Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the award of
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I would like to thank Prof. R.A. Dubey and Dr. Ashok K. Sharma for giving me this opportunity to work on this topic. I would also like to thank Dr. Anand Pandey and Manipal university Jaipur for giving me the opportunity to take up this work as my college curriculum.
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I hereby declare that the Industrial Training Report entitled " ANALYSIS OF WING DESIGN AND EFFECT OF ANGLE OF ATTACK DURING THE TAKEOFF OF NORMAL AIR PASSENGER FLIGHTS" is an authentic record of my own work as requirements of
Industrial Training during the period from
to _______
for the award of degree of
_______ B.Tech. (Mechanical Engineering), MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, Jaipur, Rajasthan, under the
guidance of (Name of Project Guide).
(Signature of student) (SIDDHANT SRIVASTAVA)
(139109300)
Date: ____________________
Certified that the above statement made by the student is correct to the best of our knowledge and belief.
Head of Department (Signature and Seal)
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10) 
Lift 
11) 
NACA 4digit airfoil 
12) 
Analytical setup 
4
5
This project will deal with the basic concepts of aerodynamics, computational fluid dynamics and design engineering. During the following pages I will be analyzing the effect of attack angle on the takeoff of a regular flight.
Aerodynamics is a branch of fluid dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a solid object, such as an airplane wing. Aerodynamics is a subfield of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, and many aspects of aerodynamics theory are common to these fields. The term aerodynamicsis often used synonymously with gas dynamics, with the difference being that "gas dynamics" applies to the study of the motion of all gases, not limited to air. Formal aerodynamics study in the modern sense began in the eighteenth century, although observations of fundamental concepts such as aerodynamic drag have been recorded much earlier.
The use of aerodynamics through mathematical analysis, empirical approximations, wind tunnel experimentation, and computer simulations has formed the scientific basis for ongoing developments in heavierthanair flight and a number of other technologies. Recent work in
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aerodynamics has focused on issues related to compressible flow, turbulence, and boundary layers and has become increasingly computational in nature.
Understanding the motion of air around an object (often called a flow field) enables the calculation of forces and moments acting on the object. In many aerodynamics problems, the forces of interest are the fundamental forces of flight: lift, drag, thrust, and weight. Of these, lift and drag are aerodynamic forces, i.e. forces due to air flow over a solid body. Calculation of these quantities is often founded upon the assumption that the flow field behaves as a continuum. Continuum flow fields are characterized by properties such as flow velocity,pressure, density, and temperature, which may be functions of spatial position and time. These properties may be directly or indirectly measured in aerodynamics experiments or calculated from equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in air flows. Density, flow velocity, and an additional property, viscosity, are used to classify flow fields.
Fig.1:forces acting on an airfoil
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations required to simulate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions
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It uses applied mathematics, physics and computational software to visualize how a gas or liquid flows  as well as how the gas or liquid affects objects as it flows past. Computational fluid dynamics is based on the NavierStokes equations. These equations describe how the velocity, pressure, temperature, and density of a moving fluid are related.
Computational fluid dynamics has been around since the early 20th century and many people are familiar with it as a tool for analyzing air flow around cars and aircraft. As the cooling infrastructure of server rooms has increased in complexity, CFD has also become a useful tool in the data center for analyzing thermal properties and modeling air flow. CFD software requires information about the size, content and layout of the data center. It uses this information to create a 3D mathematical model on a grid that can be rotated and viewed from different angles. CFD modeling can help an administrator identify hot spots and learn where cold air is being wasted or air is mixing.
Simply by changing variables, the administrator can visualize how cold air will flow through the data center under a number of different circumstances. This knowledge can help the administrator optimize the efficiency of an existing cooling infrastructure and predict the effectiveness of a particular layout of IT equipment. For example, if an administrator wanted to take one rack of hard drive storage and split the hard drives over two racks, a CFD program could simulate the change and help the administrator understand what adjustments would be need to be made to deal with the additional heat load before any time or money has been spent.
The finite volume method (FVM) is a discretization technique for partial differential equations, especially those that arise from physical conservation laws. FVM uses a volume integral formulation of the problem with a finite partitioning set of volumes to discretize the equations. FVM is in common use for discretizing computational fluid dynamics equations.
We consider vertexcentered finite volume methods for solving diffusion type elliptic equation
(1)
− ∇ · (K∇u) = f in Ω,
with suitable Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions. Here Ω ⊂ R ^{d} is a polyhedral domain (d ≥ 2), the diffusion coefficient K(x) is a d × d symmetric matrix function that is uniformly positive definite on Ω with components in L ^{∞} (Ω), and f ∈ L ^{2} (Ω). We have discussed finite
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element methods based on the discretization of the weak formulation and finite difference methods based on the classic formulation. We shall now present finite volume methods based on the following balance equation
(2)
− ∫ _{∂}_{b} (K∇u) · n ds = ∫ _{b} f.dx, ∀ b ⊂ Ω,
where n denotes the unit outwards normal vector of ∂b. Finite volume methods are discretizations of the balance equation (2). The discretization consists of three approximations:
(1) approximate the function u by uh in a Ndimensional space V; (2) approximate “arbitrary domain b ⊂ Ω” by a finite subset B = {b _{i} , i = 1 : M}; (3) approximate boundary flux (K∇u) · n on ∂b _{i} by a discrete one (K∇ _{h} u _{h} ) · n. We then end with a method: to find uh ∈ V such that:
(3) − ∫ _{∂}_{b}_{i} (K∇ _{h} u _{h} )·n dS = ∫ _{b}_{i} f dx, ∀ b _{i} ⊂Ω, i = 1:M. We call any method in the form (3) finite volume methods (FVMs). Since finite volume methods discretize the balance equation (2) directly, an obvious virtue of finite volume methods is the conservation property comparing with finite element methods based on the weak formulation. This property can be fundamental for the simulation of many physical models, e.g., in oil recovery simulations and in computational fluid dynamics in general. On the other hand, the function space and the control volume can be constructed based on general unstructured triangulations for complex geometry domains. The boundary condition can be easily built into the function space or the variational form. Thus FVM is more flexible than standard finite difference methods which mainly defined on the structured grids of simple domains.
Aerodynamic problems are typically solved using fluid dynamics conservation laws as applied to a fluid continuum. Three conservation principles are used:
1. Conservation of mass: In fluid dynamics, the mathematical formulation of this principle is known as the mass continuity equation, which requires that mass is neither created nor destroyed within a flow of interest.
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2. Conservation of momentum: In fluid dynamics, the mathematical formulation of this principle can be considered an application of Newton's Second Law. Momentum within a flow of interest is only created or destroyed due to the work of external forces, which may include both surface forces, such as viscous (frictional) forces, and body forces, such as weight. The momentum conservation principle may be expressed as either a single vector equation or a set of three scalar equations, derived from the components of the threedimensional flow velocity vector. In its most complete form, the momentum conservation equations are known as the NavierStokes equations. The NavierStokes equations have no known analytical solution and are solved in modern aerodynamics using computational techniques. Because of the computational cost of solving these complex equations, simplified expressions of momentum conservation may be appropriate for specific applications. The Euler equations are a set of momentum conservation equations which neglect viscous forces used widely by modern aerodynamicists in cases where the effect of viscous forces is expected to be small. Additionally, Bernoulli's equation is a solution to the momentum conservation equation of an inviscid flow, neglecting gravity.
3. Conservation of energy: The energy conservation equation states that energy is neither created nor destroyed within a flow, and that any addition or subtraction of energy is due either to the fluid flow in and out of the region of interest, heat transfer, or work.
Flow descriptions such as Poiseuille's law are valid only for conditions of laminar flow. At some critical velocity, the flow will become turbulent with the formation of eddies and chaotic motion which do not contribute to the volume flowrate. This turbulence increases the resistance dramatically so that large increases in pressure will be required to further increase the volume flowrate. Experimental studies have characterized the critical velocity for a long straight tube in the form
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which depends upon the viscosity η in poise, the density ρ in gm/cm ^{3} , the radius of the tube r in cm. The script R is an experimental constant called the Reynold's number. The reported Reynolds number for blood flow is about 2000. Modeling blood flow in the human aorta according to this criterion leads to the expectation of some turbulence in the center of the flow.
The Reynolds number is an experimental number used in fluid flow to predict the flow velocity at which turbulence will occur. It is described as the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. For flow through a tube it is defined by the relationship: The parameters are viscosity η, density ρ and radius r.
An airfoil (in American English) or aerofoil (in British English) is the shape of a wing, blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine), or sail (as seen in crosssection).
An airfoilshaped body moved through a fluid produces an aerodynamic force. The component of this force perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift. The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag. Subsonic flight airfoils have a characteristic shape with a rounded leading edge, followed by a sharp trailing edge, often with a symmetric curvature of upper and lower surfaces. Foils of similar function designed with water as the working fluid are called hydrofoils.
The lift on an airfoil is primarily the result of its angle of attack and shape. When oriented at a suitable angle, the airfoil deflects the oncoming air (for fixedwing aircraft, a downward force), resulting in a force on the airfoil in the direction opposite to the deflection. This force is known as aerodynamic force and can be resolved into two components: lift and drag. Most foil shapes require a positive angle of attack to generate lift, but cambered airfoils can generate lift at zero angle of attack. This "turning" of the air in the vicinity of the airfoil creates curved streamlines, resulting in lower pressure on one side and higher pressure on the other. This pressure difference is accompanied by a velocity difference, via Bernoulli's principle, so the resulting flow field about the airfoil has a higher average velocity on the upper surface than on the lower surface.
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Fig.2:types of air foils
Fig.3:Airfoil nomenclature
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The suction surface (a.k.a. upper surface) is generally associated with higher velocity and lower static pressure. The pressure surface (a.k.a. lower surface) has a comparatively higher static pressure than the suction surface. The pressure gradient between these two surfaces contributes to the lift force generated for a given airfoil. The geometry of the airfoil is described with a variety of terms :

The leading edge is the point at the front of the airfoil that has maximum curvature (minimum radius). 

The trailing edge is defined similarly as the point of minimum curvature at the rear of the airfoil. 

The chord line is the straight line connecting leading and trailing edges. The chord length, or simply chord, , is the length of the chord line. That is the reference dimension of the airfoil section. 
Fig.4:Different definitions of airfoil thickness
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The shape of the airfoil is defined using the following geometrical parameters:

The mean camber line or mean line is the locus of points midway between the upper and lower surfaces. Its shape depends on the thickness distribution along the chord; 

The thickness of an airfoil varies along the chord. It may be measured in either of two ways: 

Thickness measured perpendicular to the camber line. This is sometimes described as the "American convention"; 

Thickness measured perpendicular to the chord line. This is sometimes described as the "British convention". 
Some important parameters to describe an airfoil's shape are its camber and its thickness. For example, an airfoil of the NACA 4digit series such as the NACA 2415 (to be read as 2  4  15) describes an airfoil with a camber of 0.02 chord located at 0.40 chord, with 0.15 chord of maximum thickness.
Finally, important concepts used to describe the airfoil's behavior when moving through a fluid are:

The aerodynamic center, which is the chordwise length about which the pitching moment is independent of the lift coefficient and the angle of attack. 

The center of pressure, which is the chordwise location about which the pitching moment is zero. 
Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to theoncoming flow direction. It contrasts with the drag force, which is the component of the surface force parallel to the flow direction. If the fluid is air, the force is called an aerodynamic force.
Lift is most commonly associated with the wing of a fixedwing aircraft, although lift is also
generated
by propellers, kites,
helicopter racing cars, wind
turbines, and other streamlined objects. Lift is also exploited in the animal world, and even in
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the plant world by the seeds of certain trees. While the common meaning of the word "lift" assumes that lift opposes weight, lift in the technical sense used in this article can be in any direction with respect to gravity, since it is defined with respect to the direction of flow rather than to the direction of gravity. When an aircraft is flying straight and level (cruise) most of the lift opposes gravity. However, when an aircraft is climbing, descending, or banking in a turn the lift is tilted with respect to the vertical. Lift may also be entirely downwards in some aerobatic manoeuvres, or on the wing on a racing car. In this last case, the term downforce is often used. Lift may also be largely horizontal, for instance on a sail on a sailboat.
The NACA airfoils are airfoil shapes for aircraft wings developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics(NACA). The shape of the NACA airfoils is described using a series of digits following the word "NACA". The parameters in the numerical code can be entered into equations to precisely generate the crosssection of the airfoil and calculate its properties.
The NACA airfoil section is created from a camber line and a thickness distribution plotted perpendicular to the camber line.
The equation for the camber line is split into sections either side of the point of maximum camber position (P). In order to calculate the position of the final airfoil envelope later the gradient of the camber line is also required. The equations are:
The thickness distribution is given by the equation:
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The constants a0 to a4 are for a 20% thick airfoil. The expression T/0.2 adjusts the constants to the required thickness. At the trailing edge (x=1) there is a finite thickness of 0.0021 chord width for a 20% airfoil. If a closed trailing edge is required the value of a4 can be adjusted. The value of y _{t} is a half thickness and needs to be applied both sides of the camber line. Using the equations above, for a given value of x it is possible to calculate the camber line position Y _{c} , the gradient of the camber line and the thickness. The position of the upper and lower surface can then be calculated perpendicular to the camber line.
The most obvious way to to plot the airfoil is to iterate through equally spaced values of x calclating the upper and lower surface coordinates. While this works, the points are more widely spaced around the leading edge where the curvature is greatest and flat sections can be seen on the plots. To group the points at the ends of the airfoil sections a cosine spacing is used with uniform increments of β
The equations can be converted and be used in the form:
(0.8/0.2)*(((0.2969*((x/8) ^{0}^{.}^{5} ))(0.126*(x/8))(0.3537*((x/8) ^{2} ))+(0.2843*((x/8) ^{3} ))
(0.1015*((x/8) ^{4} ))))
[the upper half]
(0.4/0.2)*(((0.2969*((x/8) ^{0}^{.}^{5} ))(0.126*(x/8))(0.3537*((x/8) ^{2} ))+(0.2843*((x/8) ^{3} ))
(0.1015*((x/8) ^{4} ))))
[lower side]
MATLAB
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SolidWorks 

Ansys Fluent 
The equations can be converted and be used in the form:
=>(0.8/0.2)*(((0.2969*((x/8) ^{0}^{.}^{5} ))(0.126*(x/8))(0.3537*((x/8) ^{2} ))+(0.2843*((x/8) ^{3} ))
Fig.6: design of airfoil
According to the real conditions for take off, the maximum velocity needed by the flight is
475km/hr(131m/s)
The air behind the plane is 1atm.
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Fig.7: Boundary conditions
The material of the wing is selected as an alloy of steel and aluminum. Aluminum (blended with small quantities of other metals) is used on most types of aircraft because it is lightweight and strong. Aluminum alloys don’t corrode as readily as steel. But because they lose their strength at high temperatures, they cannot be used for skin surfaces that become very hot on airplanes that fly faster than twice the speed of sound.
To analyze the effect of the attack angle on the lift produced on the wing of a regular jetliner
(boeing737).

Pressure based analysis 

The flow is supposed to steady state and laminar 

It assumes that the surface is completely smooth 

No energy transfer takes place 

Temperature is 15◦c 
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Second order solution
1) 
Started MATLAB 
2) 
Substituted values 
3) 
Reduced the equation for NACA 4digit airfoil 
4) 
Opened Solid works 
5) 
Selected front plane and selected the Spline with equations. 
6) 
Substituted the equations from MATLAB in Solid Works. 
7) 
Saved the file in .IGES format 
8) 
Opened ANSYS Fluent, imported the geometry, applied mesh, boundary conditions, solved the result. 
9) 
Changed the attack angle and repeated the process. 
Fig.8:Mesh applied
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fig.11: pressure contour
fig12: velocity contour in Y direction
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2)
22
23
Fig.15: velocity in Y direction
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25
26
27
Fig.19: velocity contour in Y direction
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29
30
31
Fig.23: velocity in Y direction
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33
34
35
Fig.27: velocity in Y direction
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37
38
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Fig.31: velocity in Y direction
Area of wing (boing 737) = 105.4m ^{2} Density of air = 1.225kg/m ^{3} Lift force = 0.5×C _{L} ×ρ×V ^{2} ×A
Sr. 
Attack 
Initial 
Pressure 
Maximum 
Lift 
Lift force 
no. 
angle 
velocity 
difference 
Velocity(In 
coefficient 
(N) 
(Pa) 
Y Direction) 
(C _{L} ) 

0 ^{◦} 131m/s 
58.4m/s 
0.045307 
5×10 ^{5} 

5 ^{◦} 131m/s 
137.2m/s 
0.26017 
2.9×10 ^{6} 

10 ^{◦} 131m/s 
254.6m/s 
0.73099 
8×10 ^{6} 

15 ^{◦} 131m/s 
238.4m/s 
1.5688 
1.7×10 ^{7} 

20 ^{◦} 131m/s 
165.7m/s 
2.0455 
2.26×10 ^{7} 

25 ^{◦} 131m/s 
211.8m/s 
1.445 
1.5×10 ^{7} 
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Table_1:
dependence
lift
coeff.
And
force
with
angle
Fig.32: ideal dependence of coefficient of lift with angle of attack
By the results we can see that the angle of attack between 1520 degrees results in the highest amount of lift force.
After 20 degrees the force starts decreasing due to multiple reasons including increased impact pressure, increased drag force and initiation of stall. No matter how smooth the surface of an airfoil seems, any real surface is rough on the scale of air molecules. Air molecules flying into the surface bounce off the rough surface in random directions not related to their incoming directions. The result is that
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when the air is viewed as if it were a continuous material, it is seen to be unable to slide along the surface, and the air's tangential velocity at the surface goes to practically zero, something known as the noslip condition. Because the air at the surface has nearzero velocity, and air away from the surface is moving, there is a thin boundary layer in which the air close to the surface is subjected to a shearing motion. The air's viscosity resists the shearing, giving rise to a shear stress at the airfoil's surface called skinfriction drag. Over most of the surface of most airfoils, the boundary layer is naturally turbulent, which increases skinfriction drag. Under usual flight conditions, the boundary layer remains attached to both the upper References 

and lower surfaces all the way to the trailing edge, and its effect on the rest of the flow is modest. Compared to the predictions of inviscidflow theory, in which there is no boundary layer, the attached boundary layer reduces the lift by a modest amount and modifies the pressure distribution somewhat, which results in a viscosityrelated pressure drag over and above the skinfriction drag. The total of the skinfriction drag and the viscosityrelated pressure drag is usually called the profile drag. The maximum lift an airfoil can produce at a given airspeed is limited by boundary 
layer separation. As the angle of attack is increased, a point is reached where the boundary layer can no longer remain attached to the upper surface. When the boundary layer separates, it leaves a region of recirculating flow above the upper surface, as illustrated in the flowvisualization photo at right. This is known as the stall, or stalling. At angles of attack above the stall, lift is significantly reduced, though it is not zero. The maximum lift that can be achieved before stall, in terms of the lift coefficient, is generally less than 2.0 for singleelement airfoils and can be more than 3.0 for airfoils with highlift slotted flaps deployed. 


Hydraulics and fluid mechanism; PN Modi 

CAD/CAM theory and practice; Ibrahim Zeid, R. sivasubramanium 

Fluid Mechanics; cengal, cimbala 
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Finite Element Analysis; moaveni 

Fundamentals of aerodynamics; anderson 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerodynamics
http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=12117
http://www.mathematik.unidortmund.de/~kuzmin/cfdintro/lecture1.pdf
http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/computationalfluiddynamicsCFD
http://www.mathematik.unidortmund.de/~kuzmin/cfdintro/lecture5.pdf
https://www.comsol.co.in/multiphysics/navierstokesequations
http://web.iitd.ac.in/~prabal/FVM_lecturenotes5.pdf
http://www.math.uci.edu/~chenlong/226/FVM.pdf
http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/pturb.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airfoil
http://mail.tku.edu.tw/095980/airfoil%20design.pdf
http://airfoiltools.com/airfoil/naca4digit
http://howthingsfly.si.edu/structuresmaterials/materials
http://www.ajdesigner.com/phpwinglift/wing_lift_equation_coefficient.php
https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k12/WindTunnel/Activities/lift_formula.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lift_(force)
https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k12/airplane/liftco.html
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