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Edith Clarke Volume I

Biographies of Women Mathematicians

Edith Clarke
Circuit Analysis of A-C Power
John Wiley & Sons, 1941 (Volume I), 1950 (Volume II)
Preface (Excerpts, Volume I Symmetrical and Related
Components)
This book is a compilation of notes and lectures given over a
period of years to members of the Central Station Engineering
Department of the General Electric Company in Schenectady,
New York. Beginning in 1928, the notes were revised and
extended for new groups of men entering the department,
practical problems in power system performance with
numerical solutions being added from time to time and they
were presented by operating engineers. As the notes were
helpful to members of the department and others receiving the,
it was suggested that they be put in book form. In 1932, with
Professor H. W. Bibber as co-author, a book on symmetrical
components was undertaken. Parts of that unfinished book are
included in Chapters I-IV of this one.
In answer to the repeated request that the methods of
symmetrical and related components be presented very simply,
the methods of solving unbalanced power system problems by
means of components are analyzed and discussed in detail. The
book has been divided into two volumes. Volume I deals
largely with the determination of currents and voltages of
fundamental frequency in poor systems during unbalanced conditions by means of symmetrical and related
components. included in this volume are the electrical characteristics of overhead transmission circuits and
information and data on transformers and synchronous machines which permit them to be represented by
equivalent circuits in the solution of practical problems. Volume II will give additional characteristics of
synchronous machines, equivalent circuits for types of transformers not included in Volume I, characteristics
of insulated cables, induction machines, and other electrical equipment encountered in a-c power systems.
Overvoltages from various causes and the effects of saturation in transformers and of amortisseur windings
in synchronous machines will also be included in Volume II. In both volumes special attention is given to
equivalent circuits and the solutions of practical problems.
Introduction (Excerpts, Volume I)
The problems of the power transmission engineer at any given time may be divided roughly into three
classes:
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Edith Clarke Volume I

1. Problems which can be solved analytically by well-known methods in general use. The methods are
satisfactory, because it is thought that all the factors influencing the problem are understood and can
be evaluated, and the time required is not considered unduly long.
2. Problems which can be solved analytically and the various factors evaluated, but the time and labor
required are excessive.
3. Problems for which there is no known analytic method of evaluating all the factors involved. This is
not intended to imply that, for a given problem with all conditions specified, the engineer given
sufficient time cannot provide a workable solution; but rather that, the effect of the various influences
not being thoroughly understood, a different and independent problem is encountered with each
change in given conditions.
....
The purpose of this book is to help the power transmission engineer solve some of his problems. Since it is
expected that many of these problems will deal with systems during unbalanced conditions, where the use of
symmetrical components and their related components will materially aid him, the greater part of the book is
devoted to these components and their applications. But as he will also be expected to determine system
conditions during normal operation, tables and charts are given to assist him in the solution of such problems.
Except for an occasional integral or differential equation, introduced for a better understanding of the
fundamental principles involved, a knowledge of the elementary principles of alternating currents, algebra,
plane geometry, trigonometry, and familiarity with electrical equipment are the only prerequisites for an
understanding of this book.
Contents (Volume I)
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.

Definitions and Fundamental Concepts


Symmetrical ComponentsBasic Equations for Three-Phase Systems
Short Circuits on Systems with One Power Source
Unsymmetrical Faults on Normally Balanced Three-Phase Systems
Two Component Networks for Three-Phase Systems
Transmission Circuits with Distributed Constants
Simultaneous Faults on Symmetrical Three-Phase SystemsAnalysis by the Method of Symmetrical
Components
Unsymmetrical Three-Phase CircuitsAnalysis by the Method of Symmetrical Components
Polyphase Systems of More than Three Phases, Single-Phase and Two-Phase Systems
Alpha, Beta, and Zero Components of Three-Phase Systems
Impedances of Overhead Transmission Lines
Capacitances of Overhead Transmission Lines
Appendix A. Determinants
Appendix B. Tables and Charts for Overhead Transmission Circuits

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Edith Clarke Volume I

Preface (Excerpts, Volume II)


Circuit Analysis of A-C Power Systems, Volume II, is a continuation of Volume I. In it, as in Volume I,
circuits are analyzed by means of components. Basic equations, relating phase quantities and their
symmetrical components and phase quantities and their 0 components, derived and applied in Volume I,
are tabulated for ready reference in Chapter I of Volume II.
Insulated cables, various types of transformers and autotransformers, synchronous machines, and induction
motors are discussed in detail in Volume II, and their electrical characteristics under normal and abnormal
operating conditions determined. Overhead transmission lines, treated in Volume I, are not discussed in
Volume II. Curves and charts are given for determining skin effect and proximity effect in circuits of nonmagnetic solid and tubular conductors. The effects of open conductors in three-phase circuits supplying
ungrounded transformer banks are discussed, and charts are given to show the conditions under which high
overvoltage or phase reversal of induction motors or both may occur. Methods are given for determining the
impedances seen from relays during power swings, with and without faults.
....
In Volume II, as in Volume I, the endeavor has been to present methods of procedure in determining the
performance of a-c power systems under normal and abnormal operating conditions. Special attention is
also given to the development of equivalent circuits for use in the component networks. Owing to space
limitation in a book of this size, all types of equipment and all possible abnormal operating conditions have
not been included. it is hoped, however, that the methods of analysis given here can be applied by the
operating engineer to other types of equipment and to other abnormal operating conditions which may occur
on his system.
....
Although the greater part of Volume II was written while the author was a member of the Central Station
Engineering Department of the General Electric company, much remained to be done after she joined the
Electrical Engineering Department of The University of Texas. The delay in production of Volume II is due
in part to the change in point of view from that of an engineer in industry to that of a teacher, and to the
attempt to make Volume II a textbook for seniors and graduate students as well as a reference for power
system engineers.
Contents (Volume II)
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.

Introduction and Summary of Equations


Impedances of Electric Circuits
Electrical Characteristics of Insulated Cables
Transformers and Autotransformers
Transformers in System Studies
Induction Machines
Synchronous Machines
0 Components in Synchronous-Machine Analysis
System Protection Relays

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Edith Clarke Volume I

Appendix A. Tables
Appendix B. Development of Equations Rotating Machines
Appendix C. Reciprocals of Equations for Circles and Straight Lines
Copyright 1995-2012
Larry Riddle
LRiddle@AgnesScott.edu
Agnes Scott College - A liberal arts, women's college in metro Atlanta, Georgia
Last Modified: July 2, 2010

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