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MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 151 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

Equations

5
Shannon is saving to
buy a new computer
which costs $3299. So
far he has $449 in the
bank and wants to make
regular deposits each
month until he reaches his
target of $3299. If he wants
to buy the computer in
8 months time, how much
does he need to save as a
monthly deposit?
One way of solving this
problem is to write and
solve an equation for this
situation with a pronumeral
representing the unknown.
This chapter looks at
solving different equations
and how this skill can be
used to solve real-life
problems.

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 152 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

152

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Backtracking inverse operations


Equations are very useful for reducing complex problems to simple terms. They are
groups of numbers and pronumerals joined by equal signs. We can perform functions
on equations to solve many different problems. For example how much food and water
do we need to take on a camping trip by x people for n days.
What we have to remember with equations is to
1
+2
3
2
always keep one side of the equal sign equal to the
4
other side. A useful tool you probably learned
about in Year 7 is to draw flow charts like this one.
2

The number 4 is called the input number, and by


carrying out the operations in order we find that
the output number is 3.

If we are given the output number we can find


the input number by working backwards or
backtracking. For example, look at the flow chart
at right.

1
8

+2
7

+5

3
7

Starting with the 3, we can use inverse or opposite operations to find the input number.
Remember: Inverse operations undo each other or cancel each other out.
Adding and subtracting are inverse operations.
Multiplying and dividing are inverse operations.
Working backwards,
3 7 = 21
21 + 1 = 22
22 2 = 11
11 5 = 6
2

+5

So the input number for the third flow chart


above is 6.

Flow charts can also be followed when the


input number is a pronumeral. Here is an
example.

11

22
2

+1

+7

x+7
2
x+7
+7

The third step is also easy.

+7

We must now remember to use brackets to


show that all of x + 7 is to be multiplied by 2.

21

+7

The first step is easy.

x+7

As you can see, the output number is written as an expression.

3
2(x + 7)

2
2(x + 7)

3
2(x + 7) 3

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 153 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

Chapter 5 Equations

153

A bracket for division must be carefully drawn beneath all the terms which are
divided.
3x + 2 y 3
For example 3x + 2y 3 divided by 7 is written as ---------------------------- .
7

WORKED Example 1
Find the input number for this flow chart.
7

+3
7

THINK
1

WRITE

Copy the flow chart.

+3
7

Backtrack to find the input number.


The inverse of +3 is 3.
73=4
The inverse of 2 is 2. 4 2 = 8
The inverse of 7 is +7.
8 + 7 = 1
Fill in the missing numbers.

7
1

+3
4

+2

+2

+7

WORKED Example 2
Find the output expression for this flow chart.
3

+2

THINK
1

WRITE

Copy the flow chart.


x

Multiplying x by 3 gives 3x.


x

Adding 2 gives 3x + 2.

3x
3

x
4

Now put a line beneath all of 3x + 2 and


divide by 4.

3x
3

+2
3x + 2

+2
3x

3x + 2

3x + 2
4

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 154 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

154

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WORKED Example 3
Starting with x, draw the flow chart whose output number is:
a 6 2x
b 2(x + 6).
THINK

WRITE

a 6 2x is the same as 2x + 6.
x has been multiplied by 2 and then 6
has been added.

b 6 has been added to x and then the


answer has been multiplied by 2.

2
x

+6

2x

2x + 6

+6
x

2
x+6

2(x + 6)

remember
remember
1. To work backwards through a flow chart we use inverse operations.
2. Adding and subtracting are inverse operations.
3. Multiplying and dividing are inverse operations.

Backtracking inverse
operations

5A
5.1

1 Find the output number for each of the following flow charts.

SkillS

HEET

+6

3
7

+8

5
6

+8

0
1

+8

7
8
48

+4

12

10

12

+ 10

12

10

+8

32

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 155 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

155

Chapter 5 Equations

WORKED

Example

2 Find the input number for each of the following flow charts.
+6

+3

+2

14
2

+ 0.5

Example

4
5

5
11

2
1.2

+7

12

5.1

8
1

WORKED

+5
12

+ 11

Backtracking

3 Find the output expression for each of the following flow charts.
a

x
5

+3

s
2

+7

m
6

z
2

j
5

w
3

v
6

+2

+3

+7

+5

+3

+6

11

+1

sheet

L Spread
XCE

28

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 156 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

156

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

4 Starting with x, draw the flow chart whose output number is:
a 2(x + 7)
b 2(x + 7)
c 3m 6
3
x5
x
e ----------f --- 5
g 5x + 11
8
8
3x 7
i x 13
j 5 2x
k --------------4
x+5
x
m ------------ 3
n 7 --- 2
5
8

WORKED

Example

d 3m 6
h x + 11
l

3 ( x 2 )
----------------------4

Keeping equations balanced


An equation is an expression that contains an
equals sign. Lets look at a very simple equation:
x = 3. (Remember: An equation is a sentence
containing an equals sign.)
This equation can be pictured as a balanced pair
of scales.

x=3

If we double the amount on the left-hand side, the scales will balance as long as we
double the amount on the right-hand side.

xx

2x = 6

Or we can add some mass to both sides:

xx

2x + 2 = 8

The scales will remain balanced as long as we do the same to both sides. By doing the
same to both sides we can build up very complex equations or we can solve them by
working backwards.

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 157 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

157

Chapter 5 Equations

WORKED Example 4

Starting with the equation x = 4, write down the new equation when we:
a multiply both sides by 4
b take 6 from both sides
2
c divide both sides by --- .
5
THINK
WRITE
a

Write down the equation.


Multiply both sides by 4.
Simplify by removing the
multiplication signs. Write numbers
before pronumerals.

x=4
x4=44
4x = 16

Write down the equation.


Take 6 from both sides.
Simplify.

x=4
x6=46
x 6 = 2

Write down the equation.

Dividing by a fraction means


multiply by its reciprocal.
5
Multiply both sides by --- .
2

x=4
5
5
x --- = 4 --2
2

Simplify.

1
2
3

1
2

5x 20
------ = -----2
2
5x
------ = 10
2

remember
remember
1. An equation is an expression that contains an equals sign.
2. An equation is like a pair of balanced scales. The scales will remain balanced
as long as we do the same to both sides.

5B

Keeping equations balanced

1 a Write down the equation which is represented


by the diagram at right.
b Show what happens when you halve the
amount on both sides, and write down the new
equation.

xx

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 158 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

158

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

2 a Write down the equation which is represented


by the diagram at right.
b Show what happens when you take three from
both sides, and write down the new equation.
x

3 a Write down the equation which is represented


by the diagram at right.
b Show what happens when you add three to
both sides, and write down the new equation.

4 a Write down the equation which is represented


by the diagram at right.
b Show what happens when you double the
amount on each side, and write down the new
equation.

xxx

xx

5 Starting with the equation x = 6, write down the new equation when we:
a add 5 to both sides
b multiply both sides by 7
4
c take 4 from both sides
d divide both sides by 3
e multiply both sides by 4
f multiply both sides by 1
g divide both sides by 1
h take 9 from both sides
2
2
i multiply both sides by --j divide both sides by --3
3
2
k take --- from both sides.
3

WORKED

Example

6 multiple choice
If we start with x = 5, which of these equations is not true?
x
A x+2=7
B 3x = 8
C 2x = 10 D --- = 1
5
7 multiple choice
If we start with x = 3, which of these equations is not true?
2x
x
3
B 2x = 6
C 2x 6 = 0 D --- = --A ------ = 2
3
5
5
GAM

time

Equations
001

Work

ET
SHE

5.1

8 multiple choice
If we start with x = 6, which of these equations is not true?
A x = 6
B 2x = 12
C x6=0
D x + 4 = 2
9 multiple choice
If we start with 2x = 12, which of these equations is not true?
2x
B 2x = 12 C 2x 6 = 2 D 4x = 24
A ------ = 4
3

E x2=3

E x5=2

E x 2 = 8

E 2x + 5 = 17

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 159 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

159

QUEST

GE

EN

M AT H

Chapter 5 Equations

CH

AL

1 The cost of a cricket ball and a glove is $25 and the cost of two cricket
balls and three gloves is $65.
a What is the cost of a cricket ball and two gloves? Explain your
answer.
b What is the cost of one glove?
c What is the cost of one cricket ball?
2 Of 3 coins, one is known to be a fake which is slightly lighter than the
other two. But which one? Explain how, with just one weighing on a
pair of scales, you can determine which is the fake coin.

1
1 Find the output number for this flow chart:

10

+2

+2

x2

20

2 By backtracking find the input number for this


flow chart:

6
6

3 Find the output expression for the flow chart shown.

x 1

+2

2z + 5
4 Draw a flow chart whose output expression is given by --------------- .
7
5 Write the output expression for the flow chart
at right.
6 Write the equation that is represented in the
diagram at right.

9
p

p 9

p 9
7

xxx

1 1 1
1 1 1

x 1 1

1 1
1 1 1

Use the following diagram for questions 7 and 8.


7 Write the equation that is represented by the diagram.
8 Write the new equation when you add 3 to both sides.
9 Starting with the equation y = 7, write down the new equation when you
multiply both sides by 5.
10 True or false? If you start with y = 6 then divide both sides by 1, the new
equation is y = 6.

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 160 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

160

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

History of mathematics
DIOPHANTUS OF ALEXANDRIA (c. 200c. 284)
Y

Istanbul
GREECE

TURKEY
E

CRETE
Mediterran
ean Sea

SYRIA
I

Alexandria
Cairo
LIBYA

Red
Sea

UNITED
ARAB
REPUBLIC
(EGYPT)

During his life . . .


Gunpowder is
invented in
China.
The Roman
Empire executes
many Christians
to stop the spread
of Christianity.

Like many famous people who lived long


ago, there are few facts known about
Diophantus or his achievements. Even the
dates of his birth and death are approximate.
It is thought that he married at 33, had a son
when he was 42, and died at 84. However,
these facts are only known to us through
this riddle that was written about him.
. . . his boyhood lasted 1--6- th of his life; he
married after 1--7- th more; his beard grew after
1
------ th more, and his son was born 5 years later;
12
the son lived to half his fathers age, and the
father died 4 years after the son.
Diophantus is considered the creator of
algebra. He published works on algebra and
number systems including a collection of
books known as the Arithmetica. Only six of
the original thirteen volumes of the
Arithmetica still exist, mostly as Arabic
translations. They are mainly about solving
determinate equations numerically.
Diophantus worked mostly on equations
that had positive and rational answers.
Equations without this sort of answer were of
no interest to him because he considered that
their answers were not real.
As Diophantus had no understanding or
knowledge of the idea of zero, he was
restricted in how he could solve equations.
He partially got around this by examining
them in the formats ax + bx = c, ax = bx + c
and ax + c = bx. This approach meant that he
did not have to use negative values.

Diophantus is credited with introducing a


form of algebraic symbolism. He introduced
symbols for subtraction and for powers of the
unknown.

Y
KY
Y
KY
KYK

subtraction symbol
unity (x)
number (x)
square (x2)
cube (x3)
square-square (x4)
square-cube (x5)
cube-cube (x6)

The letters of the Greek alphabet were also


used as digits. A line over the top of the letters
distinguished them as numbers. For example,
to represent take a number, multiply it by
itself, then multiply this result by 3 before

adding 15, Diophantus would write Y M .


2
Nowadays, we would write this as 3x + 15.
With the introduction of symbols, mathematics
became more of a language, allowing problems
to be written in a shorter form.
Work done by Diophantus in the third
century inspired the seventeenth century
French mathematician Pierre de Fermat to
further investigate number theory. The
symbol used today as the equal sign (=) can
be traced back to Diophantus.
Questions
1. What multi-volume work did
Diophantus publish?
2. How did Diophantus solve equations
without knowing about zero?
3. Which seventeenth century
mathematician was inspired by his
work?
Research
Find out more about the symbols used by
Diophantus to write problems in shorter
algebraic form.

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 161 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

Chapter 5 Equations

161

Doing the same to both sides


A linear equation is an equation where the variable has an index (power) of 1.
For example, it never contains terms like x2 or

x.

Let us take another look at a simple linear equation and see what happens when we
change both sides.
Remember: To keep an equation true it should be balanced by doing the same to both sides.
x=7
Multiply both sides by 3.
3x = 21
Subtract 1 from both sides.
3x 1 = 20
3
1
We can show this process on a flow chart.
x
3x
3x 1
The flow chart at right shows us that to
7
21
20
backtrack from 3x 1 we must add 1 and
then divide by 3. Let us solve the equation
3
+1
3x 1 = 20 by backtracking and doing the
same to both sides.
3x 1 = 20
Add 1 to both sides.
3x 1 + 1 = 20 + 1
3x = 21
3x 21
------ = -----Divide both sides by 3.
3
3
x=7

WORKED Example 5
Copy and complete the following equations by doing the same to both sides.
a
x = 10
b
n = 12
5x = ____
n 2 = ____
n2
------------ = ____
5x + 3 = ____
5
THINK

WRITE

Draw a flow chart and fill in the


arrows to show what has been done
to x.
Do the same to both sides.
Multiplying 10 by 5 gives 50.
Adding 3 to 50 gives 53.

Draw a flow chart and fill in the


arrows to show what has been done
to n.
Do the same to both sides.
Taking away 2 from 12 gives 10.
Dividing 10 by 5 gives 2.

5
x

+3
5x

5x + 3

x = 10
5x = 50
5x + 3 = 53
5

2
n

n2

n = 12
n 2 = 10
n2
------------ = 2
5

n
2
5

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 162 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

162

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

A flow chart is useful to show you the order of operations applied to x, so that the
reverse order and opposite operations can be used to solve the equation. Once you
become confident with solving equations algebraically (doing the same to both sides),
you can leave out the flow chart steps.

WORKED Example 6
Solve these 2-step equations by doing the same to both sides.
x
a --- + 1 = 7
b 2(x + 5) = 18
3
THINK

WRITE

x
a --- + 1 = 7
3

Write down the equation.

Draw a flow chart and fill in the


arrows to show what has been done
to x.

+1
x
3

Backtrack from 7.

+1

x
3

x + 1
3

18

Subtract 1 from both sides.

Multiply both sides by 3.

Give the solution.

Write down the equation.


Draw a flow chart and fill in the
arrows to show what has been done
to x.

x
--- 3 = 6 3
3
x = 18
b

2(x + 5) = 18

Subtract 5 from both sides.


Give the solution.

+5
x

x+5

2(x + 5)
2

+5
x

x+5

2(x + 5)

18

Divide both sides by 2.

x
--- + 1 1 = 7 1
3
x
--- = 6
3

Backtrack from 18.

x + 1
3

2 ( x + 5 ) 18
-------------------- = -----2
2
x+5=9
x+55=95
x=4

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 163 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

Chapter 5 Equations

163

remember
remember
1. A linear equation is an equation where the variable has an index (power) of 1.
2. Whatever you do to one side of an equation you must do to the other.
3. You can draw a flow chart to help you to decide what to do next.

5C

Doing the same to both sides

1 Copy and complete these equations by doing the same to both sides.
a
m=4
b
c=5
c
t = 12
5
4m = ____
2c = ____
t 9 = ____
4m 11 = ____
2c + 3 = ____
t9
---------- = ____
3

WORKED

Math

w = 3
5w = ____
5w + 1 = ____

k=7
k 9 = ____
2(k 9) = ____

t=3
5t = ____
5t
----- = ____
3

z=9
z
--- = ____
3
z
--- + 6 = ____
3
h
x = 11
x 7 = ____
x7
----------- = ____
2

m = 3
m + 5 = ____
3(m + 5) = ____

y=5
y = ____
y + 5 = ____
5 y = ____

t=3
t
--- = ____
3
5t
----- = ____
3

m=3
2m = ____
2m
------- = ____
3

3 Solve these 2-step equations by doing the same to both sides.


a 3m + 5 = 14
b 2w + 6 = 16
c
6
d 4t 3 = 15
e 2(m 4) = 6
f
g 5(k + 6) = 15
h 6(s + 11) = 24
i
j 40 = 5( p + 6)
k 5 3g = 14
l

L Spread
XCE

2-step
equations

WORKED

5k 12 = 8
3(n + 12) = 18
2m + 3 = 10
11 f = 8

Math

cad

Example

sheet

2 Copy and complete the following equations by doing the same to both sides.
a
x = 10
b
x = 10
c
m=4
[ 7]
7x = ____
[+ 3] ________
[ 4] ________
[+ 3] 7x + 3 = ____
[ 7] ________
[ 3] ________
d
m=4
e
t = 12
f
t = 12
[ 3] ________
[ 6] ________
[ 3] ________
[ 4] ________
[ 3] ________
[ 6] ________
g
w=6
h
w=6
i
m = 10
[+ 5] ________
[ 2] ________
[ 2] ________
[ 2] ________
[+ 5] ________
[ 5] ________

Doing the
same to
both sides

cad

Example

Solving
equations

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 164 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

164

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

4 Below is Alexs working to solve


the equation 2x + 3 = 14.
2x + 3 = 14
2x
14
------ + 3 = -----2
2
x+3=7
x+33=73
x=4
a Is the solution correct?
b If not, can you find where the
error is and correct it?

GC p

am
rogr

Spreadshe

et

EXCEL

Solving
equations

3-step
equations

5 Solve these 2-step equations by doing the same to both sides.


x
x5
a --- + 2 = 9
b ----------- = 1
3
4
m+3
h
c ------------- = 7
d ------ + 1 = 5
2
3
2w
m
e ------- 3 = 1
f ------- = 4
5
5
3m
c7
g ---------- = 1
h ----------- = 2
7
3
t+2
5m
i ---------- = 10
j ----------- = 5
7
4
6 Solve these equations by doing the same to both sides. They will need more than
2 steps.
2 ( x + 5 )
5m + 6
a 2(m + 3) + 7 = 3
b ----------------------- = 6
c ----------------- = 4
5
3
4 2x
x + 3
3x
d ------ 2 = 1
e --------------- = 6
f --------------- = 4
3
2
7
3m 5
g ---------------- = 7
2
j

d7
------------ + 10 = 8
2

h 7(5w + 3) = 35
k

3n + 1
--------------- 5 = 2
4

x
5 --- 6 = 10
2

3(t 5)
------------------- + 9 = 6
7

7 Simplify the left-hand side of the following equations by collecting like terms, and then
solve.
a 3x + 5 + 2x + 4 = 19
b 13v 4v + 2v = 22
c 3m + 6 5m + 1 = 15
d 3y + 7 + 4y 2 = 9
e 3y 7y + 4 = 64
f 5t + 4 8t = 19
g 5w + 3w 7 + w = 13
h w + 7 + w 15 + w + 1 = 5
i 7 3u + 4 + 2u = 15
j 7c 4 11 + 3c 7c + 5 = 8
8 A repair person calculates his service fee using the equation F = 40t + 55, where F is
the service fee in dollars and t is the number of hours spent on the job.
a How long did a particular job take if the service fee was $155?
b Explain what the numbers 40 and 55 could represent as costs in the service fee
equation.

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 165 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

Chapter 5 Equations

165

Equations with the pronumeral on


both sides
Some equations have the pronumeral on both sides of
the equation. Take, for example, the equation:
4x + 1 = 2x + 5.
If we draw this equation as a balance it looks like this:
The scales will remain balanced as long as we do
the same to both sides. Lets remove two of the xs
from each side and look again at the diagram.

x
x

xx
xx

x
x

4x + 1 = 2x + 5

2x + 1 = 5

We can easily see that 2x + 1 = 5.


Starting from
4x + 1 = 2x + 5,
we have taken 2x from both sides.
4x + 1 2x = 2x + 5 2x
2x + 1 = 5
and we can continue
2x = 4
x=2
Equations like 4x + 1 = 2x + 5 are easy to solve if we first remove the x term from one side.

WORKED Example 7

Solve the equation 5t 8 = 3t + 12 and check your solution.


THINK

Write down the equation.


Subtract 3t from both sides and
simplify.
Add 8 to both sides and simplify.

Divide both sides by 2 and simplify.

Check the solution by substituting


t = 10 into the left-hand, and then the
right-hand side of the equation.

1
2

The equation is true when t = 10.

WRITE
5t 8 = 3t + 12
5t 8 3t = 3t + 12 3t
2t 8 = 12
2t 8 + 8 = 12 + 8
2t = 20
2t 20
----- = -----2
2
t = 10
If t = 10,
5t 8 = 50 8
= 42
If t = 10,
3t + 12 = 30 + 12
= 42
The solution is correct.

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 166 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

166

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WORKED Example 8

Solve the equation 3n + 11 = 6 2n and check your solution.


THINK
1
2
3

Write down the equation.


The inverse of 2n is +2n.
Add 2n to both sides and simplify.
Subtract 11 from both sides and
simplify.

Divide both sides by 5 and simplify.

Check the solution by substituting


n = 1 into the left-hand, and then the
right-hand side of the equation.

The equation is true when n = 1.

WRITE
3n + 11 = 6 2n
3n + 11 + 2n = 6 2n + 2n
5n + 11 = 6
5n + 11 11 = 6 11
5n = 5
5n 5
------ = -----5
5
n = 1
If n = 1,
3n + 11 = 3 + 11
=8
If n = 1,
6 2n = 6 (2)
=6+2
=8
The solution is correct.

WORKED Example 9
Expand the brackets and then solve the following equation, checking your solution.
3(s + 2) = 2(s + 7) + 4
THINK
1
2
3
4
5

Write down the equation.


Expand the brackets first and then
simplify.
Subtract 2s from both sides and
simplify.
Subtract 6 from both sides and simplify.
Check the solution by substituting
s = 12 into the left-hand, and then the
right-hand side of the equation.

The equation is true when s = 12.

WRITE
3(s + 2) = 2(s + 7) + 4
3s + 6 = 2s + 14 + 4
3s + 6 = 2s + 18
3s + 6 2s = 2s + 18 2s
s + 6 = 18
s + 6 6 = 18 6
s = 12
If s = 12,
3(s + 2) = 3(12 + 2)
= 3(14)
= 42
If s = 12,
2(s + 7) + 4 = 2(12 + 7) + 4
= 2(19) + 4
= 38 + 4
= 42
The solution is correct.

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 167 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

167

Chapter 5 Equations

remember
remember
1. When a pronumeral appears on both sides of an equation, remove the
pronumeral term from one side.
2. For a positive term we can remove by subtraction.
For example: 7x + 7 = 5x 3 (subtract 5x from both sides)
3. For a negative term we can remove by addition.
For example: 3x + 11 = 7 2x (add 2x to both sides)

5D

Equations with the


pronumeral on both sides

1 Write down the equation which is represented by each of the following diagrams.
a

b
x
xx

xx
xx

xx
xx

x
x

d
x

x
x

x
x

e
x
xx

xx
xx

2 For each of these equations in diagram form, show the next step in solving the equation
by removing xs from both sides of the balance.
a

x
xx

3x + 1 = x + 5

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 168 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

168

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

xx
xx

x
x

x
x

4x + 2 = 2x + 6
c

x + 4 = 2x + 2
d

xx
xx

x
x

4x + 1 = 2x + 1

x
xx

Spreadshe

xx
xx

et

EXCEL

Pronumerals
on both
sides

3x + 3 = 4x + 1
3 Solve the following equations and check your solutions.
Example
d
a 8x + 5 = 6x + 11
b 5y 5 = 2y + 7
c 11n 1 = 6n + 19
hca
7
d 6t + 5 = 3t + 17
e 2w + 6 = w + 11
f 4y 2 = y + 9
Pronumerals
g 3z 15 = 2z 11
h 5a + 2 = 2a 10
i 2s + 9 = 5s + 3
on both
j
k
+
5
=
7k

19
k
4w
+
9
=
2w
+
3
l 7v + 5 = 3v 11
sides
WORKED 4 Solve the following equations and check your solutions.
Example
am
rogr
a 3w + 1 = 11 2w
b 2b + 7 = 13 b
c 4n 3 = 17 6n
8
d 3s + 1 = 16 2s
e 5a + 12 = 6 a
f 7m + 2 = 3m + 22
Solving
g
p
+
7
=
p
+
15
h
3
+
2d
=
15

2d
i 5+m=5m
equations
j 7s + 3 = 15 5s
k 3t 7 = 17 2t
l 16 2x = x + 4
ORKED 5 Expand the brackets and then solve the following equations, checking your solutions.
5.2 W
Example
HEET
a 3(2x + 1) + 3x = 30
b 2(4m 7) + m = 76
9
c 3(2n 1) = 4(n + 5) + 1
d t + 4 = 3(2t 7)
e 3d 5 = 3(4 d)
f 4(3 w) = 5w + 1
g 2(k + 5) 3(k 1) = k 7
h 4(2 s) = 2(3s 1)
i 3(z + 3) = 2(4 z)
j 5(v + 2) = 7(v + 1)
k 2m + 3(2m 7) = 4 + 5(m + 2)
l 3d + 2(d + 1) = 5(3d 7)

SkillS

GC p

Mat

WORKED

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 169 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

Chapter 5 Equations

169

Kidneys
Kidne
ys . . .
Solve the equations to
discover the puzzle answer code.

13

13

15

13

8 16

15

13

16

2A 5 = A

3D = 10 2D

7+5E = 2E 2

6I + 11 = 74 I

3K + 8 = K 6

L = 4L + 24

15 F = F + 7

M + 6 = 3M 6

6(N + 3) = 2N 2 2 O + 4 = 3 O 9

12 4I = 8 I

3(2R 1) = 5R

3S 6 S = S + 9

U = 48 + 4 U

9 2Y = 5Y + 16

2(T 6) = 3(2T +4)

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 170 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

170

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

2
1 Find the output expression for the flow chart:
4

x5

+3

t
2 Draw a flow chart whose output expression is given by 4 --- + 10 .
9

3 Starting with the equation b = 9 write down the new equation when you divide both
sides by 1--3- .
4 What operation must have occurred to get d 2 = 4 from d = 6?

5 Solve 10 g = 8.
y
6 Solve --- + 5 = 9 .
4
2(h + 5)
7 True or false? The solution to the equation -------------------- 8 = 4 is h = 12.
3
8 Solve 6v + 6 = 2v 6.
9 Solve 3m + 10 = 6 m.
10 Expand the brackets first and then solve the equation 5(3 t) = 2(2t 1).

Checking solutions
m+5
4m 7
Lucy is not able to solve the equation ------------- = ---------------- ,
8
5
but Jo thinks that the solution is m = 3. Is she
correct?
Lucy decides to check Jos solution by
substituting m = 3 into both sides of the
equation.
m+5 3+5
Left-hand side: ------------- = -----------8
8
=1
4m 7 4 3 7
Right-hand side: ---------------- = --------------------5
5
12 7
= --------------5
=1
m+5
4m 7
Both sides equal 1, so ------------- = ---------------- is
8
5
a true statement when m = 3.
This means that m = 3 is the solution to the equation,
so Jo is correct!

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 171 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

Chapter 5 Equations

171

Guess, check and comment


We can now try to guess the solutions to difficult equations, and after each guess we
can check to see whether our guess is correct or not. If we think and comment about
each guess then our guesses should improve and lead us to a solution.
m+8
Here is an example: Lets try to guess the solution to the equation ------------- = 3m 6 .
2
m+8
We will need a table to write in our guess for m, the values of ------------- and 3m 6, and
2
a comment. Dont be too concerned about making a good first guess because the most
important thing is to start somewhere. Lets try m = 10.
m+8
If m = 10 then ------------- = 9 and 3m 6 = 24. Comparing the two values we note that
2
3m 6 is bigger. This is a useful comment.
Guess
m
10

Check
m+8
------------2
9

Comment

3m 6
24

3m 6 is too big.

So, try another guess such as m = 6.


m+8
If m = 6 then ------------- = 7 and 3m 6 = 12.
2
We can see that 3m 6 is still too big, but the two values are closer together. We must
be heading in the right direction.
Guess

Check

Comment

10

m+8
------------2
9

24

3m 6 is too big.

12

Getting closer

3m 6

Now we will try m = 2.


m+8
If m = 2 then ------------- = 5 and 3m 6 = 0.
2
We have gone too far because 3m 6 is now too small.
Guess

Check

Comment

10

m+8
------------2
9

24

3m 6 is too big.

12

Getting closer

3m 6 is too small.

3m 6

Lets try m = 4.
m+8
If m = 4 then ------------- = 6 and 3m 6 = 6.
2

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 172 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

172

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Guess

Check

Comment

m+8
------------2

3m 6

10

24

3m 6 is too big.

12

Getting closer

3m 6 is too small.

This is it!

The two sides are equal when m = 4, so m = 4


m+8
is the solution to the equation ------------- = 3m 6 .
2

WORKED Example 10

For each of the following determine whether x = 10 is the solution to the equation.
x+2
a ------------ = 2 x 12
3
b 3x 7 = 2x + 3
THINK
a

Write down the equation.

Write down the left-hand side of the


equation and substitute x = 10.

Write down the right-hand side of


the equation and substitute x = 10.

Comment on the result.

Write down the equation.


Write down the left-hand side of the
equation and substitute x = 10.

Write down the right-hand side of


the equation and substitute x = 10.

Comment on the result.

WRITE
x+2
a ------------ = 2x 12
3
If x = 10,
x+2
LHS = -----------3
10 + 2
= --------------3
=4
If x = 10,
RHS = 2x 12
= 20 12
=8
x = 10 is not the solution.
b 3x 7 = 2x + 3
If x = 10,
LHS = 3x 7
= 30 7
= 23
If x = 10,
RHS = 2x + 3
= 20 + 3
= 23
x = 10 is the solution.

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 173 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

Chapter 5 Equations

173

WORKED Example 11

Use guess, check and comment to solve the equation 2x + 20 = 4x 2.


THINK
1

WRITE

Set up a table and try substituting some


guesses for x.

Guess
x

Check

Comment

2x + 20 4x 2

Guess x = 1 and substitute.

22

4x 2 is too
small.

Guess x = 6 and substitute.

32

22

This is closer.

Guess x = 10 and substitute.

10

40

38

Very close

Only a small change is needed.

11

42

42

Thats it!

State the solution.

The solution is x = 11.

WORKED Example 12
Use guess, check, and comment to find two numbers whose sum is 31 and whose product
is 150.
THINK
1

WRITE

The numbers add up to 31 so guess two


numbers that do this.
Then check by finding their product.
Guess 1 and 30.
Guess 10 and 21.
Try a number between 1 and 10.

Guess
Sum (small
number
first)

Check
Product (P)

Comment

1, 30

1 3 = 30

10, 21

10 21 = 210 P is too high.

P is too low.

5, 26

5 26 = 130

P is too low.

Try a number between 5 and 10.

8, 23

8 23 = 184

P is too high.

Try a number between 5 and 8.

6, 25

6 25 = 150

Thats it!

State the solution.

The numbers are 6 and 25.

remember
remember
We can check our solution to an equation by substituting a guess into the left- and
right-hand sides of that equation.

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 174 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

174

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

5E
5.3

SkillS

HEET

Mat

d
hca

Checking
solutions

Mat

d
hca

Spreadshe

et

EXCEL

Guess
and
check

Guess
and
check

Checking solutions

1 For each of the following, determine whether:


x+3
10
a x = 5 is the solution to the equation ------------ = 3x 10
2
2x + 4
b x = 10 is the solution to the equation --------------- = x 6
6
c x = 3 is a solution to the equation x2 + 2 = 2x + 5
d x = 4 is a solution to the equation x2 3 = 3x + 3
e x = 2 is the solution to the equation 4 x = 5x + 16
5x + 3
4x 2
f x = 1 is the solution to the equation --------------- = --------------6
2
2
g x = 7 is a solution to the equation x = 7x
h x = 29 is a solution to the equation x2 + 9 = 30x + 20
5x + 15
x + 13
i x = 87 is the solution to the equation ------------------ = --------------9
2
2
j x = 2.7 is a solution to the equation x + x = 8.29
x
k x = 3.6 is the solution to the equation 2.1x + 0.44 = ------- 0.36
0.5
2
l x = --- is the solution to the equation
7
1
7
3
x+5
--- x + ------ = ------ x .
-----------x
5
35
10
2

WORKED

Example

2 a Copy and complete the table at right to


x+5
3x + 7
find the values of ------------ and --------------- .
2
4
b What is the solution to the equation
x+5
3x + 7
------------ = --------------- ?
2
4

3 a Copy and complete the table at right to


find the values of m2 and 2m + 8.
b What is a solution to m2 = 2m + 8?

3x + 7
--------------4

3.25

3
4
5
m

m2

2m + 8

1
2
3
4
5

18

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 175 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

Chapter 5 Equations

WORKED

Example

11

175

4 Use guess, check and comment to find a solution to the equation y2 + 3 = 6y + 10. (The
process has been started for you.)
Guess

Check

y2 + 3

10

Comment

6y + 10
y2 + 3 is too small.
70

y2 + 3 is too big.

5 Use guess, check and comment to find a solution to these equations.


3m + 2
a ----------------- = 2m 12
4
c

w3
w+3
b ------------- = ------------4
7

x2 = 9x 8

d t 2 + 3 = 4t + 8

e x(x + 7) = 120

m
---- = 18 m
5

5n
g 5n 3 = -----2

4x 4.1
------------------- = x 0.1
3

6 Use guess, check and comment to find two numbers whose sum is 35 and whose
product is 294. (The process has been started for you.)
12

WORKED

Example

Guess the sum (S)


(small number
first)

Check the product


(P)

1, 34

1 34 = 34

10, 25

10 25 = 250

Comment

P is too small.
P is closer to 294.

7 Use guess, check and comment to find two numbers whose sum (S) and whose product
(P) is given.
a S = 25
P = 136
b S = 41
P = 390
c S = 41
P = 288
d S = 64
P = 999
e S = 81
P = 1334
f S = 10
P = 24.36
g S = 10.2
P = 24.57
h S = 1118
P = 250 977

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 176 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

176

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Solving word problems


Equations can be used to solve many everyday puzzles and problems. We must write
the problem as an equation, and then solve it by backtracking or doing the same to both
sides. Here is an example.
Sarah is 3 years older than her brother, Jason. If
the sum of their ages is 35 years, then how old is
Sarah?
Step 1 Read the question carefully.
The important facts are these:
Sarah is 3 years older than Jason.
Sarahs age plus Jasons age equals 35.
Step 2 Turn the information into an equation.
We are asked to find Sarahs age, so we
call it x. We usually say Let Sarahs age
equal x.
Jason is younger by 3 years, so his age
must be x 3, and since their ages add
up to 35 we know that x + x 3 = 35.
This is our equation.
Step 3 Simplify and then solve the equation.
x + x 3 = 35
2x 3 = 35
2x = 38
x = 19
Step 4 Check your solution.
If Sarah is 19, then Jason is 16, and their
total age is 19 + 16 = 35. This fits the
information we were given.
Step 5 Write your answer in words.
Sarah is 19 years old.

WORKED Example 13
If t is a whole number, then write down the value of:
a the number which is 15 less than t
b the number which is 15 times as large as t
c the number of weeks in t days.
THINK

WRITE

a To make it less than t, take 15 away


from t.

a t 15

b To find 15 times t, multiply t by 15.

b 15t

c To change days to weeks, divide by 7.

t
c --7

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 177 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

Chapter 5 Equations

177

WORKED Example 14
Annette and Patrick each have part-time jobs and worked a total of 28 hours
over a week. Annette earned $14 per hour, while Patrick earned $16 per hour.
Together they earned $416. How many hours did Patrick work?
THINK

WRITE

Write the important information.

Annettes hours + Patricks hours = 28


Annettes earnings at $14 per hour + Patricks
earnings at $16 per hour = $416

State the unknown as a pronumeral.

Let x be the number of hours Patrick worked.


So Patrick earned 16 x or $16x.

Write the number of hours


Annette worked in terms of this
pronumeral.

Annette has worked (28 x) hours. So she has


earned 14 (28 x) or $14(28 x).

Write an equation for the total earnings.

14(28 x) + 16x = 416

Simplify the equation by expanding the


brackets.

392 14x + 16x = 416


392 + 2x = 416

Subtract 392 from both sides.

392 + 2x 392 = 416 392


2x = 24

Divide both sides by 2.

Check your solution.

If Patrick worked 12 hours, then Annette


worked 16 hours.
Total earnings = 14 16 + 16 12
= $416
The solution is correct.

Write your answer in words.

Patrick worked 12 hours.

2x 24
------ = -----2
2
x = 12

remember
remember
Solving word problems involves 5 steps.
Step 1 Read the question carefully.
Step 2 Turn the information into an equation.
Step 3 Simplify and then solve the equation.
Step 4 Check your solution.
Step 5 Write your answer in words.

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 178 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

178

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

5F
WORKED

Example

13

Solving word problems

1 If m is a whole number, then write down the value of:


a the number which is 5 less than m
b the number which is 10 times as large as m
c the number which is half of m
d the number which is 4 more than m
e the next largest number after m
f the number of weeks in m days
g the number of months in m years
h the (mean) average of 6, 15, and m
i the cost of m theatre tickets at $65 per ticket
j the number of minutes in m seconds.
2 multiple choice
For each of the following, choose the correct response.
a Heidi is y years old. In 4 years time her age will be:
A 4y
B 4
C y4
D y+4
E 8
b Sonja is 7 cm taller than Jodie.
If Sonja is h cm tall then Jodies height is:
A h+7
B 7h
C h7
h
E --------- 7
D 107
100
c If t is an even number, the next (greater)
even number is:
A 2t
B 2
C 4
D t+2
E t+1
d If t is an odd number, the next (greater) odd number is:
A t+1
B 3t
C t+3
D 3
E t+2
e Mikhail is twice as old as Natasha. If Mikhail is
w years old then Natashas age is:
w
A w+2
B 2w
D 2
E w2
C ---2
f Mikhail is twice as old as Natasha. If Natasha is w years old then Mikhails age is:
w
A w+2
B 2w
D 2
E w2
C ---2
g Nhan has h dollars, but Dyson has 7 dollars more. In total they have:
A h+7
B h + 14
C 2h + 7
D 2h + 14
E 2h 7
h Natalie is t years old. Compared with Natalie, Lauren is 4 years older, but Fiona is
3 years younger. The total of their ages is:
A 3t + 7
B 3t + 1
C 3t 1
D 2t + 1
E t+1
i Prashant and Anapam together earned $98 last week. If Prashant earned k dollars
then Anapam earned:
A 98 + k
B k + 98
C k 98
D 98 k
E k

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 179 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

179

Chapter 5 Equations

Use this information for parts j and k.


Tom walks k metres to school. Jared walks 80 m further than Tom, and Katrina walks
twice as far as Jared.
j Katrina walks:
A 160
B 2k
C 2k + 80
D 2(k + 80) E 2k 160
k The total distance that the three students walk to school is:
A 4k + 240
B k + 240
C 3k + 80
D 2k + 240
E 3k + 240
l A tennis court can be hired for $15 per hour. How much does it cost to hire the
court for m hours?
m
15
A m + 15
B 15
E 15m
C -----D -----15
m

3 Terry is 7 cm shorter than Jacinta. If their total height is 291 cm then how tall is Jacinta?
4 Yolanda and Janelle play netball together and between them they have scored 103 goals,
but Janelle has scored 15 more goals than Yolanda. How many goals has Yolanda scored?
5 In a mathematics test Duy scored twice as many marks as Paul, but three marks less
than Kate. The three students scored a total of 178 marks. How much did each one
score?
6 At a certain store, a football costs $15 more than a basketball. If 3 basketballs and
2 footballs cost a total of $115, find the cost of each ball.

Math

cad

7 Three consecutive odd numbers add up to 159. What are the three numbers?
8 Four consecutive even numbers add up to 100. What is the largest of the four numbers? Solving

equations

3x + 10 m

9 The total distance around this rectangular field


is 480 metres. Find the value of x and use this
result to find the length and width of the field.

x + 50 m

x2

L Spread
XCE

x + 22

Solving
equations

30

Solving
40 equations

sheet

10 These two rectangles have the same area. Write an


equation and solve it to find x. What is the area of
each rectangle? (All lengths are given in metres.)

gram

GC pro

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 180 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

180

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

11 Amanda, at tenpin bowling, has bowled games of


118 and 131. How much must she score in her next
game to attain an average of 125?
12 The volume of blood, in litres, in your body is
approximately equal to your mass in kilograms
multiplied by 0.08.
a Write an equation to represent this situation and
state what each pronumeral represents.
b According to this rule, how many litres of blood
does a 60-kg person have?
c Estimate the mass of a person with 3.8 litres of
blood.
13 Write a word problem that can be answered by
solving the equation 3x 10 = 26. Then solve the
problem.
14 Sandra and Merv worked a total of 20 hours. Sandra
earned $12 per hour while Merv earned $10 per hour.
14
Together they earned $218 over the week. How many
hours did Sandra work?

WORKED

Example

15 Oscar earns the same amount for babysitting every week. Each week he saves all but
$10 of his earnings. If he has $160 after 8 weeks, how much does he earn each week?
(Write an equation to solve for this situation first.)
Work

ET
SHE

5.2

16 Alex, Stuart, and Ali receive an average of $12 per week in pocket money. Alex
receives $2 more than Stuart, but $5 less than Ali. How much does each one receive?

Save, save, save!


You should now be in a position to assist Shannon in working out how much he
needs to save each month to reach his target of $3299 in 8 months. He has $449 in
the bank already.
1 Write an equation for this situation, stating what the pronumeral represents.
2 Solve the equation and write a sentence advising Shannon on how much he
should save each month so he can buy the computer.
Shannons friend Kate is saving for a new sound system which costs $629.
She has $29 in the bank.
3 How much does Kate
need to save each
month to be able to
buy the new sound
system at the same
time as Shannon buys
a computer?
4 If Kate was able to
save the same amount
as Shannon each
month, how much sooner would Kate be able to buy her sound system?

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 181 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

Chapter 5 Equations

181

Inequalities and inequations


Do you remember what an equation is? It is an expression that contains an equals sign.
An inequation is an expression that contains an inequality sign. We learned about these
signs back in chapter 2, but let us go over them again here.
There are four different inequality signs:
< which means is less than
which means is less than or equal to
> which means is greater than
which means is greater than or equal to.
Just like equations, inequations can be true, or false.
For example
8>6
This is true because 8 is greater than 6.
5<3
This is false because 5 is not less than 3.
What about the inequation x > 2? This sentence could be either true or false, depending
on the value of x. There are many values of x which would make the sentence true, for
example x = 3 or x = 200. Can you think of some others? Of course we can include
fractions and decimals like 2 1--2- , 2 7--8- , 2.95 or 2.000 01. We cannot possibly list all of the
solutions to the inequation x > 2, but we can show them using a number line.
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Note the careful spacing. The arrows tell us that the line continues in both directions.
On a number line the numbers get larger as you move to the right.
We show the inequation on a number line by placing a dot over the numbers which are
greater than 2.
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

There are so many dots that they will form a continuous line, but there is no dot above
2 (because 2 is not greater than 2). We can show the inequation simply by placing an
open circle above 2, and ruling a line above the numbers that we want. The arrow tells
us that the line keeps going forever in one direction. Adding a label completes the
solution.
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
x>2

The inequation x 2 (x is greater than or equal to 2) is slightly different because we


need to include the value x = 2. We do this by shading the circle.
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
x2

The inequation x > 2 has an infinite number of solutions. In other words, the list of
solutions is never ending.

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 182 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

182

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WORKED Example 15
Referring, if necessary, to the number line at
right, place either < or > between the
following pairs of numbers to make a true
statement.
a 1
4
b 1
4
THINK

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

WRITE

a On a number line, the numbers get larger as


you move to the right, so 1 is less than 4.

1<4

b On a number line, the numbers get larger as


you move to the right, so 1 is greater than 4.

1 > 4

WORKED Example 16

Draw a neatly ruled and clearly labelled number line to show the inequation x < 1.
THINK

WRITE

Rule a number line and mark several


numbers including 1.

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

Less than means do not include the value, so


draw an open circle above
x = 1.

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

Draw a line to the left since numbers get


smaller as we move to the left.

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

Operations on inequalities
Consider the statement 2 < 6. Is this statement true?
1 After applying each of the operations described below, state whether the statement
is still true. If it is not, explain what needs to be done to make it a true statement.
a Add 4 to both sides of 2 < 6.
b Subtract 7 from both sides of 2 < 6.
c Multiply both sides of 2 < 6 by 3.
d Multiply both sides of 2 < 6 by 3.
e Divide both sides of 2 < 6 by 2.
f Divide both sides of 2 < 6 by 2.
2 Write a summary of what you have found.
3 Investigate whether this occurs with other inequalities.

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 183 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

Chapter 5 Equations

183

Like an equation, an inequation can be solved by doing the same to both sides.
However, as we saw in the investigation on page 182, if multiplying or dividing by a
negative number is required, we reverse the inequality sign to keep the inequation true.

WORKED Example 17
Solve the following inequations by doing the same to both sides.
1 2x
a 2x < 4
b 3x < 12
c 4x 3 17
d --------------- > 1
7
THINK

WRITE

2x < 4
2x 4
------ < --2
2
x<2
3x < 12
3x 12
--------- > -----3
3
x > 4

Write down the inequation.


To make x the subject, divide both sides
by 2.

Simplify.

Write down the inequation.


Divide both sides by 3. Remember to
reverse the inequality signs since we are
dividing by a negative number.

Write down the inequation.


Add 3 to both sides.
Divide both sides by 4.

Simplify.

4x 3 17
4x 3 + 3 17 + 3
4x 20
4x 20
------ -----4
4
x5

Write down the inequation.

Multiply both sides by 7.

Subtract 1 from both sides.

1 2x
--------------- > 1
7
1 2x
--------------- 7 > 1 7
7
1 2x > 7
1 2x 1 > 7 1
2x > 8
2x 8
--------- < -----2
2
x<4

1
2

Divide both sides by 2. Remember to


reverse the inequality sign since we are
dividing by a negative number.

remember
remember
1. An inequation contains an inequality sign.
2. There are 4 different inequality signs: < which means is less than;
which means is less than or equal to; > which means is greater than;
which means is greater than or equal to.
3. On a number line, the numbers get larger as you move to the right.
4. An inequation can be solved by doing the same to both sides. Multiplying or
dividing both sides by a negative number reverses the inequality sign.
5. An inequation has an infinite number of solutions.

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 184 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

184

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

5G

Inequalities and inequations

1 Copy and complete the following statements about number lines.


a As you move to the right the numbers become
.
b As you move to the left the numbers become
.
WORKED

Example

15

2 Referring, if necessary, to the number line below, place either < or > between the
following pairs of numbers to make a true statement.
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

a 1 13
e 1 3
i 4 3

b 1 3
f 1
j 3 4

c 3 3
g 3 3

d 3 1
h 3 1

3 This number line has both numbers and pronumerals. Write each statement below
placing either > or < between the two terms in order to make a true statement.
5 h

a h x
e y 2
i 0 m

b x h
f 2 y
j m 0

2 x 0

y m 4 5

c 5 h
g h y

d m x
h y h

4 State whether each inequation below is true (T) or false (F).


a 5>3
b 6>6
c 66
e 1 > 0
f 8 < 5
g 0 > 5
i 1.99 < 2
j 5.0001 > 5
k 5 > 6
m 4 4
n 0 > 10

d 2.1 < 2
h 3 < 3
l 3 > 2

5 multiple choice
For each of these number lines, select the correct label.
a A x<1
B x>1
C x<5
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
D x1
E x>5
b A x<1
D x1

B x>1
E x5

C x<5

A x>6
D x < 10

B x > 10
E x>8

C x<6

d A x>6
D x < 10

B x > 10
E x>8

C x<6

e A x > 300
D x > 500

B x 100
E x < 500

C x < 300

A x 300
D x 500

B x > 100
E x < 500

C x < 300

g A x<0
D x < 8

B x < 4
E x 4

C x > 4

h A x<0
D x < 8

B x < 4
E x 4

C x > 4

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0

100

200

300

400 500

100

200

300

400 500

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 185 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

Chapter 5 Equations

16

WORKED

Example

17a, b

WORKED

17c, d

7 Solve the following inequations by doing the same to both sides.


a x+1<7
b x4>3
c x51
d x + 20 < 10
e 2x > 8
f 3x 9
g 5x 20
h 2x < 50
i 4x < 16
j 8x > 4
8 Solve the following inequations by doing the same to both sides.
a 5x 1 > 4
b 2x + 7 3
c 3x + 4 < 2
d
e 2x + 1 5 f 6x 3 < 3
g 4x 7 < 5
h
x+2
x4
1x
i ------------ > 1
j ----------- < 3
k ----------- 3
l
7
5
2
4 3x
7 2x
5x
m --------------- > 5
n --------------- < 3
o ------ + 2 7
p
2
5
6
2x
5x
q 10 ------ > 4 r 4 + ------ > 11
5
3

4x 3 > 13
3x + 9 9
5x
----------- 8
3
3x
1 ------ 5
4

L Spread
XCE

sheet

Example

6 Draw a neatly ruled and clearly labelled number line to show the following
inequations.
a x5
b x<6
c x0
d x 2
e x > 5
f x<0
g x > 2.3
h x 3 1--2i x > 50
j x 120

Example

Inequations

For questions 9, 10 and 11, write and solve an inequation for each situation.

11 A land owner has 100 hectares of land and wants to keep at least 10 hectares. The rest
is to be divided and sold in 6-hectare lots. How many of these lots can the land owner
offer for sale?

Theatre design
Rows in a theatre are often elevated so each person can look over the head of the
person in front. Theatre floors must either be sloped or have steps. Whether the
floor can be sloped depends on the depth of the row, d, and the amount of rise, r.
d
A floor can be sloped only if r --- .
8
1 How deep can the rows be if the floor is sloped and has a rise of 12.5 cm?
2 Many theatres have 80-cm-deep rows. What is the maximum rise for a sloped
floor?
3 An Imax cinema claims to give everyone an unobstructed view of the screen.
Suppose the rise is 27 cm. What is the minimum row depth for a sloped floor?
Why do you think these theatres have stepped floors?
4 Investigate different situations with varying amounts of rise and row depth for
theatre seating. What are the optimum conditions? Justify your answer,
showing all working. Include a list of advantages and disadvantages with
stepped and sloped floors.

ET
SHE

GAME
time

9 To obtain a drivers licence, a person needs to be 18 or older. Selena has stated that
she will try for her licence in 5 years time. What is Selenas age?
Equations
002
10 A pair of rollerblades can be hired for an initial fee of $12 plus $4 per hour. For how
many hours can you hire the rollerblades and still spend less than $50?
Work

WORKED

185

5.3

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 186 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

186

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

summary
Copy the sentences below. Fill in the gaps by choosing the correct word or
expression from the word list that follows.
1
2

operations are operations which undo one another.


Addition and

are inverse operations.

and division are inverse operations.

When solving

Replacing a pronumeral with a number is called

The

we must do the same to both sides.


is useful to determine what to do next.
.

to an equation is the value which makes the equation


.

After guessing a solution and checking you should

before you

.
9

An inequation is a statement containing an

10

There are

11

An inequation has an

sign.

different inequality signs.

shown on a

number of solutions which are easily


.

12

An inequation can be solved by doing the same to

13

Multiplying or dividing both sides of an inequation by a negative number

sides.

the inequality sign.

WORD
equations
flow chart
four
number line

LIST
inequality
infinite
inverse
comment

multiplication
solution
substitution
both

subtraction
think
true
reverses

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 187 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

Chapter 5 Equations

187

CHAPTER
review
1 Find the output number for each of these flow charts.
a

1
x

5A

x
+8

+3

2 Draw the flow chart whose output number is given by the following expressions.
n
m7
a 3(m + 4)
b --- + 5
c ------------- 4
d 7 15w
3
5

5A

3 a Write down an equation which is represented by the diagram below.

5B

b Show what
happens when you
take 2 from both
sides, and write
down the new
equation.

Key
represents an unknown amount
represents 1

4 Copy and complete these equations by doing the same to both sides.
a
z=5
b
t = 6
3z =
t
--- =
z+7=
2
7t
----- =
2
c
m = 11
d
w=4
m1=
4w =
5 4w =
m1
------------- =
5

5C

5 Solve these equations by doing the same to both sides.


a 5v + 3 = 18

b 5(s + 11) = 35

d 2(r + 5) 3 = 5

2y 3
--------------- = 9
7

6 Solve the following equations and check each solution.


a 5k + 7 = k + 19
b 4s 8 = 2s 12 c 3t 11 = 5 t

d7
------------ = 10
4
x
--- 3 = 2
5

d 5x + 2 = 2x + 16

5C

5D

MQ 8 Ch 05 Page 188 Thursday, December 7, 2000 1:55 PM

188
5D
5E
5E
5F
5F

5G

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

7 Expand the brackets first and then solve the following equations.
a 5(2v + 3) 7v = 21
b 3(m 4) + 2m = m + 8
m+5
8 Use guess, check and comment to find the solution to the equation ------------- = 2m 5.
3
9 Use guess, check and comment to find two numbers whose sum is 80 and whose product is 1311.
10 Nhan is 7 cm taller than Dyson and the sum of their heights is
333 cm. How tall is Nhan?
11 A bicycle rental store charges a flat fee of $15 plus $5 per day to
rent a mountain bike.
a If x is the number of days a mountain bike is rented, write
an equation to show the cost of renting a mountain bike.
b If a person was charged $85 for renting a mountain bike,
for how many days did the person rent the bike?
12 Write true or false for each of these statements.
a 3<3
b 3 < 3
c

5 > 2

1
--4

1
--3

5G

13 Draw neat number lines to show the following sets of numbers.


a x3
b x > 7
c x < 100
d x0

5G

14 Solve the following inequations by doing the same to both sides.


a x + 8 > 5
b 3x 7 11
3x + 2
c 4 5x > 9
d --------------- > 5
4
8 2x
4x
e --------------- 6
f 2 ------ > 10
3
7

5G

15 A camera shop charges $15 to develop a roll of film plus $0.80 for each extra print. How
many extra prints can Susann get if she cannot spend more than $22 on photographs? (First
write and solve an inequation for this situation.)

CHAPTER

test
yourself