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# Service Training

MALAGA

Backhoe Loaders

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

## Load Sensing/Pressure Compensated

Hydraulic System - Resolver Network
Hydraulic Pump
Torque Limiter
Steering System
Loader Valve Control
Backhoe Valve control

Sara
MARCH 1997

BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Hydraulic System

## Hydraulic System Component Checklist I

Directions: Use this sheet to take notes during the presentation (i.e. location, functions) . During a lab
exercise, use this as a checklist when identifying components.
B Series

C Series
Hydraulic tank

Pump

## Backhoe valve group

Implement controls

## Signal pressure test port

Torque Limiter

Page:

VI-1

Page:
VI-2

QUIZ
LOAD SENSING/PRESSURE COMPENSATING
TWO VALVE OPERATION

BACKHOE LOADERS

## CHAPTER : Hydraulic System

BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Hydraulic System

QUIZ
1.-

If two valves are operated at the same time and at valve A the work port pressure (signal pressure) is 1800 psi and at valve B the work port pressure is 700 psi then:
System pressure will be : 1800 psi + _________ psi = _________ psi
CALCULATIONS :
Valve A work port pressure = 1800 psi
P across pressure reducing valve = _________ psi - _________ psi = _________ psi
P across control spool = _________ psi - _________ psi = _________ psi
Valve B work port pressure = 700 psi
P across pressure reducing valve = _________ psi - _________ psi = _________ psi
P across control spool = _________ psi - _________ psi = _________ psi

2.-

If two valves are operated at the same time and at valve A the work port pressure (signal pressure) is 3000 psi and at valve B the work port pressure is 1000 psi then:
System pressure will be : _________ psi + _________ psi = _________ psi
CALCULATIONS :
Valve A work port pressure = 3000 psi
P across pressure reducing valve = _________ psi - _________ psi = _________ psi
P across control spool = _________ psi - _________ psi = _________ psi
Valve B work port pressure = 1000 psi
P across pressure reducing valve = _________ psi - _________ psi = _________ psi
P across control spool = _________ psi - _________ psi = _________ psi

Page:

VI-3

Page:

## 428C AND 438C BACKHOE LOADER

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
DUAL TILT CYLINDERS

VI-4
END
COVER

Directions: Label all valves, the tanks, filters, cooler, pump, and HMU.

BACKHOE LOADERS

INLET
MANIFOLD

Page:
VI-5

## 428C, AND 438C BACKHOE LOADERS

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
DUAL TILT CYLINDERS
PUMP

TANK
END
COVER
E-STICK
HMU
STICK

SWING
BOOM
INLET
MANIFOLD

S
T
E
E
R

L
I
F
T

T
I
L
T

A
U
X.

BACKHOE LOADERS

RIGHT
STABILIZER
LEFT
STABILIZER

BUCKET

Page:
VI-6

SYSTEM
PUMP
TANK
INLET
MANIFOLD
EXT.
STICK

HMU

STICK

BOOM
RH
STAB
LH
STAB.
END
COVER

S
T
E
E
R

A
U
X.

T
I
L
T

L
I
F
T

BACKHOE LOADERS

SWING

BUCKET

Page:

## 428C AND 438C SIGNAL NETWORK

VI-7

BOOM

SWING

LEFT
RIGHT
STABILIZER STABILIZER

BUCKET

STICK
PRIMARY
RESOLVER
SECONDARY
RESOLVER

HMU

BACKHOE LOADERS

LOADER
LIFT

LOADER
TILT

Page:
VI-8

STABILIZER
STABILIZER BOOM

SWING

BUCKET

STICK
PRIMARY
RESOLVER
SECONDARY
RESOLVER

BACKHOE LOADERS

TILT
UNIT

## CHAPTER : Hydraulic System

LOADER
LIFT

BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Hydraulic System
"C" Series Hydraulic Pump Components Checklist
Directions: Fill in the blanks next to the letters with the correct term. Use this sheet to take notes during the slide presentation.

## IMPLEMENT AND STEERING PUMP

LOW PRESSURE STANDBY
SIGNAL

PUMP
OUTPUT

C
D

A
F
E
A

F
Page:

VI-9

Page:

VI-10

SIGNAL

PRESSURE
CUTOFF

PUMP
OUTPUT

LARGE ACTUATOR

SWASHPLATE

TORQUE
LIMITER
SMALL ACTUATOR
AND BIAS SPRING

BACKHOE LOADERS

MARGIN
SPOOL

Page:
VI-11

ENGINE OFF
SIGNAL

PUMP
OUTPUT

LARGE ACTUATOR

YOKE PAD
SWASH PLATE

PRESSURE
COMPENSATOR
PISTON &
BARREL ASSEMBLY

SMALL ACTUATOR
& BIAS SPRING

BACKHOE LOADERS

FLOW
COMPENSATOR

DRIVE
SHAFT

Page:
VI-12

TORQUE LIMITER
NORMAL
ADJUSTMENT
SCREW
SIGNAL
SPRING
SLOT

PASSAGE TO
TANK
SIGNAL

BACKHOE LOADERS

REDUCED
FLOW

SPOOL

SLEEVE

ACTUATOR
PISTON

Page:

VI-13

TORQUE
LIMITER
SIGNAL

BACKHOE LOADERS

PRESSURE
COMPENSATOR

## CHAPTER : Hydraulic System

FLOW
COMPENSATOR

PUMP
OUTPUT

BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Hydraulic System

## IMPLEMENT AND STEERING PUMP

TORQUE LIMITER REDUCES FLOW
PUMP
OUTPUT

SIGNAL

MARGIN
SPOOL

LARGE ACTUATOR

TORQUE
LIMITER
PASSAGE TO
TANK

SMALL ACTUATOR
AND BIAS SPRING

## C Series Torque Limiter

Torque limiter operation
- Destrokes pump as
pressure increases
- Spring force varies
with swashplate
angle

The torque limiter monitors the pump swashplate angle and the pump
signal pressure. The torque limiter will not allow the pump to go to full
stroke as system pressure increases above the torque limiter setting. The
allowable pump displacement is inversely proportional to the pump discharge pressure. The higher the pressure, the less pump flow is available.
The pressure setting of the torque limiter varies with the swashplate
angle. The greater the swashplate angle, the lower the pressure setting.
If the pump is at maximum flow and the signal pressure increases above
the torque limiter setting, the torque limiter opens and directs some of the
signal oil to the tank through a slot in the torque limiter spool. A pressure drop occurs across the orifice in the signal line which results in a
slight loss of the actual signal pressure. The margin spool then moves up
and allows supply oil to the large actuator piston. The pump will then
destroke.

Page:

VI-14

BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Hydraulic System

TORQUE LIMITER
NORMAL
ADJUSTMENT
SCREW
SIGNAL
SPRING
SLEEVE

SLOT

SPOOL

ACTUATOR
PISTON

REDUCED
FLOW
PASSAGE TO
TANK
SIGNAL

## Maintains input torque

setting

The torque limiter will maintain control over the swashplate as long as
the signal pressure remains the same or increases for the high flow
demanded. During this condition, the torque limiter remains open and
continues to meter some of the signal oil to the tank.
The reduced pump flow will be at a sufficient level to maintain the input
torque setting. If the cylinder pressure continues to increase, the torque
limiter will again open and destroke the pump more.
In summary, full pump supply pressure is always available. However,
flow is regulated to maintain a required maximum input torque from the
engine. Full pump flow is available when the signal pressure is below
the torque limiter setting.

Page:

VI-15

BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Hydraulic System

## 416B - 438B HYDRAULIC PUMP

TORQUE LIMITER - OPEN

TORQUE
LIMITER
SIGNAL

FLOW
COMPENSATOR

PUMP
OUTPUT

PRESSURE
COMPENSATOR

## B Series Torque Limiter

Maintains input torque
setting

If the pump is at maximum flow and the signal pressure increases above
the torque limiter setting, the torque limiter opens and directs some of the
signal oil to the tank. A pressure drop occurs across the orifice in the signal line which results in a slight loss of the actual signal pressure. The
margin spool then moves up and allows supply oil to the large actuator
piston. The pump will then destroke. The torque limiter will maintain
control over the swashplate as long as the signal pressure remains the
same or increases for the high flow demanded. During this condition, the
torque limiter remains open and continues to meter some of the signal oil
to the tank.
The reduced pump flow will be at a sufficient level to maintain the input
torque setting. If the cylinder pressure continues to increase, the torque
limiter will again open and destroke the pump more.
In summary, full pump supply pressure is always available. However,
flow is regulated to maintain a required maximum input torque from the
engine. Full pump flow is available when the signal pressure is below
the torque limiter setting.

Page:

VI-16

BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Hydraulic System

LIMITER SETTING

E
N
G
I
N
E

## Engine RPM and the torque limiter setting

are directly proportional to one another.
At points A and B the input torque is the
same; However, at the higher low idle
engine speed for point B, the torque limiter
setting can be set higher.

R
P
M

TORQUE LIMITER
SETTING
SYSTEM PRESSURE VS. FLOW RATE
The allowable pump displacement is inversely proportional to the pump discharge pressure. For line B
at 43 gpm (maximum flow) as shown here, the system pressure is less than maximum system pressure.
If the system pressure increases the maximum flow rate is reduced by the torque limiter. The pump at
the higher operating pressure is now in the torque limiter control range. As pressure continues to
increase the flow rate is further reduced.

S
Y
S
T
E
M
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

3000 PSI

A
TORQUE LIMITER
CONTROL RANGE

FLOW RATE
Page:

VI-17

43 GPM

BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Hydraulic System

## Torque Limiter Adjustments

Adjustments to the torque limiter can be made, but are not usually
required.
To determine if the torque limiter is at fault or whether the engine is at
fault, try the following.
Check torque converter stall. If the torque stall specification is incorrect
and the implement hydraulics is causing the engine to stop, then probably
the engine is at fault. DO NOT ADJUST THE TORQUE LIMITER.
If torque converter stall specification is correct, but the hydraulic system
causes the engine to die. The torque limiter may to be adjusted. Before
adjusting the torque limiter make sure that pump standby pressure, maximum system pressure and margin pressure are correct.

## B Series Torque Limiter Adjustments

1) Check Low Idle and adjust to above 950 rpm. Set at least to 970.
The fuel pump low idle spring tends to droop after a number of hours are
put on the machine.
2) Operate boom down at low idle against the boom stop. If the
hydraulic system no longer causes the engine to die, no further adjustment is required.
3) If the engine still dies. Back out the torque limiter to reduce the
spring setting.
4) Operate boom down at low idle against the boom stop. Increase the
torque limiter setting until the engine dies. Back out the torque limiter
about a quarter of a turn.
5) Restart machine. Operate boom down at low idle against the boom
stop. If the engine does not die the torque limiter has been adjusted correctly.

Page:

VI-18

BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Hydraulic System

## C Series Torque Limiter Adjustments

1) Check Low Idle and adjust to above 950 rpm. Set at least to 970.
The fuel pump low idle spring tends to droop after a number of hours are
put on the machine.
2) Operate boom down at low idle against the boom stop. The engine
rpm should drop about 100 to 140 rpm from the low idle setting. If this
occurs, then no further adjustment is required.
3) If the engine rpm drops lower than 100 to 140 rpm. Back out the
torque limiter to reduce the spring setting until engine lug falls between
100 to 140 rpm less than low idle.
4) If engine rpm lug is less than a 100 rpm, the torque limiter setting
should be increased.

Page:

VI-19

BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Hydraulic System

SYSTEM TESTING
System Tests
The performance of the 416-446 hydraulic systems can be easily tested. Two pressure gauge fittings
are installed on the hydraulic oil pump.
Before performing any pump tests or making adjustments to the pump control valve, measure and
record the machine cycle times. If the cycle times are within specification, checking low pressure
standby or margin pressure may not be required unless the system is overheating. Cycle time checks
will also indicate if all or some of the implements in the system are operating within specification.
This information can be helpful in determining if the pump or the implement is at fault. If all cycle
times are too slow, margin pressure may be set too low. If the machine is too responsive, the margin
pressure may be set too high.
Connect an 8T0859 gauge to each pressure fitting. The oil lines for the gauges should be long enough
so the gauges can be observed from the operator's station.With the gauges installed, follow the testing
and adjusting procedures in the Service Manual for maximum system pressure and low pressure standby. When performing the margin pressure test, follow the Service Manual Procedures with the following exceptions:
1. Using a 6V8731 Union in the tilt circuit is not required.
2. Activate any implement slowly and watch the gauges.
If margin pressure needs to be adjusted, the following method is quicker and safer for the mechanic:
1. Compare margin pressure to low pressure standby.
2. Mentally add to or subtract from low pressure standby about the same amount required to set
margin pressure to specification. Since both pressures are adjusted by the same screw, an
adjustment to one also affects the other. This relationship, however, is not linear.
3. Make this adjustment to the flow compensator (margin spool) while the machine is in low pressure standby.
4. Recheck margin pressure after adjusting low pressure standby.
NOTE: Due to the signal pressure limiter, the steering circuit is commonly used to check margin pressure because the steering circuit pressure is below maximum system pressure. When steering is stalled,
a signal of approximately 14000 kPa (2050 psi) is sent to the pump. The pump increases flow due to
oil being sent to tank through the signal pressure limiter. Pump supply pressure increases. The difference between the pump supply pressure and the steering signal is margin pressure.

Page:

VI-20

BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Hydraulic System

## B & C Series Backhoe Loader Hydraulic System Lab Sheet

Perform the Following Tasks:
Warm up hydraulic system.
Record initial system pressures below:
Low pressure standby
Maximum system pressure
Margin Pressure
Invert front bucket fully and lower to the ground. Record cycle times for loader lift below:
Loader lift cycle time specification
Test One

Test Two

Test Three

## Average Cycle time

Adjust Low Pressure Standby to 150 psi. Record cycle times for loader lift below:
Test One

Test Two

Test Three

## Average Cycle time

Adjust Low Pressure Standby to 450 psi. Record cycle times for loader lift below:
Test One

Test Two

Test Three

## Average Cycle time

Reset Low Pressure Standby to 320 psi. for the B series and 350 psi for the C series.
times and margin pressure.
Test One
Average Cycle time
Margin Pressure

## Describe your conclusions:

Page:

VI-21

Test Two

Test Three

Recheck cycle

BACKHOE LOADERS
CHAPTER : Hydraulic System
BACKHOE LOADER HYDRAULIC TESTS
DATE

_______________________________

MACHINE MODEL
NAME/CODE

_______________________________

___________________

CUSTOMER ______________________________

________________________

JOB ______________________________________

## MACH S/N (PIN)

S.M.U.

DEALER

_____________________

APPLICATION ____________________________

_______________________________

SERVICEMAN

## LOW PRESSURE STANDBY ___________________

___________________________

RPM

## MARGIN PRESSURE ___________________

MAXIMUM SYSTEM PRESSURE _________________

MACHINE AT NORMAL
OPERATING TEMPERATURES

## ENGINE LOW IDLE SPEED ___________________

TORQUE LIMITER ENGINE SPEED ___________________

CYCLE TIMES

TEST
1ST
Bucket Dump

L
O
A
D
E
R

(Leveler Off)

Tilt Back
(Leveler Off)

Raise
(Leveler Off)

## Raise (Leveler On,

Full Bucker Dump))

Bucket Dump
Bucket Load
Stick In
Stick Out
Swing

B
A
C
K
H
O
E

(Stop to Stop)

Swing
(Stop to Snubber)

E-Stick Extend
E-Stick Retract
Left Stab. - Raise
Left Stab. - Lower
Right Stab. - Raise
Right Stab. - Lower
Boom Pause
Auxiliary 1
Auxiliary 2

Page:

VI-22

2ND

3RD

4TH

AVG.

SPEC