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Design of an Ice Plant with 78 tons of Block Ice Capacity

Using standard size of ice can 11 22 44 and 15F calcium chloride brine
from Kents Mechanical Engineering Handbook, pp. 11-48, table 1
Weight of Ice Block, lb.
Normal = 300
Actual = 315
Time of Freezing = 50 hrs.

Total number of cans,

(Weight of ice , lbs.)( Freezing time , hrs .)


24 (Weight of one block of ice , lbs .)

N=

N=
N

78 (2000)(50)
24(300)

= 1083.33

1100 cans (to account for possible losses)

Dimensions of Brine Tank


The clearance for each sides is set to 2.5 and between ice cans is 1.5.
Necessary clearance for the hook of crane in harvesting ice blocks is set to 5.

Width = 2 C s

+ 2 Cc

+ 7 Ci

N w *w = 2(2.5) +2(5) +7(1.5) +10(11)

W = 135.5

Length = 2(2 C s

+ ( N l -1)*( Ci ) + ( N l *l)) + 2* La
+ (55*22)) + 2(25)
L = 2642

= 2(2(2.5) + (54*1.5)

Where,

Cs

= clearance at sides

Cc

= clearance for crane

Ci

= clearance between ice cans

La

= length for agitator

For height,
Volume of brine solution
TOR

V Brine Solution

TOI

( 0.61

60 cu . ft .
TOR
V Brine Solution

= 127.87)1

60 cu . ft .
TOR

= 7672.2

ft

127.87 TOR

Volume of all ice cans,

V ic

300lb .
1.1)*1100 = (
lb.
62.4
cu . ft .

m
=(

V ic

= 5817.3

ft

1.1)*1100

Volume of brine tank,

V BT
(2642/12)

= L*W*H =

(135.5/12)

V Brine Solution

V ic

H = 5817.3 + 7672.2

H = 5.426 ft. = 65.113 in.

Refrigeration Load and Heat Transmission


1 Kents Mechanical Handbook, Ice Making Capacity, pp. 11-49

Considering extreme conditions as in summer season, initial temperature of


available water for ice making is 30C.
Product Load,

Qp
=

Qp
= m*( Cpw t +

hf i

Cp i t)

78 TOI
907.03 kg
1 day
1hr .
(
)*(
)*(
day
1 ton
24 hrs .
3600 s )*((4.1868*(30-0)) + 335 +
0.5*4.1868*(0+9.444))

Qp

= 393.3526 Kw

Values of thermal conductivity of insulating materials and surface film


conductance of outside air are taken from Kents Mechanical Engineering Handbook,
Table 19, pp. 11-37. Surface film conductance of calcium chloride, 24%, brine is
taken from Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 11 th edition,
Table19.1.11, pp. 19-19.

At sides, W
U=

1
1 x1 x2 x3 1
+ + + +
hi k 1 k 2 k 3 ho
1
=

1 3 5
1
1
+ +
+
+
53 8 0.3 4.3 1.65

U = 0.05524

Qw

BTU
hrsq . ft .F

= 2(U*A*t) = 2(0.05524*(135.5/12) * 5.426*(86-15))

Qw

= 480.59566

BTU
hr

= 0.14084 Kw

At sides, L

QL

= 2(U*A*t) = 2(0.05524*(2642/12)* 5.426*(86-15))

QL
At top,

= 9370.7288

BTU
hr

= 2.7461 Kw

U=

1
1 x1 x2 x3 1
+ + + +
hi k 1 k 2 k 3 ho
1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+
53 1.15 1.4 1.65

U = 0.4527387

Q t

= U*A*t = 0.4527387*(135.5/12) *(2642/12) *(86-15))

Qt
For total load,

QT

Qp

BTU
hrsq . ft .F

BTU
hr

= 79912.664

= 23.41885 Kw

QT
Qw

QL

Qt

= 393.3526 + 0.14084 + 2.7461 +

23.41885

QT

= 419.658 Kw

Checking,
TOR

(419.658 Kw
119.333

TOI
0.61

1TOR
3.5167 Kw )

127.8689,

78
0.61
GOOD!

Design procedure will use 120 TOR for ice making evaporator to account for
other losses.

Design of Evaporator for Ice Making


Using horizontal shell & tube brine cooler for indirect system, nominal size of
tube diameter is 22.
Tube specifications3:
Nominal pipe size = 2
Schedule 80 XS
Outside diameter = 2.375
Inside diameter = 1.939
Thickness = 0.218
The design procedure will use a temperature rise of 5F 4 and suction pressure
in an ammonia system required for 15F brine is 20 psig 5 (239.182 KPaa). The
equivalent evaporator temperature -14.7918C6 (5.37469F).
For over-all heat transfer coefficient,

ro
)
ri
r o ln /k

ro
+
ri h i
1

Uo

( )

2 Handbook of Mechanical Refrigeration, MacIntire, H.J., Brine Cooling, pp. 255


3 Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 11 th ed., Table 8.7.3, pp.8144
4 Kents Mechanical Engineering Handbook, Brine Piping, pp. 11-52
5 Kents Mechanical Engineering Handbook, Ice Making Capacity, Table 2, pp. 11-49
6 Refrigeration and Air-conditioning, Sta. Maria, H.B., pp. 185

1.1875
)
0.9695
1.1875
ln /59
12

1.1875/12
+
0.9695
53
12
1

(
Uo

Uo

((

BTU
sq . ft .hrF

= 37.3356

Temperature
20F

15
F

tmax
5.37469
F

tmin

Length
For LMTD,

T max T min
T max
ln
T min

LMTD =

14.625319.62531
14.62531
ln
9.62531

LMTD = 11.9515F
Outside surface area,

Ao

Q
U oLMTD
Ao

12020060
37.335611.9515

= 3227.1336 sq. ft.

Number of tubes (n), assuming 8-pass,

V=

Ai

*v*

n
no . of pass

8
( 137.83
60 )

n=

0.25 (

1.939 2
) 2
12

= 448.094

Use n = 456 tubes


Length of tubes,

L=

Ao
nd

3227.1336
2.375
456(
)
12

= 11.382 ft.

Brine Pump

By energy balance,

Qgain
120 TOR

Qlost

200 BTU /min


TOR

= m* Cp brine * t brine
= m*(0.68736

BTU
lb .F )*5F

lb .
min.

m = 6983.24

Specific gravity of 24% calcium chloride brine is 1.2322 7,

( brine )

V=

6983.24
50.665

( water)
(brine)

S .G .b

62.43
1.2322

= 50.665

= 137.83

cu . ft .
min .

lb.
cu . ft .

m
V

7.481 gal.
1 cu . ft .

V = 1031.109 gpm
For total dynamic head (H),
H = ( Zd

- Zs ) + (

Pd Ps
)

Pressure drop of brine flowing in pipes,

L
v2

P = f*( D
*( 2 )*
Where,
= 50.665

= 5.87667 mPa*s

1 KPa
1 000 000 mPa
v=2

For steel,

lb.
cu . ft .
14.7 psi
101.325 KPa

= 8.5257

107

psi*s

ft .
s

= 0.0000468

7 Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 11 th ed., Table 19.1.9, pp.
19-19
8 Refrigeration and Air-conditioning, Stoecker and Jones, Table 6.1, pp. 104

0.0000463.28
1.939 /12

= 0.00093

Reynolds number,

Re =

vD

50.665
( 1.939
12 )

2
=

= 133 365.06

( 8.5257 107 )144

From Moody Chart9, f = 0.0215


Hence,

112.197
22

P = 0.0215*( 1.939 /12


*( 2 )* 50.665;

ft 2
s2

lbm
ft 3

1 lbf s 2
32.174 lbmft

1442
1 ft 2

P = 0.3265 psi
And,
H=

135.5
12

0.3265144
62.43

H = 12.04 ft.
For power of pump,
Power = V* *H = (137.83/60)*(50.665)*(12.04);

ft .lbf
s

1 hp
550 (ft .lbf )/s

Power = 2.5488 hp.

Cold Storage
Dimensions for cold storage is assumed to be 30 20 12. It will house
four products, 10 tons each, namely eggplants, ripe pineapple, ripe tomatoes
and white potatoes having range of storage temperature, F, of 45-50, 40-45,
40-50, and 36-50 respectively. All products have a range of 85%-90% RH 10.

9 Refrigeration and Air-conditioning, Stoecker and Jones, Figure 6.1, pp. 105

Inside temperature of the cold storage will be maintain to 45F and relative
humidity of 88%. Initial temperature of products will be set 77F. Considering
extreme conditions, as in summer, outside temperature is assumed 86F and
average relative humidity in this season is 71% 11.
Product Load,

Qp
Qp

=[

m Cp t

10 Tons
2000 lb .
1 day
1hr .
(
)*( 24 hrs . )*( 3600 s )]*[0.94 + 0.88 + 0.95 + 0.77]*(77day
1 ton
45)

Qp

= 26.2222

Qp

BTU
s

1.055 KJ
BTU

= 27.6644 Kw

10 Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 11 th ed., Table 19.1.16, pp.
19-22
11 pagasa.dost.gov.ph/index.php/general-weather/Philippine-cities-weatherforecast/27-climatology-and-agrometeorology

Heat transmission load,

Qh

At sides, W
U=

1
1 x1 x2 x3 1
+ + + +
hi k 1 k 2 k 3 ho
1
=

1
3
6
4 1
+
+
+
+
1.65 1.4 0.3 4.9 6

U = 0.08903

Qw

BTU
hrsq . ft .F

= 2(U*A*t) = 2(0.08903*(20*12) *(86-45))

Qw

= 1752.11

At sides, L

BTU
hr

= 0.51347 Kw

QL

= 2(U*A*t) = 2(0.08903*(30*12)*(86-45))

QL
At top,

= 2628.166

BTU
hr

= 0.7702 Kw

U=

1
1 x1 x2 x3 1
+ + + +
hi k 1 k 2 k 3 ho
1
1 4
6 3
1
+ +
+ +
6 12 1.4 8 1.65

U = 0.1734

Q t
Qt

BTU
hrsq . ft .F

= U*A*t = 0.1734*(20*30) *(86-45))

BTU
hr

= 4265.8159

= 1.2501 Kw

Hence,

Qh

Qw

QL

Qh

Qt

= 0.51347 + 0.7702 + 1.2501

= 2.53379 Kw

Heat gain from equipments, Q e , assuming two forklifts, using 2-hp


motor each, are operated inside the cold storage,

Qe

= 3700

Qe

BTU
hrhp

2 hp 2

= 4.337 Kw

Heat gain from occupants, Qo ,

assuming 10 people works inside the

cold storage,

Qo

= 0.28167

Qo

Kw
person

= 2.8167 Kw

10

Ql , assuming 24 pieces of 125W lamp is

Heat gain from lighting,

installed in the cold storage,

Ql

= (lamp rating in watts)* Fb *(CLF12) = 3000*1.2*0.87

Ql
Total heat load,

Qs

= 3.132 Kw

Qs
Qp

Qh

Qe

Qo

Ql

= 27.6644 + 2.53379 + 4.337 + 2.8167 + 3.132

Qs

= 40.4839 Kw

Recirculated Air with External-Bypass System for Handling the Air Supplied to
Cold Storage

Data for sensible heat,

Qs ,

Qs ,

is calculated above and latent heat,

is equal to heat gain from occupants. Assuming atmospheric

pressure for total pressure and for ventilation purposes, outside air is
30% of supply air by weight. Temperature at point 3 is assumed 5C.

QS

mCp t

12 Refrigeration and Air-conditioning, Stoecker and Jones, Internal Loads, Table 4-6,
pp. 72

40.4839
4.1868(7.22225)

m=

kg
s

m = 4.3512

Ql

= m w hfg

2.8167
4.35122450

h fg = 2450 KJ/Kg

= 0.0002642

kg m / kgda

At point 4,

Psat

@ 7.2222C = 1.0173 KPaa

Pv

* Psat

dp 4

t sat

= 0.89525 KPaa

@ 7.2222C = 5.3702C

h g = 2514.622 KJ/Kg
4

0.622Pv
PtP v

4
h4

0.6220.89525
101.3250.89525

= 0.0055446

kg m /kgda

= ( C pt ) + ( 4 * h g )

h4

= 21.20955 KJ/Kg

At point 3,

4
3

= 0.0055446 - 0.0002642

= 0.00528

kg m /kgda

0.622Pv
PtP v

Pv

= 0.85295 KPaa

t sat

Pv

t 3dp3
t 4 dp 4

54.65957
7.22225.3702

= 4.65957C

At bypass,
b=

mb

= 0.1838

= b*m = 0.7998 Kg/s

At point 2,
c = 1 b = 0.8162

mc

m 2 = c*m = 3.5514 Kg/s

c t2

t2
Psat

+ b t4

t3

= 4.49958C

Pv

@ 4.49958C =

= 0.842575 KPaa

h g = 2509.649 KJ/Kg
2

0.622Pv
PtP v

2
h2

0.6220.842575
101.3250.842575

= 0.005216

kg m /kgda

= ( C pt ) + ( 2 * h g )

h2

= 17.6178 KJ/Kg

At point 0,

Psat
Pv

@ 30C = 4.246 KPaa

* Psat

= 3.01466 KPaa

h g = 2556.3 KJ/Kg

0.622Pv
PtP v

0
h0

= 0.01907

0.6223.01466
101.3253.01466
kg m /kgda

= ( C pt ) + ( 0 * h g )

h0

= 78.943 KJ/Kg

For m r , by mass balance

mr

m1 -

m0 ;

m1 =

m2

= 0.8162m 0.3m

mr

= 0.5162m

Refrigeration Capacity,
R.C. =

h1
m 1

= 0.3m h0

- h2 );

m1 h1

+ 0.5162m h4

m0 h 0 +

mr hr

0.8162m h2

R.C. = 88.11885 Kw
For TOR of evaporator of cold storage,
88.11885 kW

1TOR
3.5167 Kw

= 25.057 TOR

Design procedure will use 30 TOR for cold storage evaporator to account for
other losses.

Multi-pressure Refrigeration System for Ice Plant and Cold Storage

The refrigeration system uses ammonia as refrigerant. Properties of


liquid, saturated vapor and superheated ammonia are taken from
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by H.B. Sta. Maria, Table 1 pp. 185
and Figure 1 pp. 193.
At point 1,

h1
s1

h g @ -14.7918C = 1444.1707 KJ/Kg

=
=

sg

@ -14.7918C = 5.8242 KJ/Kg*K

At point 2,

s1

s2

h2

= 5.8242 KJ/Kg*K
= 1520 KJ/Kg

At point 3,

h3
s3

=
=

At point 4,

h g @ 0C = 1461.7 KJ/Kg
sg

@ 0C = 5.6189 KJ/Kg*K

s3

s4

h4

= 5.6189 KJ/Kg*K
= 1648 KJ/Kg

At point 5,

h5

hf

@ 40C = 390.587 KJ/Kg

h6

At point 6,

h5

= 390.587 KJ/Kg

At point 7,

h7

hf

@ 0C = 200 KJ/Kg

h7

h8

At point 8,
= 200 KJ/Kg

For mass flow rate,


At -14.7918C evaporator,

m1 =

m2 =

m7 =

m1 =

m8 =

m2 =

m7

1203.5167
h1h8
=

1203.5167
1444.1707200

m8 = 0.33918 kg/s

At 0C evaporator,

m6

303.5167
h3h6
m6

303.5167
1461.7390.587

= 0.098497 kg/s

Energy balance about intercooler,


m

h3
m2

h2

h6

h7
m7
m h6

m 2 h 2 = m h3

m7 h 7

390.587m + (0.33918 *1520) = 1461.7m + (0.33918 *200)


m = 0.417999 kg/s
At high-stage compressor,

m3 =

m6

+ m = 0.098497 + 0.417999

m3 = 0.516496 kg/s
Power for compressor,
Low-stage compressor

PLSC

m1 *( h2

- h1 ) = 0.33918 *(1520 - 1444.1707)

PLSC

= 25.71978 Kw

High-stage compressor

PHSC

m3 *( h4

- h3 ) = 0.516496*(1648 - 1461.7)

PHSC

= 96.2232 Kw

Total power,

PC

PLSC

PC

PHSC

= 25.71978 + 96.2232

= 121.94298 Kw

Heat rejected at condenser,

QR

m3 *( h4

- h5 ) = 0.516496*(1648 - 390.587)

QR

= 649.44878 Kw

Design of Condenser
Using a horizontal shell-and-tube condenser, the condensing temperature is
40C at design condition. Water from cooling tower is assumed to enter the
condenser at 30C and leaves at 35C with a velocity of 2 m/s. Assuming a
two-pass condenser and tube diameter of 2.
Tube specifications13:
Nominal pipe size = 2
Schedule 80 XS
Outside diameter = 2.375
Inside diameter = 1.939
Thickness = 0.218
By energy balance,

QR

m=

mCp t

649.44878
4.1868(3530)
kg
s

m = 31.0236

V=

V = 0.03102

31.0236
1000
m

/kg

Number of tubes, n, assuming 8-pass,


V=

n
A i *v*
no . of pass

13 Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 11 th ed., Table 8.7.3, pp.8144

n=

0.031028
2
0.25 (1.9390.0254) 2

= 65.131

Use n = 72 tubes
Condensing coefficient14,

hcond .

Density,

3 0.25

g hfg k
= 0.725* ( tND )

h fg ,15

, and latent heat vaporization,

1
vf

1
1.7257

= 579.475

* 1000

kg
3
m

h fg = 1 099 833

J
kg

Conductivity, k, and viscosity, , of liquid refrigerant at 40C,16


k = 0.447

W
mK

= 0.000122 Pa*s
Average number of tubes in a vertical row, N,
N=

4+5+ 5+5+6+7+ 8+7+6+ 5+5+5+ 4


13

= 5.53846

Hence,
14 Refrigeration and Air-conditioning, Stoecker and Jones, Condensers and
Evaporators, pp. 246
15 Refrigeration and Air-conditioning, Sta. Maria, H.B., Table 1, pp. 185
16 Refrigeration and Air-conditioning, Stoecker and Jones, Refrigerants, Table 15-5,
pp. 300

hcond .

hcond .

W
m K

= 4576.47287

For resistance of metal, the conductivity of steel is 59

xA o
kA m

0.25

9.81579.475 10998330.447
= 0.725* ( 0.00012255.53846(2.3750.0254) )

( 2.3751.939
)0.02542.375
2
59(

= 0.00009741

( 2.375+1.939 )
)
2

W
mK ,

m2K
W

Fouling factor17,

1
hff

= 0.000176

m K
W

Water properties at 32C18,

Cp

= 995

= 4190

k = 0.617

kg
m3
J
kgK
W
mK

= 0.000773 Pa*s
Heat-transfer coefficient,

hw , at water-side19
n

Nu = C*(

)*( Pr

17 Refrigeration and Air-conditioning, Stoecker and Jones, Section 12-10


18 Refrigeration and Air-conditioning, Sta. Maria, H.B., pp. 250
19 Refrigeration and Air-conditioning, Stoecker and Jones, Condensers and
Evaporators, pp. 236

vD
C p

= 0.023*
)* (
)

hD
k

hw

2(1.9390.0254)995
41900.000773
0.000773
0.617

)* (
)

0.0230.617

= ( 1.9390.0254 )*

hw

W
m K

= 6762.5876

For over-all heat transfer coefficient,

1
Uo
1
Uo

1
4576.47287

1
ho

xA o
kA m

+ 0.00009741 +

Ao
hff A i

2.3750.000176
1.939

Ao
hiAi

2.375
6762.58761.939

0.0007126

Uo

= 1403.279

W
m K
2

For LMTD,
Temperature
`

40C
tmax

35C

30C

Length

LMTD =

T max T min
T max
ln
T min

105
10
ln
5

tmin

LMTD = 7.21348C
Outside surface area,

Ao

Qr
U oLMTD
Ao

649.448781000
1403.2797.21348

= 64.15877 sq. m.

Length of tubes,
L=

Ao
nd

64.15877
72(2.3750.0254)

= 4.7019 m.