Math Quest Grade 8 Chapter 5

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Math Quest Grade 8 Chapter 5

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Equations

5

Shannon is saving to

buy a new computer

which costs $3299. So

far he has $449 in the

bank and wants to make

regular deposits each

month until he reaches his

target of $3299. If he wants

to buy the computer in

8 months time, how much

does he need to save as a

monthly deposit?

One way of solving this

problem is to write and

solve an equation for this

situation with a pronumeral

representing the unknown.

This chapter looks at

solving different equations

and how this skill can be

used to solve real-life

problems.

152

Equations are very useful for reducing complex problems to simple terms. They are

groups of numbers and pronumerals joined by equal signs. We can perform functions

on equations to solve many different problems. For example how much food and water

do we need to take on a camping trip by x people for n days.

What we have to remember with equations is to

1

+2

3

2

always keep one side of the equal sign equal to the

4

other side. A useful tool you probably learned

about in Year 7 is to draw flow charts like this one.

2

carrying out the operations in order we find that

the output number is 3.

the input number by working backwards or

backtracking. For example, look at the flow chart

at right.

1

8

+2

7

+5

3

7

Starting with the 3, we can use inverse or opposite operations to find the input number.

Remember: Inverse operations undo each other or cancel each other out.

Adding and subtracting are inverse operations.

Multiplying and dividing are inverse operations.

Working backwards,

3 7 = 21

21 + 1 = 22

22 2 = 11

11 5 = 6

2

+5

above is 6.

input number is a pronumeral. Here is an

example.

11

22

2

+1

+7

x+7

2

x+7

+7

+7

show that all of x + 7 is to be multiplied by 2.

21

+7

x+7

3

2(x + 7)

2

2(x + 7)

3

2(x + 7) 3

Chapter 5 Equations

153

A bracket for division must be carefully drawn beneath all the terms which are

divided.

3x + 2 y 3

For example 3x + 2y 3 divided by 7 is written as ---------------------------- .

7

WORKED Example 1

Find the input number for this flow chart.

7

+3

7

THINK

1

WRITE

+3

7

The inverse of +3 is 3.

73=4

The inverse of 2 is 2. 4 2 = 8

The inverse of 7 is +7.

8 + 7 = 1

Fill in the missing numbers.

7

1

+3

4

+2

+2

+7

WORKED Example 2

Find the output expression for this flow chart.

3

+2

THINK

1

WRITE

x

x

Adding 2 gives 3x + 2.

3x

3

x

4

divide by 4.

3x

3

+2

3x + 2

+2

3x

3x + 2

3x + 2

4

154

WORKED Example 3

Starting with x, draw the flow chart whose output number is:

a 6 2x

b 2(x + 6).

THINK

WRITE

a 6 2x is the same as 2x + 6.

x has been multiplied by 2 and then 6

has been added.

answer has been multiplied by 2.

2

x

+6

2x

2x + 6

+6

x

2

x+6

2(x + 6)

remember

remember

1. To work backwards through a flow chart we use inverse operations.

2. Adding and subtracting are inverse operations.

3. Multiplying and dividing are inverse operations.

Backtracking inverse

operations

5A

5.1

1 Find the output number for each of the following flow charts.

SkillS

HEET

+6

3

7

+8

5

6

+8

0

1

+8

7

8

48

+4

12

10

12

+ 10

12

10

+8

32

155

Chapter 5 Equations

WORKED

Example

2 Find the input number for each of the following flow charts.

+6

+3

+2

14

2

+ 0.5

Example

4

5

5

11

2

1.2

+7

12

5.1

8

1

WORKED

+5

12

+ 11

Backtracking

3 Find the output expression for each of the following flow charts.

a

x

5

+3

s

2

+7

m

6

z

2

j

5

w

3

v

6

+2

+3

+7

+5

+3

+6

11

+1

sheet

L Spread

XCE

28

156

4 Starting with x, draw the flow chart whose output number is:

a 2(x + 7)

b 2(x + 7)

c 3m 6

3

x5

x

e ----------f --- 5

g 5x + 11

8

8

3x 7

i x 13

j 5 2x

k --------------4

x+5

x

m ------------ 3

n 7 --- 2

5

8

WORKED

Example

d 3m 6

h x + 11

l

3 ( x 2 )

----------------------4

An equation is an expression that contains an

equals sign. Lets look at a very simple equation:

x = 3. (Remember: An equation is a sentence

containing an equals sign.)

This equation can be pictured as a balanced pair

of scales.

x=3

If we double the amount on the left-hand side, the scales will balance as long as we

double the amount on the right-hand side.

xx

2x = 6

xx

2x + 2 = 8

The scales will remain balanced as long as we do the same to both sides. By doing the

same to both sides we can build up very complex equations or we can solve them by

working backwards.

157

Chapter 5 Equations

WORKED Example 4

Starting with the equation x = 4, write down the new equation when we:

a multiply both sides by 4

b take 6 from both sides

2

c divide both sides by --- .

5

THINK

WRITE

a

Multiply both sides by 4.

Simplify by removing the

multiplication signs. Write numbers

before pronumerals.

x=4

x4=44

4x = 16

Take 6 from both sides.

Simplify.

x=4

x6=46

x 6 = 2

multiply by its reciprocal.

5

Multiply both sides by --- .

2

x=4

5

5

x --- = 4 --2

2

Simplify.

1

2

3

1

2

5x 20

------ = -----2

2

5x

------ = 10

2

remember

remember

1. An equation is an expression that contains an equals sign.

2. An equation is like a pair of balanced scales. The scales will remain balanced

as long as we do the same to both sides.

5B

by the diagram at right.

b Show what happens when you halve the

amount on both sides, and write down the new

equation.

xx

158

by the diagram at right.

b Show what happens when you take three from

both sides, and write down the new equation.

x

by the diagram at right.

b Show what happens when you add three to

both sides, and write down the new equation.

by the diagram at right.

b Show what happens when you double the

amount on each side, and write down the new

equation.

xxx

xx

5 Starting with the equation x = 6, write down the new equation when we:

a add 5 to both sides

b multiply both sides by 7

4

c take 4 from both sides

d divide both sides by 3

e multiply both sides by 4

f multiply both sides by 1

g divide both sides by 1

h take 9 from both sides

2

2

i multiply both sides by --j divide both sides by --3

3

2

k take --- from both sides.

3

WORKED

Example

6 multiple choice

If we start with x = 5, which of these equations is not true?

x

A x+2=7

B 3x = 8

C 2x = 10 D --- = 1

5

7 multiple choice

If we start with x = 3, which of these equations is not true?

2x

x

3

B 2x = 6

C 2x 6 = 0 D --- = --A ------ = 2

3

5

5

GAM

time

Equations

001

Work

ET

SHE

5.1

8 multiple choice

If we start with x = 6, which of these equations is not true?

A x = 6

B 2x = 12

C x6=0

D x + 4 = 2

9 multiple choice

If we start with 2x = 12, which of these equations is not true?

2x

B 2x = 12 C 2x 6 = 2 D 4x = 24

A ------ = 4

3

E x2=3

E x5=2

E x 2 = 8

E 2x + 5 = 17

159

QUEST

GE

EN

M AT H

Chapter 5 Equations

CH

AL

1 The cost of a cricket ball and a glove is $25 and the cost of two cricket

balls and three gloves is $65.

a What is the cost of a cricket ball and two gloves? Explain your

answer.

b What is the cost of one glove?

c What is the cost of one cricket ball?

2 Of 3 coins, one is known to be a fake which is slightly lighter than the

other two. But which one? Explain how, with just one weighing on a

pair of scales, you can determine which is the fake coin.

1

1 Find the output number for this flow chart:

10

+2

+2

x2

20

flow chart:

6

6

x 1

+2

2z + 5

4 Draw a flow chart whose output expression is given by --------------- .

7

5 Write the output expression for the flow chart

at right.

6 Write the equation that is represented in the

diagram at right.

9

p

p 9

p 9

7

xxx

1 1 1

1 1 1

x 1 1

1 1

1 1 1

7 Write the equation that is represented by the diagram.

8 Write the new equation when you add 3 to both sides.

9 Starting with the equation y = 7, write down the new equation when you

multiply both sides by 5.

10 True or false? If you start with y = 6 then divide both sides by 1, the new

equation is y = 6.

160

History of mathematics

DIOPHANTUS OF ALEXANDRIA (c. 200c. 284)

Y

Istanbul

GREECE

TURKEY

E

CRETE

Mediterran

ean Sea

SYRIA

I

Alexandria

Cairo

LIBYA

Red

Sea

UNITED

ARAB

REPUBLIC

(EGYPT)

Gunpowder is

invented in

China.

The Roman

Empire executes

many Christians

to stop the spread

of Christianity.

ago, there are few facts known about

Diophantus or his achievements. Even the

dates of his birth and death are approximate.

It is thought that he married at 33, had a son

when he was 42, and died at 84. However,

these facts are only known to us through

this riddle that was written about him.

. . . his boyhood lasted 1--6- th of his life; he

married after 1--7- th more; his beard grew after

1

------ th more, and his son was born 5 years later;

12

the son lived to half his fathers age, and the

father died 4 years after the son.

Diophantus is considered the creator of

algebra. He published works on algebra and

number systems including a collection of

books known as the Arithmetica. Only six of

the original thirteen volumes of the

Arithmetica still exist, mostly as Arabic

translations. They are mainly about solving

determinate equations numerically.

Diophantus worked mostly on equations

that had positive and rational answers.

Equations without this sort of answer were of

no interest to him because he considered that

their answers were not real.

As Diophantus had no understanding or

knowledge of the idea of zero, he was

restricted in how he could solve equations.

He partially got around this by examining

them in the formats ax + bx = c, ax = bx + c

and ax + c = bx. This approach meant that he

did not have to use negative values.

form of algebraic symbolism. He introduced

symbols for subtraction and for powers of the

unknown.

Y

KY

Y

KY

KYK

subtraction symbol

unity (x)

number (x)

square (x2)

cube (x3)

square-square (x4)

square-cube (x5)

cube-cube (x6)

used as digits. A line over the top of the letters

distinguished them as numbers. For example,

to represent take a number, multiply it by

itself, then multiply this result by 3 before

2

Nowadays, we would write this as 3x + 15.

With the introduction of symbols, mathematics

became more of a language, allowing problems

to be written in a shorter form.

Work done by Diophantus in the third

century inspired the seventeenth century

French mathematician Pierre de Fermat to

further investigate number theory. The

symbol used today as the equal sign (=) can

be traced back to Diophantus.

Questions

1. What multi-volume work did

Diophantus publish?

2. How did Diophantus solve equations

without knowing about zero?

3. Which seventeenth century

mathematician was inspired by his

work?

Research

Find out more about the symbols used by

Diophantus to write problems in shorter

algebraic form.

Chapter 5 Equations

161

A linear equation is an equation where the variable has an index (power) of 1.

For example, it never contains terms like x2 or

x.

Let us take another look at a simple linear equation and see what happens when we

change both sides.

Remember: To keep an equation true it should be balanced by doing the same to both sides.

x=7

Multiply both sides by 3.

3x = 21

Subtract 1 from both sides.

3x 1 = 20

3

1

We can show this process on a flow chart.

x

3x

3x 1

The flow chart at right shows us that to

7

21

20

backtrack from 3x 1 we must add 1 and

then divide by 3. Let us solve the equation

3

+1

3x 1 = 20 by backtracking and doing the

same to both sides.

3x 1 = 20

Add 1 to both sides.

3x 1 + 1 = 20 + 1

3x = 21

3x 21

------ = -----Divide both sides by 3.

3

3

x=7

WORKED Example 5

Copy and complete the following equations by doing the same to both sides.

a

x = 10

b

n = 12

5x = ____

n 2 = ____

n2

------------ = ____

5x + 3 = ____

5

THINK

WRITE

arrows to show what has been done

to x.

Do the same to both sides.

Multiplying 10 by 5 gives 50.

Adding 3 to 50 gives 53.

arrows to show what has been done

to n.

Do the same to both sides.

Taking away 2 from 12 gives 10.

Dividing 10 by 5 gives 2.

5

x

+3

5x

5x + 3

x = 10

5x = 50

5x + 3 = 53

5

2

n

n2

n = 12

n 2 = 10

n2

------------ = 2

5

n

2

5

162

A flow chart is useful to show you the order of operations applied to x, so that the

reverse order and opposite operations can be used to solve the equation. Once you

become confident with solving equations algebraically (doing the same to both sides),

you can leave out the flow chart steps.

WORKED Example 6

Solve these 2-step equations by doing the same to both sides.

x

a --- + 1 = 7

b 2(x + 5) = 18

3

THINK

WRITE

x

a --- + 1 = 7

3

arrows to show what has been done

to x.

+1

x

3

Backtrack from 7.

+1

x

3

x + 1

3

18

Draw a flow chart and fill in the

arrows to show what has been done

to x.

x

--- 3 = 6 3

3

x = 18

b

2(x + 5) = 18

Give the solution.

+5

x

x+5

2(x + 5)

2

+5

x

x+5

2(x + 5)

18

x

--- + 1 1 = 7 1

3

x

--- = 6

3

x + 1

3

2 ( x + 5 ) 18

-------------------- = -----2

2

x+5=9

x+55=95

x=4

Chapter 5 Equations

163

remember

remember

1. A linear equation is an equation where the variable has an index (power) of 1.

2. Whatever you do to one side of an equation you must do to the other.

3. You can draw a flow chart to help you to decide what to do next.

5C

1 Copy and complete these equations by doing the same to both sides.

a

m=4

b

c=5

c

t = 12

5

4m = ____

2c = ____

t 9 = ____

4m 11 = ____

2c + 3 = ____

t9

---------- = ____

3

WORKED

Math

w = 3

5w = ____

5w + 1 = ____

k=7

k 9 = ____

2(k 9) = ____

t=3

5t = ____

5t

----- = ____

3

z=9

z

--- = ____

3

z

--- + 6 = ____

3

h

x = 11

x 7 = ____

x7

----------- = ____

2

m = 3

m + 5 = ____

3(m + 5) = ____

y=5

y = ____

y + 5 = ____

5 y = ____

t=3

t

--- = ____

3

5t

----- = ____

3

m=3

2m = ____

2m

------- = ____

3

a 3m + 5 = 14

b 2w + 6 = 16

c

6

d 4t 3 = 15

e 2(m 4) = 6

f

g 5(k + 6) = 15

h 6(s + 11) = 24

i

j 40 = 5( p + 6)

k 5 3g = 14

l

L Spread

XCE

2-step

equations

WORKED

5k 12 = 8

3(n + 12) = 18

2m + 3 = 10

11 f = 8

Math

cad

Example

sheet

2 Copy and complete the following equations by doing the same to both sides.

a

x = 10

b

x = 10

c

m=4

[ 7]

7x = ____

[+ 3] ________

[ 4] ________

[+ 3] 7x + 3 = ____

[ 7] ________

[ 3] ________

d

m=4

e

t = 12

f

t = 12

[ 3] ________

[ 6] ________

[ 3] ________

[ 4] ________

[ 3] ________

[ 6] ________

g

w=6

h

w=6

i

m = 10

[+ 5] ________

[ 2] ________

[ 2] ________

[ 2] ________

[+ 5] ________

[ 5] ________

Doing the

same to

both sides

cad

Example

Solving

equations

164

the equation 2x + 3 = 14.

2x + 3 = 14

2x

14

------ + 3 = -----2

2

x+3=7

x+33=73

x=4

a Is the solution correct?

b If not, can you find where the

error is and correct it?

GC p

am

rogr

Spreadshe

et

EXCEL

Solving

equations

3-step

equations

x

x5

a --- + 2 = 9

b ----------- = 1

3

4

m+3

h

c ------------- = 7

d ------ + 1 = 5

2

3

2w

m

e ------- 3 = 1

f ------- = 4

5

5

3m

c7

g ---------- = 1

h ----------- = 2

7

3

t+2

5m

i ---------- = 10

j ----------- = 5

7

4

6 Solve these equations by doing the same to both sides. They will need more than

2 steps.

2 ( x + 5 )

5m + 6

a 2(m + 3) + 7 = 3

b ----------------------- = 6

c ----------------- = 4

5

3

4 2x

x + 3

3x

d ------ 2 = 1

e --------------- = 6

f --------------- = 4

3

2

7

3m 5

g ---------------- = 7

2

j

d7

------------ + 10 = 8

2

h 7(5w + 3) = 35

k

3n + 1

--------------- 5 = 2

4

x

5 --- 6 = 10

2

3(t 5)

------------------- + 9 = 6

7

7 Simplify the left-hand side of the following equations by collecting like terms, and then

solve.

a 3x + 5 + 2x + 4 = 19

b 13v 4v + 2v = 22

c 3m + 6 5m + 1 = 15

d 3y + 7 + 4y 2 = 9

e 3y 7y + 4 = 64

f 5t + 4 8t = 19

g 5w + 3w 7 + w = 13

h w + 7 + w 15 + w + 1 = 5

i 7 3u + 4 + 2u = 15

j 7c 4 11 + 3c 7c + 5 = 8

8 A repair person calculates his service fee using the equation F = 40t + 55, where F is

the service fee in dollars and t is the number of hours spent on the job.

a How long did a particular job take if the service fee was $155?

b Explain what the numbers 40 and 55 could represent as costs in the service fee

equation.

Chapter 5 Equations

165

both sides

Some equations have the pronumeral on both sides of

the equation. Take, for example, the equation:

4x + 1 = 2x + 5.

If we draw this equation as a balance it looks like this:

The scales will remain balanced as long as we do

the same to both sides. Lets remove two of the xs

from each side and look again at the diagram.

x

x

xx

xx

x

x

4x + 1 = 2x + 5

2x + 1 = 5

Starting from

4x + 1 = 2x + 5,

we have taken 2x from both sides.

4x + 1 2x = 2x + 5 2x

2x + 1 = 5

and we can continue

2x = 4

x=2

Equations like 4x + 1 = 2x + 5 are easy to solve if we first remove the x term from one side.

WORKED Example 7

THINK

Subtract 3t from both sides and

simplify.

Add 8 to both sides and simplify.

t = 10 into the left-hand, and then the

right-hand side of the equation.

1

2

WRITE

5t 8 = 3t + 12

5t 8 3t = 3t + 12 3t

2t 8 = 12

2t 8 + 8 = 12 + 8

2t = 20

2t 20

----- = -----2

2

t = 10

If t = 10,

5t 8 = 50 8

= 42

If t = 10,

3t + 12 = 30 + 12

= 42

The solution is correct.

166

WORKED Example 8

THINK

1

2

3

The inverse of 2n is +2n.

Add 2n to both sides and simplify.

Subtract 11 from both sides and

simplify.

n = 1 into the left-hand, and then the

right-hand side of the equation.

WRITE

3n + 11 = 6 2n

3n + 11 + 2n = 6 2n + 2n

5n + 11 = 6

5n + 11 11 = 6 11

5n = 5

5n 5

------ = -----5

5

n = 1

If n = 1,

3n + 11 = 3 + 11

=8

If n = 1,

6 2n = 6 (2)

=6+2

=8

The solution is correct.

WORKED Example 9

Expand the brackets and then solve the following equation, checking your solution.

3(s + 2) = 2(s + 7) + 4

THINK

1

2

3

4

5

Expand the brackets first and then

simplify.

Subtract 2s from both sides and

simplify.

Subtract 6 from both sides and simplify.

Check the solution by substituting

s = 12 into the left-hand, and then the

right-hand side of the equation.

WRITE

3(s + 2) = 2(s + 7) + 4

3s + 6 = 2s + 14 + 4

3s + 6 = 2s + 18

3s + 6 2s = 2s + 18 2s

s + 6 = 18

s + 6 6 = 18 6

s = 12

If s = 12,

3(s + 2) = 3(12 + 2)

= 3(14)

= 42

If s = 12,

2(s + 7) + 4 = 2(12 + 7) + 4

= 2(19) + 4

= 38 + 4

= 42

The solution is correct.

167

Chapter 5 Equations

remember

remember

1. When a pronumeral appears on both sides of an equation, remove the

pronumeral term from one side.

2. For a positive term we can remove by subtraction.

For example: 7x + 7 = 5x 3 (subtract 5x from both sides)

3. For a negative term we can remove by addition.

For example: 3x + 11 = 7 2x (add 2x to both sides)

5D

pronumeral on both sides

1 Write down the equation which is represented by each of the following diagrams.

a

b

x

xx

xx

xx

xx

xx

x

x

d

x

x

x

x

x

e

x

xx

xx

xx

2 For each of these equations in diagram form, show the next step in solving the equation

by removing xs from both sides of the balance.

a

x

xx

3x + 1 = x + 5

168

xx

xx

x

x

x

x

4x + 2 = 2x + 6

c

x + 4 = 2x + 2

d

xx

xx

x

x

4x + 1 = 2x + 1

x

xx

Spreadshe

xx

xx

et

EXCEL

Pronumerals

on both

sides

3x + 3 = 4x + 1

3 Solve the following equations and check your solutions.

Example

d

a 8x + 5 = 6x + 11

b 5y 5 = 2y + 7

c 11n 1 = 6n + 19

hca

7

d 6t + 5 = 3t + 17

e 2w + 6 = w + 11

f 4y 2 = y + 9

Pronumerals

g 3z 15 = 2z 11

h 5a + 2 = 2a 10

i 2s + 9 = 5s + 3

on both

j

k

+

5

=

7k

19

k

4w

+

9

=

2w

+

3

l 7v + 5 = 3v 11

sides

WORKED 4 Solve the following equations and check your solutions.

Example

am

rogr

a 3w + 1 = 11 2w

b 2b + 7 = 13 b

c 4n 3 = 17 6n

8

d 3s + 1 = 16 2s

e 5a + 12 = 6 a

f 7m + 2 = 3m + 22

Solving

g

p

+

7

=

p

+

15

h

3

+

2d

=

15

2d

i 5+m=5m

equations

j 7s + 3 = 15 5s

k 3t 7 = 17 2t

l 16 2x = x + 4

ORKED 5 Expand the brackets and then solve the following equations, checking your solutions.

5.2 W

Example

HEET

a 3(2x + 1) + 3x = 30

b 2(4m 7) + m = 76

9

c 3(2n 1) = 4(n + 5) + 1

d t + 4 = 3(2t 7)

e 3d 5 = 3(4 d)

f 4(3 w) = 5w + 1

g 2(k + 5) 3(k 1) = k 7

h 4(2 s) = 2(3s 1)

i 3(z + 3) = 2(4 z)

j 5(v + 2) = 7(v + 1)

k 2m + 3(2m 7) = 4 + 5(m + 2)

l 3d + 2(d + 1) = 5(3d 7)

SkillS

GC p

Mat

WORKED

Chapter 5 Equations

169

Kidneys

Kidne

ys . . .

Solve the equations to

discover the puzzle answer code.

13

13

15

13

8 16

15

13

16

2A 5 = A

3D = 10 2D

7+5E = 2E 2

6I + 11 = 74 I

3K + 8 = K 6

L = 4L + 24

15 F = F + 7

M + 6 = 3M 6

6(N + 3) = 2N 2 2 O + 4 = 3 O 9

12 4I = 8 I

3(2R 1) = 5R

3S 6 S = S + 9

U = 48 + 4 U

9 2Y = 5Y + 16

170

2

1 Find the output expression for the flow chart:

4

x5

+3

t

2 Draw a flow chart whose output expression is given by 4 --- + 10 .

9

3 Starting with the equation b = 9 write down the new equation when you divide both

sides by 1--3- .

4 What operation must have occurred to get d 2 = 4 from d = 6?

5 Solve 10 g = 8.

y

6 Solve --- + 5 = 9 .

4

2(h + 5)

7 True or false? The solution to the equation -------------------- 8 = 4 is h = 12.

3

8 Solve 6v + 6 = 2v 6.

9 Solve 3m + 10 = 6 m.

10 Expand the brackets first and then solve the equation 5(3 t) = 2(2t 1).

Checking solutions

m+5

4m 7

Lucy is not able to solve the equation ------------- = ---------------- ,

8

5

but Jo thinks that the solution is m = 3. Is she

correct?

Lucy decides to check Jos solution by

substituting m = 3 into both sides of the

equation.

m+5 3+5

Left-hand side: ------------- = -----------8

8

=1

4m 7 4 3 7

Right-hand side: ---------------- = --------------------5

5

12 7

= --------------5

=1

m+5

4m 7

Both sides equal 1, so ------------- = ---------------- is

8

5

a true statement when m = 3.

This means that m = 3 is the solution to the equation,

so Jo is correct!

Chapter 5 Equations

171

We can now try to guess the solutions to difficult equations, and after each guess we

can check to see whether our guess is correct or not. If we think and comment about

each guess then our guesses should improve and lead us to a solution.

m+8

Here is an example: Lets try to guess the solution to the equation ------------- = 3m 6 .

2

m+8

We will need a table to write in our guess for m, the values of ------------- and 3m 6, and

2

a comment. Dont be too concerned about making a good first guess because the most

important thing is to start somewhere. Lets try m = 10.

m+8

If m = 10 then ------------- = 9 and 3m 6 = 24. Comparing the two values we note that

2

3m 6 is bigger. This is a useful comment.

Guess

m

10

Check

m+8

------------2

9

Comment

3m 6

24

3m 6 is too big.

m+8

If m = 6 then ------------- = 7 and 3m 6 = 12.

2

We can see that 3m 6 is still too big, but the two values are closer together. We must

be heading in the right direction.

Guess

Check

Comment

10

m+8

------------2

9

24

3m 6 is too big.

12

Getting closer

3m 6

m+8

If m = 2 then ------------- = 5 and 3m 6 = 0.

2

We have gone too far because 3m 6 is now too small.

Guess

Check

Comment

10

m+8

------------2

9

24

3m 6 is too big.

12

Getting closer

3m 6 is too small.

3m 6

Lets try m = 4.

m+8

If m = 4 then ------------- = 6 and 3m 6 = 6.

2

172

Guess

Check

Comment

m+8

------------2

3m 6

10

24

3m 6 is too big.

12

Getting closer

3m 6 is too small.

This is it!

m+8

is the solution to the equation ------------- = 3m 6 .

2

WORKED Example 10

For each of the following determine whether x = 10 is the solution to the equation.

x+2

a ------------ = 2 x 12

3

b 3x 7 = 2x + 3

THINK

a

equation and substitute x = 10.

the equation and substitute x = 10.

Write down the left-hand side of the

equation and substitute x = 10.

the equation and substitute x = 10.

WRITE

x+2

a ------------ = 2x 12

3

If x = 10,

x+2

LHS = -----------3

10 + 2

= --------------3

=4

If x = 10,

RHS = 2x 12

= 20 12

=8

x = 10 is not the solution.

b 3x 7 = 2x + 3

If x = 10,

LHS = 3x 7

= 30 7

= 23

If x = 10,

RHS = 2x + 3

= 20 + 3

= 23

x = 10 is the solution.

Chapter 5 Equations

173

WORKED Example 11

THINK

1

WRITE

guesses for x.

Guess

x

Check

Comment

2x + 20 4x 2

22

4x 2 is too

small.

32

22

This is closer.

10

40

38

Very close

11

42

42

Thats it!

WORKED Example 12

Use guess, check, and comment to find two numbers whose sum is 31 and whose product

is 150.

THINK

1

WRITE

numbers that do this.

Then check by finding their product.

Guess 1 and 30.

Guess 10 and 21.

Try a number between 1 and 10.

Guess

Sum (small

number

first)

Check

Product (P)

Comment

1, 30

1 3 = 30

10, 21

P is too low.

5, 26

5 26 = 130

P is too low.

8, 23

8 23 = 184

P is too high.

6, 25

6 25 = 150

Thats it!

remember

remember

We can check our solution to an equation by substituting a guess into the left- and

right-hand sides of that equation.

174

5E

5.3

SkillS

HEET

Mat

d

hca

Checking

solutions

Mat

d

hca

Spreadshe

et

EXCEL

Guess

and

check

Guess

and

check

Checking solutions

x+3

10

a x = 5 is the solution to the equation ------------ = 3x 10

2

2x + 4

b x = 10 is the solution to the equation --------------- = x 6

6

c x = 3 is a solution to the equation x2 + 2 = 2x + 5

d x = 4 is a solution to the equation x2 3 = 3x + 3

e x = 2 is the solution to the equation 4 x = 5x + 16

5x + 3

4x 2

f x = 1 is the solution to the equation --------------- = --------------6

2

2

g x = 7 is a solution to the equation x = 7x

h x = 29 is a solution to the equation x2 + 9 = 30x + 20

5x + 15

x + 13

i x = 87 is the solution to the equation ------------------ = --------------9

2

2

j x = 2.7 is a solution to the equation x + x = 8.29

x

k x = 3.6 is the solution to the equation 2.1x + 0.44 = ------- 0.36

0.5

2

l x = --- is the solution to the equation

7

1

7

3

x+5

--- x + ------ = ------ x .

-----------x

5

35

10

2

WORKED

Example

x+5

3x + 7

find the values of ------------ and --------------- .

2

4

b What is the solution to the equation

x+5

3x + 7

------------ = --------------- ?

2

4

find the values of m2 and 2m + 8.

b What is a solution to m2 = 2m + 8?

3x + 7

--------------4

3.25

3

4

5

m

m2

2m + 8

1

2

3

4

5

18

Chapter 5 Equations

WORKED

Example

11

175

4 Use guess, check and comment to find a solution to the equation y2 + 3 = 6y + 10. (The

process has been started for you.)

Guess

Check

y2 + 3

10

Comment

6y + 10

y2 + 3 is too small.

70

y2 + 3 is too big.

3m + 2

a ----------------- = 2m 12

4

c

w3

w+3

b ------------- = ------------4

7

x2 = 9x 8

d t 2 + 3 = 4t + 8

e x(x + 7) = 120

m

---- = 18 m

5

5n

g 5n 3 = -----2

4x 4.1

------------------- = x 0.1

3

6 Use guess, check and comment to find two numbers whose sum is 35 and whose

product is 294. (The process has been started for you.)

12

WORKED

Example

(small number

first)

(P)

1, 34

1 34 = 34

10, 25

10 25 = 250

Comment

P is too small.

P is closer to 294.

7 Use guess, check and comment to find two numbers whose sum (S) and whose product

(P) is given.

a S = 25

P = 136

b S = 41

P = 390

c S = 41

P = 288

d S = 64

P = 999

e S = 81

P = 1334

f S = 10

P = 24.36

g S = 10.2

P = 24.57

h S = 1118

P = 250 977

176

Equations can be used to solve many everyday puzzles and problems. We must write

the problem as an equation, and then solve it by backtracking or doing the same to both

sides. Here is an example.

Sarah is 3 years older than her brother, Jason. If

the sum of their ages is 35 years, then how old is

Sarah?

Step 1 Read the question carefully.

The important facts are these:

Sarah is 3 years older than Jason.

Sarahs age plus Jasons age equals 35.

Step 2 Turn the information into an equation.

We are asked to find Sarahs age, so we

call it x. We usually say Let Sarahs age

equal x.

Jason is younger by 3 years, so his age

must be x 3, and since their ages add

up to 35 we know that x + x 3 = 35.

This is our equation.

Step 3 Simplify and then solve the equation.

x + x 3 = 35

2x 3 = 35

2x = 38

x = 19

Step 4 Check your solution.

If Sarah is 19, then Jason is 16, and their

total age is 19 + 16 = 35. This fits the

information we were given.

Step 5 Write your answer in words.

Sarah is 19 years old.

WORKED Example 13

If t is a whole number, then write down the value of:

a the number which is 15 less than t

b the number which is 15 times as large as t

c the number of weeks in t days.

THINK

WRITE

from t.

a t 15

b 15t

t

c --7

Chapter 5 Equations

177

WORKED Example 14

Annette and Patrick each have part-time jobs and worked a total of 28 hours

over a week. Annette earned $14 per hour, while Patrick earned $16 per hour.

Together they earned $416. How many hours did Patrick work?

THINK

WRITE

Annettes earnings at $14 per hour + Patricks

earnings at $16 per hour = $416

So Patrick earned 16 x or $16x.

Annette worked in terms of this

pronumeral.

earned 14 (28 x) or $14(28 x).

brackets.

392 + 2x = 416

2x = 24

worked 16 hours.

Total earnings = 14 16 + 16 12

= $416

The solution is correct.

2x 24

------ = -----2

2

x = 12

remember

remember

Solving word problems involves 5 steps.

Step 1 Read the question carefully.

Step 2 Turn the information into an equation.

Step 3 Simplify and then solve the equation.

Step 4 Check your solution.

Step 5 Write your answer in words.

178

5F

WORKED

Example

13

a the number which is 5 less than m

b the number which is 10 times as large as m

c the number which is half of m

d the number which is 4 more than m

e the next largest number after m

f the number of weeks in m days

g the number of months in m years

h the (mean) average of 6, 15, and m

i the cost of m theatre tickets at $65 per ticket

j the number of minutes in m seconds.

2 multiple choice

For each of the following, choose the correct response.

a Heidi is y years old. In 4 years time her age will be:

A 4y

B 4

C y4

D y+4

E 8

b Sonja is 7 cm taller than Jodie.

If Sonja is h cm tall then Jodies height is:

A h+7

B 7h

C h7

h

E --------- 7

D 107

100

c If t is an even number, the next (greater)

even number is:

A 2t

B 2

C 4

D t+2

E t+1

d If t is an odd number, the next (greater) odd number is:

A t+1

B 3t

C t+3

D 3

E t+2

e Mikhail is twice as old as Natasha. If Mikhail is

w years old then Natashas age is:

w

A w+2

B 2w

D 2

E w2

C ---2

f Mikhail is twice as old as Natasha. If Natasha is w years old then Mikhails age is:

w

A w+2

B 2w

D 2

E w2

C ---2

g Nhan has h dollars, but Dyson has 7 dollars more. In total they have:

A h+7

B h + 14

C 2h + 7

D 2h + 14

E 2h 7

h Natalie is t years old. Compared with Natalie, Lauren is 4 years older, but Fiona is

3 years younger. The total of their ages is:

A 3t + 7

B 3t + 1

C 3t 1

D 2t + 1

E t+1

i Prashant and Anapam together earned $98 last week. If Prashant earned k dollars

then Anapam earned:

A 98 + k

B k + 98

C k 98

D 98 k

E k

179

Chapter 5 Equations

Tom walks k metres to school. Jared walks 80 m further than Tom, and Katrina walks

twice as far as Jared.

j Katrina walks:

A 160

B 2k

C 2k + 80

D 2(k + 80) E 2k 160

k The total distance that the three students walk to school is:

A 4k + 240

B k + 240

C 3k + 80

D 2k + 240

E 3k + 240

l A tennis court can be hired for $15 per hour. How much does it cost to hire the

court for m hours?

m

15

A m + 15

B 15

E 15m

C -----D -----15

m

3 Terry is 7 cm shorter than Jacinta. If their total height is 291 cm then how tall is Jacinta?

4 Yolanda and Janelle play netball together and between them they have scored 103 goals,

but Janelle has scored 15 more goals than Yolanda. How many goals has Yolanda scored?

5 In a mathematics test Duy scored twice as many marks as Paul, but three marks less

than Kate. The three students scored a total of 178 marks. How much did each one

score?

6 At a certain store, a football costs $15 more than a basketball. If 3 basketballs and

2 footballs cost a total of $115, find the cost of each ball.

Math

cad

7 Three consecutive odd numbers add up to 159. What are the three numbers?

8 Four consecutive even numbers add up to 100. What is the largest of the four numbers? Solving

equations

3x + 10 m

is 480 metres. Find the value of x and use this

result to find the length and width of the field.

x + 50 m

x2

L Spread

XCE

x + 22

Solving

equations

30

Solving

40 equations

sheet

equation and solve it to find x. What is the area of

each rectangle? (All lengths are given in metres.)

gram

GC pro

180

118 and 131. How much must she score in her next

game to attain an average of 125?

12 The volume of blood, in litres, in your body is

approximately equal to your mass in kilograms

multiplied by 0.08.

a Write an equation to represent this situation and

state what each pronumeral represents.

b According to this rule, how many litres of blood

does a 60-kg person have?

c Estimate the mass of a person with 3.8 litres of

blood.

13 Write a word problem that can be answered by

solving the equation 3x 10 = 26. Then solve the

problem.

14 Sandra and Merv worked a total of 20 hours. Sandra

earned $12 per hour while Merv earned $10 per hour.

14

Together they earned $218 over the week. How many

hours did Sandra work?

WORKED

Example

15 Oscar earns the same amount for babysitting every week. Each week he saves all but

$10 of his earnings. If he has $160 after 8 weeks, how much does he earn each week?

(Write an equation to solve for this situation first.)

Work

ET

SHE

5.2

16 Alex, Stuart, and Ali receive an average of $12 per week in pocket money. Alex

receives $2 more than Stuart, but $5 less than Ali. How much does each one receive?

You should now be in a position to assist Shannon in working out how much he

needs to save each month to reach his target of $3299 in 8 months. He has $449 in

the bank already.

1 Write an equation for this situation, stating what the pronumeral represents.

2 Solve the equation and write a sentence advising Shannon on how much he

should save each month so he can buy the computer.

Shannons friend Kate is saving for a new sound system which costs $629.

She has $29 in the bank.

3 How much does Kate

need to save each

month to be able to

buy the new sound

system at the same

time as Shannon buys

a computer?

4 If Kate was able to

save the same amount

as Shannon each

month, how much sooner would Kate be able to buy her sound system?

Chapter 5 Equations

181

Do you remember what an equation is? It is an expression that contains an equals sign.

An inequation is an expression that contains an inequality sign. We learned about these

signs back in chapter 2, but let us go over them again here.

There are four different inequality signs:

< which means is less than

which means is less than or equal to

> which means is greater than

which means is greater than or equal to.

Just like equations, inequations can be true, or false.

For example

8>6

This is true because 8 is greater than 6.

5<3

This is false because 5 is not less than 3.

What about the inequation x > 2? This sentence could be either true or false, depending

on the value of x. There are many values of x which would make the sentence true, for

example x = 3 or x = 200. Can you think of some others? Of course we can include

fractions and decimals like 2 1--2- , 2 7--8- , 2.95 or 2.000 01. We cannot possibly list all of the

solutions to the inequation x > 2, but we can show them using a number line.

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Note the careful spacing. The arrows tell us that the line continues in both directions.

On a number line the numbers get larger as you move to the right.

We show the inequation on a number line by placing a dot over the numbers which are

greater than 2.

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

There are so many dots that they will form a continuous line, but there is no dot above

2 (because 2 is not greater than 2). We can show the inequation simply by placing an

open circle above 2, and ruling a line above the numbers that we want. The arrow tells

us that the line keeps going forever in one direction. Adding a label completes the

solution.

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

x>2

need to include the value x = 2. We do this by shading the circle.

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

x2

The inequation x > 2 has an infinite number of solutions. In other words, the list of

solutions is never ending.

182

WORKED Example 15

Referring, if necessary, to the number line at

right, place either < or > between the

following pairs of numbers to make a true

statement.

a 1

4

b 1

4

THINK

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

WRITE

you move to the right, so 1 is less than 4.

1<4

you move to the right, so 1 is greater than 4.

1 > 4

WORKED Example 16

Draw a neatly ruled and clearly labelled number line to show the inequation x < 1.

THINK

WRITE

numbers including 1.

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

draw an open circle above

x = 1.

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

smaller as we move to the left.

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

Operations on inequalities

Consider the statement 2 < 6. Is this statement true?

1 After applying each of the operations described below, state whether the statement

is still true. If it is not, explain what needs to be done to make it a true statement.

a Add 4 to both sides of 2 < 6.

b Subtract 7 from both sides of 2 < 6.

c Multiply both sides of 2 < 6 by 3.

d Multiply both sides of 2 < 6 by 3.

e Divide both sides of 2 < 6 by 2.

f Divide both sides of 2 < 6 by 2.

2 Write a summary of what you have found.

3 Investigate whether this occurs with other inequalities.

Chapter 5 Equations

183

Like an equation, an inequation can be solved by doing the same to both sides.

However, as we saw in the investigation on page 182, if multiplying or dividing by a

negative number is required, we reverse the inequality sign to keep the inequation true.

WORKED Example 17

Solve the following inequations by doing the same to both sides.

1 2x

a 2x < 4

b 3x < 12

c 4x 3 17

d --------------- > 1

7

THINK

WRITE

2x < 4

2x 4

------ < --2

2

x<2

3x < 12

3x 12

--------- > -----3

3

x > 4

To make x the subject, divide both sides

by 2.

Simplify.

Divide both sides by 3. Remember to

reverse the inequality signs since we are

dividing by a negative number.

Add 3 to both sides.

Divide both sides by 4.

Simplify.

4x 3 17

4x 3 + 3 17 + 3

4x 20

4x 20

------ -----4

4

x5

1 2x

--------------- > 1

7

1 2x

--------------- 7 > 1 7

7

1 2x > 7

1 2x 1 > 7 1

2x > 8

2x 8

--------- < -----2

2

x<4

1

2

reverse the inequality sign since we are

dividing by a negative number.

remember

remember

1. An inequation contains an inequality sign.

2. There are 4 different inequality signs: < which means is less than;

which means is less than or equal to; > which means is greater than;

which means is greater than or equal to.

3. On a number line, the numbers get larger as you move to the right.

4. An inequation can be solved by doing the same to both sides. Multiplying or

dividing both sides by a negative number reverses the inequality sign.

5. An inequation has an infinite number of solutions.

184

5G

a As you move to the right the numbers become

.

b As you move to the left the numbers become

.

WORKED

Example

15

2 Referring, if necessary, to the number line below, place either < or > between the

following pairs of numbers to make a true statement.

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

a 1 13

e 1 3

i 4 3

b 1 3

f 1

j 3 4

c 3 3

g 3 3

d 3 1

h 3 1

3 This number line has both numbers and pronumerals. Write each statement below

placing either > or < between the two terms in order to make a true statement.

5 h

a h x

e y 2

i 0 m

b x h

f 2 y

j m 0

2 x 0

y m 4 5

c 5 h

g h y

d m x

h y h

a 5>3

b 6>6

c 66

e 1 > 0

f 8 < 5

g 0 > 5

i 1.99 < 2

j 5.0001 > 5

k 5 > 6

m 4 4

n 0 > 10

d 2.1 < 2

h 3 < 3

l 3 > 2

5 multiple choice

For each of these number lines, select the correct label.

a A x<1

B x>1

C x<5

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

D x1

E x>5

b A x<1

D x1

B x>1

E x5

C x<5

A x>6

D x < 10

B x > 10

E x>8

C x<6

d A x>6

D x < 10

B x > 10

E x>8

C x<6

e A x > 300

D x > 500

B x 100

E x < 500

C x < 300

A x 300

D x 500

B x > 100

E x < 500

C x < 300

g A x<0

D x < 8

B x < 4

E x 4

C x > 4

h A x<0

D x < 8

B x < 4

E x 4

C x > 4

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0

100

200

300

400 500

100

200

300

400 500

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2

Chapter 5 Equations

16

WORKED

Example

17a, b

WORKED

17c, d

a x+1<7

b x4>3

c x51

d x + 20 < 10

e 2x > 8

f 3x 9

g 5x 20

h 2x < 50

i 4x < 16

j 8x > 4

8 Solve the following inequations by doing the same to both sides.

a 5x 1 > 4

b 2x + 7 3

c 3x + 4 < 2

d

e 2x + 1 5 f 6x 3 < 3

g 4x 7 < 5

h

x+2

x4

1x

i ------------ > 1

j ----------- < 3

k ----------- 3

l

7

5

2

4 3x

7 2x

5x

m --------------- > 5

n --------------- < 3

o ------ + 2 7

p

2

5

6

2x

5x

q 10 ------ > 4 r 4 + ------ > 11

5

3

4x 3 > 13

3x + 9 9

5x

----------- 8

3

3x

1 ------ 5

4

L Spread

XCE

sheet

Example

6 Draw a neatly ruled and clearly labelled number line to show the following

inequations.

a x5

b x<6

c x0

d x 2

e x > 5

f x<0

g x > 2.3

h x 3 1--2i x > 50

j x 120

Example

Inequations

For questions 9, 10 and 11, write and solve an inequation for each situation.

11 A land owner has 100 hectares of land and wants to keep at least 10 hectares. The rest

is to be divided and sold in 6-hectare lots. How many of these lots can the land owner

offer for sale?

Theatre design

Rows in a theatre are often elevated so each person can look over the head of the

person in front. Theatre floors must either be sloped or have steps. Whether the

floor can be sloped depends on the depth of the row, d, and the amount of rise, r.

d

A floor can be sloped only if r --- .

8

1 How deep can the rows be if the floor is sloped and has a rise of 12.5 cm?

2 Many theatres have 80-cm-deep rows. What is the maximum rise for a sloped

floor?

3 An Imax cinema claims to give everyone an unobstructed view of the screen.

Suppose the rise is 27 cm. What is the minimum row depth for a sloped floor?

Why do you think these theatres have stepped floors?

4 Investigate different situations with varying amounts of rise and row depth for

theatre seating. What are the optimum conditions? Justify your answer,

showing all working. Include a list of advantages and disadvantages with

stepped and sloped floors.

ET

SHE

GAME

time

9 To obtain a drivers licence, a person needs to be 18 or older. Selena has stated that

she will try for her licence in 5 years time. What is Selenas age?

Equations

002

10 A pair of rollerblades can be hired for an initial fee of $12 plus $4 per hour. For how

many hours can you hire the rollerblades and still spend less than $50?

Work

WORKED

185

5.3

186

summary

Copy the sentences below. Fill in the gaps by choosing the correct word or

expression from the word list that follows.

1

2

Addition and

When solving

The

is useful to determine what to do next.

.

.

before you

.

9

10

There are

11

An inequation has an

sign.

shown on a

.

12

13

sides.

WORD

equations

flow chart

four

number line

LIST

inequality

infinite

inverse

comment

multiplication

solution

substitution

both

subtraction

think

true

reverses

Chapter 5 Equations

187

CHAPTER

review

1 Find the output number for each of these flow charts.

a

1

x

5A

x

+8

+3

2 Draw the flow chart whose output number is given by the following expressions.

n

m7

a 3(m + 4)

b --- + 5

c ------------- 4

d 7 15w

3

5

5A

5B

b Show what

happens when you

take 2 from both

sides, and write

down the new

equation.

Key

represents an unknown amount

represents 1

4 Copy and complete these equations by doing the same to both sides.

a

z=5

b

t = 6

3z =

t

--- =

z+7=

2

7t

----- =

2

c

m = 11

d

w=4

m1=

4w =

5 4w =

m1

------------- =

5

5C

a 5v + 3 = 18

b 5(s + 11) = 35

d 2(r + 5) 3 = 5

2y 3

--------------- = 9

7

a 5k + 7 = k + 19

b 4s 8 = 2s 12 c 3t 11 = 5 t

d7

------------ = 10

4

x

--- 3 = 2

5

d 5x + 2 = 2x + 16

5C

5D

188

5D

5E

5E

5F

5F

5G

7 Expand the brackets first and then solve the following equations.

a 5(2v + 3) 7v = 21

b 3(m 4) + 2m = m + 8

m+5

8 Use guess, check and comment to find the solution to the equation ------------- = 2m 5.

3

9 Use guess, check and comment to find two numbers whose sum is 80 and whose product is 1311.

10 Nhan is 7 cm taller than Dyson and the sum of their heights is

333 cm. How tall is Nhan?

11 A bicycle rental store charges a flat fee of $15 plus $5 per day to

rent a mountain bike.

a If x is the number of days a mountain bike is rented, write

an equation to show the cost of renting a mountain bike.

b If a person was charged $85 for renting a mountain bike,

for how many days did the person rent the bike?

12 Write true or false for each of these statements.

a 3<3

b 3 < 3

c

5 > 2

1

--4

1

--3

5G

a x3

b x > 7

c x < 100

d x0

5G

a x + 8 > 5

b 3x 7 11

3x + 2

c 4 5x > 9

d --------------- > 5

4

8 2x

4x

e --------------- 6

f 2 ------ > 10

3

7

5G

15 A camera shop charges $15 to develop a roll of film plus $0.80 for each extra print. How

many extra prints can Susann get if she cannot spend more than $22 on photographs? (First

write and solve an inequation for this situation.)

CHAPTER

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