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Edith Clarke

Circuit Analysis of A-C Power

John Wiley & Sons, 1941 (Volume I), 1950 (Volume II)

Preface (Excerpts, Volume I Symmetrical and Related

Components)

This book is a compilation of notes and lectures given over a

period of years to members of the Central Station Engineering

Department of the General Electric Company in Schenectady,

New York. Beginning in 1928, the notes were revised and

extended for new groups of men entering the department,

practical problems in power system performance with

numerical solutions being added from time to time and they

were presented by operating engineers. As the notes were

helpful to members of the department and others receiving the,

it was suggested that they be put in book form. In 1932, with

Professor H. W. Bibber as co-author, a book on symmetrical

components was undertaken. Parts of that unfinished book are

included in Chapters I-IV of this one.

In answer to the repeated request that the methods of

symmetrical and related components be presented very simply,

the methods of solving unbalanced power system problems by

means of components are analyzed and discussed in detail. The

book has been divided into two volumes. Volume I deals

largely with the determination of currents and voltages of

fundamental frequency in poor systems during unbalanced conditions by means of symmetrical and related

components. included in this volume are the electrical characteristics of overhead transmission circuits and

information and data on transformers and synchronous machines which permit them to be represented by

equivalent circuits in the solution of practical problems. Volume II will give additional characteristics of

synchronous machines, equivalent circuits for types of transformers not included in Volume I, characteristics

of insulated cables, induction machines, and other electrical equipment encountered in a-c power systems.

Overvoltages from various causes and the effects of saturation in transformers and of amortisseur windings

in synchronous machines will also be included in Volume II. In both volumes special attention is given to

equivalent circuits and the solutions of practical problems.

Introduction (Excerpts, Volume I)

The problems of the power transmission engineer at any given time may be divided roughly into three

classes:

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1. Problems which can be solved analytically by well-known methods in general use. The methods are

satisfactory, because it is thought that all the factors influencing the problem are understood and can

be evaluated, and the time required is not considered unduly long.

2. Problems which can be solved analytically and the various factors evaluated, but the time and labor

required are excessive.

3. Problems for which there is no known analytic method of evaluating all the factors involved. This is

not intended to imply that, for a given problem with all conditions specified, the engineer given

sufficient time cannot provide a workable solution; but rather that, the effect of the various influences

not being thoroughly understood, a different and independent problem is encountered with each

change in given conditions.

....

The purpose of this book is to help the power transmission engineer solve some of his problems. Since it is

expected that many of these problems will deal with systems during unbalanced conditions, where the use of

symmetrical components and their related components will materially aid him, the greater part of the book is

devoted to these components and their applications. But as he will also be expected to determine system

conditions during normal operation, tables and charts are given to assist him in the solution of such problems.

Except for an occasional integral or differential equation, introduced for a better understanding of the

fundamental principles involved, a knowledge of the elementary principles of alternating currents, algebra,

plane geometry, trigonometry, and familiarity with electrical equipment are the only prerequisites for an

understanding of this book.

Contents (Volume I)

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.

IX.

X.

XI.

XII.

Symmetrical ComponentsBasic Equations for Three-Phase Systems

Short Circuits on Systems with One Power Source

Unsymmetrical Faults on Normally Balanced Three-Phase Systems

Two Component Networks for Three-Phase Systems

Transmission Circuits with Distributed Constants

Simultaneous Faults on Symmetrical Three-Phase SystemsAnalysis by the Method of Symmetrical

Components

Unsymmetrical Three-Phase CircuitsAnalysis by the Method of Symmetrical Components

Polyphase Systems of More than Three Phases, Single-Phase and Two-Phase Systems

Alpha, Beta, and Zero Components of Three-Phase Systems

Impedances of Overhead Transmission Lines

Capacitances of Overhead Transmission Lines

Appendix A. Determinants

Appendix B. Tables and Charts for Overhead Transmission Circuits

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Circuit Analysis of A-C Power Systems, Volume II, is a continuation of Volume I. In it, as in Volume I,

circuits are analyzed by means of components. Basic equations, relating phase quantities and their

symmetrical components and phase quantities and their 0 components, derived and applied in Volume I,

are tabulated for ready reference in Chapter I of Volume II.

Insulated cables, various types of transformers and autotransformers, synchronous machines, and induction

motors are discussed in detail in Volume II, and their electrical characteristics under normal and abnormal

operating conditions determined. Overhead transmission lines, treated in Volume I, are not discussed in

Volume II. Curves and charts are given for determining skin effect and proximity effect in circuits of nonmagnetic solid and tubular conductors. The effects of open conductors in three-phase circuits supplying

ungrounded transformer banks are discussed, and charts are given to show the conditions under which high

overvoltage or phase reversal of induction motors or both may occur. Methods are given for determining the

impedances seen from relays during power swings, with and without faults.

....

In Volume II, as in Volume I, the endeavor has been to present methods of procedure in determining the

performance of a-c power systems under normal and abnormal operating conditions. Special attention is

also given to the development of equivalent circuits for use in the component networks. Owing to space

limitation in a book of this size, all types of equipment and all possible abnormal operating conditions have

not been included. it is hoped, however, that the methods of analysis given here can be applied by the

operating engineer to other types of equipment and to other abnormal operating conditions which may occur

on his system.

....

Although the greater part of Volume II was written while the author was a member of the Central Station

Engineering Department of the General Electric company, much remained to be done after she joined the

Electrical Engineering Department of The University of Texas. The delay in production of Volume II is due

in part to the change in point of view from that of an engineer in industry to that of a teacher, and to the

attempt to make Volume II a textbook for seniors and graduate students as well as a reference for power

system engineers.

Contents (Volume II)

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.

IX.

Impedances of Electric Circuits

Electrical Characteristics of Insulated Cables

Transformers and Autotransformers

Transformers in System Studies

Induction Machines

Synchronous Machines

0 Components in Synchronous-Machine Analysis

System Protection Relays

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Appendix A. Tables

Appendix B. Development of Equations Rotating Machines

Appendix C. Reciprocals of Equations for Circles and Straight Lines

Copyright 1995-2012

Larry Riddle

LRiddle@AgnesScott.edu

Agnes Scott College - A liberal arts, women's college in metro Atlanta, Georgia

Last Modified: July 2, 2010

www.agnesscott.edu/lriddle/women/abstracts/clarke_abstract.htm

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