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Symmetrical and Anti-Symmetric Structure Analysis (Symmetric and Anti-Symmetric Loading for a Symmetrical Structure)

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Analysis of Symmetric

Structures

10.1 Symmetric Structures

10.2 Symmetric and Antisymmetric Components of Loadings

10.3 Behavior of Symmetric Structures under Symmetric and Antisymmetric

Loadings

10.4 Procedure for Analysis of Symmetric Structures

Summary

Problems

Century in Agra, India

Luciano Mortula/Shutterstock

are arranged in symmetric forms. Provided a symmetric structure is linearly elastic, the response (i.e., member forces and deformations) of the

entire structure under any general loading can be obtained from the response of one of its portions separated by the axes of symmetry. Thus

only a portion (usually half ) of the symmetric structure needs to be analyzed. In this chapter we discuss how to recognize structural symmetry

and how to utilize it to reduce the computational eort required in the

analysis of symmetric structures.

We first define symmetric structures and then discuss symmetric and

antisymmetric loadings. In this presentation, we develop a procedure for

decomposing a general loading into symmetric and antisymmetric components. Next we examine the behavior of symmetric structures under

the symmetric and antisymmetric loadings; finally, we present a step-bystep procedure for the analysis of symmetric structures.

Although the discussion in this chapter is confined to structures

with a single axis of symmetry, the concepts developed herein can be

extended to the analysis of structures with multiple axes of symmetry.

425

426

CHAPTER 10

Reflection

The definition of symmetry can be developed by using the concept of

reflection, or mirror image. Consider a structure located in the xy plane,

as shown in Fig. 10.1(a). The reflection of the structure about the y axis

is obtained by rotating the structure through 180! about the y axis, as

shown in Fig. 10.1(b). It can be seen from Fig. 10.1(a) and (b) that if the

coordinates of a point D of the structure are x1 and y1 , then the coordinates of that point on the reflection of the structure about the y axis

become "x1 and y1 . The reflection of the structure about the x axis can

be obtained in a similar mannerthat is, by rotating the structure

through 180! about the x axis, as shown in Fig. 10.1(c). Note that the

coordinates of point D on the reflection of the structure about the x axis

become x1 and "y1 .

Based on the foregoing discussion, we realize that the reflection of

a structure about an arbitrary s axis can be obtained by rotating the

structure through 180! about the s axis. Alternatively, the structures

reflection can be obtained by joining the reflections of its various joints

FIG.

10.1

SECTION 10.1

FIG.

Symmetric Structures

427

10.2

and/or ends, which are determined by changing the signs of their coordinates in the direction perpendicular to the s axis. To illustrate the latter approach, consider the truss shown in Fig. 10.2(a). Suppose that

we wish to determine its reflection about the y axis. As shown in Fig.

10.2(b), the reflections of the five joints of the truss are first determined

by changing the signs of the x coordinates of the joints. The reflections

of the joints are then connected by straight lines to obtain the reflection

of the entire truss. Note that the reflection of joint C, which is located

on the y axis, is in the same position as joint C itself.

Symmetric Structures

A plane structure is considered to be symmetric with respect to an axis

of symmetry in its plane if the reflection of the structure about the axis

is identical in geometry, supports, and material properties to the structure

itself.

Some examples of symmetric structures are shown in Fig. 10.3. For each

structure, the axis of symmetry is identified as the s axis. Note that the

428

CHAPTER 10

Structures

SECTION 10.1

FIG.

Symmetric Structures

429

10.3 (contd.)

reflection of each structure about its axis of symmetry is identical in geometry, supports, and material properties to the structure itself.

Although the concept of reflection provides a mathematically

precise means of defining symmetry, it is usually not necessary to draw

the reflection of a structure to determine whether or not the structure

is symmetric. Instead, most symmetric structures can be identified by

inspectionthat is, by simply comparing the geometry, supports, and

material properties of the two halves of the structure on each side of the

axis of symmetry. Considering any of the structures of Fig. 10.3, if we

imagine that a half of the structure on either side of the axis of symmetry is rotated through 180! about the axis of symmetry, it will exactly

overlay the other half of the structure, indicating that the structure is

symmetric.

As stated previously, a structure, in general, is considered to be

symmetric if its geometry, supports, and material properties are symmetric with respect to the axis of symmetry. However, when examining

430

FIG.

CHAPTER 10

10.4

consider the symmetry of only those structural properties that have an

eect on results of that particular type of analysis. In other words, a

structure can be considered to be symmetric for the purpose of an analysis if its structural properties that have an eect on the results of the

analysis are symmetric.

Consider, for example, the statically determinate truss subjected to

vertical loads, as shown in Fig. 10.4. We can see from the figure that the

geometry of the truss (i.e., the dimensions of the truss and the arrangement of truss members) and its material and cross-sectional properties

(E and A) are symmetric with respect to the s axis, but the supports

violate symmetry because the hinged support at A can exert both horizontal and vertical reactions, whereas the roller support at C can exert

only a vertical reaction. However, the truss can be considered to be

symmetric when subjected to vertical loads only because under such

loads, the horizontal reaction at the hinged support will be zero

Ax 0; therefore, it will not have any eect on the response (e.g.,

member axial forces and deflections) of the truss. This truss cannot be

considered to be symmetric when subjected to any horizontal loads,

however.

Example 10.1

The truss shown in Fig. 10.5(a) is to be analyzed to determine its member axial forces and deflections due to a general

system of loads acting at the joints. Can the truss be considered to be symmetric for such an analysis?

FIG.

10.5

Solution

We can see from Fig. 10.5(b) that the dimensions, the arrangement of members, the material and cross-sectional properties (E and A), and the supports of the given truss are all symmetric with respect to the vertical s axis passing through

the member CG of the truss. Thus the truss is symmetric with respect to the s axis.

Ans.

SECTION 10.1

Symmetric Structures

431

Example 10.2

The beam shown in Fig. 10.6(a) is to be analyzed to determine the member end forces and deflections due to the vertical

loading shown. Can the beam be considered to be symmetric for the analysis?

FIG.

10.6

Solution

We can see from Fig. 10.6(b) that the dimensions and properties (E and I ) of the beam are symmetric with respect to

the vertical s axis passing through the mid-point F of the beam, but the supports are not symmetric because the hinged

support at A can develop both horizontal and vertical reactions, whereas the roller supports at B; C, and E can develop

only vertical reactions. However, the beam can be considered to be symmetric under the vertical loads because the

horizontal reaction at A is zero Ax 0; therefore, it does not have any eect on the member end forces and deflections

of the beam.

Ans.

Example 10.3

The frame shown in Fig. 10.7(a) is to be analyzed to determine its member end forces and deflections due to a general

system of loads. Can the frame be considered to be symmetric?

Solution

From Fig. 10.7(b) we can see that although the frames geometry and supports are symmetric with respect to the vertical

s axis passing through the internal hinge D, its moment of inertia (I ) is not symmetric. Since the frame is statically determinate, its member end forces are independent of the material and cross-sectional properties (E; I, and A); therefore,

the frame can be considered to be symmetric for the purpose of analysis of its member forces. However, this frame

cannot be considered to be symmetric for the analysis of deflections, which depend on the moments of inertia of the

members of the frame.

Ans.

continued

432

CHAPTER 10

FIG.

10.7

As discussed in the preceding section for structures, the reflection of a

system of forces (or deflections) about an axis can be obtained by rotating the force system (or deflections) through 180! about the axis. Consider a system of forces and moments, Fx ; Fy , and M, acting at a point A

in the xy plane, as shown in Fig. 10.8(a). The reflections of the force

FIG.

10.8

SECTION 10.2

433

system about the y and x axes are shown in Fig. 10.8(b) and (c), respectively. As shown in these figures, the reflections of the counterclockwise

moment M are clockwise. Conversely, the reflections of a clockwise

moment will always be counterclockwise. The reflections of the deflections Dx and Dy and the rotation y of point A (Fig. 10.8(a)) can be obtained in a similar manner and are also shown in Fig. 10.8(b) and (c).

Symmetric Loadings

A loading is considered to be symmetric with respect to an axis in its plane

if the reflection of the loading about the axis is identical to the loading

itself.

Some examples of symmetric loadings are shown in Fig. 10.9. The reflection of each loading about its axis of symmetry is also shown in the

figure for verification. However, it is usually not necessary to draw the

reflections, since most loadings can be identified as symmetric, or not,

by inspection.

FIG.

434

CHAPTER 10

FIG.

10.9 (contd.)

Antisymmetric Loadings

A loading is considered to be antisymmetric with respect to an axis in its

plane if the negative of the reflection of the loading about the axis is identical to the loading itself.

each loading case, the reflection and the negative of reflection are also

FIG.

SECTION 10.2

FIG.

10.10 (contd.)

435

436

CHAPTER 10

reversing the directions of all the forces and moments on the reflection.

It can be seen from the figure that the negative of reflection of each

loading about its s axis is identical to the loading itself.

and Antisymmetric Components

Any general loading can be decomposed into symmetric and antisymmetric components with respect to an axis by applying the following

procedure:

1.

2.

3.

4.

loading by 2 to obtain the half loading.

Draw a reflection of the half loading about the specified axis.

Determine the symmetric component of the given loading by adding

the half loading to its reflection.

Determine the antisymmetric component of the given loading

by subtracting the symmetric loading component from the given

loading.

shown in Fig. 10.11(a). Suppose that we wish to determine the com-

FIG.

10.11

SECTION 10.2

FIG.

437

10.11 (contd.)

respect to an arbitrarily located s axis shown in the figure. We first

compute the half loading by dividing the magnitudes of the distributed

and the concentrated loads by 2 (Fig. 10.11(b)). The reflection of this

half loading about the s axis is then drawn, as shown in Fig. 10.11(c).

The symmetric component of the given loading is determined by adding

the half loading (Fig. 10.11(b)) to its reflection (Fig. 10.11(c)). The

symmetric loading component thus obtained is shown in Fig. 10.11(d).

Finally, the antisymmetric component is computed by subtracting the

symmetric component (Fig. 10.11(d)) from the given loading (Fig.

10.11(a)). The antisymmetric loading component thus obtained is shown

in Fig. 10.11(e). Note that the sum of the symmetric and antisymmetric

components is equal to the given loading.

Example 10.4

A Pratt bridge truss is subjected to the loading shown in Fig. 10.12(a). Determine the symmetric and antisymmetric

components of the loading with respect to the axis of symmetry of the truss.

Solution

Symmetric Loading Component The axis of symmetry (s axis) of the truss and the half loading are shown in

Fig. 10.12(b); the reflection of the half loading about the s axis is drawn in Fig. 10.12(c). The symmetric component of

the given loading is determined by adding the half loading (Fig. 10.12(b)) to its reflection (Fig. 10.12(c)), as shown in

Fig. 10.12(d).

Ans.

continued

438

FIG.

CHAPTER 10

10.12

Antisymmetric Loading Component The antisymmetric component of the loading is obtained by subtracting the

symmetric loading component (Fig. 10.12(d)) from the total loading (Fig. 10.12(a)) and is shown in Fig. 10.12(e).

Note that the sum of the symmetric and antisymmetric components is equal to the given loading.

Ans.

Example 10.5

A beam is subjected to the loading shown in Fig. 10.13(a). Determine the symmetric and antisymmetric components of

the loading with respect to the axis of symmetry of the beam.

FIG.

10.13

continued

SECTION 10.2

FIG.

439

10.13 (contd.)

Solution

Symmetric Loading Component The axis of symmetry (s axis) of the beam and the half loading are shown in

Fig. 10.13(b), and the reflection of the half loading about the s axis is drawn in Fig. 10.13(c). The symmetric component

of the given loading is determined by adding the half loading (Fig. 10.13(b)) to its reflection (Fig. 10.13(c)), as shown

in Fig. 10.13(d).

Ans.

Antisymmetric Loading Component The antisymmetric component is obtained by subtracting the symmetric component (Fig. 10.13(d)) from the total loading (Fig. 10.13(a)) and is shown in Fig. 10.13(e).

Ans.

Note that the sum of the symmetric and antisymmetric components is equal to the given loading.

Example 10.6

A four-span continuous beam is subjected to the loading shown in Fig. 10.14(a). Determine the symmetric and antisymmetric components of the loading with respect to the axis of symmetry of the beam.

Solution

Symmetric Loading Component The half loading and its reflection are shown in Fig. 10.14(b) and (c), respectively.

The symmetric component of the given loading is obtained by adding the half loading to its reflection, as shown in

Fig. 10.14(d).

Ans.

continued

440

CHAPTER 10

20 kN/m

7m

50 kN

3m

3m

50 kN

3m

3m

30 kN/m

7m

10 kN/m

25 kN

25 kN

15 kN/m

15 kN/m

25 kN

25 kN

10 kN/m

FIG.

10.14

Antisymmetric Loading Component By subtracting the symmetric component from the total loading (Fig. 10.14(a)),

we determine the antisymmetric component as shown in Fig. 10.14(e).

Ans.

SECTION 10.2

441

Example 10.7

A gable frame is subjected to the loading shown in Fig. 10.15(a). Determine the symmetric and antisymmetric components of the loading with respect to the axis of symmetry of the frame.

FIG.

10.15

continued

442

CHAPTER 10

Solution

Symmetric Loading Component The half loading and its reflection are shown in Fig. 10.15(b) and (c), respectively.

The symmetric component of the given loading is determined by adding the half loading to its reflection, as shown in

Ans.

Fig. 10.15(d).

Antisymmetric Loading Component By subtracting the symmetric component from the total loading (Fig. 10.15(a)),

Ans.

we obtain the antisymmetric component as shown in Fig. 10.15(e).

Example 10.8

A two-story frame is subjected to the loading shown in Fig. 10.16(a). Determine the symmetric and antisymmetric

components of the loading with respect to the axis of symmetry of the frame.

Solution

Half Loading and Its Reflection See Fig. 10.16(b) and (c), respectively.

Symmetric Loading Component See Fig. 10.16(d).

Ans.

Ans.

15 kN/m

7.5 kN/m

25 kN

12.5 kN

6m

30 kN/m

15 kN/m

50 kN

25 kN

6m

5m

10 m

FIG.

10.16

continued

SECTION 10.3

7.5 kN/m

15 kN/m

12.5 kN

12.5 kN

15 kN/m

443

12.5 kN

30 kN/m

25 kN

25 kN

25 kN

s

12.5 kN

25 kN

FIG.

10.16 (contd.)

12.5 kN

25 kN

LOADINGS

In the preceding section, we discussed how a general unsymmetric loading can be decomposed into symmetric and antisymmetric components.

In this section, we examine the response characteristics of symmetric

structures under symmetric and antisymmetric loading conditions. The

insight gained into the behavior of symmetric structures will enable us

444

CHAPTER 10

to develop, in the following section, a general procedure that can considerably expedite the analysis of such structures.

When a symmetric structure is subjected to a loading that is symmetric with

respect to the structures axis of symmetry, the response of the structure is

also symmetric, with the points of the structure at the axis of symmetry

neither rotating (unless there is a hinge at such a point) nor deflecting perpendicular to the axis of symmetry.

of the entire structure, we need to analyze only half the structure, on

either side of the axis of symmetry, with symmetric boundary conditions

(i.e., slopes must be either symmetric or zero, and deflections perpendicular to the axis of symmetry must be zero) at the axis. The response

of the remaining half of the structure can then be obtained by reflection.

Consider, for example, a symmetric frame subjected to a loading

that is symmetric with respect to the frames axis of symmetry (s axis),

as shown in Fig. 10.17(a). The deflected shape (elastic curve) of the

frame is also shown in the figure. It can be seen that, like the loading,

the deflected shape is symmetric with respect to the axis of symmetry of

the frame. Note that the slope and the horizontal deflection are zero at

point D, where the axis of symmetry intersects the frame, whereas the

vertical deflection at D is not zero. The response of the entire frame can

be determined by analyzing only half the frame, on either side of the

axis of symmetry. The left half of the frame cut by the axis of symmetry

FIG.

10.17

SECTION 10.3

445

are imposed on this substructure by supporting it at the end D by a collar type of support (denoted by the symbol

in Fig. 10.17(b)),

which prevents the rotation and the horizontal deflection at the axis of

symmetry but cannot prevent the vertical deflection along the axis. Once

the response of the left half of the frame has been determined by analysis, the response of the right half can be obtained from that of the left

half by reflection.

Consider another symmetric frame subjected to symmetric loading,

as shown in Fig. 10.18(a). The left half of the frame with symmetric

boundary conditions is shown in Fig. 10.18(b). As this figure indicates,

the rotation and horizontal deflection at joint E have been restrained.

The hinged joint B is already restrained from moving in the horizontal

direction by the hinged support. Note that on the half of the frame selected for analysis (Fig. 10.18(b)), the magnitude of the concentrated

load P, which acts along the axis of symmetry, has been reduced by half.

FIG.

10.18

446

CHAPTER 10

member BE, which is located along the axis of symmetry, have been

halved. Although it is usually considered convenient to reduce by half

both properties A and I of the members along the axis of symmetry, we

must realize that the values of the moments of inertia (I ) of these members are not relevant in the analysis, because the members located along

the axis of symmetry will undergo only axial deformations without

bending. Once the response of the left half of the frame (Fig. 10.18(b))

has been determined by analysis, the response of the right half is obtained by reflection.

When a symmetric structure is subjected to a loading that is antisymmetric

with respect to the structures axis of symmetry, the response of the structure is also antisymmetric, with the points of the structure at the axis of

symmetry not deflecting in the direction of the axis of symmetry.

Thus to determine the response of the entire structure, we need to analyze only half the structure, on either side of the axis of symmetry, with

antisymmetric boundary conditions (i.e., deflections in the direction of

the axis of symmetry must be zero) at the axis. The response of the remaining half is given by the negative of the reflection of the response of

the half structure that is analyzed.

Consider a symmetric frame subjected to a loading that is antisymmetric with respect to the frames axis of symmetry (s axis), as

shown in Fig. 10.19(a). It can be seen that, like the loading, the deflected

shape of the frame is antisymmetric with respect to the frames axis of

FIG.

10.19

SECTION 10.4

447

symmetry. Note that the vertical deflection is zero at point D, where the

axis of symmetry intersects the frame, whereas the horizontal deflection

and slope at D are not zero. The response of the entire frame can be

determined by analyzing only half the frame, on either side of the axis of

symmetry. The left half of the frame cut by the axis of symmetry is

shown in Fig. 10.19(b). Note that the antisymmetric boundary conditions are imposed on this substructure by supporting it at end D by a

roller support, which prevents the vertical deflection at the axis of symmetry but cannot prevent the horizontal deflection and rotation at D.

Once the response of the left half of the frame has been determined by

analysis, the response of the right half is given by the negative of the

reflection of the response of the left half.

If a structure contains a member along the axis of symmetry, the

properties of the member, I and A, should be reduced by half on the half

structure selected for analysis. Note that the members along the axis of

symmetry cannot undergo any axial deformations, but they can bend.

Thus the axial forces in the members of trusses located along the axis of

symmetry will be zero, and such members may be removed from the

half structure to simplify its analysis. The magnitudes of any loads and

couples acting on the structure at the axis of symmetry should be

halved, on the half of the structure to be analyzed.

As shown in Section 10.2, any general unsymmetric loading acting

on a symmetric structure can be decomposed into symmetric and antisymmetric components with respect to the axis of symmetry of the

structure. The responses of the structure due to the symmetric and

antisymmetric loading components are then determined by analyzing a

half of the structure, with symmetric and antisymmetric boundary

conditions, respectively, as discussed in the preceding paragraphs. The

symmetric and antisymmetric responses thus determined are then superimposed to obtain the total response of the structure due to the

given unsymmetric loading.

The following step-by-step procedure can be used to take advantage of

structural symmetry in the analysis of structures.

1.

10.1. If the structure is found to be symmetric, then proceed to step

2. Otherwise, end the analysis at this stage.

448

CHAPTER 10

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

symmetry for analysis. The cross-sectional areas and moments of

inertia of the members of the substructure, which are located along

the axis of symmetry, should be reduced by half, whereas full values

of these properties should be used for all other members.

Decompose the given loading into symmetric and antisymmetric

components with respect to the axis of symmetry of the structure by

using the procedure described in Section 10.2.

Determine the response of the structure due to the symmetric loading component as follows:

a. At each joint and end of the substructure, which is located at

the axis of symmetry, apply restraints to prevent rotation and

deflection perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. If there is a

hinge at such a joint or end, then only the deflection, but not

rotation, should be restrained at that joint or end.

b. Apply the symmetric component of loading on the substructure

with the magnitudes of the concentrated loads at the axis of

symmetry reduced by half.

c. Analyze the substructure to determine its response.

d. Obtain the symmetric response of the complete structure by reflecting the response of the substructure to the other side of the

axis of symmetry.

Determine the response of the structure due to the antisymmetric

loading component as follows:

a. At each joint and end of the substructure located at the axis of

symmetry, apply a restraint to prevent deflection in the direction of the axis of symmetry. In the case of trusses, the axial

forces in members located along the axis of symmetry will be

zero. Remove such members from the substructure.

b. Apply the antisymmetric component of loading on the substructure with the magnitudes of the loads and couples, applied

at the axis of symmetry, reduced by half.

c. Analyze the substructure to determine its response.

d. Obtain the antisymmetric response of the complete structure by

reflecting the negative of the response of the substructure to the

other side of the axis of symmetry.

Determine the total response of the structure due to the given loading by superimposing the symmetric and antisymmetric responses

obtained in steps 4 and 5, respectively.

well as indeterminate symmetric structures. It will become obvious in

subsequent chapters that the utilization of structural symmetry considerably reduces the computational eort required in the analysis of statically indeterminate structures.

SECTION 10.4

449

Example 10.9

Determine the force in each member of the Warren truss shown in Fig. 10.20(a).

FIG.

10.20

continued

450

CHAPTER 10

Solution

This truss was analyzed in Example 4.4 without taking advantage of its symmetry.

Symmetry This truss is symmetric with respect to the vertical s axis passing through member CG, as shown in

Fig. 10.20(b). The truss is subjected to vertical loads only, so the horizontal reaction at support A is zero Ax 0. The

half of the truss to the right of the axis of symmetry, CEHG, will be used for analysis.

Symmetric and Antisymmetric Components of Loading The symmetric and antisymmetric components of the given

loading with respect to the axis of symmetry of the truss are determined by using the procedure described in Section

10.2. These loading components are shown in Fig. 10.20(b) and (c). Note that the sum of the two components is equal

to the total loading given in Fig. 10.20(a).

Member Forces Due to the Symmetric Loading Component The substructure (right half of the truss) with symmetric

boundary conditions is shown in Fig. 10.20(d). Note that the joints C and G, which are located at the axis of symmetry,

are supported by rollers that prevent their movements in the horizontal direction (perpendicular to the s axis). The

symmetric component of loading (Fig. 10.20(b)) is applied to the substructure, with the magnitude of the 30-k concentrated load acting along the axis of symmetry reduced by half, as shown in Fig. 10.20(d). The reactions of the substructure are obtained by applying the equilibrium equations:

P

" Fy 0

P

MC 0

P

! Fx 0

"75 " 90 Ey 0

"Gx 4:5 " 906 16512 0

"Cx 320 0

Ey 165 kN "

Gx 320 kN !

Cx 320 kN

The axial forces in the members of the substructure are determined by applying the method of joints. These member

forces are also shown in Fig. 10.20(d).

The member axial forces in the left half of the truss can now be obtained by rotating the member forces in the right

half (Fig. 10.20(d)) through 180! about the s axis, as shown in Fig. 10.20(e).

Member Forces Due to the Antisymmetric Loading Component The substructure with antisymmetric boundary

conditions is shown in Fig. 10.20(f ). Note that joints C and G, located at the axis of symmetry, are supported by rollers

to prevent their deflections in the vertical direction. Also, member CG, which is located along the axis of symmetry,

is removed from the substructure, as shown in the figure. (The force in member CG will be zero under antisymmetric

loading.) The antisymmetric component of loading (Fig. 10.20(c)) is applied to the substructure, and its reactions

and member axial forces are computed by applying the equilibrium equations and the method of joints (see Fig.

10.20(f )).

The member axial forces in the left half of the truss are then obtained by reflecting the negatives (i.e., the tensile

forces are changed to compressive forces and vice versa) of the member forces in the right half to the left side of the axis

of symmetry, as shown in Fig. 10.20(g).

Total Member Forces Finally, the total axial forces in members of the truss are obtained by superimposing

the forces due to the symmetric and antisymmetric components of the loading, as given in Fig. 10.20(e) and (g),

respectively. These member forces are shown in Fig. 10.20(h).

Ans.

SECTION 10.4

451

Example 10.10

Determine the member end forces of the frame shown in Fig. 10.21(a).

Solution

Symmetry The frame is symmetric with respect to the vertical s axis passing through the hinge at D, as shown in

Fig. 10.21(b). The left half of the frame, ACD, will be used for analysis.

Symmetric and Antisymmetric Components of Loading See Fig. 10.21(b) and (c).

FIG.

10.21

continued

452

FIG.

CHAPTER 10

10.21 (contd.)

Member Forces Due to the Symmetric Loading Component The substructure with symmetric boundary conditions

is shown in Fig. 10.21(d). The reactions and the member end forces of the substructure, as determined from equilibrium

considerations, are shown in Fig. 10.21(d) and to the left of the s axis in Fig. 10.21(e), respectively. The member end

forces to the right of the s axis are then obtained by reflection (see Fig. 10.21(e)).

Member Forces Due to the Antisymmetric Loading Component The substructure with antisymmetric boundary

conditions is shown in Fig. 10.21(f ). The member forces are determined by analyzing the substructure and by reflecting

the negatives of the computed forces and moments about the axis of symmetry (see Fig. 10.21(g)).

Total Member Forces The total member end forces, obtained by superimposing the member forces due to the

symmetric and antisymmetric components of the loading, are shown in Fig. 10.21(h).

Ans.

SECTION 10.4

453

Example 10.11

Determine the substructures for the analysis of the symmetric and antisymmetric responses of the statically indeterminate beam shown in Fig. 10.22(a).

60 kN

20 kN/m

8m

8m

4m

4m

8m

EI = constant

(a) Given Beam and Loading

10 kN/m

30 kN

30 kN

10 kN/m

4m

4m

(b) Symmetric Loading Component

10 kN/m

30 kN

30 kN

10 kN/m

10 kN/m

30 kN

10 kN/m

FIG.

10.22

30 kN

continued

454

CHAPTER 10

Solution

Symmetry The beam is symmetric with respect to the vertical s axis shown in Fig. 10.22(b). The left half of the

beam is selected for analysis.

Symmetric and Antisymmetric Components of Loading See Fig. 10.22(b) and (c).

Substructures The substructures for the analysis of the symmetric and antisymmetric responses are shown in

Fig. 10.22(d) and (e), respectively.

Ans.

Example 10.12

Determine the substructures for the analysis of the symmetric and antisymmetric responses of the statically indeterminate frame shown in Fig. 10.23(a).

FIG.

10.23

continued

Summary

FIG.

455

10.23 (contd.)

Solution

Symmetry The frame is symmetric with respect to the vertical s axis shown in Fig. 10.23(b). The left half of the

frame is selected for analysis.

Symmetric and Antisymmetric Components of Loading See Fig. 10.23(b) and (c).

Substructures The substructures for the analysis of the symmetric and antisymmetric responses are shown in

Fig. 10.23(d) and (e), respectively.

Ans.

SUMMARY

In this chapter, we have learned that a plane structure is considered to

be symmetric with respect to an axis in its plane if the reflection of the

structure about the axis is identical in geometry, supports, and material

properties to the structure itself.

456

CHAPTER 10

its plane if the reflection of the loading about the axis is identical to the

loading itself. A loading is considered to be antisymmetric with respect

to an axis in its plane if the negative of the reflection of the loading about

the axis is identical to the loading itself. Any general unsymmetrical

loading can be decomposed into symmetric and antisymmetric components with respect to an axis.

When a symmetric structure is subjected to a loading that is symmetric with respect to the structures axis of symmetry, the response of

the structure is also symmetric. Thus we can obtain the response of the

entire structure by analyzing a half of the structure, on either side of the

axis of symmetry, with symmetric boundary conditions; and by reflecting the computed response about the axis of symmetry.

When a symmetric structure is subjected to a loading that is antisymmetric with respect to the structures axis of symmetry, the response

of the structure is also antisymmetric. Thus, the response of the entire

structure can be obtained by analyzing a half of the structure, on either

side of the axis of symmetry, with antisymmetric boundary conditions;

and by reflecting the negative of the computed response about the axis

of symmetry.

The response of a symmetric structure due to a general unsymmetric

loading can be obtained by determining the responses of the structure

due to the symmetric and antisymmetric components of the unsymmetric loading, and by superimposing the two responses.

PROBLEMS

Sections 10.1 and 10.2

10.1 through 10.15 Determine the symmetric and antisymmetric components of the loadings shown in Figs.

structure.

3m

1m

B

C

1m

90 kN

A

E, A = constant

FIG.

P10.1, P10.16

FIG.

45 kN

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