity and innovation.
Social Science education represent an interdisciplinary studies linking various social
sciences, such as economics, history, geography, sociology, anthropology, political, and
social psychology to understand various phenomena in social life development which is so
fast and often unpredictable appropriately. The development of information and
communication technologies so rapid! y in this globalization era, adding social life
development so faster follow the accompanying impact. The globalization phenomenon with
democratization, liberalization and transparency according to Somantri (2006) was very
influential on the human lives on this planet. In the globalization phenomenon context, social
science education should develop education program that is able to accommodate all
tendencies that carried in globalization process. The educational program according
BELMAWA (2013) needs to be realized in the form. of a curriculum that is able to equip
students become citizens of the world that are effective in managing potential optimally
towards welfare.
Social Science education, with a multidimensional and interdisciplinary approach is
always working to train creative and innovative thinking skills to assess social phenomenon
that is always evolving and complex. Through education of Social Sciences, characteristics
and nature of the entrepreneurs need to be developed in students in order to have a
competitive advantage to face increasingly complex business competition in the global
economy.

II. Objectives of the Study


Objective of this studies is want to increase role of social studies toward learning
qualities of economic education. In the regards, the research questions flow thus: (1) How
the role of social studies to increase learning qualities of economic education? And then, (2)
What are the social studies can be developed of spirit in the entrepreneurship? Through
social studies education, especially about knowledge of economic and entrepreneurship,
potential of student about characteristic and spirit of entrepreneurship can be develop to
increase skill and attitude of entrepreneurship, with hope can be foster about welfare student
and become good citizenship.

III. Review of Literature


Entrepreneurship is a businessman who is able to engage in general economic and
business, in particularly - accurate, efficient-effective and independent character physically
and m.entally as well as has business ethics responsible for the profession. According to
Hisrich (2005) entrepreneurs are individual who dare to break the existing economic system
by introducing new goods and services, by creating new organizational forms or process new
raw materials. Entrepreneurship is an attempt to move various economic resources from a
lower productivity region to higher productivity regions so that the result is greater.
Confirmed by Gwee (2007) that an entrepreneur always seeks to use its resources with
creativity and innovation to ensure optimal productivity and effectiveness.
A successful entrepreneur, needs to have characteristics that can support its success in
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11 - 12 September 20 I .'5, Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

entrepreneurship. Characteristics of an entrepreneur, among others: (a) characteristics, (b)


talent, and (c) entrepreneurship spirit.

A. Characteristics of Entrepreneur
The success of an entrepreneur would inseparable from the support of the
characteristics and personality in the world of business activities. Some of the characteristics
and personality by Sukardi ( 1991) can be classified, among others: ( 1) Confident, i.e. selfassured, independent, individuality, optimism, leadership, and dynamic, (2) Originality,
which are includes innovative, creative, able to cope with new problems, initiative, able to do
many things well, and have knowledge, (3) human-oriented, such as joviality, flexible,
responsive to suggestions/ criticisms, (4) Work-oriented, consisting of characteristic to excel,
profit-oriented, determined, persevering, determination, hard work, vigorous and full of
energy, (5) future-oriented, consists of foresight, and sharpness of perception, and (6) Dare to
take risks, consists of nature able to take a risk and love challenges.
Meanwhile, according to Alma (2008), an entrepreneur in order to be successful in its
efforts, it should be based on personality traits conducive, among others:
1. Self- Confidence. High self-confidence individual believe he is the one who has
matured physically and spiritually. Kind of independent personality and has reached the level
of maturity. The characteristics of a person's maturity is that he is not dependent on others, he
has a sense of high responsibility, objective, and critical.
2. Tasks and Results-Oriented. These individual prefer achievement first, prestige
later. The characteristics of these individuals always pursue achievements with expectation
will be followed by an increase in prestige. If the prestige always think first and achievements
then, it will not progress. Various motivation would appear in business if we are trying to get
rid of prestige. We will be able to work hard, energetic, with.out shame, so long as the work
we do is lawful.
3. Dare confront the risks. The characteristics inside this character was brought to the
entrepreneur also full of risks and challenges, such as competition, prices fluctuate, products
were not sold, and so on. But all of these challenges must be confronted with full calculation.
If the calculation was ripe, making consideration of' all kinds of terms, so keep go ahead and
don't forget pray to God.
4. Has Leadership Traits. Leadership qualities did exist within each individual.
There are leaders who liked by subordinates, it is easy to lead a group of people, he followed,
trusted by his subordinates. However there is unpopular leader disliked by his subordinates,
or he does not like his subordinates, he suspicious to his people, he was able to oversee his
people but he have no time for that. Planting suspicions to others; at some point in the future
will bad result at his business being run. A good leader must be willing to accept criticism of
his people, he must be responsive.
5. Originality. This original nature certainly does not always exist in a person. The
meaning of originality here that is not trailing after others, but has its own opinion, there is an
original idea, there is the ability to implement something. Original does not mean entirely
new, but these products reflect the results of a new combination or reintegration of the
components that already exist, thus think out something new. Weight of original creativity of
a product will look extent that it differs from what already exists.
6. Future-Oriented. An entrepreneur must be perspective, have a vision of the future,
what he was doing, what he wants to attain. For a business is not set up for a while, but
forever. Therefore, continuity factor must be kept and views should be addressed ahead. To
deal with foresight, an entrepreneur will develop plans and mature strategies, so clearly steps
that will be implemented.
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7. Creativity and Innovative. Competition is increasingly com.plex demands the


development of creative thinking and innovative in order to have a superior competitiveness.
Globalization era which are liberal and transparently provide free opportunities for creativity
and innovation to create excellent products.
And personality traits that support of this success necessary always endeavored its
sustainability and business in success can be maintained and enhanced facing the competition
that increasing! y complex.

B. Talent An Entrepreneurship
Often a talented person associated with inborn character. Behaviorism, explained that
the talent can be equated with the nature of a person's behavior. Meanwhile, according to the
socio-psychological, talented person related to skills to interact with others or interacting with
the surrounding community. So the talent or character essentially is orientation. Factors that
can be studied to develop one's talents, according to Hoffman (1994), namely:
1. Mind. By sharpening the mind, memory is expected to be sharp and creative,
tangible being fast thinking, systematic, and focused on the goals in addition to opening up
the possibility of the know ledge rising.
2. Feeling. Feelings will evolve into a roomy and flexible, has a great soul, so grows
the power of energy that are aggressive, courageous, patient, and calculating the test the
feelings of others
3. Consideration. Every entrepreneur should be able to give explanations to the
relations clear and interesting. Every word and sentence must be assured and any objections
of others must be answered correctly and satisfactorily. Indeed, an entrepreneur needs to have
capability to give consideration towards the smooth process of the conversation.
4. Attitude. Serious attitude complemented with humor in the right place, then an
entrepreneur has put himself to get attention. At crucial moments he must be able to make a
mature decision. Thus, any decision taken to satisfy both parties and relationship of relations
will be more harmonious.
Thus, entrepreneurs can open his heart and mind so widely to receive additional
knowledge, capability, and skills so as to form a flexible personality and enjoyable.
Some characteristics of talented entrepreneurs, according Suryana (2011) can be identified by
understanding how one's personality, as follows:
1. Always has ideas. The idea is essential thing for an entrepreneur. Without an idea,
it will not create a breakthrough. Not important whether the idea can be implemented or even
impossible to implement. From this idea will emerge an innovation.
2. Buoyant spirit. Being an entrepreneur will need folds of spirit. It is important. Due
to business world will certainly full with obstacles and difficulties. And spirit that will keep
us consistent in entrepreneurship. Quota spirit of an entrepreneur must exceed the average of
the spirit of the people in general.
3. Dare to imagination. Ideas, innovations and breakthroughs only owned by people
who have high entrepreneurial imagination. One commonly called crazy, because his
imagination sometimes disturbing reasonable of the people in general.
4. Love his business options. Business can be successful because the actor was in
love with what his done. Consider a hobby, but not just any hobby. However hobby that
fruitful.
5. Gregarious, and enthusiastic learn to anyone. An entrepreneur is a true learner,
no missed days without learning. No time is wasted, except to gregarious. By associating, an
entrepreneur is building a network and communications training. Good communication will
influence the development of the business that they do.

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11-12 September 201.5, Faculty cf Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

---------------------------------

6. Time appreciation. There are no wasted time in vain. Time is a very limited
resource. If we do not use it, then so can we be deceived by things in vain. Nearly no excuse
for careless. Always take an alert, although only a few minutes.
7. Humble. These characteristic are owned by the majority of successful
entrepreneurs. He will not find himself at the peak. Always assume there is one better than
him.
8. Delete ''give up'' word in his life dictionary. The word "give-up" is forbidden for
entrepreneurs. However it difficult, whatever the challenge, an entrepreneur will not give up,
though much scorn he received.
9. Ready to Work Hard. The key to success is hard work. No success achieved
easily. Success belong to people who work hard only. All the effort and resources will be
mobilized for the success of the business that they do.
10. Trust to God. An entrepreneur, businessman, and traders rely only on God. When
effort has a maximum effort, always prayed, then they will continue to submission everything
to God's will.
C. The soul and spirit of entrepreneurship.
In globalization era, the soul and the spirit of entrepreneurship plays a very important
role in the world of business and economics. Moreover, recent intellectual elements of
governance and emphasized the importance of the entrepreneurial spirit among the students.
Considered entrepreneurial spirit needs to be built early on as the foundation of the future so
that more job opportunities are wide open with the business climate of innovation. There are
Five Factors For Developing Entrepreneurial Spirit:
1. To develop the entrepreneurial spirit of course we must have a soul as a brave man
to carry out a business and you '11 face failure feel of running the business. In addition you
must have a courageous spirit as an entrepreneur, you also must have a high motivation to
develop your passion in entrepreneurship.
2. In addition to having a soul brave and have a high motivation to run a business, you
also have to have passion for your work love a business or job you are doing. Make your
work as you run your own hobbies. Tireless feeling and has a strong ambition to achieve
success, then you can reach the peak point of business you run.
3. In addition to considering some of the factors already mentioned above, you also
need to know that being an entrepreneur you must have a strong imagination to develop your
creativity in running a business. To get a steady job and a promising sure you also need to
hone creativity to determine a promising business and can certainly lead you to the success
you expect.
4. To reach success with the business you run, then you also must have a high
commitment and focus on the business you are running. It is possible if you tried other
businesses to achieve success, but it's better to focus on the business you run and create the
business into a promising business and can generate huge profits due to run the business.
5. The last factor that we wish to convey to all of you to develop your entrepreneurial
spirit is, by realize the success of entrepreneurship and to achieve success in entrepreneurship
proficiency level sure you must have a strong entrepreneurial spirit, has a high motivation,
creativity, and pay attention to some other factors we have already mentioned above.
And that's five factors you should consider to develop your entrepreneurial spirit in
running a business that you are run business idea that steady with great creativity to make a
promising business idea.

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The 8'hlnternatirJnal Conference on Educational Research:


11-12 September 201.'5, Faculty ofEducation, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

Methodology
Focus of this studies is role of social studies toward entrepreneurs course in economic
education, which describes the effectiveness of the observation approach in economic
learning and teaching to increase spirit of entrepreneurship of student. Development of
teaching and learning in entrepreneurs course to my students is a little researched topic, with
qualitative research design was chosen as most appropriate. Thirtieth five students aged 2122 taking an Entrepreneurship Course in Department of Economic Education at the State
University of Surabaya, Indonesia were given several discussion about spirit of entrepreneur
to become welfare citizenship and case studies with problem solving. The students were
asked to discuss in small groups and classical presentation about problem in entrepreneurship
course. Sugiyono (2006) provide an in-depth description of how focus groups are useful as a
qualitative research technique, and their guidelines for conducting interviews and were
applied in this teaching and learning.

V. Result and Discussion


A. Role of Social Studies in Developing Entrepreneur Characteristics
Social sciences education as a study of the socio-economic plays a role as a vehicle for
self-actualization of citizens either individually or in groups according to the rights,
obligations, and socioeconomic and cultural context, through active participation intelligently
and responsibly. According Sapriya (2008) citizenship related to the community, as well as
historically the concept of identity is growing along with the development of man as a social
political being, is also caused by efforts to establish a good social attitudes and desirable
through strengthening values and norms in society. Due to the built in motion socio-economic
social institution composed of values systems and norms, people and community in this
regard need to impart entrepreneurship values and business ethics that equip citizens to
become entrepreneur reliable.
Students as one of the intellectuals and the backbone of the reform in the future, among
which are deemed necessary to equip themselves with the spirit and soul of entrepreneurship.
Students are challenged to create their own jobs in ways and innovative ideas. Building
entrepreneurial spirit needs to be prepared early, let alone the spirit of entrepreneurship is one
of the significant contribution to the development of the nation. Entrepreneurial spirit that
built today will feel the benefits in the future. With this spirit prepared, students are expected
to create his own field, so that the reformists is no longer looking for a job, but instead to
create jobs for the community. Spirit to create this must be equipped with useful innovations,
so that the business world will be able to compete and provide a good investment climate for
investors.
B. Development Characteristics of Entrepreneurship
Social Sciences Education is one of the subjects at the higher education, which is
essentially aimed to learn social sciences, including economics student. The aim of Social
Sciences subjects of which is "to make students understand the econo.mic system prevailing
in the country". Social Sciences education as a developer of Social Sciences (history,
economics, geography, sociology, anthropology, politics, law, mass psychology) aims to
equip students to be skilled in analyzing social phenomena that continues to grow in the
community. By studying Social Sciences, one of the sources of learning is economics
including the understanding of entrepreneurship. Susanto (2008) explains that there is a term
Academician Entrepreneurs, namely the Academician entrepreneurs, both teachers and
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lecturers be able to show spirit, mental attitude, and behavior of entrepreneurs, so that
teachers and lecturers can show examples of the social dimension of intimacy. The
entrepreneurship dimension not only in the business world, but on the other fields. The basic
concept of this social dimension that the entrepreneurial spirit and mental attitude of the
teachers and lecturers need to be further developed as a solid foundation which should ideally
be integrated either into the scientific basis, the performance of the profession and the
professional skills that are developed on an ongoing basis. When vision of leadpreneurship
opened as above, then the teachers and lecturers will be positioned as leaders (not just the
leadership or the incumbent) is transformative, which converts dirt and junk into gold,
whether it is related to learners as well as the environment in which he was serving. Teachers
and lecturers are leadpreneurial (leadpreneurships soul), when he was also one who
Pancasilaist, then this is an ideal figure of the teacher profile required. All of that to generate
interest learning of students who will explore, develop, and exploit the natural wealth and
cultural wealth of the country to improve the lives of the people and the nation of Indonesia.
In this regard Rhenald Kasali (2010) coined the term intangibles. By Kasali intangibles itself
is defined as the "spirit". As the spirit contained in our body, it is invisible, intangible, yet we
understand very well what happens when the body does not have a soul. Intangibles are real
property not his form. With regard to the "spirit" is, Wargahadibrata (2011) explains that
entrepreneurial character education is an education program that is applying systematically
facilitate students, without obliging them will eventually have to choose careers as
entrepreneurs. That is, even if they choose a career path after graduating as an employee, then
they will already have the advantage of entrepreneurs characters that will be applicable to
success in any profession.

C. Foster a soul of entrepreneurship


Soul and personality of a person can be influenced by talent and environment. Among
talent and environment, which are considered to be dominant, of course depends on the
individual personality of each person equally uncertain. Likewise with the effort to foster the
spirit and personality of a person to become an entrepreneur is reliable, that the younger
generations more skilled in entrepreneur, entrepreneurship education curriculum needs to be
developed in a variety of public and private universities, to train students to be motivated
become reliable entrepreneur. Beside through lectures at universities, entrepreneurship
education should be developed through training to the younger generation in order to give
birth a reliable entrepreneur and leadprenuer.
Leadpreneurship according to Susanto (2008) is an integration between the mental
strength, mental attitude, knowledge and skills of high entrepreneurship of the person and
leadership qualities (leadership) are effective. People who have high quality leadpreneurship
are those who are able to transform low-value resources into high through risk taking
measurable and effective leadership. Ciputra (2008) confirms the main feature of the
competence of an entrepreneur is able to turn dirt and junk into gold. Furthermore, he
explained that there are 3 main characteristics distinguishing between the entrepreneur and
not the entrepreneur. The first feature, an entrepreneur is someone who creates opportunities.
A creative and produce innovation is the hallmark of both an entrepreneur, and a third
characteristic, a bold entrepreneur and able to take measured risks.
Social Sciences education with various models and approaches to learning and
supported by effective multimedia, according to Susanto (2009), can contribute to learning
entrepreneurship for young people, with the spirit of the following:
1. Equality between countries in the world will only be achieved by the equality of
human capability in each country. Our equality will be realized only when human beings and
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The 81"Jnternational Conference on Educational Research:


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the Indonesian have identity as a nation of Indonesia character.


2. Indonesia character is defined as a cultural construction of the attitudes (ways of
thinking and acting) of each individual of this multicultural nation of Indonesia is reflected in
the values of cultural I national ideology of Pancasila in the face of global dynamics (Tilaar,
2012)
3. In the opening of the 1945 Constitution has explicitly stated that the national
education directed to the development of all aspects of human personality Indonesia to be
faithful, cautious, having noble character
4. Indonesian which is envisaged by the founding fathers of Indonesia is human
morality, spirit of Pancasila. Humans are able to manage and exploit natural resources and
cultural richness that the lives of the people and the nation of Indonesia a prosperous and fair
5. An ideal teachers in civil society have a mature personality, but are constantly
evolving. Teachers should be able to stimulate the interest of learners. Teachers who have
such a profile and in the national education system as well as transformative dynamic culture
will enable learners to explore, develop, and exploit the natural wealth and cultural wealth of
the country to improve the lives of the people and the nation of Indonesia
6. Leadpreneurship is an integration between mental strength, mental attitude,
knowledge and skills of high entrepreneurship on the person and leadership qualities
(leadership) are effective.
7. People who have high quality leadpreneurship are those who are able to transform
low-value resources into high through risk taking measurable and effective leadership. They
are finding, sorting, selecting, utilizing, and even create opportunities.
8. When we vision of leadpreneurship, teachers and lecturers will be positioned as
leaders (not just the leadership or the incumbent) is transformative, which converts dirt and
junk into gold, whether it is related to learners as well as the environment in which he was

serving.
9. Teachers and lecturers are leadpreneurial (leadpreneurship soul), when he was also
one who Pancasilaist, then this is an ideal figure of the teacher profile required to arouse the
interest of learners that will enable it to explore, develop, and exploit the natural wealth and
cultural wealth of the archipelago to improve people's lives and the nation of Indonesia
10. Intangibles defined as a spirit, and as with the spirit contained in our body, it is
invisible, intangible. Yet, who can deny the role of the spirit in the living body? Intangible is
immaterial property are priceless. Leadpreneurial is an intangible that is required by the
teachers (educators) to prepare a generation of Indonesia in 2045.
With the spirit of the above, through the Education of Social Sciences, students
equipped with the understanding, skills and values and attitudes and nature to foster the spirit
of entrepreneurship and leadprenuership so that when they are ready to graduate later
independently and meet a brighter future.

D. Finding of the Research


Social studies education can be increase the qualities of economic education and
entrepreneurship course. Through social studies education, especially about knowledge of
economic and entrepreneurship, potential of student about characteristic and spirit of
entrepreneurship can be develop to increase skill and attitude of entrepreneurship, with hope
can be foster about welfare student and become good citizenship.
Through social studies education, characteristic entrepreneur of student can be develop
and spirit entrepreneurship until welfare of student increased and become welfare citizenship.
With social studies education there can be develop and spirit about entrepreneur of student
with result that they can become good and welfare citizenship.
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The 8 11.lnternational Conference on Educational Research:


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VI. Closing
Social studies education want to increase social sciences belonging to economy
studies, who seek students to become good citizenship or welfare citizenship. For become
welfare citizenship need development of characteristics entrepreneur and spirit of
entrepre:neurship so the student can be welfare. Through social studies education,
characteristic entrepreneur of student can be develop and spirit entrepreneurship until welfare
of student increased and become welfare citizenship. With spirit of social studies education,
there can be develop and spirit about entrepreneur of student with result that they can become
good and welfare citizenship. Through social studies education, especially about knowledge
of economic and entrepreneurship, potential of student about characteristic and spirit of
entrepreneurship can be develop to increase skill and attitude of entrepreneurship, with hope
can be foster about welfare student and become good citizenship.
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