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ENABLING THE

BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016


COMPARING REGULATORY GOOD PRACTICES

SEEDS

FERTILIZER

MACHINERY

FINANCE

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

ii

The text of this conference edition is a work in progress for the forthcoming book, Enabling the Business of Agriculture 2016: Comparing
Regulatory Good Practices. doi:10.1596/978-1-4648-0772-5. A PDF of the final book, once published, will be available at https://
openknowledge.worldbank.org/ and print copies can be ordered at www.amazon.com. Please use the final version of the book for
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ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 CONTENTS

CONTENTS
Foreword................................................................................................................................................................... viii
Acknowledgements.................................................................................................................................................... x
About Enabling the Business of Agriculture.............................................................................................................. xiii
1. Overview...................................................................................................................................................................1
2. SeedStrengthening seed systems..................................................................................................................... 15
3. FertilizerImproving supply and quality.............................................................................................................. 25
4. MachineryExpanding mechanization while ensuring quality and safety.......................................................... 36
5. FinanceExpanding access to financial services................................................................................................ 45
6. MarketsEnabling access.................................................................................................................................... 58
7. TransportMaking transportation more reliable and affordable......................................................................... 72
8. EBA topics under development............................................................................................................................ 86
Appendix 1. Methodology........................................................................................................................................ 107
Appendix 2. Topic Data Notes................................................................................................................................. 110
Appendix 3. Alternative ways of presenting the data............................................................................................... 146
Country Tables........................................................................................................................................................ 148
Local Experts........................................................................................................................................................... 189
Figures
Figure 1 Data collection, verification and analysis................................................................................................. xvii
Figure 1.1 Regional performance on EBA indicators.................................................................................................... 5
Figure 1.2 In Sub-Saharan Africa, countries show different levels of regulatory
good practices............................................................................................................................................. 6
Figure 1.3 High-income countries have regulations in place which reflect a
higher regulatory quality.............................................................................................................................. 6
Figure 1.4 Urbanized countries have a better EBA performance than transforming
and agriculture-based countries.................................................................................................................. 7
Figure 1.5 Countries with smarter regulations on market operations also promote
quality control.............................................................................................................................................. 8
Figure 1.6 Better rules on market operations are associated with more efficient
trade requirements...................................................................................................................................... 9
Figure 1.7 Regions with similar rules show different costs for registering a new
seed variety.................................................................................................................................................. 9
Figure 1.8 Regions with similar rules have different time durations in fertilizer
registration................................................................................................................................................. 10

iii

iv

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 CONTENTS

Figure 1.9 Agribusiness rules in Greece are the least discriminatory, while
Ethiopia, Lao PDR and Myanmar have potential to improve...................................................................... 11
Figure 1.10 Specific information on requirements for agribusiness are most
accessible in Denmark and Spain and least accessible in Rwanda........................................................... 12
Figure 2.1 Countries mostly score better on seed development and certification
indicators, while seed registration proves more challenging..................................................................... 17
Figure 2.2 The lower-middle-income and low-income countries show the
greatest variation in official registration costs........................................................................................... 19
Figure 2.3 In the majority of countries studied with a variety release committee,
the private sector is involved in the variety release process...................................................................... 21
Figure 2.4 EBA countries with mandatory maize certification predominantly
restrict its implementation to public sector actors.................................................................................... 22
Figure 3.1 Sixteen countries have overall fertilizer scores above the sample average............................................... 27
Figure 3.2 The time to register new fertilizer products ranges from 15 to 1125
calendar days............................................................................................................................................ 29
Figure 3.3 Registration takes less time but is most costly in countries where it
needs to be done only once....................................................................................................................... 30
Figure 3.4 The cost to register as an importer ranges from 0 to 57.5% of income
per capita................................................................................................................................................... 32
Figure 3.5 Over half of the surveyed countries do not prohibit the sale of open
fertilizer bagsand those that do, do not always have a penalty for it...................................................... 33
Figure 4.1 Denmark, Greece, Spain, the Philippines and Poland have the top five
scores in the aspects measured by the machinery topic.......................................................................... 38
Figure 4.2 The cost to register imported tractors is highest in Sudan........................................................................ 39
Figure 4.3 Mozambique and Bangladesh impose high costs on importers of
agricultural tractors................................................................................................................................... 42
Figure 5.1 The Kyrgyz Republic is the only country that scores above average
on all 5 indicators....................................................................................................................................... 47
Figure 5.2 Almost half the countries that allow mfis to take deposits require a
higher capital adequacy ratio for mfis than for commercial banks........................................................... 49
Figure 5.3 Countries are at different stages of developing legal frameworks to
regulate agent banking activities............................................................................................................... 51
Figure 5.4 Three of the five top performers on regulations related to warehouse
receipts are in Sub-Saharan Africa............................................................................................................ 53
Figure 6.1 EBA markets scores overall and by indicator............................................................................................. 60
Figure 6.2 Time to obtain per-shipment export documents is greater in
low-income and lower-middle income countries on average, and it
varies greatly within income group............................................................................................................ 61

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 CONTENTS

Figure 6.3 Obtaining a phytosanitary certificate is less expensive in high-income


countries, but takes less time in upper-middle-income countries............................................................. 63
Figure 6.4 Cash crops are subject to more trader licensing and membership
requirements than other product groups and thus to higher costs........................................................... 65
Figure 6.5 Similar trader licensing and membership requirements are imposed
in countries where cash crops are studied................................................................................................ 66
Figure 6.6 It is on average cheaper and faster to complete per-shipment documents
when exporting to regional or bilateral trading partners............................................................................ 68
Figure 7.1 High-income countries tend to have more regulations that promote
market access and operations and cross-border transport...................................................................... 74
Figure 7.2 Transport license systems vary across regions........................................................................................ 75
Figure 7.3 Truck-level licenses are issued more expeditiously than other regulated
systems..................................................................................................................................................... 77
Figure 7.4 Company licenses are more cost-effective than other licensing systems................................................ 77
Figure 7.5 Company-license systems record greater user satisfaction..................................................................... 78
Figure 7.6 The cost of technical inspection is not a constraint in most countries,
but some disparity is observed in its relative cost..................................................................................... 79
Figure 7.7 Only a few countries allow cabotage......................................................................................................... 80
Figure 7.8 Regulations in OECD high-income countries demonstrate greater
openness to cross-border competition, while countries in South Asia
and East Asia and the Pacific tend to limit the scope of operations for
foreign firms.............................................................................................................................................. 81
Figure 8.1 More people have bank accounts in countries that allow branchless
banking................................................................................................................................................... 100
Tables
Table 1 Assigning scores to legal and regulatory dimensions helps governments
define good practices................................................................................................................................. xv
Table 2 Time and motion indicators reflect the efficiency of administrative processes
related to a countrys regulatory system.................................................................................................... xvi
Table 3 EBA questionnaires use a standard business case with assumptions.................................................... xviii
Table 1.1 Colombia, Denmark, Greece, Poland and Spain score above average in
all EBA topics................................................................................................................................................ 3
Table 2.1 Variety release committees meet after each cropping season in most countries...................................... 20
Table 3.1 Cost and time to register a new fertilizer..................................................................................................... 30
Table 4.1 Countries where post-sale services are required by law............................................................................. 40
Table 8.1 EBA topic areas focus on constraints relevant to womens participation
in agribusiness............................................................................................................................................ 97
Table A1.1 Legal indicators per topic and cross-cutting category........................................................................... 108

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 CONTENTS

vi

Table A1.2 Time and motion indicators per topic and cross-cutting category........................................................ 109
Table A2.1 Scoring methodology for seed............................................................................................................... 112
Table A2.2 Scoring methodology for fertilizer.......................................................................................................... 118
Table A2.3 Scoring methodology for machinery..................................................................................................... 122
Table A2.4 Scoring methodology for finance.......................................................................................................... 127
Table A2.5 Scoring methodology for markets......................................................................................................... 137
Table A2.6 Scoring methodology for transport....................................................................................................... 142
Table A3.1 Discrimination of agribusiness regulations data by topic...................................................................... 146
Table A3.2 Accessibility of agribusiness regulatory information data by topic........................................................ 147
Boxes
Box 1.1 Several good regulatory practices have been identified across topic areas.................................................... 4
Box 2.1 Good practices for involving the private sector in developing new varieties.................................................. 18
Box 2.2 Good practices for evaluating and registering new varieties......................................................................... 20
Box 2.3 Good practices for countries requiring mandatory certification.................................................................... 21
Box 3.1 Good practices for fertilizer registration......................................................................................................... 28
Box 3.2 Good practices for fertilizer import requirements.......................................................................................... 31
Box 3.3 Good practices for fertilizer quality control.................................................................................................... 33
Box 4.1 Good practices for tractor dealer requirements............................................................................................. 40
Box 4.2 Good practices for tractor import requirements............................................................................................ 41
Box 4.3 Good practices for tractor standards and safety........................................................................................... 43
Box 5.1 Good practices for MFI regulations............................................................................................................... 48
Box 5.2 Good practices for credit union regulations................................................................................................... 50
Box 5.3 Good practices for agent banking regulations............................................................................................... 51
Box 5.4 Good practices for e-money regulations....................................................................................................... 52
Box 5.5 Good practices for warehouse receipt systems............................................................................................ 53
Box 6.1 Good practices for phytosanitary regulation................................................................................................. 62
Box 6.2 Good practices for regulations related to agricultural producers................................................................... 64
Box 7.1 Good practices for road transport licensing systems.................................................................................... 75
Box 7.2 Transport rights definitions............................................................................................................................ 79
Maps
Map 1 Geographical coverage of Enabling the Business of Agriculture 2016............................................................ xvi

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 CONTENTS

vii

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FOREWORD

viii

FOREWORD
Augusto Lopez-Claros

The challenge of feeding a world population of nine billion people by 2050

Director, Global Indicators Group

can be met only through vibrant, productive, profitable and sustainable

World Bank Group

food and agriculture sectors, particularly in developing countries, where


the bulk of food is grown and consumed. Similarly, well-functioning

Juergen Voegele

agricultural markets and agribusinesses that are inclusive and efficient

Senior Director, Agriculture

and that optimize the sustainable production and distribution of food

Global Practice

are essential for a food-secure future for all.

World Bank Group

The numbers relating to the agriculture and food sectors are stark and
the challenges multifaceted. Currently, more than 800 million people go
to bed hungry every day. Food demand is projected to rise globally by at
least 20 percent over the next 15 years, with the largest increases in SubSaharan Africa, South Asia and East Asia. At the same time, agriculture
is both a contributor to climate change, accounting for 25 percent of
greenhouse gas emissions, and is adversely affected by it. Agricultural
value chains need to be dynamic, productive and efficient if the sector is
both to thrive in the face of climate change and to be part of the solution.
The World Bank Groups Enabling the Business of Agriculture (EBA)
project measures and monitors regulations that affect the functioning
of agriculture and agribusiness. The ultimate aim is to promote smart
regulations that ensure efficient processes that support thriving
agribusinesses as well as safety and quality control.
Building on the findings of a pilot phase last year, the World Bank Group
is pleased to present this first full edition of Enabling the Business of
Agriculture: Comparing regulatory good practices. It provides analysis
and results from 40 countries, covering all world regions and all income
groups.
Eighteen indicators, covering six topics, have been developed to address
various aspects relating to production inputs and market enablers that
facilitate farmers, firms and producers to sell their goods and services.
The indicators measured in this years report cover seed, fertilizer,

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FOREWORD

machinery, finance, transport, and markets. Four additional topicsland;


water; livestock; and information and communication technology
are under development and will be included in next years report. Two
overarching themesenvironmental sustainability and genderhave
also been explored so that the indicators being developed encourage
inclusive and sustainable practices.
Given the significant public interest in the EBA project, and as part of its
commitment to openness and transparency, the EBA team continues to
seek input from relevant stakeholders and experts to further strengthen the
research methodology and analytics as well as expand country coverage. We
invite you to provide comments on the EBA website at http://eba.worldbank.
org/.
As the international development community accelerates efforts to achieve
the new Sustainable Development Goals, particularly SDGs 1 and 2, which call
for ending extreme poverty and hunger by 2030, sustainable development of
the food sectors and agriculture must be at the front and center of the global
communitys response. This publication and its findings contribute to that
overall effort.

Augusto Lopez-Claros

Juergen Voegele

ix

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Enabling the Business of Agriculture

Korooluev, Alva Kretschmer, Valerie

Bajeddi (Morocco), Dalfino Hoster

2016 was prepared jointly by the

Marechal, Thibault Meilland, Arturo

Guila

World Banks Agriculture Global

Francisco Bonilla Merino, Charlotte

Osman Hussein (Sudan), Sidiki

Practice,

general

Merten, Nina Paustian, Aditi Poddar,

Soubeiga (Burkina Faso), Olayvanh

direction of Juergen Voegele, Ethel

Anis Ragland, Kateryna Schroeder,

Singvilay (Lao PDR) and Khin Sw

Sennhauser, Preeti Ahuja, and

Justin Lee Schwegel, Samjhana

Swe Aye (Myanmar).

Mark Cackler and the Development

Thapa, Yasmine Umutoni, Lechi

Economics

Zhang

under

the

(Mozambique),

Mohamed

Zheng.

Andrew Goodland, Chris Jackson,

Global Indicators Group, under

Assisting with data collection were:

Aart Kraay and Patrick Verissimo

the general direction of Augusto

Ayuen Ajok, Ibrahim Alturki, Yulia

reviewed the full draft report and

Lopez-Claros.

Saliola

Amanbaeva, Sasha Boshart, Luiza

provided

feedback.

and Farbod Youssefi managed

Casemiro, Esperanza Pastor Nez

is

grateful

the project, with the support from

de Castro, Salma Ehsan Cheema,

comments and reviews provided

Tea

Chaparro-

Timila Dhakhwa, Xiaquan Fang,

by external experts as well as

Yedro, and Raian Divanbeigi. The

Albina Gasanbekova, David William

colleagues across the World Bank

team would like to acknowledge

Green, Megan Hyndman, Tatiana

Group, in particular those in the 40

the support of Indermit Gill and

Ivanicichina, Parviz Jabarov, Gulnur

World Bank Group country offices

Melissa Johns. Current and former

Kerimkulova,

Koschorke,

and those working on several key

team members included Dinah

Yuhan Liu, Charlotte Filiz Merten,

areas investigated by the report.

Bengur, Liwam Berhane, Gerawork

Yedesdes Y Mudessir, Meirzhan

The team would especially like to

Bizuneh, Martha Branigan-Sutton,

Myrzaliyev, Trang Nguyen, Felipe

acknowledge the hard work of the

Rong Chen, Dariga Chukmaitova,

Magofke, Stephanie Samayoa, Atik

following individuals in the country

Davida

Kiran Shah, Bungheng Taing, Herve

offices

Dechery, Robert de lEscaille, Nuria

Tchakoumi,

Douglas

questionnaires and validate the

de Oca, Nealon Devore, Sarah

Winter, Xiao, Beibei Yan, Cem

data: Faten Abdulfattah, Nada

Diouri, Margarita Diubanova, Soha

Berk Yolbulan, Diana Zeng, Lilin

Abou-Rizk,

Eshraghi,

Zheng, Geyi Zheng and Jingwen

Moustafa Alver, Luis A.

Felix

Zheng. The team is grateful to

Amadou Ba, Purna Bahadur Chhetri,

Frewer, Taras Gagalyuk, Arnau

local consultants who supported

Tran Bao Thi Nguyen, Julia Barrera,

Gallard-Agusti,

Garthwaite,

data collection or helped the team

Raul Barrios, Amina Beidari Bertho,

Gabriel Simoes Gaspar, Slavena

during the EBA teams country

Aurelien Beko, Oliver Braedt, Olena

Georgieva, Jean Philippe Lodugnon

visits: Arun Saha (Bangladesh);

Bychyk,

Harding,

Fitsum

Chamroeun,

Vice

Trumbic,

Espinal,

Louise

Julia

Federica

Cesar

Connon,

Cme

Isabel Navarro

Leopoldo

Pilar

Presidencys

Bill

Fabra,

Jano,

Marketa

and

Yucheng

Julian

Jedadiah

Aregawi

(Ethiopia),

also

who

The
for

helped

Ruvejda

Barbara

team

valuable

distribute

Aliefendic,

Calvi,

Marie

Aviles,

Mudita

Genevieve

Jonasova, Edna Kallon, Marina

Mohammad Issa Mousa (Jordan),

Compaore,

Luis

Constantino,

Kayumova, Milan Kondic, Maksat

Tidiane Diarisso (Mali), Mohammed

Tesfahiwot

Dillnessa,

Hadidia

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

xi

Sumi,

Busch, Frederic Bustelo, Yi Cai, Jo

Michael McGowan, Ruth Meizen-

Carlos Francisco Siezar, Larisa

Caldihon, David Casanova, Julie

Dick, Frederic Meunier, Niels Morel,

Fugol, Augusto Garcia, Patricia

Caswell, Lawrence Clarke, Rick

Nancy Morgan, Mohinder Mudahar,

Gutierrez,

Hailemariam

Clayton, Mark Constantine, Joe

Jorge Munoz, Dilip N. Kulkarni,

Mekuria, Michael Hamaide, Amani

Cortes, Gily Cowan, Barney Curtis,

Ajay Nair, Shankar Narayanan,

Haque, Jairi Hernandez, Van Hoang

Morgane Danielou, Roger Day,

Nick Nwakpa, Francois Onimus,

Pham, Chris Jackson, Kutemba

Alexandra de Athayde, Philip de

David Orden, Theresa Osborne,

Kambole, Leszek Kasek, Gwladys

Leon, Claus Deblitz, Klaus Deininger,

Washington Otieno, Maria Claudia

Nadine

Chistopher Delgardo, Hans Dellien,

Pachon, Maria Pagura, Enrique

Kroff, Seenithamby Manoharan,

Brigitte

Pantoja, Roy Parizat, Valentina

Chanhsom

Diaz-Bonilla, Grahame Dixie, Carel

Paskalova,

Mariscal, Kunduz Masylkanova,

du

Stefano

Patorni, Judith Payne, Andrew

Mohamed

Duilgheroff,

Ekanayake,

Peters, Patrick Philipp, Ugo Pica-

Meyer, Manolo Morales, Mayela

Jorge Escurra, Natalia Federighi de

Ciamarra, Caroline Plante, Natalia

Murillo,

Aymen

Cuello, Erick Fernandes, Vincenzo

Pshenichnaya, Markus Reinisch,

Musmar Ali, Belinda Mutesi, Alex

Ferraiuolo, Francis V. Fragano,

Alain Reocreux, Romano Righetti,

Mwanakasale,

Mziray,

Ade Freeman, Francois G. Le Gall,

Philippe Benjamin Rivoire, Loraine

Anne

Pierra Jean Gerber, John Gibson,

Ronchi, Max Rothschild, Judith

Obreque,

Ian John Douglas Gillson, Tanja K.

Rudolph, Marieta Sakalian, Salman

Bigyan

Goodwin, Naoki Goto, Lars Nikolajs

M. A. Salman, Aguiratou Savadogo-

Pradhan, Nikos Schmidt, Daniel

Grava, David Groenfeldt, Arian

Tinto, Sara Savastano, Susanne

Sellen, Tara Shrestha, Vatthana

Groot, Vincent Guyonnet, Thomas

Scheierling,

Singharaj, Bintou Sogodogo, Heinz

Hammond, Craig Hanson, Adelaida

Harris Selod, Carlos Sere, Bekzod

Strubenhoff,

Sulukhia,

Harris, Robert John Hatton, Terhi

Shamsiev, Walter Simon de Boef,

Sugata Talukder, Tam Thi Do, Miss

Havimo, Norbert Henninger, Thea

Melvin Spreij, Victoria Stanley,

Thiri, Shewaye Yalew Shumye,

Hilhorst, Martin Hilmi, Marlynne

Nancy Sundberg, Johan Swinnen,

and Sergiy Zorya. Comments on

Hopper, Jens Hgel, Ankur Huria,

Virginia Tanase, Michael Tarazi,

the report were received from:

Juan Carlos Izaguirre, Devra Jarvis,

Felipe Targa Rodriguez, Dhanaraj

Alejandro Alvarez de la Campa,

Peter

Jenane,

Thakur, David Tipping, Muhabbat

Jamie Anderson, Maria Antip, Oya

David John, Scott Justice, Jari

Turdieva, Joyce M. Turk, Laurian

Pinar Ardic Alper, Joshua Ariga,

Kauppila, John C. Keyser, Josef

Unnevehr, Kishor Uprety, Anke

Raimonds Aronietis, Sarat Babu

Kienzle, Kaoru Kimura, Olivia Kiratu,

van den Hurk, Kees van der Meer,

Gidda, Derek Baker, Thomas Bauer,

Matthew

Keith Belk, Todd Benson, Shawki

Musa

Bhargouti, Jos Bijman, Zhao Bing,

Andrea Kutter, Andrzej Kwiecinski,

Grgoire

Florentin Blanc, Marcel Bruins,

Lloyd Le Page, Zvi Lerman, Steven

Versace, Laura Villamayor, Bert

Balu Bumb, Victor Bundi Mosoti,

Lonergan, Isabel Lopez Noriega,

Visser, Brian Wickham, Joshua

Stefano Burchi, Francois Burgaud,

Youlia Lozanova, Dibungi Luseba,

Seth Wimpey, Bruce Wise, Justin

Jacob Burke, Christina Katharina

Nathaniel Makoni, John McDermot,

Yap, Winston Yu, Ivan Zavadsky.

Djimba,

Hosna

Ferdous

Mistre

Isabelle

Kinda,

Manythong,
Medouar,

Alice

Museri,
Judith

Clarisse

Nhanbangue,

Njuguna,

Francisco

Alice

R.

Ouedraogo,

Tamara

Krista
Joanna
Tania

Dias

Ferreira,

Marchie

Sarvass,
Indira

Jeffries,

Kirk,

Kpapa,

Chakib

Eugenio

Franois-Marie

Van

Andres

Herck,

Seargent,

Justin

Kosoris,

Kristine

Charles

Kunaka,

van der Velden, Panos Varangis,


Verdeaux,

Suzanne
Francesco

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

xii

The

Enabling

the

Business

of

business

associations,

private

Agriculture program was developed

sector representatives, farmers

in partnership with several donors,

organizations,

whose funding and support makes

government officials and other

this report possible: the Bill and

professionals

Melinda Gates Foundation, the

in the policy, legal and regulatory

Department

requirements in the 40 countries

for

International

academics,
actively

Development (DFID), the Danish

covered

Ministry

Affairs,

year. Please note that the data

the United States Agency for

published in the report and online

International

Development

represent a unified response based

(USAID) and the Government of the

on the answers the team received

Netherlands.

from various respondents and

of

Foreign

during

the

engaged

second

sources and are not attributed


The
of

Enabling

the

Business

to

any

Agriculture

2016

outreach

Wherever

particular
possible,

respondent.
answers

strategy is being executed by

were corroborated by official fee

a communications team led by

schedules, laws, regulations and

Indira Chand and Sarwat Hussain,

public notices. The names of

supported by Hyun Kyong Lee and

those wishing to be acknowledged

Zia Morales. The development and

individually are listed at the end of

management of the Enabling the

the report and are made available

Business of Agriculture website and

on the website at: http://eba.

technical services were supported

worldbank.org.

by Kunal Patel, Vinod Vasudeavn


Thottikkatu and Hashim Zia.
The

report

designed

by

was

edited

and

Communications

Development Incorporated, led by


Bruce Ross-Larson and including
Joe Caponio, Mike Crumplar and
Lawrence Whiteley.
The

Enabling

the

Business

of

Agriculture 2016 report benefited


from the generous input from
a network of more than 2,500
local experts, including lawyers,

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 ABOUT ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE

xiii

ABOUT ENABLING THE


BUSINESS OF
AGRICULTURE
and sector-specific laws, policies,

regulations

created by it are major sources

regulations,

services,

unpredictable or discriminatory,

of

employment

information structures and labor

they raise costs and cut incentives

for a large share of the worlds

force preparedness. It sets the

to enter formal and competitive

people. Vital for food security and

stage for all business activities that

markets. A World Bank study in

poverty reduction, the business of

have to do with producing goods

Ethiopia in 2012 showed that a

agriculture affects rural livelihoods

on farms and transporting them

weak regulatory system that fails

everywhere.

to processors and consumers.

to guarantee seed quality results

Understanding this environment

in farmers paying higher prices

Growing food demands call for

can help create policies that

for seed of suboptimal quality,

greater attention to strategies to

facilitate

in

with yields up to 50% lower than

develop the business of agriculture.

agriculture

and

increase

the

expected.3 In Mali agricultural

Indeed, meeting the rising food

investment

attractiveness

and

cereal traders ranked regulatory

demand of a global population

competitiveness of countries.2

Agriculture
income

and
and

the

business

support

doing

business

expected to reach 9 billion people

are

too

complex,

uncertainty among the toughest


barriers to market entry.4

by 2050 is a major challengeeven

Enabling the Business of Agriculture

more so in the face of increasingly

2016 measures regulations that

What does Enabling the Business of

adverse natural conditions.1 The

impact firms in the agribusiness

Agriculture 2016 measure?

evolution of urban food demand in

value chain, providing data and

developing regions illustrates the

analysis that allow policy makers

Enabling the Business of Agriculture

need for agricultural value chains

to compare their countrys laws

2016

and

that

and regulations with those of

identify and analyze legal barriers

are both more efficient and more

others. Clear and accessible laws

for the business of agriculture

effective.

foster a business environment

and to quantify transaction costs

that benefits all market players

of

An enabling environment for the

from farmers, including the more

regulations.

business of agriculture is critical

vulnerable such as female farmers

been developed to cover different

to respond to evolving market

and smallholders, to consumers

aspects of production inputs and

trends. It includes macroeconomic

and large investors. But when

market enablers: seed, fertilizer,

institutional

settings

enables

dealing

policymakers

with
Ten

to

government
topics

have

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 ABOUT ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE

xiv

strong institutions and efficient

time and cost to register fertilizer

administrative

procedures

products, register seed for sale

communication technology (ICT),

are necessary for agriculture to

and export agricultural goods. All

land, water and livestock. Two

prosper.

indicators were designed using

machinery,

finance,

markets,

transport,

information

and

specific rules that are applied

overarching themesgender and


environmental

sustainability

The

Enabling

the

Business

of

equally across countries to ensure


that the data are comparable.

to

Agriculture methodology targets

ensure that the indicators being

smart regulation in each of the

developed

measured areas for inputs and

A key development presented in

enablers.

regulation

this years report is the scoring

balance

in

methodology for legal indicators

have

been

and

investigated

encourage

sustainable

inclusive
practices.

Smart

Although women are 43% of the

striking

global agricultural workforce, they

ensuring

enforcement

on six topics: seed, fertilizer,

face many constraints that limit

of essential safety and quality

machinery, finance, markets and

their participation in agricultural

control while avoiding excessive

transport.

value chains. This report includes

regulatory burdens for value chain

assigns scores to certain legal and

are

playersis good for the business of

regulatory dimensions and serves

restrictive for women in the topics

agriculture. It can improve services

one of the main objectives of the

covered. Because of agricultures

and products and lower costs. EBA

Enabling the Business of Agriculture

dependence on natural resources,

considers more than the sheer

project: to provide governments

the environmental sustainability

number of regulations and does not

with defined good practices that

topic investigates plant genetic

necessarily promote deregulation.

can

resources and water resources

In fact, several indicators, such

trigger reforms based on the

management.

as fertilizer quality control and

examples of other countries. The

domestic plant protection, promote

scoring groups various data points

more regulation since the laws and

for all six topics around three

The choice of indicators was

regulations need to set appropriate

cross-cutting categories:

guided by a review of academic

standards in these areas to ensure

literature

health and food safety.

review

of

issues

Both

that

will

be

developed further next year.

and

case

studies

the

right

proper

society

including

organizations,

civil
partner

inform

methodology

policymaking

and

Operations indicators measure


the requirements for local

and by consultations with key


stakeholders,

This

companies to enter the market

Enabling the Business of Agriculture


2016

presents

two

types

institutions, practitioners, public

indicators.

De

and private sector representatives,

indicators

stem

researchers and technical experts.

reading the laws and regulations

jure

or

directly

and

of

conduct

agribusiness

activities.

legal
from

Quality

control

indicators

the

regulations

to measure their quality. De facto

measure

bedrock

or time and motion indicators

governing plant protection, the

enabling

reflect the efficiency of a countrys

safety standards for users of

environment. Well-designed laws

regulatory environmentsuch as

agricultural machinery and the

and

the number of procedures and the

quality control associated with

Regulations
of

are

the

countrys

regulationssupported

by

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 ABOUT ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE

seeds and fertilizer products.


Trade

indicators

measure

trade restrictions on exporting


agricultural

xv

and cross-cutting category levels

variety release committee, while

(table 1). The rules for scoring each

others may be redundant, as with

question are described by topic in

additional

the Topic Data Notes (appendix 2).

after the technical review. Since

ministerial

approval

the times for taking the tests

products,
indicators,

depend both on regulations and

although presented and analyzed

country cropping seasons, it would

in the report, are not assigned

be unfair to penalize countries

a particular score (table 2). The

for their geographical conditions.

Comparative results on countries

reason is that some processes

The

laws and regulations help identify

are clearly necessary, as with

have been singled out and scored

weaknesses and highlight ways to

the

and

under the legal indicators. They

overcome them. The scores were

registering new seed varieties

were grouped in the categories on

developed at the indicator, topic

and the technical review by a

operations and trade requirements.

importing
tractors

fertilizer
and

and

transporting

goods across borders.

Time

and

tests

motion

for

evaluating

individual

good

practices

Table 1 Assigning scores to legal and regulatory dimensions helps governments define good practices
OPERATIONS

QUALITY CONTROL

TRADE

Seed registration (0100)


SEED

SEED SCORE

Seed development and

(0100)

certification (0100)
FERTILIZER

MACHINERY

Fertilizer registration

Fertilizer quality control

Fertilizer import

FERTILIZER

(0100)

(0100)

requirements (0100)

SCORE (0100)

Tractor dealer requirements

Tractor standards and safety

Tractor import requirements

MACHINERY

(0100)

(0100)

(0100)

SCORE (0100)

Microfinance institutions
(0100)
FINANCE

Credit unions (0100)

FINANCE SCORE

Agent banking (0100)

(0100)

E-money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Production and sales


(0100)

MARKETS SCORE

Plant protection (0100)

Truck licenses (0100)


OPERATIONS SCORE

QUALITY CONTROL SCORE

(0100)

(0100)

(0100)
Cross-border transportation

TRANSPORT

(0100)

SCORE (0100)

TRADE SCORE (0100)

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 ABOUT ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE

xvi

TABLE 2 Time and motion indicators reflect the efficiency of administrative processes related to a countrys
regulatory system
QUALITY

SEED

OPERATIONS

CONTROL

TRADE

Seed registration:

Fertilizer imports:

Procedures, time and cost


FERTILIZER

Fertilizer registration:
Procedures, time and cost

Cost of import permit and importer registration


for importers of fertilizer

MACHINERY

Tractor imports:
Cost of import permit and importer registration
for importers of tractors

FINANCE

MARKETS

Agricultural exports:
Documents, time and cost (per shipment)

TRANSPORT

Truck licenses:

Time, cost and validity of company


licenses, truck permits and vehicle
inspections

MAP 1 Geographical coverage of Enabling the Business of Agriculture 2016


This map was produced by the Map Design Unit of The World Bank.
The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information
shown on this map do not imply, on the part of The World Bank
Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any
endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.

IBRD 42022 | NOVEMBER 2015

GSDPM

Map Design Unit

Russian Federation

Denmark
Poland
Ukraine

Spain

Bosnia
& Herz.

Georgia
Greece

Turkey

Morocco

Jordan

Kyrgyz
Rep.
Tajikistan

Nepal
Myanmar
Lao
P.D.R.

Mali

Guatemala

Niger

Bangladesh

Sudan

Cte
Ghana
dIvoire

Colombia

Ethiopia
Uganda
Kenya

Rwanda

Burundi
Tanzania

Zambia
Bolivia

Pilot countries
Enabling the Business 2016

Chile

Vietnam
Cambodia

Burkina
Faso

Nicaragua

Mozambique

Sri
Lanka

Philippines

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 ABOUT ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE

The methodology on time and


motion indicators will be further
developed next year.

FIGURE 1 Data collection, verification and analysis


Step
1

Questionnaires emailed to local respondents in the


measured countries

Step
2

Data collected by email, telephone, or personal interviews

Step
3

Data consolidated and analyzed

Building on findings presented in


the 2015 progress report covering
10 countries, Enabling the Business
of Agriculture 2016 covers 40
countries in seven regions (map 1).5
Different criteria have been used
to select the countries, including
ensuring adequate representation
of all regions and different levels
of agricultural development. Data
collection will be further scaled up

Step
4

Selected data verified through desk reviews of available


resources, including country laws reviewed by legal experts

to 60 countries in 2016.
Step
5

How are the data collected?


Enabling the Business of Agriculture
indicators

are

based

on

primary data collection through


standardized

Step
6

Multiple rounds of follow-up conducted with questionnaire


respondents to validate data

Data aggregated using various scoring methodologies to


construct indicators

questionnaires

completed by expert respondents


in each target country. Once the

Step
7

Data shared for validation and review with governments and


World Bank Group country offices

data are collected and analyzed,


several follow-up rounds address
and clear up any discrepancies
in the answers the respondents
provide,

including

preliminary

Enabling the Busines of Agriculture 2016 report and indicators


peer reviewed

conference

calls and written correspondence.


The

Step
8

answers

are

Step
9

Enabling the Busines of Agriculture 2016 report and indicators


cleared by World Bank Group management

then finalized and shared with


governments for further validation.
The data in this report are current
as of March 31, 2015, and do not
reflect any changes to the laws or
administrative procedures after
that date. Figure 1 shows the steps

Step
10

Public launch of Enabling the Busines of Agriculture 2016


report and online database

xvii

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 ABOUT ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE

xviii

in the process from data collection

individuals

and

organizations

to public release.

know their countries laws and

the perspectives of all parties.

regulations and how they affect

Enabling the Business of Agriculture

Chosen from the private sector,

people involved in agriculture.

data are collected in a standardized

the public sector and civil society,

Involving

experts

way to ensure comparability across

respondents

firms,

increases the accuracy of the

countries and over time. Following

academia, financial institutions,

data by balancing the possible

the methodological foundations

professional associations, farmer

biases of different stakeholders.

of Doing Business,6 questionnaires

organizations,

government

So reaching out to both the private

use a standard business case

ministries and agencies. These

and public sectors helps compare

with

include

and

various

assumptions

about

the

TABLE 3 EBA questionnaires use a standard business case with assumptions


ASSUMPTIONS USED TO STANDARDIZE THE BUSINESS CASE:
SEED

The seed variety:


Is a maize variety that has been developed by the private sector.
Is being registered for the first time in the country.
Has not been registered in any other country.
If maize varieties are not being developed by the private sector in the country, is an imported maize variety, which
may have been previously registered elsewhere.

FERTILIZER

The business:
Is a fertilizer importer.
Imports fertilizer to sell in the country.
Has registered at least one new fertilizer product in the country.
Does not operate in an export processing zone or an industrial estate with special import or export privileges.
The fertilizer product:
Is a new chemical fertilizer product that has not previously been registered in the country.

MACHINERY

The business:
Is an importer or dealer of agricultural tractors.
Does not operate in an export processing zone or an industrial estate with special import or export privileges.
The tractor:
Is a new or second-hand two-axle/four-wheel drive (4WD) tractor.

FINANCE

High-income countries are not measured by the finance topic.


Microfinance institutions:
Can take deposits, lend and provide other financial services to the public.
Are licensed to operate and supervised by a public authority.
Credit unions:
Are member-owned, not-for-profit financial cooperatives that provide savings, credit and other financial services
to their members.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 ABOUT ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE

xix

ASSUMPTIONS USED TO STANDARDIZE THE BUSINESS CASE:


MARKETS

The business:
Performs general agricultural trading activities.
Does not operate in a special export processing zone.
The contracted product:
Is the most produced non-processed non-cereal product in terms of gross production value (current million U.S.
dollars).7
The export product and trading partner:
Is defined and grouped as cash crops, cereals, fruits and vegetables according to the Harmonized Commodity
Description and Coding System 1996 version (HS 96).8
For each country, the combination of the product and the partner country which represents the highest five-year
average export value (in U.S. dollars) is selected.
The shipment:
Is transported via a 20-foot full container-load.
Weighs 10 metric tons.
Is assumed to comply with any fumigation requirement for the packing material (such as wood pallets), treated
and marked accordingly.

TRANSPORT

The business:
Is a limited liability company.
Is 100% domestically owned.
Has between 5 and 10 employees.
Owns a maximum of five trucks and each truck has two axles and a loading capacity of 20 metric tons.9
Rents a garage.
Transports agricultural products within the country, including perishable goods.
Does not transport fertilizers, pesticides or any hazardous products.

legal form of the business, its

its economy, but are not now an

capita.

area that EBA covers.

size, its location and the nature


of its operations for each topic

What does Enabling the Business of

applied for all countries (table 3).

Agriculture not measure?

Policies, institutions, infrastructure


and

Assumptions guiding respondents

support

through their completion of the

Many elements that shape a

shaping

survey questionnaires vary by topic

countrys enabling environment

to

implement

(see Topic Data Notes in appendix

are not captured by Enabling the

its

regulationsare

2). In addition, in the interest of

Business of Agriculture indicators.

determinants

of

comparability, the values in the

Broader

environment

that

assumptions are not fixed values

pertaining to the political, social

Business of Agriculture 2016 has

but proportional to the countrys

and economic spheres of a country,

not

gross national income (GNI) per

for example, shape the climate of

characterizing the marketsuch

macro-level

aspects

servicesmany

countrys

targeted.

and
the

capacity
enforce
also

key

enabling

Enabling the

Other

variables

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 ABOUT ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE

xx

Notes

as prices, stock market trends,

effective and see how these issues

government

and

are shaped by the context, data

directly

must be consistently collected

1. FAO 2009.

over a number of years to combine

2. FAO 2013.

methodology outside the scope

global benchmarks with context-

3. World Bank 2012.

of EBAs current capacity. While

specific information.

4. Diallo and others 2010, Staatz

expenditures

investmentsare
comparable

not

and

require

and others 1989.

EBA is interested in expanding into


these areas, they are not covered

What is in this years report?

5. Pilot countries were Ethiopia,


Guatemala,

by this reports indicators.

Morocco,

This years report presents the

Mozambique,

Much activity in rural areas, from

main results of the teams effort

Philippines, Rwanda, Spain,

employment to the production and

over the last 12 months to collect

Uganda and Ukraine. For more

sale of goods, happens through

and analyze new data and to

information on the EBA 2015

informal channels. The complexity

develop indicators that can help

progress report, please visit

of regulations and the time and

governments

informed

http://eba.worldbank.org.

cost they impose, could be reasons

decisions

enabling

6. http://www.doingbusiness.org.

for this, as could the quality of

environment

agribusiness

7. All data are sourced from

institutions, extension services and

activity in their countries.

make

about
for

the

the

FAOSTAT, using the production


data

physical infrastructure. The current

Nepal,

of

2012

(the

latest

focus of indicators presented in

Feedback is welcome on the data,

available year). Cereal crops

this report is on measuring official

methodology and overall project

are excluded from the analysis

laws and regulations and not these

design to make future Enabling

because they are less suitable

other areas.

the Business of Agriculture reports

for

even more useful. Feedback can

contracts

Benchmarking has its benefits

be provided on the project website:

characteristics, including the

and limitations. Quantitative data

http://eba.worldbank.org.

high risks of side-selling due

agricultural
due

production
to

and benchmarks can be effective

to

in

about

export markets, the reduced

policy, enhancing the ability of

need for technical assistance

policymakers to assess progress

in

over time and making meaningful

specifications and the smaller

international

price

stimulating

using

debate

comparisons.

assumptions

to

But

ensure

well-developed

certain

order

to

local

meet

differentials

or

market
at

each

point in the supply chain.

global coverage and comparability

8. All data are sourced from the

across countries can generalize

UN Comtrade Database, using

and exclude some context-specific

the export data from 200913.

information. To address some

9. A truck is defined as one

of these limitations, understand

tractor unit, excluding the

what regulatory reforms are most

trailer.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 ABOUT ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE

References
Diallo, B., N. Dembl and J.
Staatz. 2010.Analyse des
prix de parit en Afrique de
lOuest: Le cas du riz depuis la
crise de 20072008. Rapport
de synthse proviso ire. Food
Security Collaborative Working
Paper

57243,

Michigan

State University, Department


of

Agricultural,

Food

and

Resource Economics.
FAO

(Food

and

Agriculture

Organization). 2009. How to


Feed the World by 2050. Rome:
FAO.
. 2013. Enabling Environments
for

Agribusiness

industries

and

Agro-

Development:

Regional

and

Country

Perspectives. Rome: FAO.


Staatz, J.M., J. Dion and N.
Dembl. Statz and others
1989; Diallo and others 2010.
Cereals Market Liberalization
in Mali. World Development 17
(5): 70318.
World

Bank.

2005.

Doing

Business 2006: Creating Jobs.


Washington, DC: World Bank.
. 2012. Agribusiness Indicators:
Ethiopia.

Washington,

World Bank.

DC:

xxi

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 OVERVIEW

1. OVERVIEW
of

greater informality and corruption

good practices and given high

covers

without even attaining the original

scores.

40 countries in seven regions.

objectives.1 So it is important to

Ten topics have been developed

assess the efficiency and quality

Smart regulations can improve

to measure regulations that can

of specific regulations. The EBA

products

impact firms in the agribusiness

methodology

lower costs for agribusinesses.

value chain, providing data and

regulation in each of the measured

Specific

analysis that allow policy makers

areas. This methodology has been

the agricultural sector show the

to compare their countrys laws

informed by an extensive literature

impact of good regulatory reform

and regulations with those of

review and consultations with

on improving the supply and

others. A scoring methodology

experts.

lowering the prices in the seed

The

Enabling

the

Agriculture 2016

Business
report

highlights

smart

and
country

services

and

examples

in

and mechanization markets in

that is based on good practices


in relevant regulatory dimensions

For

for

Bangladesh and Turkey,3 in the

has been developed for 6 of the 10

example, controls are necessary

fertilizer sector in Bangladesh,4

topics measured: seed, fertilizer,

to prevent damage to the soil

Kenya5 and Ethiopia6 and in the

machinery, finance, markets and

and

maize industry in Eastern and

transport; the remaining topics

but excessive tests that prolong

(land, water, livestock and ICT) will

fertilizer

be further developed and scored

and cost thousands of dollars

But apart from these country-

next year.

are difficult to defend.2 Similarly

specific

burdensome import procedures,

few data that can help to better

Enabling the Business of Agriculture

which require fertilizer importers

understand

promotes smart regulations that

to make purchases months in

regulations

ensure safety and quality control

advance,

market

productivity on a global scale.

while at the same time promote

access. EBA assigns higher scores

Extensive literature on the matter

efficient regulatory processes that

to countries with laws requiring the

focuses

support agribusinesses. Regulation

labeling of fertilizer and prohibiting

quantity of regulations, but few

in agriculture is justified to address

the sale of open or mislabeled

studies look at the quality of those

market failures and protect safety,

fertilizer bags. At the same time,

regulations.8 EBA attempts to fill

health and the environment. But

countries that allow the private

this gap by assessing regulatory

some governments do not tackle

sector (including foreigners) to

quality across a wide range of

these issues through appropriate

import fertilizers or do not require

countries, thus providing a basis to

regulation.

may

re-registration if the product has

understand how regulations affect

introduce burdensome procedures

been already registered in another

economic outcomes.

that shift economic activity to

country are also seen as following

Regulations

chemical

adulterated

fertilizers,

fertilizer

registration

can

for

hinder

use

Southern Africa,7 among others.

years
examples,

on

the

there

link

and

the

are

between

agricultural

existence

or

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 OVERVIEW

Where are agribusiness

red in table 1.1), which suggests

regulations smarter?

there is room for improvement


in adopting the identified good

A color coding system displays a

practices across several topics

synthetic measure of a countrys

(box 1.1). But in most countries

EBA score in a particular topic

the performance is more mixed

to signal a countrys adoption of

there are a number of good

good practices and areas where

regulatory practices and at the

improvement is needed (table 1.1).

same time areas for improvement.


Bosnia and Herzegovina has solid

Greece,

regulations for plant protection

Poland and Spain score above

and fertilizer but lacks regulations

average in all topics measured

for credit unions and e-money.

(dark green or green in table 1.1).9

Morocco and Mozambique have

In general, these countries have a

weak regulations in agricultural

higher number of smart regulations

finance but strong regulations

in the topics covered. Although

for the registration, certification

they share a substantial number

and development of new seed

of good practices, they also have

varieties.

room for improvement. Colombia

regulations for fertilizer quality

displays

efficient

control and plant protection, but

fertilizer registration norms, laws

lags in requirements for tractor

that support financial inclusion

dealers and safety standards for

and adequate market regulation,

machinery.

Colombia,

Denmark,

strong

and

but still has low safety standards


for machinery. Poland has the
top score for regulations related
to cross-border transport, seed
development and certification and
fertilizer quality control, but lacks
certain regulations for warehouse
receipts, which would complement
the

existing

collateral

regime

to obtain a loan for agriculture


production.
Burkina Faso, Burundi, Ghana,
Myanmar and Niger score below
average on all topics (red or dark

Vietnam

has

strong

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 OVERVIEW

TABLE 1.1 Colombia, Denmark, Greece, Poland and Spain score above average in all EBA topics

COUNTRY
BANGLADESH

SEEDS

FERTILIZER

MACHINERY

FINANCE

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

BOLIVIA
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
BURKINA FASO
BURUNDI
CAMBODIA
CHILE

N/A

COLOMBIA
CTE DIVOIRE
DENMARK

N/A

ETHIOPIA
GEORGIA
GHANA
GREECE

N/A

GUATEMALA
JORDAN
KENYA
KYRGYZ REPUBLIC
LAO PDR
MALI
MOROCCO
MOZAMBIQUE
MYANMAR
NEPAL
NICARAGUA
NIGER
PHILIPPINES
POLAND

N/A

RUSSIAN FEDERATION

N/A

RWANDA
SPAIN

N/A

SRI LANKA
SUDAN
TAJIKISTAN
TANZANIA
TURKEY
UGANDA
UKRAINE
VIETNAM
ZAMBIA
Top performing countries, defined as those with topic scores above 85, indicating a high number of good practices in place as measured by EBA.
Countries with a score above the sample average in a particular topic.
Countries with a score below the sample average in a particular topic.
Countries with topic scores below 30, indicating a low number of good practices.
High-income countriesChile, Denmark, Greece, Poland, Russian Federation and Spain are not measured under EBA finance indicators
(see Topic Data Notes in appendix 2).

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 OVERVIEW

BOX 1.1 Several good regulatory practices have been identified across topic areas
Seed

Fertilizer

Machinery

Variety release committee with


representation of the private sector,
which meets shortly after each
cropping season.

Efficient and affordable fertilizer


registration for companies, without
the need for re-registration.

Streamlined import procedures to


facilitate timely availability and
delivery of agricultural tractors.

The availability online of an official


variety catalog updated after each
cropping season and specifying
agro-ecological zones.

Timely availability of fertilizer by the


private sector through streamlined
import procedures.

Availability of initial seed classes to


the private sector, which is granted
access to breeder and foundation
seed, and to material stored in the
national gene bank.

Good quality fertilizer by requiring


appropriate labeling and prohibiting
open fertilizer bags.

In countries where the certification


is compulsory, official fee
schedules for certification
activities are publicly available, and
nongovernmental inspectors and/
or laboratories can be accredited
to carry out part or all of seed
certification activities.

Appropriate testing of agricultural


machinery to ensure imported
tractors suit country conditions.
Tractor registration and appropriate
after-sales service to improve
tractor durability.
Compliance with national and
international performance
standards to ensure high-quality
tractors.
Enforcement of safety standards
such as roll-over protective
structures and seatbelts.

Finance

Markets

Transport

Effective microfinance institutions


by balancing supervision and the
ability to take deposits.

Robust phytosanitary protection


framework, including national
surveillance activities, pest lists,
pest risk analysis and domestic and
import quarantine procedures.

Promotion of fair competition and


professionalism by establishing
quality criteria for access to the
transport sector through efficient
licensing and mandatory technical
inspections.

Reliable credit unions complying


with disclosure and liquidity
standards.
Payments and other financial
services accessible digitally and
through retail agents.
Electronic receipts issued by
warehouse operators that farmers
can pledge to secure a loan.

Efficient and affordable


requirements to export major
agricultural products, including
membership, licensing and pershipment documentation.
Laws that do not obstruct the
production or sale of agricultural
goods domestically and a legal
environment that facilitates the
establishment and commercial
operations of farmers
organizations.

Increased competition in the


domestic market by reducing
additional discriminatory
requirements and granting
transport rights to foreign trucking
companies.
Reduced market distortions by
discouraging queueing systems and
price interventions and promoting
freight exchange platforms for road
transport services.
Facilitation of cross-border
transport by harmonizing or
mutually recognizing road transport
standards among regional trading
partners.

How do regions perform?

and the Caribbean and Europe and

countries in the EBA sample from

Central Asia (figure 1.1). South Asia

the Middle East and North Africa

The regulatory quality and efficiency

and Sub-Saharan Africa show levels

regionJordan

of OECD high-income countries

of regulatory strength that are lower

combine fairly strong regulations on

stand out in all topics as measured

or equal to the EBA global average

seed and markets, with insufficient

by EBA, followed by Latin America

across all measured areas. The two

legal coverage in finance.

and

Morocco

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 OVERVIEW

Variation is also observed among

How do agribusiness regulations

The relevance of agriculture in

countries

vary across levels of income and

an economy varies significantly

agricultural development?

across countries. EBA uses a

within

region.

In

Sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya and


Tanzania perform above average,

classification

of
that

agricultural

good

A countrys regulations are linked

transformation

regulations in place for machinery

to its growth10 and development.11

agricultures

and finance, while Niger and

High-income countries have better

GDP and the share of population

Burundi are among the countries

agribusiness regulations across

dedicated

with fewer good practices in

the areas measured by EBA topics

countries are divided in three

agribusiness

than

groups:

driven

mainly

by

their

regulation

overall

(figure 1.2).

lower-income

countries

combines

contribution
to

agriculture.

to
The

agriculture-based,

(figure 1.3). The correlation found

transforming

and

between country income levels

Urbanized

and average scores is quite strong

average smarter regulations for

across topics.12

agribusiness than transforming

countries

urbanized.13
have

on

FIGURE 1.1 Regional performance on EBA indicators


Average score on EBA topics (0100)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
N/A

10
0
Seed

Fertilizer

Machinery

Finance

East Asia & Pacific

Europe & Central Asia

OECD high income

Middle East & North Africa

South Asia

Sub -Saharan Africa

Markets

Transport

Latin America & Caribbean


Global average

Source: EBA database.


Note: The EBA sample covers countries in East Asia and the Pacific (5), Europe and Central Asia (7), Latin America and the Caribbean (4), Middle
East and North Africa (2), OECD high income (5), South Asia (3) and Sub-Saharan Africa (14). OECD high-income countries are not measured under
the finance topic.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 OVERVIEW

and agriculture-based countries

economic growth and agricultural

What is the relationship between

(figure 1.4). As more data are

transformation.

efficiency and the quality of


regulations?

collected over time, measuring


agribusiness

regulations

and

reforms may shed light on the

EBA captures three key aspects of

relationships among regulations,

the agribusiness sector: operations,

FIGURE 1.2 In Sub-Saharan Africa, countries show different levels of regulatory good practices
Average score on EBA topics (0100)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Kenya

Tanzania

Global
average

Burundi

Niger

Source: EBA database.

FIGURE 1.3 High-income countries have regulations in place which reflect a higher regulatory quality
Average score on EBA topics (0100)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
High income

Upper middle income


Lowest

Highest

Lower middle income

Low income

Income group average

Source: EBA database.


Note: The EBA sample covers high-income (6), upper-middle-income (4), lower-middle-income (19) and low-income (11) countries.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 OVERVIEW

quality control and trade (see

has been demonstrated, it is not

promote

Methodology in appendix 1). Better

clear whether they come at the

the market work efficiently; they

regulation

access

expense of each otherwhether

are

contributes to firm creation, market

rules that promote easy and

substitutes. And countries with

efficiency

competition,14

nondiscriminatory entry into the

higher scores on operations also

with concrete evidence in the

market are compatible with rules

tend to have effective and more

agricultural sector.15 Well-designed

that enhance safety and quality

streamlined trade requirements

regulations

control.

(figure 1.6).

while

for

market

and

improve

enhancing

outcomes

quality

complements

while

helping

rather

than

agricultural
that

EBA also measures the efficiency

on

of administrative procedures, such

the quantity, quality, and variety

operations across topics also have

as fertilizer and seed registration,

of food at lower prices.17 While the

strong laws for quality control

with their corresponding time and

importance of these three areas

(figure

cost components. Countries with

data

productivity.16 Efficient rules on

EBA

exports and imports can improve

countries

clearly

show

performing

1.5).

Good

well

regulations

FIGURE 1.4 Urbanized countries have a better EBA performance than transforming and agriculture-based
countries
Average score on EBA topics (0100)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Urbanized

Transforming
Lowest

Highest

Agriculture -based
Group average

Source: EBA database.


Note: EBA countries are divided into three groups. Urbanized countries have a contribution of agriculture to GDP below 25% and a share of active
population in agriculture below 25%: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chile, Colombia, Denmark, Georgia, Greece, Jordan, Kyrgyz Republic, Morocco, Nicaragua, Poland, Russian Federation, Spain and Ukraine. Transforming countries have a contribution of agriculture to GDP below 25% and a share of
active population in agriculture over 25%: Bangladesh, Bolivia, Cte dIvoire, Ghana, Guatemala, Lao PDR, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Tajikistan, Turkey,
Vietnam and Zambia. Agriculture-based countries have a contribution of agriculture to GDP over 25% and a share of active population in agriculture
over 50%: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 OVERVIEW

stronger regulations for market

those in East Asia and the Pacific to

operations in a particular area

comply with similar requirements

display different levels of efficiency

(in regulatory quality) to register

in those processes. While some

fertilizer products (figure 1.8).

regions pay an efficiency cost


(in actual cost or time) to put
the regulations in place, others
combine regulatory strength with
procedural efficiency.
In registering new seed varieties,
for example, firms in Latin America
and the Caribbean pay a much
higher cost than firms in the Middle
East and North Africa to adhere
to similar rules that guarantee
an effective and safe registration
process (figure 1.7). Companies in
South Asia spend more time than
FIGURE 1.5 Countries with smarter regulations on market operations also promote quality control
EBA quality control score
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

EBA operations score


Source: EBA database.
Note: The figure compares the operations score with the quality control score. The correlation between the two scores is 0.70. The correlation is
significant at 5% after controlling for income per capita. The operations score is an average of the scores of indicators classified in the operations
category. The quality control score is an average of the scores of indicators classified under the quality control category.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 OVERVIEW

FIGURE 1.6 Better rules on market operations are associated with more efficient trade requirements
EBA trade score
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

EBA operations score


Source: EBA database.
Note: The figure compares the operations score with the trade score. The correlation between the two scores is 0.59. The correlation is significant at
1% after controlling for income per capita.

FIGURE 1.7 Regions with similar rules show different costs for registering a new seed variety
3.0

Cost to register a new


seed variety (% of GNI
per capita)

2.5

Latin America &


Caribbean

2.0
Sub -Saharan Africa

1.5

East Asia & Pacific

1.0

Europe & Central Asia


0.5
Middle East & North Africa

0.0
30

40

50

60

South Asia

OECD high income


70

80

Seed registration score


Source: EBA database.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 OVERVIEW

10

FIGURE 1.8 Regions with similar rules have different time durations in fertilizer registration
900

Time to register a new


fertilizer product
(calendar days)

800
700

South Asia

600
Europe & Central Asia

500
400

Sub-Saharan Africa

300
200

East Asia & Pacific


Latin America & Caribbean
Middle East & North Africa

100
0
0

10

20

30

OECD high income

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Fertilizer registration score


Source: EBA database.

Are agribusiness regulations

sector, EBA data cover the eligibility

regulations.

discriminating against the

of private companies to import

Georgia,

private sector, foreign or small

machinery,

fertilizer,

Zambia have the highest number

companies?

produce breeder or foundation

of non-discriminatory regulations

seeds

in

in place while Ethiopia, the Lao

investment

seed certification. The data also

Peoples Democratic Republic and

in agriculture by private sector

cover the possibility for foreign

Myanmar have the fewest (figure

enterprisesbig or small, domestic

companies to import fertilizers or

1.9). More than 95% of countries

or foreigncan generate such

perform transport activities in the

allow the private sector to import

benefits as higher productivity and

country. And they cover a minimum

tractors and fertilizers, but only

access to capital and markets.18

capital requirement to start a

a third allow them to carry out

But these benefits depend on a

farmers cooperative or a minimum

the seed certification process.

wide range of factors including

number of trucks to establish a

While 38 countries allow foreign

regulatory measures to improve

trucking company, which could

companies to transport goods into

both the business climate and

impede small players in the market

their country from outside, only

the

(see Alternative ways of presenting

4 allow them to transport goods

the data in appendix 3).

between two locations within the

Participation

and

effective

low-income

competition;

and

for

middle-income

and

register
be

accredited

country.

countries it is essential to avoid


discriminating against different

In general, countries perform well

types of investors.19

in terms of nondiscrimination,
with an average of 14 of 18

To

measure

regulatory

discrimination against the private

good

practices

embedded

in

the countries relevant laws and

Greece,

Poland,

Denmark,

Spain

and

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 OVERVIEW

11

FIGURE 1.9 Agribusiness rules in Greece are the least discriminatory, while Ethiopia, Lao PDR and Myanmar
have potential to improve

18

Greece
Denmark

17

Georgia

17

Poland

17

Spain

17

Zambia

17

10

Myanmar
9

Lao PDR
8

Ethiopia
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Number of good practices related to nondiscrimination


Source: EBA database.

Is regulatory information

(see Alternative ways of presenting

accessible for agribusiness?

the data in appendix 3).

Notes
1. Clark 2014; Van Stel and

Access

to

information

agribusiness

regulations

about

Denmark and Spain comply with 9

and

of the possible 10 good practices.

Across topics, EBA data measure

Burundi, Cte dIvoire, Ethiopia and

3. Gisselquist and Grether 2000.

whether

make

Ghana (with two) can still improve

4. Lio and Liu 2008.

regulatory information available

to make regulatory information

5. Freeman and Kaguongo 2003.

to the public, such as the specific

more accessible for participants

6. Spielman and others 2011.

licensing requirements, the official

in the agribusiness value chain

7. Langyintuo and others 2010.

fee schedule of various regulatory

(figure 1.10). While 75% of the

8. Literature on the association

processes

countries have official catalogs

between quality of regulation

of registered seed varieties or

listing

and

fertilizer

fertilizer products, fewer than half

considered agricultural inputs

make them available online.

includes Lio and Liu (2008)

into

the

products.

consideration

catalogs

Also
is

taken

whether

new

seed

one)

varieties

and

2001.

Rwanda

and

only

2. Gisselquist and Van Der Meer

requirements is also important.


governments

(with

others 2007.

or

the

productivity

of

the information and services are

and Kraay and others (2010),

accessible online or electronically

using governance indicators

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 OVERVIEW

12

FIGURE 1.10 Specific information on requirements for agribusiness are most accessible in Denmark and
Spain and least accessible in Rwanda

Denmark

Spain

Poland

Turkey

Bolivia

Philippines

Burundi

Cte d'Ivoire

Ethiopia

Ghana

2
1

Rwanda
0

10

Number of good practices related to access to information

Source: EBA database.

produced by Kaufmann and

average of EBA scores in the 6

others (2006) in 199 countries.

topics is 0.59.

9. High-income countriesChile,
Denmark,

Greece,

Russian

Federation

Spainare
under

the

not
EBA

Poland,
and

2007;

measured

2006;

finance

10. Divanbeigi and Ramalho 2015;

Papaioannou

Klapper

and

Sarria-Allende

11. Acemoglu and others 2005;


Aghion and Burlauf 2009.
between

income per capita and the

Johnson. 2005. Institutions

others

as a Fundamental Cause of

and

Long-Run Growth. Handbook

Fisma 2004.

of Economic Growth, 1A: 386


472.

2-6 for examples.


16. See endnote 8.

Eiffert 2009.

correlation

and

15. See papers cited in endnote

indicators.

12. The

Acemoglu, D., J. A. Robinson and S.

13. See note in figure 1.4.


14. Ciccone

References

Aghion, P., and S. Burlauf. 2009.

17. Mos and others 2013.

From Growth Theory to Policy

18. FAO 2014.

Design. Working Paper 57,

19. Global Harvest Initiative 2011;

Commission on Growth and

FAO 2012.

Development.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 OVERVIEW

13

Ciccone, A., and E. Papaioannou.

Gisselquist, D., and J. Grether.

Governance

2007. Red Tape and Delayed

2000.

for

Indicators: Methodology and

Entry. Working Paper 758,

Deregulating the Transfer of

Analytical Issues. Washington,

European

Agricultural Technologies to

DC: Brookings Institute.

Central

Bank,

An

Argument

Developing

Frankfurt am Main.

Countries.

The

World Bank Economic Review


Clarke,

G.

2014.

Does

Over-

Evidence from a multi-country

M. Baziger. 2010. Challenges


Gisselquist, D., and C. Van Der

firm survey. Academic and

Meer.

Business

for

Research

Institute

2001.
Seed

Markets:

LV14025.

Guide

Regulations

A Compelling Case for Private-

Good

Practice

Public Interventions to Promote

Policymakers.

Growth. Food Policy 35(4):

for

2015. Business Regulations

Paper 22817, World Bank,

and Growth. Policy Research

Washington, DC.

Governance and Agricultural


Global Harvest Initiative. 2011.
Enhancing

Private

Involvement

in

Agriculture

and

and Growth? Evidence from

Development.

the

DC: Global Harvest Initiative.

Data,

Rural

Sector

Reforms Stimulate Investment


Business

Washington, DC.
(Food

and

Agriculture

Washington,

Kaufmann, D., A. Kraay, and M.

N. Bottini and A. Foch. 2013.


to

Agricultural

Trade

of

Matters

IV:

Trade Policy Paper 142, OECD,

Indicators

for

Governance
19962004.

DC: World Bank.

Paris.
Sarria-Allende, V. and R. Fisma.
2004. Regulation of Entry

Investing in Agriculture for a


Klapper, L., L. Laeven and R.

and the Distortion of Industrial

Raghuram. 2006. Entry as a

Organization. Working Paper

Barrier to Entrepreneurship.

10929,

Market

Journal of Financial Economics

of

Private

82: 591629.

Cambridge, MA.

Better Future. Rome: FAO.


Freeman, H.A., and W. Kaguongo.
and

Mos, E., C. Delpeuch, S. Sorescu,

Developing Countries. OECD

of Food and Agriculture 2012:

Liberalization

50412.

Mastruzzi. 2006. Governance

Working Paper, Washington,

Fertilizer

Analysis. Food Policy 33(6):

Estimating the Constraints

Organization). 2012. The State

2003.

Productivity: A Cross-National

Infrastructure

200307. Working Paper 159,


Center for Global Development,

32331.
Lio, M., and M.C. Liu. 2008.

Working Paper 7299, World

Doing

Eastern and Southern Africa:

Fertilizer

Rural Development Working

Eiffert, B. 2009. Do Regulatory

of the Maize Seed Industry in

and

Divanbeigi, R., and R. Ramalho.

Bank, Washington, DC.

Langyintuo, A.S., W Mwangi, A. Diallo,


J. MacRobert, J. Dixon and

14 (1): 11127.

Regulation Lead to Corruption?

FAO

Worldwide

National

Economic

Bureau
Research,

Retail Trade in Kenya. Food


Policy 28(56): 50518.

Kraay,
M.

A.,

D.

Kaufmann

Mastruzzi.

2010.

and

Spielman, D.J., D. Kelemwork and D.

The

Alemu. 2011. Seed, Fertilizer

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and Agricultural Extension in


Ethiopia.

Ethiopia

Strategy

Support Program II Working


Paper 020, IFPRI, Addis Ababa.
Van Stel, A., D.J.Storey and
A.RoyThurik. 2007. The
Effect of Business Regulations
on

Nascent

Business

and

Young

Entrepreneurship.

Small Business Economics 28


(2): 17186.

14

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 SEED

15

2. SEED

STRENGTHENING SEED SYSTEMS


Imagine a farmer, Jelena, who sustains her family by growing corn and vegetables. A newly formed
variety release committee will release improved seed varieties in her country. With this reform, Jelena
will also be able to consult an online variety catalog indicating which varieties perform best in her
region. All seed sold in the country will be certified to ensure quality. With improved seed varieties,
subsistence farmers like Jelena can increase the yield and quality of their crops so that they can sell
the surplus on the domestic market.
EBA

seed

indicators

measure

to farmers in a timely manner

initial classes of seeds. The EBA

laws

and

regulations

on

and in sufficient quantity for

2015 progress report presented

development, evaluation, release

planting.2 Smarter

regulations

Ethiopia, where the public sectors

and quality control of improved

that include the private sector in

monopoly consistently resulted in

seed varieties. Improved varieties

the release process will provide

shortages of initial seed classes

are a key technology for improving

more transparency and incentivize

for

agricultural

the private sector to release new

agribusinesses.3 Regulations that

varieties in the country.

limit the private sectors access to

the

productivity.1 Smart

regulation of the seed sector can


ensure that laws and regulations
do

not

obstruct

the

timely

smallholder

farmers

and

initial classes of seed or genetic


Seed

development

stored

by

national

certification,

seed

gene banks reduce the resources

to the market.

indicator, is comprised of two

available to the private sector

componentsdevelopment

and

for developing new varieties.4 In

Seed registration, the first seed

certification. The first component

addition, protecting the property

indicator,

for

measures regulations that support

rights of seed developers spurs

study because burdensome and

the private sectors involvement in

further innovation.5

inconsistent

can

developing new varieties. This is

reduce the number of improved

particularly important since public

The second component of this

varieties that are released and

sector investments in agricultural

indicator

eligible for commercialization. In

research, including plant breeding,

the seed certification process.

countries that require registration

have declined in many countries

The

of new seed varieties, replacing

since 1997, leaving the task to the

certification

burdensome
smart

selected

regulations

second

resources

introduction of improved varieties

was

the

and

captures

aim

of

aspects

mandatory
is

ensuring

of

seed
the

regulations

with

private sector. In some countries

genetic purity and varietal identity

onespreventing

long

regulations

of seed varieties. But when the

limit

the

private

while

sectors role in the development

process

guaranteeing quality seedcan

of new seed varieties, preventing

overburdened public authorities

make improved varieties available

companies

and nontransparent bureaucracy

and

costly

procedures

from

accessing

is

government-run,

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 SEED

can delay the commercialization

whether

of new varieties and give rise to

perform it.

16

third

parties

can

countries (Ghana, Niger, Rwanda


and Uganda), certification of cereal
crops is mandatory, but there is

corruption. One way to ensure the


transparency of the certification is

The EBA country scores vary from

no official fee schedule for the

through the public availability of

28 to 94 points over all 40 countries

certification

costs associated with government-

(figure 2.1). This variation in scores

public sector.

run certification. Seed certification

has to do with the performance

by nongovernmental inspectors

of the countries in both the

Chile,

and

seed registration and the seed

Mozambique and the Philippines

burden on the public sector and

development

perform

speeds the certification process.

indicators. Overall countries tend

with scores over 80 in both the

to score better in the latter, which

seed registration and the seed

focuses on the protection of plant

development

breeder rights, the access to

indicators.

This

genetic material and initial classes

good seed laws are in place and

the

of seed and quality controls.

include provision for the flexibility

efficiency of the registration,

Nevertheless, some countries are

of the variety release committee,

including the variety release

exceptions, Bangladesh, Burkina

the transparency and efficiency

committee,

Faso,

of seed registration and seed

laboratories

reduces

the

The data cover the following areas:


Seed

registration.

indicator

measures

the

content,

Cte

and

certification

dIvoire,

Ethiopia,

by

Denmark,
the

best

and

In

the

Kenya,
overall,

all

certification

these

countries,

availability and frequency of

Ghana, Kenya, Lao PDR, Nepal,

certification

the variety catalogue updates

Nicaragua and Turkey score higher

required). They also support the

and the time and cost to

on the seed registration indicators.

involvement

activities
of

private

(when
sector

initiatives in the seed systems. But

register a new variety (which is


Countries can score lower or

a good score does not mean those

higher for different reasons. For

countries cannot improve in certain

and

the lowest performers, such as

aspects. In Chile, Denmark and the

indicator

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ghana,

Philippines the national catalogs

measures the protection of

Niger, Rwanda and Uganda, the

listing registered seed varieties

plant

the

low scores are often from a lack

do not offer information on agro-

access to initial classes of

of implementation of laws and

ecological zones. Moreover, Kenya

seed and germplasms, the

regulations. Laws in Bosnia and

does not have an official fee

licensing systems for public

Herzegovina, Ghana, Niger and

schedule for the certification of

varieties and additional testing

Rwanda establish variety release

seed varieties and Mozambiques

requirements

materials

authorities, but in practice the

national catalog listing registered

imported for research and

authorities are not operational. In

seed varieties is neither available

development.

addition,

addition, the lack of transparency

online nor updated according the

this indicator addresses the

in mandatory procedures also

countrys cropping seasons.

availability of an official fee

hurts a countrys overall score.

schedule for certification and

In four of the five lowest scoring

not scored).

performed

Seed

development

certification.

This

breeders

rights,

for
In

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 SEED

17

FIGURE 2.1 Countries mostly score better on seed development and certification indicators, while seed
registration proves more challenging
EBA seed scores
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Chile
Philippines
Mozambique
Kenya
Denmark
Morocco
Bolivia
Spain
Poland
Sudan
Turkey
Colombia
Georgia
Ukraine
Greece
Tanzania
Guatemala
Jordan
Bangladesh
Zambia
Cambodia
Russian Federation
Vietnam
Ethiopia
Tajikistan
Mali
Nepal
Nicaragua
Cte d'Ivoire
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Myanmar
Sri Lanka
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Uganda
Niger
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Ghana
Rwanda

Seed score

Seed registration score

Seed development and certification score

Source: EBA database.

Links between private and public

public actors. These practices help

by the private sector.

private breeders acquire varieties

sector breeding activities are


greater in the OECD high-income

In practice links between the private

developed or conserved by the

countries surveyed

and public sectors take several

public sector and benefit from

formsfrom

greater resources for their breeding

producing

breeder

activities (box 2.1).6

Plant breeders create new seed

and foundation seed developed by

varieties by crossing and selecting

public sector breeders and made

specific beneficial traits. Increasing

available to private breeders to

Regulations that best support

the number of sources from which

implementing licensing systems

private

private plant breeders can access

that allow private breeders to use

the breeding system are found

initial classes of seed produced by

local public varieties to multiply

in

the public sector supports private

and market their seed. Allowing

Georgia, Greece, Jordan, Kenya,

plant breeders involvement in the

private breeders access to genetic

Morocco,

countrys plant breeding system.

materials stored in the national

Philippines, Poland, Spain and

But restrictive regulations can

gene banks also supports effective

Sudan.

obstruct new variety development

collaboration between private and

sector

Cambodia,

involvement
Chile,

in

Colombia,

Mozambique,

the

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 SEED

18

tests are intended to measure

BOX 2.1 Good practices for involving the private sector in

the

developing new varieties

most countries, a new variety of

Should grant and protect plant breeders rights.

Should allow private companies to use local public

seed must also pass the value for


cultivation and use (VCU) tests,

varieties to produce breeder/pre-basic seed and

which identify the advantage of the

foundation/basic seed for the domestic market.

new seed over already-registered

Should conserve germplasm in national public gene


banks and make them accessible to the private sector
for research and development of new seed varieties.

varieties. The data from these


tests are reviewed by a scientific
committee, which either releases

Should allow local public varieties to be licensed

the variety or advises another

to private sector companies for multiplication and

official body that the variety is

commercialization in the domestic market.


distinctiveness,

uniformity and stability (DUS). In

varietys

Should facilitate the import of nonregistered materials


for research and development.

eligible to be released.
Across income groups, relative
registration costs are the lowest

By contrast, of the 40 countries

testing. Similarly, Bolivia, Bosnia

among

surveyed, 9 do not grant the private

and Herzegovina and Denmark

(figure 2.2). Registration costs

sector access to breeder seed of

do not have systems for licensing

among countries in this group

local public varieties (Bangladesh,

public varieties to private seed

show little variationexcept in

Burkina Faso, Ghana, Lao PDR,

enterprises for production and

Russia, where registering up to five

Mali, Nicaragua, Niger, Tajikistan

sale in the domestic market.

new varieties a year is freewith

and

Such

hampers

costs as a percent of income per

Turkey).

Nor

do

Burkina

practice

often

high-income

countries

Faso, Lao PDR and Nicaragua

commercialization

varieties

capita at 6% in Chile, 7% in Poland,

grant

foundation

bred by public sector institutes

8% in Denmark, 9% in Greece and

seed of local public varieties.

and universities, leaving newly

10% in Spain.

So breeders and seed companies

developed varieties on laboratory

access

to

are likely to market fewer seed

of

shelves rather than in crop fields.

In Bangladesh, Bolivia, Guatemala,


Morocco, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and

varieties.7
Registration costs vary the most

Ukraine the cost is well below

Countries such as Myanmar, the

among the lower-middle-income

40% of income per capita. But

Russian

and low-income countries

outliers such as Nicaragua, Sudan

Federation,

Tanzania,

and Vietnam, where costs reach

Ukraine and Zambia impose minor


limitations, such as preventing

In countries where registration

834%, 722% and 426% of income

private companies from importing

is compulsory, a new variety of

per

materials

and

seed must pass specific tests

lower-middle-income

varieties

commonly performed over one or

the income group with the most

without further government field-

more cropping seasons. The first

expensive registration for a new

for

development

of

research
new

capita

respectively,

make

countries

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 SEED

19

FIGURE 2.2 The lower-middle-income and low-income countries show the greatest variation in official
registration costs

Cost as % of GNI per capita

Income group average

800%
700%
600%
500%
400%
300%
200%
100%

Low income

Lower middle income

Russian Federation

Chile

Poland

Denmark

Spain

Upper middle
income

Greece

Turkey

Colombia

Sri Lanka

Bangladesh

Guatemala

Bolivia

Morocco

Ukraine

Zambia

Myanmar

Kenya

Cte d'Ivoire

Vietnam

Kyrgyz Republic

Sudan

Uganda

Nicaragua

Nepal

Tanzania

Cambodia

Mozambique

Ethiopia

0%

High income

Source: EBA database.

variety of seed.

Most countries have variety

ensure a flexible and effective

release committees

process may discourage breeders


from releasing new varieties. Of

There is also great variation among


low-income countries. In Nepal

At the end of the registration

the 40 countries surveyed, 39

and Uganda registering a new

process,

release

legally mandate the establishment

variety is free, whereas registration

committee

approves

of a VRC (although in Bangladesh,

costs reach 79% and 89% of

the results of several years of

Guatemala and the Philippines

income per capita in Ethiopia and

new

by

registration of cereal varieties is

Mozambique.

plant breeders in line with VRC

not mandatory). Among them,

standards.8 But a requirement

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia

to register a new variety of seed

and Niger have yet to establish

that is not supported by rules that

their VRCs in practice. To reduce

the

variety

variety
(VRC)

development

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 SEED

delays affecting the release of

20

BOX 2.2 Good practices for evaluating and registering new

improved varieties into the market

varieties

and the farmers, the registration


and release process needs to allow

Should include both private and public sector

seed companies to start producing

representatives in the VRC.

the newly released variety for the

VRC should meet after each round of DUS/VCU tests.

next cropping season (box 2.2).

Should allow new seed varieties to be released

In practice, this means that the

immediately after a favorable decision of the VRC.

release of a new variety by a VRC

Should maintain an up to date national variety catalog

should be possible before each

listing, with agro-ecological zones and available online.

cropping season starts. Among the


surveyed countries, 7 have a VRC
that is fully flexible and meets on

measure the involvement of the

PDR, Myanmar, Russia, Rwanda,

demand, and 22 have a VRC that

private sector in the variety release

Sri

meets after each cropping season

decision-making.

and

(table 2.1). Registration applicants

the

are thus informed about the VRC

stakeholders within the VRC may

decision far enough in advance to

raise private sector confidence

start production.

in the variety registration and

In addition to the VRC review and

release

36

decision, countries may require

In addition to the frequency of VRC

countries with an established VRC,

additional formalities that delay

meetings, EBA seed indicators

Colombia, Ethiopia, Jordan, Lao

the release of the new variety

In

representation

process.

practice,
of

Of

other

the

Lanka,

Tajikistan,

Vietnam

representatives

Ukraine

do

not

include

of

the

private

sector (figure 2.3).

TABLE 2.1 Variety release committees meet after each cropping season in most countries
VARIETY RELEASE

NUMBER OF

COMMITTEE

COUNTRIES

COUNTRIES

Meets on demand

Bangladesh, Bolivia, Colombia, Cte dIvoire, Kenya, Lao PDR, Nepal

Meets after each cropping

22

Chile, Denmark, Ethiopia, Greece, Jordan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mozambique,

season

Myanmar, Nicaragua, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Spain, Sri


Lanka, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, Vietnam,
Zambia

Does not meet after each

Morocco

Burkina Faso, Burundi, Georgia, Ghana, Mali, Rwanda

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Guatemala, Niger

cropping season
Established but does not
meet
Not established
Source: EBA database.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 SEED

21

FIGURE 2.3 In the majority of countries studied with a variety release


committee, the private sector is involved in the variety release process

Mozambique, Niger, Tanzania and


Zambia have variety catalogs, but
they are not updated after each

Number of countries

cropping season, so information


about new varieties is not released

as soon as it is available.

11

Bangladesh,

Burkina

Faso,

Ethiopia, Guatemala, Kenya, Mali,


Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Russia,

19

Tajikistan, Tanzania, Ukraine and


Vietnam

have

catalogues

national

that

variety

specify

agro-

ecological zonesareas indicated


No private sector
Less than half private sector
Half or more private sector

by the national seed registration


authority as regions in which
growers

can

expect

optimal

results for specific seed varieties.

Source: EBA database.

Specifying agro-ecological zones


without providing any additional

the country. Of the 40 surveyed

enables agricultural producers to

technical verification. In 14 of the

countries, 30 have a national

use new seed varieties properly

surveyed countries, the decision

variety catalog, but only 19 make

according to the soil, landform and

of the VRC does not automatically

it available online. Bangladesh,

climatic characteristics of their

lead to the release of the variety. In

Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia,

farms, increasing crop yields.

practice, additional administrative

Georgia, Jordan, Kenya, the Kyrgyz

formalities

Republic, Lao PDR, Mali, Morocco,

must

be

satisfied

for the variety to be released. In


Kenya a registration applicant will
be delayed on average 31 days in

BOX 2.3 Good practices for countries requiring mandatory

releasing a new variety.

certification

Once released, the information

accreditation) and private institutions (third-party

relating to new varieties should


be

accessible,

useful.9

EBA

reliable
seed

accreditation) to be accredited for the performance of

and

indicators

measure accessibility through the


availability of an online version of
the national variety catalog listing
the latest varieties released in

Should provide for an option for companies (self-

part or all of the certification process.


Should provide seed producers with official fee


schedules that detail the costs associated with the
certification performed by the public authority.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 SEED

22

Seed quality certification in

charge of inspections, testing and

all of the maize seed certification

surveyed countries is mainly

labeling. While this may slow the

process in Bolivia, Cte dIvoire,

government-run

certification process, it can also

Denmark, Georgia, Ghana, Greece,

improve the quality of new seed

Kenya,

varieties.

Vietnam and Zambia.

Seed

certification

subjects

Niger,

Spain,

Tanzania,

registered seed to controls and


inspections,

before

it

reaches

Regulations

that

allow

farmers and other agricultural

accreditation of nongovernmental

producers.10

inspectors

or

carry

certain

processes

Certification
commonly

include

out

laboratories

to

certification

Conclusion
Strengthening
through

seed

smart

systems

regulations

is

laboratory

activities can reduce potential

an

essential

analysis, packaging and labeling.

delays caused by an overburdened

the

creation

Most

(31

public authority (box 2.3). This

environment for the business of

of 40) establish a mandatory

option allows accredited private

agriculture. This years findings

government-run seed certification

companies to support the public

show that laws and institutions

system for cereal seed (figure

sector in the certification process,

are mostly in place, but with some

2.4). While quality control offered

increasing the speed and efficiency

differences

in

by government-run systems can

of quality control and ensuring

indicators

and

ensure the quality of seed sold in

that quality seed is delivered to

implementation of the laws. There

the country, efforts may also be

market on time.11 Seed companies

is room for improvement in all

hindered by the limited resources

and other private institutions can

countries surveyed, such as:

available to regulatory bodies in

be accredited to carry out part or

field

inspections,
countries

surveyed

component
of

an

the

enabling

developed

challenges

FIGURE 2.4 EBA countries with mandatory maize certification predominantly restrict its implementation to
public sector actors
Number of countries

31

19
12

Source: EBA database.

No mandatory certification

Mandatory certification

Third party accreditation not available

Third party accreditation available

to

in

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 SEED

23

provides transparent costs and

procedures

new

options for the accreditation

varieties to be available in

of third party inspectors or

1. Tripp 1998.

time for farmers and other

laboratories. In Burkina Faso

2. Langyintuo and others 2008.

stakeholders. In Bolivia the

the fee payable for seed quality

3. Enabling

variety

control is provided by law and

allowing

release

committee

includes an equal number

proportional

of public and private sector

area.

to

production

the

Business

of

Agriculture 2015.
4. Breeder seed is seed directly
controlled by the originating
or sponsoring plant breeding

representatives, and meets on

Notes

Transparent variety release

demand to prevent delays in

Improving laws and regulations

institution, firm or individual

the release of the new variety.

that

development,

which is the source for the

evaluation, release and quality

production of seed of the

plant

control of improved varieties is an

certified classes. Foundation

varieties developed by plant

important step. Research shows

seed is a progeny of breeder

breeders to ensure sustained

that improved seeds account for

or foundation seed, handled

breeding efforts in the country.

about 3050% of the increase

to maintain specific genetic

Tanzania, which already had a

in

purity

law granting and protecting

profitability of farmers. The seed

the rights of plant breeders

topic data can inform discussions

5. Fernandez-Cornejo 2004.

over

varieties,

on strengthening seed systems,

6. King and others 2012.

became bound by the 1991

indicating regulatory obstacles to

7. In

UPOV Act in November 2015.

the timely release of quality seed

Variety Protection title was

along with other factors, including

approved

that

limited public sector capacities

total of five Plant Variety

facilitates the private sectors

and the socio-economic conditions

Protection titles were in force

access to initial classes of seed

of farmers.

at end of 2013; UPOV 2013.

Laws

that

their

legal

protect

new

environment

affect

the

productivity

and

enhancing

and

identity

(USDA

2009, 1).

Nicaragua
in

no
2013

Plant
and

and materials for research and

8. Tripp 1997.

development

9. Rohrbach, Howard and Zulu

and

involves

private

sector

in

multiplication

the

companies

commercialization
public

varieties.

and
of

In

Cte

2004.
10. Aidoo and others 2014.
11. Gisselquist and Van Der Meer
2001.

dIvoire the seed law allows


nongovernmental entities to

References

be accredited by ministerial
decree for the multiplication of
plant materials.

Aidoo, R., J. Osei Mensah, B. Fenni


Omono and V. Abankwah. 2014.
Factors Determining the Use

A quality control system that

of Certified Maize Seeds by

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 SEED

24

Farmers in Ejura-Sekyedumasi

Economic

Municipality

Department

in

Ghana.

World Journal of Agricultural


2

Sciences

(5):

84-90.

Brief

19,

of

Economic
Service,

U.S.

Seed

Quality

Control,

In

Agriculture

Seed Industries in Developing

Research

Countries, ed., M.L. Morris.

Washington,

DC.

Lynne

Reinner

Boulder,

Publishers,

Colorado,

USA.

2004.

Langyintuo, A.S., W. Mwangi, A.O.

The Seed Industry in U.S.

Diallo, J. MacRobert, J. Dixon

Agriculture:

Exploration

and M. Bnziger. 2008. An

of

Information

Analysis of the Bottlenecks

Understanding

Markets,

Affecting the Production and

Certification and Seed Labels.

Industry

Deployment

Seed

Plant

Southern

Note

10,

of

Agriculture

Fernandez-Cornejo,

of

An

Data

on

J.

and

Crop

Seed

Regulation,

Structure, and Research and

in

Development.

Africa.

Agriculture

of

Eastern

Maize

and

Harare,

Zimbabwe:

Information Bulletin 786, U.S.

International

Department

Wheat Improvement Center.

of

Agriculture

Economic
Service,

Maize

and

Research
Washington,

DC.

Rohrbach, D., J.

Howard and E.

Zulu. 2004. Harmonization of


Gisselquist, D., and C. Van Der

Seed Laws and Regulations in

Meer. 2001. Regulations for

Southern Africa. In Seed Trade

Seed and Fertilizer Markets: A

Liberalization in Sub-Saharan

Good Practice Guide for Policy

Africa, eds., David Rohrbach

Makers. Rural Development

and Julie Howard. Michigan

Working Paper 22817, World

State University, International

Bank,

Crops Research Institute for the

Washington,

DC.

Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISTAT).


International

Union

for

the

Protection of New Varieties


of

Plants.

Variety
for

the

2013.

Protection
Period

C/48/7

prepared

Office

of

Plant

Statistics
20092013.

the

Tripp, R. 1997. Seed Regulatory


Framework

and

the

Availability of Crop Varieties.


In

Easing

Barriers

to

the

Movement of Plant Varieties

Union.

for Agricultural Development,

by

King, J., A. Toole and K. Fuglie.


2012. Complementary Roles

eds.,

David

Gisselquist

and

Jitendra

Srivastava.

Washington, DC: World Bank.

of the Public and Private


Sectors in U.S. Agricultural
Research and Development.

. 1998. Regulatory Issues:


Varietal

Registration

and

USDA (United States Department


Agriculture).

Seed

Materials

Resources
Service,

2009.

U.S.

Technical
Department
Natural

Conservation
Alexandria,

LA.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FERTILIZER

25

3. FERTILIZER

IMPROVING SUPPLY AND QUALITY


A farmer wants to diversify her crops by growing different vegetable products. The fertilizer she has
been using until now does not work well with this particular set of vegetables. The agro-input dealer in
her village has told her that none of the fertilizers available provide the proper suite of nutrients for her
vegetable crops. A fertilizer company is registering a new fertilizer product in the country suited for the
vegetables she plans to grow, but burdensome regulations require the company to interact with multiple
agencies to register the product and conduct fertilizer testing so that a national committee can approve
the application. This whole process takes more than seven years and the farmer will have to wait until
then before she can access this new fertilizer that can increase her yield.
EBA fertilizer indicators measure

requirements

can distort competition by limiting

laws

fertilizer product for the first time

the number of players and products

registration, import and quality

and

in the market. This indicator also

control

is

and

regulations

on

the

whether

They address factors important

Fertilizer registration ensures that

registration system by examining

to

and

governments have control over

catalogs listing registered fertilizer

selling fertilizer products, farmers

what types of fertilizers enter

products and whether they are

using quality fertilizer products

the market. It is important to

available online.

to increase their productivity and

provide market oversight through

governments pursuing regulations

a registration scheme, since the

The second indicator, fertilizer

that ensure the quality of products

effects of farm inputs may only

import

and

become apparent long after they

regulations for importing fertilizer.

are used.1 Inadequate nutrients,

Import requirements are important

heavy metals or other residues

because

fertilizer

found in fertilizer products can

is concentrated only in a few

products must be registered before

contaminate crops, animals and

countries, so most must rely on

they can be sold commercially.

humans.2 Farmers should be given

imports.3 This is because fertilizer

Registration of fertilizer products

assurance that the products they

is subject to economies of scale

is important because it brings new

use will not contaminate their

at every stage of the supply

and innovative products to the

crops and the environment. But

chain,

market while ensuring safety and

registration procedures should be

of capital and raw materials to

quality.

time- and cost-efficient to ensure

produce.4 Understanding import

that new products reach the market

requirements and the associated

in a timely manner. If registration

time and costs allow for a better

becomes lengthy and expensive, it

knowledge of the market. This

companies

products.

importing

effectiveness

of

fertilizer

markets.
In

The

many

first

registration,

countries,

indicator,

fertilizer

measures

the

registration

measures the transparency of the

fertilizer

to

the

register

period.

of

limited

to

time

requirements,

fertilizer

requiring

vast

measures

production

amounts

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FERTILIZER

26

products can stunt crop growth

the existence and accessibility

the private sector is allowed to

and

of an official fertilizer catalog.

import and sell fertilizer products.

lower crop yields, lower farmer

Allowing the private sector to

incomes,

engage in the domestic market for

income

fertilizer can result in more efficient

environmental

markets and lower prices.5 More

indicator also addresses labeling

requirements

private sector participation in the

requirementsimportant because

fertilizer, including the costs

market increases fertilizer access

labeling fertilizer bags increases

of registering as an importer

and use, which in turn raises crop

market certainty (since consumers

of fertilizer and obtaining an

yields and cuts reliance on heavy

know what types of products they

import permit.

food imports.6 This indicator also

are buying). Labeling requirements

addresses the cost and time to

give important information about

obtain import registrations and

a bags contents and the name

indicator measures labeling

permits. A quick and cheap import

of its producer. In addition, the

requirements, rules on the

registration process eases access

indicator looks at rules on the sale

sale of open and mislabeled

to the market while informing the

of open and mislabeled fertilizer

fertilizer

government of the players in the

containers. Governments should

practices

market within its borders.7 But

act to ensure that fertilizer labels

fertilizer quality.

import permits obstruct trade by

correspond to the content inside

complicating the import process

their containers to guarantee trust

Across the 40 countries surveyed,

and increasing the required time

between

sellers.10

fertilizer regulations range from the

and cost. This practice often

Aside from mislabeling, the sale

more strict and highly protective,

creates

between

of open fertilizer bags can also

limiting market access, to the

dealers

be harmful to consumers, as they

weaker or seemingly nonexistent;

supplying farmers.8 Since import

are susceptible to adulteration,

neither of the two extremes is

procedures vary across countries,

hurting

reducing

desirable. Bosnia and Herzegovina,

this indicator aims to highlight

farmers profits and increasing

Poland, Greece, Colombia and

the balance between control and

food insecurity.11

Spain are the top 5 performers in

indicator

the

measures

whether

bottlenecks

companies

and

development,9 leading
increased

and

even

This indicator focuses on the

problems.

This

private sectors role and the

buyers

and

yields,

The EBA fertilizer data cover the

The third indicator, fertilizer quality


assesses

regulations
on

government

and

preventing

Fertilizer

registration.

This

indicator

measures

the

quality

requirements to register a

fertilizer products from reaching

fertilizer product for the first

the

low

time, whether the registration

quality and counterfeit fertilizer

is limited to a time period and

market.

poor

practices

Adulterated,

for

importing

Fertilizer quality control. This

containers
for

and

monitoring

the regulatory areas measured by


following areas:

control,

Fertilizer import requirements.

and

efficiency needed to ensure a


strong market for fertilizer.

food

insecurities

crop

to

the fertilizer topic (figure 3.1).

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FERTILIZER

27

FIGURE 3.1 Sixteen countries have overall fertilizer scores above the sample average

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Bosnia and Herzegovina


Poland
Greece
Colombia
Spain
Denmark
Ukraine
Tanzania
Sri Lanka
Mali
Vietnam
Georgia
Jordan
Russian Federation
Guatemala
Turkey
Cte d'Ivoire
Nicaragua
Kyrgyz Republic
Bolivia
Sudan
Burundi
Myanmar
Rwanda
Lao PDR
Ghana
Cambodia
Nepal
Philippines
Zambia
Uganda
Bangladesh
Morocco
Kenya
Mozambique
Burkina Faso
Chile
Niger
Tajikistan
Ethiopia

EBA fertilzier score

EBA fertilizer scores

Fertilizer score

Fertilizer registration

Fertilizer import requirements

Fertilizer quality control

Source: EBA database.

Bosnia

and

Herzegovina,

across countries, with the time

Africa, both Kenya (a lower-middle-

Colombia,

Greece

and

Poland

needed to register a new fertilizer

income country) and Rwanda (a

have the strongest and most

product ranging between 15 and

low-income country) are among

efficient regulations for fertilizer

1125 calendar days, and the cost

the

registration. In these countries, the

ranging from 0% to 1,064.5% of

offering good examples to other

private sector is required to register

income per capita.

countries in the region that are not

fertilizer

products,

best

performers

globally,

performing as well.

registration

of fertilizer products has no time

Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,

limit

Colombia,

countries

The differences among countries

products are listed in an official

(Denmark, Greece, Poland and

are less apparent in fertilizer

catalog that is accessible online.

Spain), Kenya, Turkey and Rwanda

quality control. Twelve of the 40

Thirty-three of the 40 countries

are the best performers in terms of

countries surveyed require labeling

surveyed require the private sector

the fertilizer import requirements

fertilizer containers and prohibit

to register fertilizer. But only 17

measured. Regulatory bottlenecks

the sale of mislabeled and opened

of those have registrations that

for importing fertilizer, such as

fertilizer bags. All countries require

either have no time limit or have

licensing requirements, are less

labeling and most prohibit the

one that lasts at least 10 years. For

costly

these

sale of mislabeled products. But

fertilizer registration, the number

countries than in the EBA 16

22 of the 40 countries do not

of procedures varies significantly

sample average. In Sub-Saharan

prohibit the sale of open fertilizer

and

registered

fertilizer

and

the

EU

onerous

in

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FERTILIZER

bagsa practice that is common


because of affordability, but not
recommended because it hampers

28

BOX 3.1 Good practices for fertilizer registration


Should require private companies to register fertilizer

the ability to ensure high-quality

products. The registration would ideally be valid

fertilizer.

indefinitely.

In countries where the registration is limited to a

Registration takes less time but is

specific time period, the validity should be at least

most costly in countries where it

10 years.

needs to be done only once

In countries where the registration is limited to a


specific time period, the renovation of application

Registering new fertilizer products


is

good

practice

because

should be automatic.

it ensures that a country has


control over what fertilizers are

Develop efficient and affordable fertilizer product


registration.

used within its borders (box 3.1).

Should list registered fertilizer products in an official


catalog that is accessible online.

Controls are necessary to prevent


soil

damage,

environmental

pollution or adulterated fertilizer

It takes on average 258 calendar

the official gazette or journal. Of

use.12 And product registration

days to register a fertilizer product

these procedures, field testing is

allows

increase

in the 40 countries sampled,

the longest, as it can take place

market awareness, compile and

ranging from 15 calendar days

over many seasons, prolonging

share information with the public

in Vietnam to 1125 in Nepal

the registration process for several

and guarantee human, animal and

(figure 3.2). Countries which take

years.

environmental safety.

the least time usually require

countries

to

an

The time it takes to register fertilizer

Countries may require companies

application for registration and

products also depends on the type

to register fertilizer products in

a content verification report in

of registration. Registration takes

three ways: once in a lifetime,

the form of lab samples. Among

less time but is most costly in

re-applying

for

these

Denmark,

countries where it needs to be done

periodically

or

the

Guatemala, Nicaragua, Spain and

only once. Indeed, in countries

registration automatically renewed

Vietnam. Countries where fertilizer

where firms do not need to re-

after a certain time. Having to

product

the

register fertilizer (once-in-a-lifetime

register fertilizer products once in

longest require several procedures,

registration), the registration of a

a lifetime or having the registration

usually including an application for

new fertilizer product takes less

automatically

reduces

registration, content verification

timeon average 154 calendar

the burden on companies by

report in the form of lab samples,

daysranging from 54 calendar

not requiring them to have to go

field testing, an environmental

days in Bosnia and Herzegovina

through the process again.

report, approval by a national

to 578 in Tanzania. Registering

committee

a new fertilizer product for the

fewer

registration
having

renewed

proceduresusually

countries

are

registration

and

takes

publication

in

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FERTILIZER

29

FIGURE 3.2 The time to register new fertilizer products ranges from 15 to 1125 calendar days
Time to register a new fertilizer product

Income group average

1200

Time (calendar days)

1000
800
600
400
200

Low income

Lower middle income

Upper middle
income

Spain

Poland

Denmark

Greece

Russian Federation

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Jordan

Colombia

Turkey

Vietnam

Sudan

Nicaragua

Myanmar

Guatemala

Philippines

Sri Lanka

Zambia

Ghana

Ukraine

Kyrgyz Republic

Georgia

Bangladesh

Mali

Tanzania

Uganda

Nepal

High income

Source: EBA database.

first time takes on average 325

costing

179.7%

570 calendar days (table 3.1).

calendar days in countries where

of income per capita. Among

Countries where re-application is

a new application is needed to re-

countries

once-in-a-

necessary have a much lower cost

register. And where re-registering is

lifetime registration, Bosnia and

to register a product for the first

automatic, the time for registering

Herzegovina

time (85.9% of income per capita),

a new fertilizer product is the

with a negligible cost. Tanzania

as

highest398 calendar days.

is the most expensive, averaging

countries (3.7% of income per

1,064.5% of income per capita,

capita) (figure 3.3).

on

average
with
is

the

cheapest,

It is most expensive to register a

due to expensive costs for field

fertilizer product in countries with

testing, which alone costs 1,050%

once-in-a-lifetime

of income per capita and takes

registration,

do

automatic-registration

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FERTILIZER

30

TABLE 3.1 Cost and time to register a new fertilizer


COST TO REGISTER A NEW FERTILIZER (% OF GNI PER

TIME TO REGISTER A NEW FERTILIZER (DAYS)

CAPITA)
The cheapest

and the most expensive

The fastest

and the slowest

Spain

0.0%

Tanzania

1064.5%

Vietnam

15

Nepal

1125

Jordan

0.3%

Ukraine

717.3%

Sudan

29

Bangladesh

951

Guatemala

0.4%

Uganda

258.9%

Nicaragua

30

Georgia

765

Denmark

0.4%

Zambia

241.5%

0.5%

Ghana

89.2%

Bosnia and
Herzegovina

Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Denmark

31

31

Kyrgyz
Republic
Uganda

730

691

Source: EBA database.

500

200%

400

160%

300

120%
398.0

200

80%

324.6
100

40%

154.3

0%
Lifetime

Re-application needed

Time to register a new fertilizer (days)


Source: EBA database.

Automatic

Cost to register a new fertilizer (% of GNI per capita)

Cost (% income per capita)

Time (calendar days)

FIGURE 3.3 Registration takes less time but is most costly in countries where it needs to be done only once

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FERTILIZER

31

Only four countries require


companies to register as an

BOX 3.2 Good practices for fertilizer import requirements

importer of fertilizer but do not


require import permits

Should allow fertilizer products already registered in


another country (with good policies, regulations and

Registering

import

companies

quality and standards requirements) to be imported

allows countries to monitor the

without needing to be re-registered in the importing

supply

country.

of

imported

fertilizer

products (box 3.2). Having simple


and

affordable

processes is a good practice


that

allows

registration

competition

to import fertilizer for own use and sale.


and

Should require private companies to register as


importers of fertilizer in order to sell it. The registration

facilitates market access.13 Import


permits are primarily desirable for

Should allow private companies (including foreign ones)

would ideally not be limited to a specific time period.


In countries where the registration is limited to a specific

controlling potentially dangerous

time period, the validity should be at least 10 years.

chemicalssuch as ammonium

The cost of the registration should be affordable.

nitrate, a chemical that can be

Should allow private companies to import fertilizer

used for producing explosives.


But

onerous

requirements

for

without needing to obtain a special permit.


In countries where a permit is required, the permit should

obtaining import permits obstruct

not be limited to a specific time period.

trade andcreate unnecessary

The cost of the permit should be affordable.

burdens for importers.14


except

Twenty-five of the 40 countries

cost ranges from free of charge

domestic

studied require the private sector

to 58% of income per capita

fertilizer

to register as an importer of

(figure 3.4). Bolivia, Bosnia and

products for their sale. Ethiopia

fertilizer, and 12 of the 40 do not

Herzegovina, Colombia, Mali, Nepal

only allows domestic companies

require companies to obtain import

and Zambia are the six countries

to import fertilizer products for

permits. Only 4 countriesBosnia

that require fertilizer importers to

self-consumption,

practice

and Herzegovina, Cte dIvoire,

register and where the registration

only carried out by large agro-

Ghana and Kenyafollow both

is free, which is considered a good

industries. Bangladesh, Cambodia,

good practices. In countries where

practice. In import permits, the

Ethiopia, Myanmar, the Philippines

companies are required to register

cost variation is smaller, ranging

and Sudan are the only countries

as fertilizer importers and obtain

from no cost to 13% of income per

that prohibit foreign companies

import permits, the cost varies

capita.

from importing fertilizer products.

substantially across countries. To

All

studied

Ethiopia
companies

countries
allow
to

import

register as a fertilizer importer, the

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FERTILIZER

32

FIGURE 3.4 The cost to register as an importer ranges from 0 to 57.5% of income per capita
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer by country

Income group average

70.0%

Cost (% of GNI per capita)

60.0%
50.0%
40.0%
30.0%
20.0%

Low income

Lower middle income

Colombia

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Jordan

Zambia

Bolivia

Nicaragua

Cte d'Ivoire

Sri Lanka

Myanmar

Sudan

Ghana

Bangladesh

Kenya

Nepal

Burkina Faso

Rwanda

Mozambique

Uganda

0.0%

Mali

10.0%

Upper middle
income

Source: EBA database.

A majority of countries prohibit

fertilizer bags to be sold is not a

the countries that prohibit the sale

mislabeled fertilizer containers

good practice. Common in many

of open fertilizer bags, only four

and only one-third penalize the

counties where farmers cannot

Denmark, Lao PDR, Sri Lanka and

sale of open bags

afford to purchase entire bags of

Turkeydo not establish penalties

fertilizer, the sale of fertilizers in

for companies that do so.

Labeling fertilizer helps to ensure

open bags can be harmful since they

quality control (box 3.3).15 All

are susceptible to adulteration

surveyed

affecting crop yields, potentially

countries

except

farmers

profits

Conclusion

Tajikistan require companies to

reducing

and

A strong and competitive fertilizer

label fertilizer containers in order

leading to food insecurity.16 Instead,

market is extremely important

to sell them. And all surveyed

markets should adapt to offer

to a countrys agricultural sector

countries except Turkey have laws

smaller bags. Over half the surveyed

since this input greatly influences

prohibiting companies from selling

countries do not prohibit the sale of

farm productivity. Several external

mislabeled fertilizer. Allowing open

open fertilizer bags (figure 3.5). Of

factors not measured by EBA,

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FERTILIZER

33

BOX 3.3 Good practices for fertilizer quality control


Should require labeling of fertilizer containers (bags, bottles).


The regulations should specify the requirement to include the fertilizer brand name, net
weight or volume and a description of the content on the label.

Should prohibit the sale of mislabeled fertilizers.


A penalty for the sale of mislabeled fertilizers should be established in the regulations.

Should prohibit the sale of opened fertilizer containers.


A penalty for the sale of opened fertilizer containers/bags should be established in the
regulations.

FIGURE 3.5 Over half of the surveyed countries do not prohibit the sale of open fertilizer bagsand those
that do, do not always have a penalty for it
Percentages on the prohibition and penalties against the sale of open fertilizer bags
(number of countries)

22

13

17

Law prohibits the sale of opened fertilizer containers/bags


Law does not prohibit the sale of opened fertilizer containers/bags
Law establishes penalty for the sale of opened fertilizer containers/bags
Law does not establish penalty for the sale of opened fertilizer containers/bags
Source: EBA database.

such as international commodity

promote smart regulations that

for companies. Colombia sets

and

enable competitive markets in the

a good example with clear

fertilizer sector, such as:

registration regulations and

shipping

prices,

have

strong influence on the industry.

efficient procedures.

But the regulatory environment


also determines the health of
the fertilizer market. EBA aims to

Efficient

and

affordable

fertilizer product registration

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FERTILIZER

Streamlined import procedures

34

Fintrac. 2014. Assessment of

Notes

the

for the private sector, which

Environment

allow for timely availability

1. World Bank 2015.

for

of fertilizer. Kenyas import

2. Rutgers University 2006.

Agricultural Inputs. Thailand,

regulations allow the private

3. Hernandez and Torero 2011,

Vietnam

sector

to

import

fertilizer

Cross-Border
and

Washington,

2013.

products through an efficient

4. World Bank 2015.

Enabling

import

5. Gisselquist and Van Der Meer

(EAT).

registration

and

labeling

packaging

and

requirements,

which promote the sale of highquality

fertilizer.

exemplary

of

Cambodia.
DC:

USAID/

Agriculture

Trade

Gisselquist, D., and C. Van Der

6. World Bank 2015.


Compulsory

Tarde

2001.

licensing system.

Enabling

Vietnams

regulations

7. Gisselquist and Van Der Meer

Meer.
for

2001.
8. AGRA 2014; Keyser 2012;

2001.
Seed

Markets:
Guide

World Bank 2012.

Regulations
and

Fertilizer

Good

Practice

for

Policymakers.

for

9. Fintrac 2014; Liverpool-Tasie

Rural Development Working

ensuring

quality

fertilizer

and others 2010; Mujeri and

Paper 22817, World Bank,

establish

effective

labeling

others 2012; Pullabhotla and

Washington, DC.

Ganesh-Kumar 2012; Visker

mechanisms

and

penalize

mislabeled

and

opened

Hernandez,

and others 1996.


10. Gisselquist and Van Der Meer

fertilizer bags.

M.

Torero.

and

2011.

Market

2001.

A.,

M.

Fertilizer

Situation:

Market

Regulatory reforms are not easily

11. World Bank 2010.

Structure, Consumption and

accomplished and do not occur

12. Gisselquist and Van Der Meer

Trade Patterns, and Pricing

overnight. The complexity of the


fertilizer sector demands smart
regulations that balance the needs
of a competitive sector while
ensuring safety and quality for
human health and the environment.
The

fertilizer

topic

measures

regulations pertinent to companies

Behavior. IFPRI Discussion

2001.
13. Gisselquist and Van Der Meer

01058,

International

Food Policy Research Institute

2001.
14. AGRA 2014; Keyser 2012;

(IFPRI), Washington, DC.

World Bank 2012.


15. Gisselquist and Van Der Meer

. 2013. Market Concentration


and Pricing Behavior in the

2001.

Fertilizer Industry: A Global

16. World Bank 2010.

Approach.

and farmers in the areas of product


registration, import and quality

Paper

Agricultural

Economics 44 (6): 72334.

References

control. These indicators can be


used by governments pursuing to

AGRA

(Alliance

for

Green

Keyser, J. C. and others 2015.

improve their laws and regulations

Revolution in Africa). 2014.

Counting

the

Costs

to enable a competitive fertilizer

Improving Fertilizer Supplies

Compliance

sector.

for African Farmers. AGRA

Requirements from a Value

Brief 2, Nairobi, Kenya: AGRA.

Chain Perspective: Evidence

with

of

Trade

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FERTILIZER

35

from Southern Africa. Africa

Pullabhotla, H., and A. Ganesh-

Trade Policy Notes 32, World

Kumar. 2012. Review of Input

Bank, Washington, DC.

and Output Policies for Cereal


Production

Keyser, J. C., Eilitta, Marjatta,


Dimithe,

Georges,

Ayoola,

in

Bangladesh.

IFPRI Discussion Paper 01199,


International

Gbolagade, Sene, Louis. 2015.

Research

Towards an integrated market

New Delhi.

Food

Policy

Institute

(IFPRI),

for seeds and fertilizers in


West Africa. Washington, DC:

Rutgers University. 2006. Public


Health

World Bank Group.

Concerns

Hazardous

Materials

with
in

Liverpool-Tasie, S. L.O., A. A.

Fertilizers. The Soil Profile 16.

Auchan and A. B. Banful.

Rutgers, New Jersey: Rutgers

2010.

University.

An

Assessment

of

Fertilizer Quality Regulation


in Nigeria. Nigeria Strategy

World

Bank.

Support Program Report 09,

Development

International
Research

2010.

Africa
Indicators

Food

Policy

2010: Silent and Lethal: How

Institute

(IFPRI),

Quiet Corruption Undermines


Africas Development Efforts.

Abuja.

Washington, DC: World Bank.


Mujeri, M. K., S. Shahana, T.
T.

. 2012. Africa Can Help Feed

Haider. 2012. Improving the

Africa: Removing Barriers to

Effectiveness, Efficiency and

Regional Trade in Food Staples.

Sustainability of Fertilizer Use

Washington, DC: World Bank.

T.

Chowdhury

and

K.

in South Asia. Policy Research


Paper 08, Global Development
Network, New Delhi.

Visker, C., D. Rutland and K. Dahoui.


1996. The Quality of Fertilizers
in West Africa (1995). Muscle
Shoals, Alabama: International
Fertilizer Development Center
(IFDC).

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MACHINERY

36

4. MACHINERY

EXPANDING MECHANIZATION WHILE


ENSURING QUALITY AND SAFETY
Tractor accidents can be fatal and have dire economic consequences for poor farmers. Imagine a
farmer who spends all of the family savings to buy a new tractor in hope of improving her farmland and
increasing productivity. One day while working the field, she approaches a steep hill, and the tractor
rolls over and fatally crushes her. Stricter quality control and safety regulations such as requiring
roll-over protective structures and seatbelts on tractors could prevent these accidents and avoid the
economic loss that her family must endure.
EBA machinery indicators measure

The EBA machinery indicators

promote

obstacles

who

use agricultural tractors as a

services to farmers, appropriate

import tractors for sale. Besides

proxy to assess the regulations

government

meeting

facing

dealers

farm

mechanization
institutions

requirements

for

for

machinery.

responsible for standards, health

registration,

the

Agricultural tractors are the most

and safety need to be in place.3

measure

the

representative form of agricultural

Having national or regional centers

standards

and

machinery and are used at different

for impartial testing and evaluation

safety for operators of tractors.

stages of agricultural production,

of

Regulations

from land preparation to harvest.

standards and safety and other

The

with

requirements

the globe make tractor-related

international

indicators

across

tests ensure the quality of tractors

market affect the availability of

countries, unlike other forms of

and their suitability to country

appropriate machinery to farmers

machinery specific to certain crops

conditions.

and agribusinesses. Agricultural

or regions.

is another area where there are

import

the
and

indicators

also

regulations

on

mechanical

on
for

imports,
introducing

technology

to

the

agricultural

use

of

tractors

comparable

around

machines can increase production

agricultural
good

machinery

practice.

established

is

Conforming
national

standards,

Tractor

or

these

registration

significant differences between

since they are labor-saving and

Tractor dealer requirements, the

countries. Lengthy and expensive

directly

and

first indicator for EBA machinery,

procedural

production1 with more efficient

was selected for study because

competition, limiting the players

operations that can cultivate more

there are a number of prerequisites

and

land.2 Agricultural mechanization

that must be ensured at the

Providing

spurs

machinery

that

sales of spare parts and training

directly impact the availability of

on how to use a tractor safely and

high-quality tractors. To enable

correctlyare equally important.

the private machinery sector and

Having domestic support facilities

and

increase

rural

economic

ultimately

livelihoods.

yields

growth

improves

rural

dealer

level

requirements

products

in

the

after-sales

stifle
market.

services

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MACHINERY

37

Tractor standards and safety.

repairs

specific mechanization policies

successful

and market realitiesalso affect

These indicators look at legal

the agricultural machinery sector.

requirements for operational

Among the major constraints to

safety

safety,

increased levels of mechanization

standards of tractors.

machinery

are the poor access of farmers to

indicator, addresses national and

agricultural technologies (mainly

international standards on tractor

as a result of the high cost of

These

performance

and

mechanization inputs) and the low

at

how countries ensure that only

purchasing power of smallholder

agricultural

tractors

and

high-quality machines enter their

farmers to acquire machinery.

harvesters,

including

the

supply chain5 and that consumers

These

the

private machinery sectors role

are given unbiased information

demand by farmers and the supply

and the required procedures to

about tractors. Given that the

of machinery which, in turn, keeps

import.

agricultural

industry

prices high and stifles competition.8

is a global industry, with tractors

Also important, however, are the

For the machinery topic the laws

manufactured on one continent

unfavorable

that

and regulations appear strongest

and sold on another,6 international

machinery suppliers face in many

in EU countries (Denmark, Greece,

standards

countries and which is the main

Poland and Spain) and in the

focus of the current indicators.

Philippines (figure 4.1). All four

The

countries

that
is

offer
an

parts

and

element

of

mechanization.4
Tractor
the

standards

second

and

EBA

and

safety

machinery

also

help

facilitate

international trade.7

factors

limit

both

regulations

indicators

encourage

the

and

performance

Tractor import requirements.


indicators

aspects

of

share

importing

substantial

good

practices.

third

indicator

for

EBA

adoption of smart regulations that

number

machinery

focuses

on

the

enable competitive markets in

Denmark,

importing

the agricultural machinery sector

have strong regulations related

Local

while ensuring tractor quality and

to

safety.

requirements.

The

has

regulations

The

requirements
agricultural

for
tractors.

manufacturing

of

agricultural

tractors is concentrated in a
few countries and the majority

The data cover the following areas:

of

look

tractor

tractor

Greece
dealer

strong

standards

and
and

Spain
import

Philippines
and

for

safety.

The Kyrgyz Republic is among

of countries rely on imports.


Tractor dealer requirements.

the top performers in regulations

licensing obstructs trade in many

These

for tractor import requirements

countries, making it difficult for

legal

tractor importers to introduce their

suitability

Inefficient

and

costly

import

indicators

measure
for

but performs below average on

of

standards and safety. The two

products in the market. Balancing

agricultural tractors, specific

countries surveyed in the Middle

control and efficiency requirements

licensing required to operate

East and North AfricaJordan and

eases importing machinery.

a tractor, and warranties and

Moroccoscore

post-sale services that must

than the sample average, but

be provided at the retail level.

vary on some indicators. Jordan

Several other factors that are


currently not measuredsuch as

requirements
testing

slightly

better

has higher scores tractor import

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MACHINERY

38

FIGURE 4.1 Denmark, Greece, Spain, the Philippines and Poland have the top five scores in the aspects
measured by the machinery topic

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Denmark
Greece
Spain
Philippines
Poland
Russian Federation
Kyrgyz Republic
Ukraine
Kenya
Turkey
Morocco
Tanzania
Uganda
Colombia
Tajikistan
Sudan
Cte d'Ivoire
Georgia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Chile
Mozambique
Jordan
Nicaragua
Rwanda
Guatemala
Burkina Faso
Sri Lanka
Ghana
Zambia
Bolivia
Bangladesh
Burundi
Ethiopia
Mali
Cambodia
Niger
Vietnam
Myanmar
Nepal
Lao PDR

EBA machinery score

EBA machinery scores

Machinery score

Tractor dealer requirements

Tractor import requirements

Tractors standards and safety

Source: EBA database.

requirements but performs below

Most countries targeted require

components be registered, but

average on standards and safety

tractors to be registered, but the

this procedure is not required in

and on tractor dealer requirements,

cost varies

all surveyed countries. Of the 40


countries, 27 require companies

while Morocco has higher scores


on regulations for standards and

Registering imported agricultural

to register imported machinery,

safety

machinery

tractors

and only in Denmark is registration

requirements. The five countries

is a good practice because it

free. In the other 26 countries the

with the lowest scores across

establishes

registration

all three indicators are Lao PDR,

and

owners

tractors ranges from 0.03% of

Myanmar,

the opportunity to extend the

average income per capita in the

standard

Philippines to 34.7% in Sudan

but

insufficient

Nepal,

Vietnameach

Niger

import

and

demonstrating

such

as

ownership

provides

tractor

warranty

machines.

rights

periods

Many

for

room to adopt many of the good

their

tractor

practices identified by EBA.

manufacturers recommend that


original equipment manufacturer
(OEM)

engines

or

drivetrain

(figure 4.2).

cost

for

imported

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MACHINERY

39

FIGURE 4.2 The cost to register imported tractors is highest in Sudan

Cost to register imported agricultural machinery (% of GNI per capita)


40%
34.7

Average cost (% of GNI per capita)

35%

24.1

25%

18.4

20%
15.4
13.1

15%

Sudan

Cambodia

Jordan

Uganda

Tanzania

Nicaragua

Nepal

10.1 10.3

Bangladesh

Mozambique

7.0

Ghana

Burkina Faso

Sri Lanka

Kenya

Ukraine

Ethiopia

Kyrgyz Republic

Morocco

Colombia

Spain

Chile

Poland

Russian Federation

Greece

Denmark

0%

2.8 3.7
1.5 2.1 2.3
0.0 0.03 0.1 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.3 1.4
Philippines

5%

5.7

8.1 8.6 8.8 9.2

Zambia

10%

Bosnia and Herzegovina

% of GNI per capita

30%

Source: EBA database.

Few countries require importers to

countries,

private

where there is little control on the

test machinery

companies to obtain proof of

quality of imported goods, which

suitability

can lead to substandard imports.10

12
of

require
tractors,

costing

Some countries have machinery

from 1.1% of income per capita

Requiring

testing and evaluation centers

in the Kyrgyz Republic to 765% in

provide after-sales services is

to determine what machinery is

Tanzania.

a good practice since it gives

suited to country conditions and


can
of
out

enhance

the

productivity

farmers.9 Typically
according

to

carried

that

tractor

dealers

more security to buyers (box


Few countries studied require

4.1). Only seven of the countries

after-sales services by law

studied

legally

require

after-

sales services. Five of them

standards

established by national authorities

Farmers in many countries do not

Colombia, Denmark, Greece, the

or international standardization

have access to machinery after-

Philippines

organizations, these tests help

sales services, limiting their access

that dealers of agricultural tractors

farmers

select

to maintenance or spare parts. This

provide

machinery. Of the 40 surveyed

is especially relevant in countries

allow the return of poor quality

compare

and

and

Turkeyrequire

reparation

services,

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MACHINERY

40

BOX 4.1 Good practices for tractor dealer requirements


Should require compulsory testing of tractors in conformity with established standards


Should require tractor registration


The test/proof of suitability should be affordable.


The registration should be affordable and the process efficient.

Should require tractor manufacturers or dealers to provide post-sale services, including:


repairing tractors.

replacing or returning poor quality tractors.

supplying spare parts.

training users in operating tractors.

tractors and supply spare parts if

Requirements for import licensing

importers. This is a good practice

needed. Colombia also requires

and permits and incurred costs

because it gives public authorities

that machinery dealers provide

vary significantly across countries

a better understanding of trade


flows in the country and ensures

training on how to use a tractor.


countries

the quality of imported goods (box

agricultural

4.2). In addition, importers may be

and

machines

required to obtain a permit each

So

machinery

time they wish to import tractors.

imports

But import permits can often be

machinery dealers provide training

usually handled by the private

usedas trade barriers, creating

on the maintenance of tractors

sector. Many countries require

costly

(table 4.1).

companies to register as machinery

Among the 14 countries that

Morocco and Jordan require only

Few

developing

that machinery dealers allow the

manufacture

return of poor quality tractors or

equipment

provide replacements. None of the

domestically.

surveyed countries require that

acquisitions

rely

on

burdens

for

importers.

TABLE 4.1 Countries where post-sale services are required by law


REPAIR OF
TRACTORS

WARRANTY ON
TRACTORS

SUPPLY OF SPARE
PARTS

COLOMBIA

DENMARK

GREECE

JORDAN

MOROCCO

PHILIPPINES

TURKEY

Source: EBA database.

TRAINING ON
TRACTOR OPERATION

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MACHINERY

41

BOX 4.2 Good practices for tractor import requirements


Should allow private companies, including foreign firms, to import new and second-hand
tractors, as well as spare parts for sale.

Should require pre-shipment inspections of agricultural tractors at the port of export in order
to verify quality, quantity, price and classification of the imported good.

Should require private companies to register as importers of agricultural tractors. The


registration should not be limited to a restricted time period.

In countries where the registration is limited to a specific time period, the validity should
be at least 10 years.

The cost of the registration should be affordable.

Should allow private companies to import agricultural tractors without an import permit.

In countries where the permit is required, the permit should not be limited to a restricted
time period.

The cost of the permit should be affordable.

require machinery importers to be

Myanmar, the Philippines11 and

But many safety measures are not

registered, the incurred costs vary.

Sudanimpose both the cost for

required by law in most surveyed

They range from more than 35% of

registration as importer and the

countries. Only nine countries

income per capita in the Philippines

cost of import permit.

require tractors to be equipped

to minimal or no cost in Sri Lanka

with roll-over protective structures:

(0.2% of income per capita), Jordan

Most countries lack safety

Denmark,

(0.3% of income per capita) and

regulations that prevent injuries to

Spain, Kenya, the Philippines, the

Bolivia, Mali and Nicaragua (free

machinery operators

Russia, Turkey and Ukraine.

striking cost of 880.6% of income

Safety guidelines for machinery

Conclusion

per capita on importer registration

operators are a good practice

(figure 4.3).

because they can prevent or

Agricultural

reduce worker injury and damage

improves agricultural productivity,

Among the 13 countries that

to machinery, saving lives and

thereby enabling markets for rural

require

the

costs. Seat belts and roll-over

economic growth and improving

average cost is 4.6% of income per

protective structures have proven

rural livelihoods. There is still

capita. In Morocco and Rwanda,

to be 99% effective in preventing

much to be done in countries to

obtaining an import permit is free,

death or serious injury in the event

improve the enabling environment

while in Bangladesh the cost is

of tractor roll-overs in the United

for

over 40% of income per capita.

States.12

often

mechanization and move toward

Seven

countriesBangladesh,

operate on uneven ground, a roll-

the good practices identified, such

Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Jordan,

over is a constant risk for workers.13

as:

Greece,

Poland

and

of charge). Mozambique levies a

import

permits,

Since

tractors

successful

mechanization

agricultural

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MACHINERY

42

FIGURE 4.3 Mozambique and Bangladesh impose high costs on importers of agricultural tractors

Cost to register as an importer of agricultural machinery (% of GNI per capita)


880.6%

34.9%

4.7%

Burkina Faso

Sudan

Mozambique

4.3%

Philippines

3.8%

Bangladesh

2.8%

22.1%

Guatemala

0.9%

Cte d'Ivoire

Bolivia

0.3%

Ethiopia

Mail

0.2%

Myanmar

0.0%

Jordan

0.0%

Sri Lanka

0.0%
Nicaragua

18.1%

Cost to obtain a permit to import agricultural machinery (% of GNI per capita)


41.3%

4.4%

1.9%

0.0%

0.0%

0.1%

0.3%

0.3%

Rwanda

Morocco

Lao PDR

Jordan

Burkina
Faso

0.4%
Mali

0.9%

Ethiopia

1.3%

Russian
Federation

Sudan

Myanmar Bangladesh

Source: EBA database.


Note: Countries that require companies to register as an importer of agricultural machinery: Bangladesh, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cte dIvoire, Ethiopia,
Guatemala, Jordan, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Sudan. Countries that require companies to obtain a
permit to import agricultural machinery: Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Jordan, Lao PDR, Mali, Morocco, Myanmar, the
Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda and Sudan. Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Philippines were excluded from the lower figure because the
price of the import permit for agricultural machinery is calculated as a percentage of the customs value.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MACHINERY

43

Safeguard

availability

international

and

performance

of

machinery

for

agricultural

timely delivery of agricultural

standards.

tractors through streamlining

40 studied countries have

production. The machinery topic

import procedures. In Bolivia

established national standards

identifies and measures several

registering

tractor

for agricultural tractors, and

key regulatory constraints that

importer has no cost, and

10 stipulate that imported

can hinder farmers access to

importers are not required to

tractors should conform to

appropriate machinery. The topic

get a permit each time they

international standards.

uses agricultural tractors as a

as

Fifteen

of

the

proxy to assess the regulations

wish to import tractors.


tractor

for agricultural machinery. These

Ensure that imported tractors

operators by enforcing safety

actionable indicators are intended

suit

standards

roll-

as a starting point for discussion

structures

with policymakers on possible

facilitate and ease the availability

country

conditions

Ensure

safety

of

such

of

over

agricultural machinery. In the

and

Kyrgyz Republic regulations

in

require that tractors be tested

agricultural tractors must be

that might obstruct the expansion

to ensure their suitability to

fitted with a roll-over protection

of mechanization, the quality of

country conditions, as well

structure (ROPS) and require

imported tractors and safety of

as

with

that seatbelts must be fitted

tractor operators.

performance

where a ROPS structure is in

by

requiring

their

testing

compliance

established

standards. The cost of the test

protective

as

seatbelts.
Kenya

Regulations

stipulate

that

ways

to

constraints

address
and

regulatory

inefficiencies

use (box 4.3).

is minimal.
Laws

and

regulations

Facilitate tractor durability by

promote

requiring tractor registration

efficiency requirements can help

and

appropriate

both

control

that
and

after-

sales service. In Colombia


appropriate

after-sales

services must be provided


at the tractor dealer level. It

BOX 4.3 Good practices for tractor standards and safety


tractors comply with national quality and performance

is also required that tractors


must to be registered; the
registration can be obtained

standards.

Organization for Standardization, Organisation for

cost.

Economic Co-operation and Development).

Guarantee
tractors

Should require that national tractor standards be in


accordance with international standards (International

within two days at a minimal

Should require that manufacturers of agricultural

high-quality
by

requiring

compliance with national and

Should require that agricultural tractors be equipped with


a fixed roll-over protective structure and seatbelts.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MACHINERY

44

Management 22. Rome: FAO.

Notes

Brazil. Agricultural and Food


Engineering Technical Report

Ingle, C. 2011. Agricultural Tractor

1. Houmy and others 2013.


2. FAO and UNIDO 2008.

Test Standards in America.

3. Sims and Kienzle 2009.

The Catholic University of

4. FAO and UNIDO 2008.

America, Washington, DC.

7, FAO, Rome.
Kienzle, J., J. Ashburner and B.
Sims. 2013. Mechanization for
Rural Development: A review

5. Sims and Kienzle 2009.


Murphy, D., and D. Buckmaster.

6. Ingle 2011.

Rollover

Protection

of patterns and progress from


around the world. Integrated

7. OECD 2014.

2015.

8. Kienzle 2013.

for Farm Tractor Operators.

9. Faleye and others 2014

Cooperative

10. Sims 2006.

E-42,

11. The Philippines was excluded

Pennsylvania State University

of

from the graph 4.3 because

College

of

Experiences. Safety Science

the price of the import permit

Sciences,

Agricultural

for agricultural machinery is

Biological Engineering.

Extension

University

Park,

PA:

Agricultural
and

Springfeldt, B. 1996. Rollover


TractorsInternational

24.
FAO and UNIDO. 2008. Agricultural

calculated as a percentage of
OECD

the costumes value.

Crop Management 20.

(Organisation

for

Mechanization

Africa:

12. Murphy and Buckmaster 2015.

Economic Co-operation and

Time

13. Springfeldt 1996.

Development). 2014. OECD

Investment

Standard Codes for the Official

Agricultural

Testing of Agricultural and

Report of an Expert Group

Forestry

Meeting January 2008, Vienna,

References:
Faleye, T., A.J. Farounbi, O.S.

Tractors.

Paris:

Sims, B. G. 2006. Addressing the

An

Challenges Facing Agricultural

Essential Step for Developing

Mechanization Input Supply

Mechanization

and farm product processing.

of

Farm

Machines:
in

Nigeria.

International Research Journal

Agricultural

of Agricultural Science and Soil

Engineering Technical Report

Science 4 (2): 47-50.

5, FAO, Rome.

Houmy, K., L. Clarke, J. Ashburner


and

J.

Agricultural
in

Kienzle.

2013.

Mechanization

Sub-Saharan

Africa:

and

Food

Sims, B., and J. Kienzle. 2009.


Farm

Equipment

Chains.

Guidelines

Policymakers

and

Supply
for
Service

Guidelines for Preparing a

Providers:

Strategy.

from Kenya, Pakistan and

Integrated

Crop

Action.

Planning

for

Enhanced
Productivity.

Austria: FAO and UNIDO.

OECD.

Ogundipe and J.A. Adebija.


2014. Testing and Evaluation

for

in

Experiences

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FINANCE

45

5. FINANCE

EXPANDING ACCESS TO
FINANCIAL SERVICES
Imagine a successful farmer, Sophia, whose farm is in the Morogoro region of Tanzania. Sophia
exercises great discipline by making sure she saved a substantial part of the money from selling her
crops to pay for inputs and school fees as well as to deal with emergencies. But since there are no
banks nearby in the Morogoro region, Sophia, like most farmers in the region, keeps her savings at
home, where they are at risk of theft. This is about to change for Sophia and the other farmers since
banks can now hire local agents that represent them where their branches fail to reach. Sophia will be
able to deposit and withdraw cash, pay bills, transfer funds and obtain loans without needing to travel
hours to the closest bank. And access to formal providers will offer a wider range of financial services
as well as cheaper and safer transactions.
EBA finance indicators measure

for EBA finance, were chosen for

protection regulations that ensure

the quality of laws and regulations

study because MFIs and credit

that customers savings are safely

that promote access to financial

unions are important providers

handled.

services

the

of microcredit and other financial

agricultural

services to those who cannot

Formal financial markets fail to

that

access financial services through

reach most smallholder farmers

ensure the stability of the financial

commercial banks.2 They provide

in developing countries5 who live

system and protect customers

savings and credit for farmers and

far from urban centers and cannot

while promoting innovative ways

agribusinesses to purchase fertilizer

afford high transaction costs.6 Agent

of delivering financial services

and seed and pay for crop marketing,

banking and e-money, measured

help meet the financial needs of

storage and transport. But many

under the third and fourth indicators

farmers and agribusinesses.1 The

countries

appropriate

for EBA finance, offer farmers in

finance indicators address factors

legal framework to regulate and

rural locations access to financial

important to customers excluded

supervise those institutions.3 While

services without needing to travel

from traditional financial services

overly burdensome requirements

far to a bank. In agent banking

due to their geographical location

on MFIs and credit unions drive up

agents provide financial services on

or the type of collateral they have

the cost of their products, prudent

behalf of a bank in areas where the

available.

regulations flexible to the different

banks branches do not reach. Non-

activities farmers engage in can

bank e-money issuers can provide

cut the costs of financial services

payments, transfers and savings

microfinance institutions (MFIs) and

and

for those excluded from the formal

credit unions, the first two indicators

Regulations also include consumer

and

development
enterprises.

Regulation

support
of

Regulations

and

supervision

of

foster

lack

an

financial

inclusion.4

financial

system.7

Regulation

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FINANCE

46

requirements

Warehouse

receipts.

This

has not caught up with the rapid

protection

development of these new ways for

focusing

rate

indicator covers the existence

delivering financial services. Legal

disclosure and enrollment in a

and scope of rules regulating

uncertainty and nontransparency

deposit insurance system.

warehouse receipt systems,

on

interest

including

impede the growth of the market.8

insurance

and

Credit unions. This indicator

other performance guarantee

balance between maximizing the

measures

existence

requirements for warehouse

opportunities for agent banking and

and content of credit union

operators and the form and

e-money while minimizing the risks

regulations

content required for legally

that they bring.9

Regulators

need

to

strike

the

including

the

minimum

requirements

to

establish

credit

valid receipts.

union,

The fifth indicator for EBA finance

prudential ratios and consumer

Colombia has the highest score

addresses

protection

requirements

on EBA finance indicators, due to

similar to those measured for

strong regulations on credit unions,

MFIs.

e-money and warehouse receipts

systems.

warehouse
Farmers

receipt

often

lack

traditional collateral, such as houses

(figure 5.1).12 Colombias credit

or cars, required to obtain a loan.


Agent banking. This indicator

union regulations set minimum

farmers to obtain financing by

focuses on the regulations for

ratios to ensure financial stability

using their newly harvested crop as

allowing third party agents to

and require transparency in loan

collateral. Strong regulations protect

provide financial services on

pricing. E-money regulations set

the interests of both depositors and

behalf of commercial banks.

minimum standards for licensing

lenders and help build trust in the

It

and require issuers to safeguard

system. They ensure transparency

standards

and

customer funds and warehouse

and predictability required to attract

operate as an agent, type of

receipts regulations allow both

customers and financial institutions

contract between commercial

paper and electronic receipts.

to use or accept the agricultural

banks and agents, the range of

commodities

collateral.10

financial services agents can

The

The data11 cover the following areas:

provide and bank liability for

only country that scores above

agent actions.

average on all five indicators.

Warehouse receipt systems enable

as

Microfinance

includes

the
to

minimum

qualify

institutions

Kyrgyz

Republic

is

the

Other countries in the top 10 show


Electronic money (e-money).

vast differences in their financial

the regulations for deposit-

This indicator measures the

regulations. Kenya achieves the

taking MFIs. It measures the

regulations for the provision

top score on electronic money

requirements to establish an

of

non-bank

but has no system for warehouse

MFI,

issuers. It covers the licensing

receipts. Although the Philippines

and

standards,

scores 100 on credit unions, there


is no regulation for agent banking.

(MFIs). This indicator covers

prudential

regulations

e-money

by

operational

including

minimum

capital

adequacy

ratios

and

as well as requirements on

imposed

safeguarding funds collected

provisioning

rules

on MFIs, as well as consumer

by non-bank e-money issuers.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FINANCE

47

FIGURE 5.1 The Kyrgyz Republic is the only country that scores above average on all 5 indicators

EBA finance score (0100)

Morocco

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Jordan

Burundi

Myanmar

Sudan

Sri Lanka

Mozambique

Nicaragua

Cambodia

Lao PDR

Tajikistan

Mali

Niger

Cte d'Ivoire

Burkina Faso

Ukraine

Georgia

Ghana

Vietnam

Guatemala

Nepal

Uganda

Zambia

Rwanda

Ethiopia

Bangladesh

Bolivia

Kenya

Philippines

Turkey

Tanzania

Colombia

Kyrgyz Republic

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Source: EBA database.


Note: High-income countriesChile, Denmark, Greece, Poland, Russian Federation and Spainare not measured under EBA finance indicators.

Many countries impose overly

normally excluded from traditional

access to financial services.15

strict regulations on microfinance

banks.

Smart MFI regulations should

institutions and lack regulations

secure the financial stability of

to ensure the financial stability of

MFI regulations have to be more

MFIs while protecting consumers,

credit unions

stringent than those for banks.14

yet not be so restrictive as to

MFIs have higher administrative

reduce lending (box 5.1).

MFIs and credit unions provide

costs for each dollar lent given

access to credit and savings for

the limited volume and value of

Among the 30 countries measured

customers unable to obtain loans

microloans. And their portfolios

by

or open accounts at commercial

tend to be confined to loan products

24 allow MFIs to take deposits

banksdue

geographic

with substantially similar risks,

from the public while 6 do not.16

location, a lack of credit history

limiting the room for diversifying

MFIs that take deposits can offer

or low credit-worthiness. Whereas

portfolio risk. Microloans have

more services to customers than

MFIs take deposits from the public,

higher default risk since they are

credit-only institutions, such as

credit unions provide financial

not secured by collateral and the

savings accounts, which enable

services to members and often at

credit-worthiness

borrowers

the poor to manage emergencies

lower cost than banks and MFIs.13

is hard to assess. But overly

better, smooth consumption and

Both MFIs and credit unions reach

restrictive regulations can reduce

take advantage of investment

customers in rural areas who are

loans to MFI customers, hindering

opportunities. Deposit mobilization

to

of

the

microfinance

indicator,

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FINANCE

48

be

BOX 5.1 Good practices for MFI regulations


at

least

three

percentage

points higher than required for

Should require MFIs to maintain a capital adequacy ratio

commercial banks. Three countries

(CAR) that is equal to or slightly higher than the CAR for

set lower CAR requirements for

commercial banks.

MFIs, putting MFIs at greater risk

Should require provisioning schedules for unsecured MFI

for financial instability.

loans to be similar to or slightly more aggressive than



those for commercial banks.

Tajikistan scores the highest in

Should require MFIs to disclose the full cost of credit to

this area, where minimum CAR

loan applicants.

requirements for MFIs are the same

Should require MFIs to participate in the deposit

as for banks and both are bound

insurance system.

by common provisioning rules.


It also features strong consumer
protection

measures

such

as

also gives MFIs a stable channel to

been overdue for 150 days, while

requiring MFIs to disclose the full

scale up operations and outreach.17

banks are required to do so only

cost of credit to loan applicants

when a loan has been overdue for

and requiring MFI participation

one year.

in

Once a loan becomes delinquent,

the

system.

financial institutions must set

deposit
These

insurance
requirements

(provisions)

A capital adequacy ratio (CAR)

promote customer confidence in

usually a percentage of the loans

measures a financial institutions

microfinance

valuein

ensuring financial stability.

aside

is

reserves

unable

case
to

the

borrower

ability to withstand portfolio losses

repay.

Although

from

nonperforming

institutions

while

loans.20

provisioning helps MFIs maintain

Regulators

minimum

Of the 6 lowest scoring countries

stability in case of loan losses,

CARs to protect depositors and

on the MFI indicator, 5 are located

requiring MFIs to provision too

promote the stability of financial

in West Africa. Regulations in these

much too quickly leaves less

institutions.

Proportionately

countries do not set a minimum

money available to grant new

higher CARs should be required

capital requirement to establish an

loans. MFIs should be bound by

for

given

MFI and include overly restrictive

similar or slightly more aggressive

their riskier portfolios and higher

provisioning schedules for them.

provisioning rules than commercial

operating costs. But CARs that are

These countries also have no

banks.18 Of the 24 countries that

too high can reduce the number of

mandatory

allow MFIs to take deposits, 14

loans granted.21 Of the 24 countries

systems.

have similar provisioning rules

where MFIs are allowed to take

for MFIs and commercial banks,

deposits, 8 require the same CARs

While a majority of EBA countries

while 9 overly burden MFIs.19 In

for MFIs and commercial banks

that allow MFIs regulate them

Ghana MFIs are required to reserve

(figure 5.2). Nine countries impose

prudently, credit unions are not

100% of the value of an unsecured

discriminative rules against MFIs

regulated to the same extent.

microfinance loan if the loan has

by requiring that minimum CARs

Although

impose

deposit-taking

MFIs

deposit

credit

insurance

unions

take

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FINANCE

49

FIGURE 5.2 Almost half the countries that allow MFIs to take deposits require a higher capital adequacy ratio
for MFIs than for commercial banks

CAR Percentage points


CARMFI > CARCOMMERCIAL BANK

16

CARMFI = CARCOMMERCIAL BANK

CARMFI < CARCOMMERCIAL BANK

14
12
10
8
6
4

Kyrgyz Republic

CAR required for MFI

Nepal

Bolivia

Tajikistan

Sudan

Rwanda

Philippines

Cambodia

Kenya

Ghana

Burundi

Vietnam

Uganda

Tanzania

Lao PDR

Ethiopia

Zambia

Niger

Mali

Cte d'Ivoire

Burkina Faso

CAR required for commercial bank


Source: EBA database.
Note: The capital adequacy ratio (CAR) is defined as an institutions total capital to risk weighted assets. It aims to prevent institutions from taking
excess leverage and becoming insolvent in the process. International regulation recommendations encourage commercial banks to maintain
a minimum CAR of 8% to safeguard against portfolio losses. Excessively high minimum CARs can reduce lending capacity and appetite of an
institution. By contrast, a minimum CAR that is too low can result in financially unstable institutions. Therefore, a good practice is for MFIs to have
equal to or slightly higher minimum CARs than commercial banks. There is no minimum CAR required for MFIs in Bangladesh, Mozambique and
Myanmar.

deposits from and lend to only their

three of the 30 countries with credit

from loans with unfair or abusive

members, they should be subject to

unions regulate such ratios, and 8

terms,24

appropriate regulations to ensure

require credit unions to adhere to a

important for low-income and low-

financial stability and protect the

minimum CAR.

literate customers.25 But of the 22

deposits of their members (box

which

is

especially

countries that have regulations for

5.2).22 Credit union regulations

Transparent loan pricing helps

both MFIs and credit unions, only

tend to have various financial

customers

whether

11 require both types of institutions

stability

ranging

they can afford a loan.23 Requiring

to disclose the effective interest

from liquidity and reserve ratios to

financial institutions to disclose

rate to customers. Another 4

stable funding ratiossometimes

a loans effective interest rate to

require only MFIs to disclose

including a minimum CAR. Twenty-

a borrower protects consumers

their effective interest rates, while

requirements

determine

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FINANCE

50

BOX 5.2 Good practices for credit union regulations


Establish appropriate minimum capital requirements to establish credit unions.

Should define the minimum number of members to establish a credit union in regulations.

Should require credit unions to adhere to minimum ratios for financial stability such as capital
adequacy and liquidity ratios.

Should require credit unions to disclose the full cost of credit to loan applicants.

2 require only credit unions to

The financial sector is more

Of the low-income and lower-

disclose. The remaining 5 do not

inclusive in countries with

middle-income countries covered,

require either MFIs or credit unions

branchless banking laws

only 11 regulate agent banking.27

to disclose the effective interest

Among them, 7 adopt the good


Few banks open branches in

practice of allowing both exclusive

rural areas because population

and

The Kyrgyz Republic, the Philippines

density is much lower than in

between

and

highest

cities and the limited customer

institutions, while the remaining

on the credit unions indicator.

base hardly justifies the costs of

Regulations in these countries

operating a new branch. Rapid

(figure 5.3). Exclusive contracts

set prudent requirements that

ICT

spurred

promote innovation by granting

guarantee the financial stability

new ways to deliver financial

banks a monopoly over an agent.

of

include

services without relying on a

Nonexclusive

consumer protection measures.

local bank. Agent banking, also

agents to provide services for

All require appropriate minimum

called branchless banking, relies

multiple

capital requirements and a low

on agents that provide services

increasing access to financial

minimum number of members to

to rural customers through retail

services.28

establish credit unions. And they

points while remotely connected

set minimum ratios for financial

to a bank in a city. Alternatively,

It is good practice to allow agents

stability for credit unions. Each

payments and deposits can be

to offer a wide variety of financial

ensures

loan

made electronically through mobile

services (box 5.3).29 Although most

pricing by requiring that credit

phones or debit cards (e-money).

of the 11 countries measured allow

unions disclose loans effective

Both e-money and agent banking

agents to provide cash deposits,

interest

offer farmers more economical

withdrawals, transfers and bill

ways to access financial services

payments, only in Bangladesh and

so that they do not need to travel

Ghana can clients open a deposit

far to a bank branch.26

account through an agent.

rate.

Tanzania

credit

score

unions

and

transparency

rates

borrowers.

to

in

prospective

development

has

nonexclusive
agents

prohibit

contracts

and

exclusive

financial
contracts

contracts

financial

allow

institutions,

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FINANCE

51

FIGURE 5.3 Countries are at different stages of developing legal frameworks to regulate agent banking
activities

19

11

Countries with a legal framework on agent banking


Countries without a legal framework on agent banking
Countries allow both exclusive and nonexclusive contracts
Countries do not allow both exclusive and nonexclusive contracts
Source: EBA database.
Note: Thirty countries measured under the agent banking indicator include Bangladesh, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cte dIvoire, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Kenya, Kyrgyz Republic, Lao PDR, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, the Philippines,
Rwanda, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Uganda, Ukraine, Vietnam and Zambia.

BOX 5.3 Good practices for agent banking regulations


Should identify minimum standards to qualify and operate as an agent, such as real-time
connectivity to the commercial bank.

Should allow agents to enter both exclusive and nonexclusive contracts with financial
institutions.

Should allow agents to offer a wide range of services such as cash-in, cash-out, bill payment,
account opening and processing of loan documents.

Should hold commercial banks liable for the actions of their agents.

Finally, it is good practice to hold

hold commercial banks liable for

allows

customers

to

access

commercial banks liable for the

the acts of their agents.

savings, payments and transfers


through mobile phones.31

actions of their agents.30 This


ensures oversight of agents and

While both agent banking and

increases customer confidence.

e-money

and

Of the 28 countries that have

Among the 11 countries measured,

accessible financial services by

regulations on e-money, 16 allow

only Ghana and Ukraine do not

lowering delivery costs, e-money

businesses

enable

cheap

to

issue

e-money

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FINANCE

without having to hold a banking

52

BOX 5.4 Good practices for e-money regulations

license (box 5.4).32 While these


businesses still need adequate

Should allow both banks and non-bank businesses to

supervision, obtaining a banking

issue e-money.

license can be costly and is likely

Should specify minimum licensing standards for non-

to deter innovative actors from

bank e-money issuers, such as:

entering the market.

internal control mechanisms that comply with antimoney laundering and combating the financing of

Kenyas

strong

e-money

terrorism (AML/CFT) laws.

regulations are reflected in the

countrys top score. Thanks to

consumer protection measures and recourse


mechanisms.

high standards for licensing non-

Should require e-money issuers to safeguard and ring-

bank e-money issuers, regulations

fence customer funds by holding funds in a separate

protect customers against fraud

account at a regulated financial institution.

by imposing anti-money laundering


and combating the financing of
terrorism (AML/CFT) controls and

laws,

the

Comprehensive warehouse receipt

require e-money issuers to have

population is financially included.34

regulations are still limited for

consumer protection measures,

Regulations in these countries

the industry. Only 15 of the 34

such

recourse

typically combine clear minimum

countries measured under the

mechanisms. And they require

capital requirements with internal

warehouse receipts indicator have

issuers to safeguard customer

AML/CFT controls and consumer

laws regulating warehouse receipt

funds by setting aside 100% of

protection measures.

systems (figure 5.4).

money is readily accessible when

Few countries regulate warehouse

Performance

the customers want to convert

receipt systems

as requirements that warehouse

as

consumer

higher

share

of

what is owed to customers, so that

their e-money back to cash.

guaranteessuch

receipt operators file a bond with


Many

farmers

in

emerging

the regulator, pay into an indemnity

The relevance of e-money for

economies

traditional

fund and insure the warehouse

financial inclusion is shown by

collateral required to access credit,

and stored goods against theft,

Global Findex data on the share

so warehouse receipts can enable

burglary and natural disasters

of the poor population with an

farmers and agricultural producers

increase user confidence in the

account at a financial institution.33

to use agricultural commodities as

warehouse

This correlates positively with

collateral for a loan.35 And secure

Furthermore, insuring a warehouse

the licensing standards imposed

and reliable warehouse receipt

and the goods inside reduces a

on non-bank e-money providers

systems can enable farmers to

banks risk in lending against a

as

extend the sales period beyond the

warehouse receipt, which may

harvesting season (box 5.5).36

incentivize

measured

indicators,

by

the

suggesting

finance
that

in

countries with strong e-money

lack

receipt

banks

system.37

to

extend

credit.38 Of the 15 countries with

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FINANCE

53

BOX 5.5 Good practices for warehouse receipt systems


Should require warehouse receipt operators to file a bond with the regulator or pay into an
indemnity to secure performance of obligations as an operator.

Should require that warehouse and stored goods be insured against fire, earthquakes, theft,
burglary and other damage.

Should require that both electronic and paper-based receipts be valid.

Should define the information required to be stated on a receipt, including the location of
storage, the quantity and quality of goods and the information on security interest over the
goods, such as the certificate of pledge.

FIGURE 5.4 Three of the five top performers on regulations related to warehouse receipts are in SubSaharan Africa
Score on warehouse receipts (0100)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Kyrgyz Republic

Georgia

Bangladesh

Nicaragua

Guatemala

Bolivia

Colombia

Tanzania

Philippines

Zambia

Ukraine

Uganda

Turkey

Ethiopia

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Source: EBA database.


Note: High-income countriesChile, Denmark, Greece, Poland, Russian Federation and Spain are not measured under the warehouse receipts
indicator. Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cte dIvoire, Ghana, Jordan, Kenya, Lao PDR, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger,
Rwanda, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tajikistan and Vietnam do not have any regulations for warehouse receipts.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FINANCE

54

warehouse receipt laws, 12 require

smooth volatile income flows,

to have real-time connectivity

the warehouse operator to insure

better allocate risk and increase

to the commercial bank and

the warehouse and stored goods,

production. The EBA finance results

hold commercial banks liable

but only 7 require that the operator

show that there is opportunity in

for the actions of their agents.

file a bond or pay into an indemnity

many countries to improve laws

fund.

and regulations and move towards

Allowing non-bank financial


institutions to issue e-money.

good practices, such as:

Colombia requires non-bank

Of the 15 countries with laws


Implementing standards for

e-money

5 score 100 on the warehouse

microfinance institutions that

internal control mechanisms

receipt indicator, all having enacted

ensure stability and protect

to

specific warehouse receipt laws in

customers, yet are not so

laws and standards and to

the past 15 years. Three of the 5

restrictive as to limit access

safeguard 100% of customer

are in Sub-Saharan Africa: Ethiopia,

to financial services. Kenyas

funds.

Uganda and Zambia.39 Turkey and

microfinance regulations set

Ukraine also score full points.

a loan provisioning schedule

regulating

warehouse

receipts,

issuers

comply

with

to

have

AML/CFT

Fostering a legal environment

that is slightly more aggressive

that raises confidence in the

than that for commercial banks

warehouse receipts system

System Act of 2006 and Warehouse

and

microfinance

and the use of agricultural

Receipt Regulations of 2007 have

institutions to participate in a

commodities as collateral for

created an enabling environment

deposit insurance system.

loans. In Uganda warehouse

Ugandas

Warehouse

Receipt

requires

operators must pay into an

for the use of warehouse receipts


as collateral for loans. The laws

Establishing
and

minimum

indemnity fund and insure the

consumer

warehouse and stored goods

create licensing standards for

prudential

warehouse operators, including

protection standards for credit

a requirement to file a bond with

unions. The Philippines credit

the warehouse authority to ensure

union regulations set a low

An

fulfillment of duties and a second

minimum number of members

environment can improve access

requirement that all stored goods

to establish a credit union

to financial services for farmers

are fully insured against loss by

and require credit unions to

and agribusinesses. The challenge

fire and other disasters. The law

disclose their effective interest

is to strike a balance between

defines the content of a valid

rate to loan applicants.

stability of the financial sector

against theft and damage.


enabling

regulatory

and protecting customers, while

warehouse receipt and allows


enabling

increasing access to financial

environment for commercial

services. The finance topic focuses

banks to hire agents to perform

on a small set of regulatory

financial services. The agent

indicators that measure lending

Increasing access to financial

banking regulations in the

constraints

services is key to helping farmers

Kyrgyz Republic require agents

institutions and credit unions, the

receipts to be negotiable.
Conclusion

Creating

an

for

microfinance

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FINANCE

55

entry and operational requirements

services. This is not applicable

Chile,

for

to

Greece, Jordan, Spain, Turkey,

agent

banking

and

non-

high-income

countries

Poland and Russia) are not

whose

regulations for using warehouse

smallholder farmers have few

measured

receipts

These

obstacles accessing the formal

subindicator since commercial

indicators can help policymakers

financial sector. Data from

banks serve the needs of the

identify where regulatory reforms

the Global Findex database

majority of the population in

can improve access to finance for

show that, on average, more

these countries.

farmers and agribusinesses.

than 80% of the population

17. CGAP 2003.

of

18. CGAP 2012.

collateral.

high-income

and

Denmark,

bank e-money issuers and the


as

agribusinesses

Colombia,

countries

in the EBA sample have an

Notes

under

the

19. Myanmar does not set a

account at a formal financial

provisioning

1. CABFIN 2001.

institution. In addition, high-

microfinance loans.

2. CGAP 2012.

income

countries

have

MFI

20. Capital

schedule

adequacy

is

instruments to those covered

institutions total capital to

4. IFC and GPFI 2011.

by EBA finance indicators.

risk-weighted assets.

5. Besley 1998.

For

6. Poulton, Kydd and Doward

warehouse receipt financing,

22. Branch and Grace 2008.

term financing and working

23. Chien 2012.

7. Lauer and Tarazi 2012.

capital financing are widely

24. The annual percentage rate

8. Kumar and others 2006.

used in high-income countries.

(APR), an amortization table,

9. Alexandre, Mas and Radcliffe

Additional

will

or the total cost of credit

be designed to account for

including interest and other

10. Ammar and Ahmed 2014.

regulations governing relevant

charges were used as proxies

11. High-income

financial

for the effective interest rate.

and

Kloeppinger-Todd

2007.

2006.

2010.
countries

Chile,

Denmark,

Poland,

Russia

Greece,

and

Spain

instance,

instead

indicators

services

in

of

high-

income countries next cycle.


12. Colombia, along with all high-

26. Jayanty 2012.


27. High-income

and

EBA finance indicators and

income

countries,

data

measured under the MFI and

(Bosnia

agent banking subindicators.

Chile,

those

countries

are shown as N/A. The

not

financial

25. Chien 2012.

income

is

21. CGAP 2012.

are not measured under the


for

upper-middle-

as

ratio

developed alternative financial

3. Nair

defined

for

and

middle-income
and

uppercountries

Herzegovina,

Colombia,

Denmark,

EBA finance indicators were

13. WOCCU 2011.

Greece, Jordan, Spain, Turkey,

designed to measure laws

14. CGAP 2012.

Poland and Russia) are not

and regulations that promote

15. CGAP 2012; Cull, Demirg-

measured under the agent

access to financial services


for potential customers that

Kunt and Morduch 2009.


16. High-income

are partially or fully excluded

middle-income

from

(Bosnia

traditional

financial

and

and

upper-

banking
bank

subindicator
branch

since

penetration

countries

is high and branches are

Herzegovina,

accessible in rural locations in

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 FINANCE

those countries.
28. Muthiora 2015.

56

All. Challenge Magazine, 54 (3):

Responsible

11634.

Inclusion. Focus Note 78,


CGAP, Washington, DC.

29. Tarazi and Breloff 2011.


Ammar, A., and E. M. Ahmed.

30. Ibid.
31. Gutierrez and Singh 2013;
Jack and Suri 2011.
32. High-income countries (Chile,
Denmark,

Greece,

Poland,

Russia and Spain) are not


measured

Financial

under

the

and

Microfinance

Mobile

Banking

and

Cull, R., A. Demirg-Kunt and


J.

Regulatory

2014.
34. The correlation between the

2009.

Does

Regulatory Supervision Curtail

Melaka, Malaysia: Multimedia

Microfinance Profitability and

University.

Outreach? Policy Research

Supervision

Working Paper 4748, World


Bank, Washington, DC.

Besley, T. 1998. How Do Market


others

Morduch.

Issues.

and

EBA

finance indicators.
33. Demirg-Kunt

2014.

Failures Justify Interventions


in

Rural

In

International

Markets?

Demirg-Kunt, A., L. Klapper, D.

Agricultural

Singer and P. Van Oudhuesden.

Credit

percentage of poor population

Development, eds., C.K. Eicher

2014.

having an account at a financial

and J.M. Staatz.

Database

2014:

Financial

Inclusion

institution and the score on

The

Global

Findex

Measuring
around

Capacity

the World. Policy Research

an e-money issuer is 0.35. The

Building in Rural Finance).

Working Paper 7255, World

correlation is significant at the

2001.

Bank, Washington, DC.

5% level after controlling for

Framework for Regulation and

income per capita.

Supervision

standards to be licensed as

35. Hollinger, Rutten and Kirakov


2009.
36. Lacroix and Varangis 1996.

CABFIN

(Improving
An

Analytical
Agricultural

Gutierrez, E., and S. Singh. 2013.

Finance. Agricultural Finance

What Regulatory Frameworks

Revisited

Are More Conductive to Mobile

of

Series

4.

Rome:

Banking? Empirical Evidence

CABFIN.

from

37. Wehling and Garthwaite 2015.


38. Ibid.; Kiriakov and the QED
Group, LLC 2007.

Findex

Data.

Policy

Research Working Paper 6652,

CGAP (Consultative Group to Assist

World Bank, Washington, DC.

the Poor). 2003. Microfinance

39. Only 4 of 14 Sub-Saharan

Consensus

Guidelines:

African countries have laws

Developing

regulating warehouse receipt

for the Poor. Washington, DC:

Corporation) and GPFI (Global

systems.

CGAP.

Partnership

Deposit

Services

IFC

(International

Finance

for

Financial

Inclusion). 2011. Scaling up


References

. 2012. A Guide to Regulation


and Supervision of Microfinance.

Alexandre, C., I. Mas and D.

Bring Financial Services to

Washington, DC: World Bank

Washington, DC: CGAP.


Jack, W., and T. Suri. 2011.

Radcliffe. 2010. Regulating


New Banking Models that Can

Finance for Agricultural SMEs.

Chien,

J.

Disclosure

2012.

Designing

Regimes

for

Risk

Sharing

Benefits

of

Mobile Money. Georgetown

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57

University and Massachusetts

Developing

Institute of Technology.

Economies.

and

Transition

Finance

and

Development 33 (3): 36-39.


Jayanty, Sai Kumar. 2012. Agency

Wehling,

Philine,

and

Bill

Garthwaite. 2015. Designing


Warehouse

Receipt

Legislation:

Regulatory

Banking: New Frontiers in

Lauer, Kate, and Michael Tarazi.

Options and Recent Trends.

Financial Inclusion. Infosys

2012. Supervising Non-bank

Prepared in collaboration with

Finacle

E-money Issuers. CGAP Brief,

the Development Law Service

CGAP, Washington, DC.

of the FAO Legal Office. Rome:

Thought

Paper,

Bangalore, India.

FAO.
Kiriakov, Krassimir D., and the QED

Muthiora, Brian. 2015. Enabling

Group, LLC. 2007. Necessary

Mobile Money Policies in Kenya:

World Council of Credit Unions

Conditions for an Effective

Fostering a Digital Financial

(WOCCU). 2011. Model Law

Warehouse Receipts Activity.

Revolution. London: GSMA.

for Credit Unions. Madison,

United

States

Agency

International
Concept

Development
Paper,

Wisconsin: WOCCU.

for

USAID,

Nair, Ajai, and Renate KloeppingerTodd. 2007. Reaching Rural


Areas with Financial Services:

Washington, DC.

Lessons
Kumar, Anjali, Ajai Nair, Adam

from

Cooperatives

Financial
in

Brazil,

Eduardo

Burkina Faso, Kenya, and Sri

Urdapilleta. 2006. Expanding

Lanka. Agricultural and Rural

Bank Outreach through Retail

Development

Partnerships:

Paper

Parsons

and

Correspondent

Banking in Brazil. Working


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85,

World

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Discussion
World

Bank,

Washington, DC.

Bank,
Poulton, Colin, Jonathan Kydd

Washington, DC.

and
Hollinger, Frank, Lamon Rutten and

2006.

Andrew
Overcoming
on

Doward.
Market

Krassimir Kiriakov. The Use of

Constraints

Pro-Poor

Warehouse Receipt Finance

Agricultural Growth in Sub-

in Agriculture in Transition

Saharan Africa. Development

Countries. FAO Working Paper

Policy Review 24 (3): 24327.

presented at the World Grain


Forum 2009, St. Petersburg,

Tarazi, Michael, and Paul Breloff.


2011.

Russian Federation: FAO.

Regulating

Banking

Agents. Focus Note 68, CGAP,


Lacroix,

Richard,

Varangis.
Warehouse

and

1996.

Panos
Using

Receipts

in

Washington, DC.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MARKETS

58

6. MARKETS
ENABLING ACCESS

Huy, a farmer in Vietnams Mekong River Delta region, suspects a virus outbreak on his farm. If Huy
reports the threat to the local plant protection authority, he can receive the necessary treatments to
contain the outbreak and minimize the impact on his crop. So when the harvest comes he can fulfill
his obligations as a member of an agricultural cooperative, pooling his production with other farms
to sell to a local rice trader. Huy and his fellow farmers in the cooperative are interested in exporting
to more profitable foreign markets, but they face several obstacles in the process. Besides preparing
export documents and conducting expensive quality testing in order to sell in destination markets with
more stringent product standards, they must first obtain a Certificate of Eligibility for the Rice Export
Business issued by the Ministry of Industry and Tradeprincipally to state-owned enterprises and for a
limited time only.
indicators

market

obstacles

abroad.2 But where governments

second EBA markets indicator, is

agribusinesses face in producing,

require pest surveillance activities

comprised of three components.

marketing

exporting

by plant protection authorities and

The first component looks at the

agricultural products, as well as

impose reporting obligations on

regulation of agricultural sales

the strength of plant protection

the private sector, pest outbreaks

and purchases. Such regulations

measures.

can be dealt with promptly and

can take the form of licensing

crop damage minimized. Using this

and

Regulations on producers, buyers

information to prepare pest lists

for

and exporters of agricultural goods

and conduct pest risk analyses

certain agricultural products, or

can affect business growth and, in

enables governments to regulate

may involve special registration

turn, the growth of the agricultural

cross-border agricultural trade in

requirements

sector as a whole. Plant protection

a cost-effective manner, negotiate

production

regulation, the first indicator for EBA

access to foreign markets for their

licenses can impose an additional

markets, was selected for study

producers and issue valid and

regulatory

because reliable pest management

reliable phytosanitary certificates

market access opportunities for

and robust pest control at the

for

and

smallholder farmers. A second

border

with

exporters rely on the guarantees of

component analyzes the regulation

sectors.1

phytosanitary certificates to show

of farmers cooperatives. Farmers

Unmanaged and undocumented

that their products comply with

cooperatives

pest populations lead to crop

the plant health requirements in

overcome regulatory hurdles and

failures,

destination markets.

achieve

markets

EBA
measure

strong

regulatory
and

go

hand-in-hand

agricultural

smaller

harvests

and

contaminated products, hindering

access

at

home

exports.3 Producers

and

Production

and

sales,

registration
the

sale

or

the

requirements
purchase

for

agricultural

contracts.4
hurdle

help

economies

of

and

Such
hinder

producers
of

scale.5

Cooperatives allow members to

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MARKETS

59

regulations,

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chile,

access inputs at a lower cost

protection

through aggregate purchases of

including

and

Colombia, Greece, Poland and

seeds and fertilizers and to use

pest reporting obligations, the

Spain have the highest scores on

collectively owned equipment, such

existence and availability of

markets indicators overall, with

as tractors, harvesters and storage

quarantine pest lists, provision

only minor differences observed

facilities. Farmers cooperatives

for pest risk analysis and risk-

with

can also offer members services

based

impacting agricultural production

to facilitate sales, negotiate long-

domestic

and

and sales (figure 6.1). Countries

term agricultural contracts and

border quarantine procedures.

lagging behind on the overall score

surveillance

border

inspections,

containment

respect

to

regulations

tend to have more divergent results

enter lucrative and reliable value


Production and sales. This

with respect to each indicator, with

this second indicator addresses

indicator

issues

the majority of countries receiving

the enforceability of mediated

that can have an effect on

higher scores for the indicator on

settlement agreements and the

the

enabling

production and sales than for plant

ease

for

producers

chains.6 A final component of

addresses

environment
other

protection. For example, Burkina

agribusinesses in a country. It

Faso, Ethiopia, Mali, Myanmar,

considers (i) product-specific

Rwanda and Uganda all have

The third indicator for EBA markets

licenses to sell or purchase

scores for production and sales that

addresses the requirements for

agricultural products, (ii) the

are 50 or more points higher than

exporting agricultural products.

ability of farmers cooperatives

their scores for plant protection.

Regulatory bottleneckssuch as

to

and

Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

special licenses, registration and

take out loans and (iii) the

and East Asia and the Pacific

export documentationcan raise

enforceability

mediated

have the lowest scores for plant

transaction

settlement agreements, which

protection. In Sub-Saharan Africa

and

is a preferred method of

most countries do not have a list of

discourage private investment in

resolving disputes stemming

regulated quarantine pests, which

marketing and storage capacity.7

from agricultural production

is a key element when negotiating

Delays in obtaining mandatory

contracts.

with trading partners and for

of

resolving

contractual

disputes outside traditional courts.

specifically

costs
with

associated
exports

establish,

and

merge
of

managing

export documents can reduce

pests

domestically.

This

Countries in East Asia and the

damage or deterioration, especially

indicator, which is not scored,

Pacific tend not to allow risk-based

for

measures

phytosanitary

overall export volumes due to


time-sensitive

agricultural

Agricultural

export.
requirements

agricultural exports, including

products.8

mandatory

indicator

protection.
measures

on

import consignments.

memberships,
The strength of plant protection

documentary

regulation varies greatly across

This

requirements, including the

countries. Denmark and Chile have

key

time and cost to obtain these

robust plant protection regulations,

documents.

including pest surveillance and

trader-level
per-shipment

Plant

inspections

and

The data cover the following areas:


on

aspects of domestic plant

licenses

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MARKETS

60

FIGURE 6.1 EBA markets scores overall and by indicator


EBA markets scores
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Chile
Colombia
Greece
Poland
Spain
Georgia
Guatemala
Ukraine
Denmark
Jordan
Lao PDR
Mozambique
Bolivia
Nepal
Bangladesh
Kyrgyz Republic
Russian Federation
Vietnam
Tajikistan
Morocco
Ghana
Turkey
Cambodia
Nicaragua
Sudan
Zambia
Burundi
Burkina Faso
Uganda
Cte d'Ivoire
Rwanda
Ethiopia
Mali
Niger
Tanzania
Philippines
Kenya
Myanmar
Sri Lanka

Markets score

Production and sales

Plant protection

Source: EBA database.

reporting obligations, as well as

countries may impose potentially

countries across income groups.

pest containment and quarantine

burdensome

on

Fourteen countries require one

procedures

producers.

requires

membership or license to export

These countries carry out pest

coffee producers to be registered

the selected product, while Kenya,

risk analyses and make pest lists

to produce and sell coffee. And

Morocco and Sri Lanka require two

publicly available.

in

and Ghana requires three.

in

relevant

laws.

requirements
Nicaragua

Morocco

producers

must

meet certain minimum capital


a

In low-income and lower-middle-

Imposing

income countries, traders also

across countries as for plant

additional burdens and compliance

face longer delays to obtain the

protection,

costs can limit market access.

documents

Although the scores for production

requirements

and sales do not vary as much

farmers

differences

exist.

to

establish

cooperative.

required

for

each

export shipment (figure 6.2). On

In Nepal there are no licensing


requirements for potato production

Roughly half of the countries

average, it takes about twice as

or purchase, while Sri Lanka requires

surveyed impose at least one

much time to obtain per-shipment

coconut producers and buyers to

trader licensing or membership

export documents in low-income

register annually with the Coconut

requirement on exporters and there

and lower-middle-income countries

Development

is no significant variation among

than

Authority.

Some

in

upper-middle-income

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MARKETS

61

FIGURE 6.2 Time to obtain per-shipment export documents is greater in low-income and lower-middleincome countries on average, and it varies greatly within income group

Average time (calendar days)

Income group average

12
10
8
6
4

Low income

Lower middle income

Upper middle income

Spain

Greece

Poland

Chile

Denmark

Jordan

Russian Federation

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Turkey

Colombia

Guatemala

Nicaragua

Bangladesh

Bolivia

Kyrgyz Republic

Vietnam

Lao PDR

Philippines

Sri Lanka

Ukraine

Myanmar

Georgia

Kenya

Tajikistan

Ghana

Nepal

Zambia

Mozambique

Burkina Faso

Mali

Niger

Burundi

Tanzania

Cambodia

High income

Source: EBA database.


Note: Data on time to obtain per-shipment export documents are not available for Cte dIvoire, Ethiopia, Morocco, Rwanda, Sudan and Uganda.
These cases were excluded from the calculation of the averages by income group.

and high-income countries. But

In some countries exporters face

350,000 Cambodian riels (8.6%

significant variations exist within

lengthy processes and high costs

of income per capita) to obtain

each income group. Obtaining

to obtain export documents, as

the documents takes over 10

in Zambia, where a cereal trader

fumigation

days in Tanzania (low income),

must spend roughly 11 days and

quantity and weight certificate

Zambia (lower middle income)

1,135 Zambian kwacha (10.8% of

before they can export. But a

and the Russia (high income); it

income per capita) to get all the

fast process may also coincide

only takes 2 days in Burkina Faso,

required

including

with high costs. In Lao PDR a

Mozambique and Nepal (all low

phytosanitary

fumigation

coffee trader has to spend more

income), slightly below the average

certificates.

in upper-middle-income countries.

traders

documents,

face

and

Cambodian
similar

phytosanitary

certificate,

certificate

and

cereal

than 1,200,000 Lao kip (9.4% of

hurdles,

income per capita) to obtain the

spending about 7 days and over

phytosanitary

and

fumigation

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MARKETS

certificates, although

they are

62

risk and impose border controls

pests in the country.

accordingly at a higher or lower

issued in just 3 days, below the


average of lower-middle-income

Phytosanitary measures applied to

rate (box 6.1).12 PRA evaluates

countries. Conversely, a Russian

imports of agricultural and other

biological or other scientific and

cereal trader spends only 1,190

plant products at the border

economic evidence, often specific

Russian rubles (0.3% of income per

such as inspections, sampling

to a commodity or country of origin,

capita) but waits about 12 days to

and

and

to determine whether a pest should

obtain a phytosanitary certificate,

quarantine proceduressafeguard

be regulated and the strength of

a quality certificate, a fumigation

the domestic agricultural sector

any phytosanitary measures to

certificate and a health certificate.

against the entry, establishment

be taken against it.13 Of the 40

and spread of pests and diseases

countries studied, 31 provide for

Strong plant protection

across borders. But since border

a PRA procedure in legislation, or

frameworks correspond with

agencies have limited resources

have a designated unit to carry out

low time and cost to obtain a

to inspect and control every import

PRA. Seventeen countries allow

phytosanitary certificate

consignment, pest risk analysis

phytosanitary import inspections

(PRA) can be used to differentiate

to be carried out at a reduced

between consignments based on

frequency based on PRA: Bolivia,

Plant

protection

frameworks

laboratory

testing

consist primarily of phytosanitary


measures, which refer to any
legislation, regulation or official9
procedure to protect plant health
and

prevent

the

introduction

and spread of pests, diseases,


or disease-carrying or diseasecausing organisms and limit their
economic

impact.10 Pest

lists

BOX 6.1 Good practices for phytosanitary regulation


surveillance.

distribution and status to help land users to monitor and


treat pests.

The list of regulated pests is


publicly available for more than
half

the

countries

measured.

Chile, Denmark and Spain have


more advanced pest databases
available online that list the status
and geographic distribution of

Should establish a list of regulated quarantine pests and


make available on the website of the International Plant

indicating whether specific pests


are present in each country.11

Should establish a publicly available pest database


that lists pests present in the country and their current

phytosanitary certificates tailored


and facilitate trade negotiations by

Should require producers and land users to report


outbreaks of pests.

allow exporting countries to issue


to foreign market requirements

Should require plant protection agencies to conduct pest

Protection Convention.

Should mandate pest risk analysis by law or officially


task a unit to conduct it.

Should allow phytosanitary import inspections on a riskmanagement basis.

Should address both domestic containment and border


quarantine procedures in relevant legislation.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MARKETS

63

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia,

while the certification process

purchase

Denmark,

Georgia,

takes the least time to complete

or enter agricultural production

Greece, Guatemala, Jordan, the

in upper-middle-income countries

contracts.15 In Tanzania, sweet

Kyrgyz

(figure 6.3).

potato

Ethiopia,

Republic,

Mozambique,

Poland, Russia, Spain, Tanzania,


Turkey and Ukraine.
The

strength

of

phytosanitary

agricultural

producers

products

must

be

registered with the authorities


The enabling environment for

to sell their produce. In the

production and sales varies across

Philippines, purchasers of coconut

countries

products need a license from the

protection regulations can also

Philippine

Coconut

Authority.

agribusinesses

Many governments impose special

In Kenya, anyone engaged in

meet phytosanitary requirements

licensing regimes on the domestic

collecting, transporting, storing,

in

as

marketing of certain agricultural

buying or selling potatoes for

they enable producers to meet

plant products. These requirements

commercial ends must register

certain minimum standards and

can determine whether farmers are

with the Agriculture, Fisheries

demonstrate compliance.14 Strong

permitted to sell regulated crops,

and Food Authority. And in Turkey,

plant protection in high-income

or if those crops can be bought

producers must register with the

countries

corresponds

only by licensed buyers. Of the

authorities to enter an agricultural

with lower costs to obtain a

40 countries covered, 9 require

production contract.

phytosanitary certificate for export,

registration or licensing to sell or

affect

whether

destination

markets,

also

FIGURE 6.3 Obtaining a phytosanitary certificate is less expensive in high-income countries, but takes less
time in upper-middle-income countries
Average time
(calendar days)

Average cost
(income per capita)

2.5

1.6%
1.4%

2.0

1.2%
1.0%

1.5

0.8%
1.0

0.6%
0.4%

0.5

0.2%

0.0

0.0%
High income

Upper middle
income

Average time (calendar days)

Lower middle
income

Low income

Average cost (income per capita)

Source: EBA database.


Note: The EBA sample covers high-income (6), upper-middle-income (4), lower-middle-income (19) and low-income (11) countries.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MARKETS

Agricultural
marketing
improved

production
capacity
through

arrangements
but

BOX 6.2 Good practices for regulations related to agricultural

be

producers

cooperative

among

excessive

and

can

farmers,

initial

capital

smallholder farmers to establish a


limitations

Should allow farmer cooperatives to raise capital


through loans from third-party sources.

on the commercial operations of


farmers

Should allow farmers to establish cooperatives without


minimum capital requirements.

cooperative in the first place (box


Furthermore,

Should allow sales of plant products without productspecific licensing.

requirements can make it harder for

6.2).16

64

cooperativesraising

Should allow farmer cooperatives to grow through


mergers.

funds from third parties such as

commercial banks, or merging

Should enable prompt and effective dispute resolution


through enforceable mediated settlement agreements.

with other farmers cooperatives


hinder

growth

and

marketing

potential.17 Of the 40 countries

projected

farmers.

extrajudicial mediation to have

studied, most do not restrict

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR)

the same enforceability as a court

third-party

mergers

mechanisms, such as mediation,

decision. In 8 of those countries

between farmers cooperatives.

conciliation, expert determination

a settlement agreement reached

But in Morocco, the Philippines

and arbitration, offer means to

through

and Turkey the law establishes a

resolve disputes more promptly

automatically

minimum capital requirement for

and effectively than traditional

binding force as a court judgment.

the creation of a cooperative. This

court procedures, and as a result

Four of those countries are located

requirement is highest in Turkey,

preserve business relationships

in Latin America and the Caribbean

where shareholders are required to

and

(Bolivia,

form a minimum capital of 50,000

cost, length and complexity of

Nicaragua). In the remaining 14 the

Turkish lire, equivalent to 219.2% of

traditional court procedures can

settlement agreement can be filed

income per capita, just to register

heighten

ADR

with a court or notarized to acquire

and establish a cooperative.18

facilitated by a neutral third party

the same enforceability as a court

is more consensual, collaborative

judgment and bind the parties

and practical in nature.20

accordingly. Six of those countries

loans

or

In marketing agricultural products,

sales

for

livelihoods.19 Whereas

disagreements,

the

extrajudicial
has

Chile,

mediation
the

Colombia

same

and

are located in Sub-Saharan Africa,

disagreements may arise between


farmers and buyers over prices,

The legal force of any settlement

2 in East Asia and the Pacific, 2 in

product quality or delays in delivery

agreement reached through ADR

the Middle East and North Africa,

or payment. Disagreements can

can be an important consideration

1 in Europe and Central Asia and

be potentially fatal for production

for

dispute

the remaining 3 are OECD high-

contracts, which rely on long-

settlement. Of the 40 countries

income countries. In 18 countries a

term positive relationships and

surveyed

successful extrajudicial mediation

may account for all current and

agreements

parties
22

seeking
allow
reached

settlement
through

can

result

in

settlement

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MARKETS

65

agreement with the binding value

More trader-level export

imposed in the countries where

of a contract between the parties.

requirements apply to cash crops

cash crops were studied (figure

In case of a breach, enforcement

than to other product groups

6.5). In Kenya, Rwanda and Sri


Lanka, where tea was selected

would thus require civil litigation


first to establish the validity of the

Many governments impose trader-

as the export product, exporters

agreement (or contract) and then

level licensing regimes on the

must maintain membership of

to establish a breach. Thirty-eight

export of agricultural products.

and pay annual fees to a specific

countries offer the opportunity to

When analyzed by product type,

organization to source tea for

seek mediation during the course

cash crops stand out as being

export through an auction in the

of judicial proceedings upon a

subject to more membership and

respective

referral by the court or at the

licensing requirements to export,

might also have to register or

parties own initiative.

increasing the associated costs

obtain an export license from a

(figure 6.4).21

public

country.

agency

Exporters

responsible

for

affairs related to tea. In Kenya tea


Similar trader-level licensing and

exporters must register annually

membership

with the Tea Directorate to obtain

requirements

are

FIGURE 6.4 Cash crops are subject to more trader licensing and membership requirements than other product
groups and thus to higher costs

Number

Cost
(income per capita)

1.4

80%

1.2

70%
60%

1.0

50%

0.8

40%
0.6

30%

0.4

20%

0.2

Average number of
trader licensing and
membership
requirements

Average cost of
trader licensing and
membership
requirements
(income per capita)

10%
0%

0.0
Cash crops

Fruits

Vegetables

Cereals

Source: EBA database.


Note: Cash crops were studied for Burundi (coffee), Colombia (coffee), Cte dIvoire (cocoa), Ethiopia (coffee), Ghana (cocoa), Kenya (tea), Lao PDR
(coffee), Nepal (nutmeg, mace and cardamom), Nicaragua (coffee), Rwanda (tea), Sri Lanka (tea), Uganda (coffee). Data on cost of trader-level licensing and membership requirements are not available for Morocco and Tanzania, which were excluded from the calculation of the averages by product
group.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MARKETS

66

FIGURE 6.5 Similar trader licensing and membership requirements are imposed in countries where cash
crops are studied
Number

Cost
(income per capita)
300%

250%
200%

150%
100%

50%
0%
Rwanda
(tea)

Sri Lanka
(tea)

Kenya
(tea)

Nepal
(nutmeg, mace
and cardamom)

Lao PDR
(Coffee)

Uganda
(Coffee)

Nicaragua
(Coffee)

Ethiopia
(Coffee)

Colombia
(Coffee)

Burundi
(Coffee)

Cte d'Ivoire
(cocoa beans)

Ghana
(cocoa beans)

Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)


Trader licensing and membership requirements (cost, income per capita)

Source: EBA database.

and Nicaragua (free of charge).

the right to export and be members

all countries except Lao PDR

of the East African Tea Trade

impose an export license or its

Association to purchase tea at the

equivalent. Coffee exporters in

Between the two countries where

Mombasa Tea Auction. In Sri Lanka

Colombia must register with the

EBA studied cocoa bean exports,

both an annual export license

Registro Nacional de Exportadores

Ghana

issued by the Sri Lanka Tea Board

de Caf. Exporters in Ethiopia must

requirements for exporters than

and a pass to the Colombo Tea

obtain a certificate of competence

Cte dIvoire. In Ghana cocoa

Auction from the Ceylon Chamber

from the Ministry of Agriculture

exporters

of Commerce are required to

and Rural Development every year.

of

export tea. The situation is similar

Despite similarities in licensing

Commerce and are required to

in Rwanda, where the associated

regimes, the incurred costs vary

obtain an export license from the

costs are equivalent to $1602.30

greatly among countries. They

Ghana Cocoa Board as well as

(246.5% of income per capita).

range from greater than 85% of

an annual accreditation by the

income per capita in Burundi and

Plant Protection and Regulatory

For coffeethe cash crop selected

Uganda to minimal or no cost

Services Directorate, leading to

for Burundi, Colombia, Ethiopia,

in Ethiopia (1.6% of income per

Lao PDR, Nicaragua and Uganda

capita), Colombia (free of charge)

to approximately $2,345.60 or

the

has

established

must

be

Federation

cumulative

cost

more

members
of

Cocoa

equivalent

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MARKETS

67

150.3% of income per capita. In

for

relevant

import quarantine procedures.

Cte dIvoire, by contrast, an export

countries and strengthen cross-

Plant protection laws and

license granted by the Conseil du

border value chains.24

regulations in Nepal require

agribusinesses

in

the government to conduct

Caf-Cacao costs roughly $198.30


or 12.8% of income per capita, and

The

measured

pest surveillance and pest

is the only requirement imposed on

(Denmark, Greece, Poland and

risk analysis and make a list

the trader level.

Spain) illustrate this integration.

of regulated quarantine pests

While agribusinesses in these

publicly available.

EU

countries

Per-shipment requirements have

countries can export to other

a lower time and cost under a

EU

bilateral or regional agreement

documentation, if they choose to

the

export the same consignment to a

of

Regional and bilateral economic

non-EU country, it takes on average

domestically.

integration

preferential

two days and 0.2% of income per

the

trade agreements (PTAs) typically

capita to complete the required

do not require a product-

reduces

per-

documents.25 In other countries

specific license to engage

shipment requirements to export.

the time and cost associated

in an agricultural production

PTAs aim to reduce or remove tariff

with

contract, or to sell or purchase

and non-tariff barriers to trade

requirements are generally lower

in goods, services and finances

when

between participating countries.22

products to regional or bilateral

They have grown in number and

trading partners (figure 6.6).26

through

the

number

of

countries

without

mandatory
exporting

special

document

production

or

sale

agricultural
40

goods

Thirty-one

countries

of

studied

the contracted product.

agricultural

legal

that

environment

supports

cooperatives.

coverage in recent years and may


extend to the integration and

Laws that do not obstruct

farmers

In

Zambia

there is no minimum capital

Conclusion

requirement to establish a

improvement of transport and trade


strengthening

Improving access to markets for

farmers cooperative, which

of infrastructure, harmonization

agricultural producers is crucial for

facilitates farmer coordination

of

arrangements

developing a countrys agricultural

activities and reduces the

and practices and improvement

sector. The analysis shows that

initial

in behind-the-border policies and

there is still plenty of room for

Cooperatives are also allowed

regulations that impose a burden

countries to improve their laws

to merge and take out loans

on business activity.23 They often

and regulations and move towards

from third parties.

streamline customs procedures

good practices identified, such as:

logistic

and

systems,

institutional

remove

export

licenses

and other border measures; in

Strong

phytosanitary

investment

Efficient

and

requirements

needed.

affordable
to

export

major agricultural products,

complex arrangements they can

protection

legislation

facilitate harmonized and mutually

governing

national

recognized standards. As such,

surveillance for pest lists, pest

licensing and per-shipment

they can increase market access

risk analysis and domestic and

documentation. In Guatemala

including

membership,

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MARKETS

68

FIGURE 6.6 It is on average cheaper and faster to complete per-shipment documents when exporting to
regional or bilateral trading partners

Average cost (% income per capita)

Average time (calendar days)

4.3%

6.2

2.0%

2.5
No trade agreement

No trade agreement

Either regional or bilateral


agreement

Either regional or bilateral


agreement

Source: EBA database.


Note: Relevant bilateral and regional trade agreements between studied countries and the selected trading partner were not identified for the
following 14 countries: Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Russian Federation, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Turkey,
Uganda and Ukraine. Data on time to obtain per-shipment export documents are not available for Cte dIvoire, Ethiopia, Morocco, Rwanda, Sudan
and Uganda. Data on cost to obtain per-shipment export documents are not available for Colombia, Cte dIvoire, Morocco and Uganda. These cases
were excluded from the calculation of the averages.

Notes

fruit exporters are not required

production and the environment

to obtain a license or become

from pests and diseases. The

specific

markets topic identifies certain

1. International Plant Protection

they

regulatory constraints that can

Convention 2015; International

can export and the process

hinder

Plant Protection Convention

to obtain the per-shipment

and sale. These indicators are a

2012;

mandatory

is

starting point for discussion with

Leeman 2009; World Bank

efficient, costing only 0.2% of

policymakers on addressing such

2012.

income per capita.

regulatory constraints and working

2. Murina and Nicita 2014.

towards

3. International Plant Protection

member

of

organization

before

documents

Identifying

good

regulatory

practices is

challenging

when

agricultural

productive

production

more

streamlined,

and

profitable

agricultural sector.

Lesser

and

Mos-

Convention 1997.
4. An

agricultural

production

dealing with the agricultural sector

contract is a contract where

because,

facilitating

the producer undertakes to

production, market access and

produce and deliver agricultural

cross-border trade, regulation is

commodities in accordance

also needed to protect domestic

with

besides

the

contractors

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MARKETS

69

specifications. The contractor,


in turn, undertakes to acquire
the

product

and

for

generally

involvement

has

in

and poor potential for price

2006.
9. Established,

authorized

or

price

performed by a National Plant

some

Protection

production

activities through, for example,


the supply of inputs and

minimum capital requirements

International Plant Protection

applicable to firms, please

Convention 2005.

see Doing Business. http://

10. International Plant Protection


Convention

See UNIDROIT, FAO and IFAD

This

2015.

understood to supersede and


cooperatives

are

also known as agricultural


cooperatives,

farmers

cooperatives

or

associations.

producers

farmers

cooperative is defined as a
voluntary, jointly-owned and
democratically

controlled

association of farmers created


to

support

and

promote

16. For additional information on

Organization.

provision of technical advice.

5. Farmers

differentials.

2005.

definition

Erratum.

should

be

correct that in Enabling the


Business of Agriculture 2015.
11. International Plant Protection

data/exploretopics/starting-abusiness/good-practices.
17. FAO 1998; Von Pischke and
Rouse 2004.
18. In the Philippines the minimum
capital requirement is 60,000
Philippine

Convention 2003.
12. International Plant Protection

peso

(39.6%

of

income per capita), and in


Morocco it is 700 Moroccan

Convention 2004.
13. International Plant Protection

dirhams (2.7% of income per


capita).

Convention 2007.
14. Asian

w w w. d o i n g b u s i n e s s . o r g /

Development

Bank

19. UNIDROIT, FAO and IFAD 2015.


20. Dixie and others 2014.

2013.

21. EBA

defines

and

groups

the economic interests of

15. For each country, this finding

its members through joint

is based on the most produced

agricultural

economic activity, including,

non-processed

non-cereal

cash crops, cereals, fruits

but not limited to, production,

product in terms of gross

and vegetables according to

processing

production

the Harmonized Commodity

and

marketing

value

(current

products

of agricultural products. If

million US$). All data are

Description

different types of farmers

sourced from FAOSTAT, using

System 1996 version (HS 96):

organizations

the production data of 2012

cash crops (HS 09, HS 1201-

most

(the latest available year).

HS 1206, HS 1210, HS 1212,

closely adhere to this definition

Cereal crops are excluded from

HS 1801); cereals (HS 10);

are selected for study.

the analysis because they are

fruits (HS 08); vegetables (HS

less suitable for agricultural

07).

country,

exist

those

that

in

6. Arias and others 2013; FAO

and

as

Coding

due

22. World Bank 2013.

characteristics,

23. World Bank 2013.

Untied

including high risk of side-

24. World Bank 2008.

2010; Comprehensive African

selling given well-developed

25. Data

Agriculture

local or export markets, less

European Union countries to

Programme (CAADP) 2009.

need for technical assistance

third countries are available

8. Djankov, Freund and Pham

to meet market specifications

on the EBA website: eba.

production

2013.
7. World
Pannhausen

Bank
and

2012;

Development

to

several

contracts

for

exports

from

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MARKETS

SPS Plan for the CAREC

worldbank.org.
26. The

bilateral

70

and

regional

Countries. Mandaluyong City,

agreements included in our

Manila,

analysis are those covering

Development Bank.

agricultural

trade

Philippines:

Asian

.
a

2004.

Guidelines

Phytosanitary

Comprehensive African Agriculture

countries and their largest

Development

Programme

cross-border

agricultural

(CAADP). 2009. Framework

trading partner. Agricultural

for African Food Security.

trade is defined as import

Midrand, South Africa: CAADP.

System.

International

Standard

for

Phytosanitary Measures No.


20. Rome: FAO.
.

2005.

Glossary

Phytosanitary

and export of plant-based

for

Import

Regulatory

and

concluded between studied

Measures No. 19. Rome: FAO.

International

of

Terms.
Standard

for

products, including cash crops,

Dixie, G., M. Jonasova, L. Ronchi, A.

cereals, fruits and vegetables,

Sergeant, P. Jaeger and J. Yap.

Phytosanitary Measures No.

according to the Harmonized

2014. An Analytical Toolkit for

5. Rome: FAO.

Commodity Description and

Support to Contract Farming.

Coding System 1996 version

Agriculture and Environmental

. 2007. Framework for Pest

(HS 96). All data are sourced

Services Internal Paper, World

Risk Analysis. International

from

Bank, Washington, DC.

Standards for Phytosanitary

the

UN

Comtrade

Measures No. 2. Rome: FAO.

Database, using the import


and export data from 2009

Djankov, S., C. Freund and C.


Pham.

2006.

Trading

2012.

IPPC

Strategic

13. For each country, the cross-

S.

border partner country that

on Time. Policy Research

Framework

represents the highest five-

Working Paper 3909, World

Celebrating

year average agricultural trade

Bank, Washington, DC.

Protecting Plant Resources

20122019:
60

Years

of

from Pests. Rome: FAO.

value (in US$) is selected.


.

1998.

Agricultural

Cooperative Development: A

References
Arias, P., D. Hallam, E. Krivonos and

2015.

Plant

Pest

Manual for Trainers. Rome:

Surveillance. IPPC Technical

FAO.

Resources 7. Rome: FAO.

J. Morrison. 2013. Smallholder


Integration in Changing Food
Markets. Rome: FAO.
Asian Development Bank. 2013.
Modernizing

Sanitary

Phytosanitary

Measures

and

Protection

Lesser, C., and E. Mos-Leeman.

Convention. 1997. Guidelines

2009. Informal Cross-Border

for Surveillance. International

Trade and Trade Facilitation

Standard

Reform in Sub-Saharan Africa.

International

Plant

for

Phytosanitary

Measures No. 6. Rome: FAO.

OECD Trade Policy Working


Paper 86, OECD, Paris.

to

Facilitate Trade in Agricultural

. 2003. Guidelines on Lists of

and Food Products: Report

Regulated Pests. International

on the Development of an

Standard

for

Phytosanitary

Murina, M., and A. Nicita. 2014.


Trading

With

Conditions:

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 MARKETS

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The Effect of Sanitary and

. 2012. Africa Can Help Feed

Phytosanitary Measures on

Africa: Removing Barriers to

Lower

Regional Trade in Food Staples.

Income

Countries

Agricultural Exports. Policy


Issues in International Trade
and Commodities Research
Study Series 68, UNCTAD,
Geneva.
Pannhausen, C, and B. Untied.
2010. Regional Agricultural
Trade

for

Economic

Development

and

Security

Sub-Saharan

in

Food

Africa. Eschborn, Germany:


Deutsche

Gesellschaft

fr

Technische Zusammenarbeit
(GTZ) mbH.
UNIDROIT, FAO and IFAD. 2015.
UNIDROIT/FAO/IFAD

Legal

Guide on Contract Farming.


Rome: UNIDROIT, FAO and
IFAD.
Von Pischke, J.D., and J. G. Rouse.
2004.

New

Strategies

for

Mobilizing Capital in Agricultural


Cooperatives. Rome: FAO.
World

Bank.

Development
Reshaping

2008.

World

Report

2009:

Economic

Geography. Washington, DC:


World Bank.

Washington, DC: World Bank.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 TRANSPORT

72

7. TRANSPORT

MAKING TRANSPORTATION MORE


RELIABLE AND AFFORDABLE
A young and dynamic entrepreneur, Guillaume, owns a truck and transports cereals for rural
smallholder farmers to nearby markets. He is committed to provide reliable services to his clients by
keeping his truck in good condition. He has the required truck-level transport license presenting his
technical inspection and insurance certificates. But he finds it hard to expand his business with all the
competition from formal and informal operators offering transport services below minimum quality and
safety standards. As a certified driver and licensed truck operator, Guillaume would like his customers
to be able to distinguish professional truckers ensuring certain standards from informal competitors.
The government is aware of the situation and is working on improving the current licensing system to
establish certain professional minimum standards.
EBA transport indicators measure

effectiveness, reliability and safety

without becoming too burdensome

laws and regulations that affect

of transport services.2

and excessively restricting small

commercial

road

and foreign companies in the

transport

services. The indicators address

Truck licenses, the first indicator

market. The process for obtaining

factors

for

been

licenses or permits for transport

benefit farmers and agribusinesses

selected for study as licenses

equipment and operations should

through more competitive and

promote

safe

be clear, transparent and efficient.

better

that

transport services. Truck licenses

Making it easier to obtain licenses

enable the transport of agricultural

create a level playing field for road

for

products to the market.

transport operators by regulating

operations is an important way to

access to the profession and

improve trade and transport.3

that

could

regulated

potentially

services

transport,

EBA

reliable

has
and

transport

equipment

and

With growing demand for food and

setting safety and environmental

increasing

opportunities

standards. Countries with few or no

Cross-border transport, the second

in regional trade, farmers will

qualitative market entry criteria are

indicator

need to transport their produce to

dominated by many small, often

measures restrictions to foreign

these markets to benefit from their

informal businesses. Informality

transport

potential. High transport costs

hampers the viability and efficiency

cross-border services. Permit and

increase the price farmers pay for

of formal road transport services,

quota restrictions obstruct regional

inputs and decrease their income,

cutting

trade

which decreases the incentive to

from the transport sector. Smart

foreign participation in trucking

invest in their farms.1 Regulations

regulations

need

and logistics is one way to improve

affect the availability, efficiency,

for safety and quality standards

the quality and competitiveness

export

the

revenue
balance

collected
the

for

EBA

companies

integration.4

transport,
providing

Increasing

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 TRANSPORT

73

Cross-border transport. This

progress. Low-income countries

agribusinesses. Allowing foreign

indicator measures restrictions

tend to have regulations with lower

logistics

to

transport

quality standards for operator

trucks to transport third-country

including the regulation of

licenses and more price-setting

cargo

trade.5 Backhauls

carriers liabilities, rights of

and freight allocation mechanisms,

and long travel times from waiting

foreign trucking companies to

hurting their transport indicator

and idling during trips create

transport agricultural goods in

scores.

inefficiencies

raise

the country, and existence of

countries

transport prices.6 Harmonizing and

quotas on number of transport

othersespecially in cross border

mutually

rights granted.

transport. For example, Kenya and

of transport services available to


services

eases

and

that

foreign

also

recognizing

technical

cross-border

countriessuch as axle load limits,

Countries

technical inspections and carrier

Greece, Poland and Spain score

liabilitiesimproves cross-border

better than most on both transport

transport

indicators,

quality

and

perform

low-income
better

than

such

with

as

Denmark,

regulations

in

competition than Cambodia and


Ethiopia.
Low-income countries have weaker

place that lead to a more favorable

regulations

enabling regulatory environments

transportation because they often

for transport operators (figure 7.1).

grant fewer transport rights to

They have transparent regulations

trucking companies from their

Truck licenses. This indicator

and neither impose discriminatory

main neighboring trading partner,

addresses

the

criteria to obtain a license nor

limiting foreign transport operators

licensing

regimes

for

interfere with freight allocation

in the domestic market. But some

commercial

road

transport

and price settingmaking it easier

countries are leveraging regional

the

domestic

for foreign transport operators to

integration to gradually harmonize

market, the extent to which

enter and operate in the domestic

regional

license

market.

and

efficiency.
The data cover the following areas:

some

Uganda are more open to foreign

and procedural standards between

service

But

services

in

different

requirements

applications

are

and

ease

Although

available

for

cross-border

transport

regulations

cross-border
Tanzanias

trade.

transport

online, the additional legal

Countries that score poorly often

license regulations restrict foreign

requirements

struggle with the trade-off between

transport operators, they allow

license or permit and the

the need for a more formal and

transport companies from other

price and freight allocation

professional

East African Community (EAC)

regulations affecting domestic

availability of administrative and

road

services.

institutional resources. Transport

In addition, data has been

regulators seek to promote the

Company road transport licensing

collected on the time, cost and

sectors

promotes better transport

validity required for transport

establishing quality standards and

licenses and the cost and

other requirements for obtaining a

validity of mandatory technical

license. But limited enforcement

Introducing and enforcing quality

inspections.

and institutional capacity hinders

criteria to enter the transport sector

to

transport

obtain

sector

and

professionalization

the

by

countries to offer more services.

operations

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 TRANSPORT

74

FIGURE 7.1 High-income countries tend to have more regulations that promote market access and
operations and cross-border transport

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Denmark
Spain
Greece
Poland
Turkey
Colombia
Tajikistan
Nicaragua
Kenya
Uganda
Guatemala
Kyrgyz Republic
Bosnia and
Rwanda
Lao PDR
Bolivia
Mali
Tanzania
Zambia
Jordan
Chile
Georgia
Ghana
Russian Federation
Sudan
Ukraine
Philippines
Burkina Faso
Cte d'Ivoire
Morocco
Niger
Bangladesh
Mozambique
Cambodia
Vietnam
Burundi
Ethiopia
Nepal
Sri Lanka
Myanmar

EBA transport scores

Transport score

Truck licenses

Cross-border transport

Source: EBA database.


Note: The EBA transport aggregate ranking is constructed by combining two subindicators: truck licenses and cross-border transport.

should be a key objective of any

sectors by regulating access to

transport regulation.7 Regulation

the profession, setting standards

Licenses are also crucial to

affects

for transport operations, collecting

guarantee certain safety standards

efficiency of transport services, as

revenue

business

since trucking involves heavy and

well as their availability, reliability

profits, compiling more detailed

sophisticated machinery requiring

and safety.8 Competition improves

data on the trucking industry and

training and regular maintenance.

service

facilitating the enforcement of

the

competition

quality

and

and

lowers

transport prices,9 but imperfect

based

on

labor regulations (box 7.1).

in

more

informal

markets.

Of the 40 countries measured, 12


require a company license only,

competition accounts for 35% of


national transport costs in Central

They provide a level playing field

16 require a truck license only, 4

America.10 Lower

and

to promote competition based

require both company and truck

reliable services increase the profit

on common criteria. They also

licenses and 8 require no company

margin for farmers, which they can

ease establishing and enforcing

or truck licenses.

reinvest in other production-related

certain minimum quality standards

activities.

more than truck licenses,11 which

Company licenses are prevalent

can

regulatory

in OECD high-income countries,

Company licenses promote more

instruments to set basic trucking

and truck licenses are mostly

formal and professional transport

service

seen

prices

be

appropriate
standards,

especially

in

Sub-Saharan

Africa.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 TRANSPORT

75

BOX 7.1 Good practices for road transport licensing systems


Most countries in Europe and


Central Asia do not require either

Should require licenses to access the sector and provide

a company or a truck license for

truck services to establish minimum conditions and

domestic operations (figure 7.2).

requirements such as technical inspection certificates.


Should not include discriminatory requirements for

High-income countries have the

licenses, such as nationality, membership in a trucking

largest share of company-license

organization and minimum operational capacity.

regimes. Such licensing trends

Should establish quality criteria such as good repute,

suggest that transitioning toward

financial standing and professional competence to

a company-license regime is not

obtain a transport license, preferably by implementing a

an easy task. Such systems may

company-level license.

imply other regulatory reforms,

Should make licensing requirements transparent and

such as labor law reforms that

accessible and collect and update road transport data.

set standards for the access to

Should promote market-based price-setting mechanisms

the profession of licensed drivers

and freight allocation systems.

or corporate tax code reforms


associated

with

company

license. Another challenge for


lower-income countries is the cost
FIGURE 7.2 Transport license systems vary across regions

Share of total countries (%)


100%
90%
80%

25%

14%

20%

40%
57%

70%

Both company
and truck licenses

60%
50%

20%

40%

50%

40%

10%

29%

100%

71%
Truck license

80%

14%

30%
20%

No license

Company license

25%

14%

0%
East Asia &
Pacific

Europe & Central Latin America &


Asia
the Caribbean

OECD high
income

South Asia

Sub -Saharan
Africa

Source: EBA database.


Note: The Middle East and North Africa is excluded from the sample as EBA does not cover a representative number of countries (only Jordan and
Morocco).

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 TRANSPORT

76

of investing in the enforcement of

Despite the costs and resources

But company licenses must comply

higher and more complex quality

to set up such platforms, they

with a wider number of technical

standards. But some low-income

can make licensing easy and

and qualitative prerequisites such

countriessuch as Rwanda and

accessible for applicants far from

as applicants proof of good repute,

Ethiopiahave

an

financial

company-license

application

office.

Greater

capacity,

professional

transparency is also associated

competence, operational capacity

with less discrimination in entry.

and fulfillment of tax obligations.

Online availability of transport

Countries that do not impose

So processing time in company

regulations and license

discriminatory

systems tends to be longer than

applications is not widespread

to

systems.

Transparency

and

information

obtain

requirements
licensesuch

as

in truck systemswhere technical

nationality, mandatory association

and qualitative prerequisites are

membership

more limited (figure 7.3).

and

minimum

are crucial to enable citizens to

operational capacity criteriaalso

monitor the quality of government

have the most transparency.14

services.12

Accessing

Countries

with

company-

license systems record higher

and

understanding the requirements

Company licenses set higher

absolute costs than countries

for a license ensures a predictable

standards for truck operators at

with truck-license systems. But

business

no significantly higher cost

relatively, company licenses are

environment

for

only slightly costlier than truck

transport operators. It also enables


them to demand better regulatory

Transport regulations that strike

licenses (figure 7.4). And given

quality and reduces potential for

the right balance between ensuring

that company licenses are valid

discretionary practices by public

enforcement of essential safety

longer than truck licenses, their

officials. Evidence from the Asia-

and quality standards and avoiding

yearly cost is considerably lower.

Pacific

Cooperation

excessive regulatory burdens for

Company-license systems strike

(APEC) suggests that increasing

transport operators can lead to

a good balance between the

the transparency of transaction

both better transport services

standards of quality established

costs could raise intra-APEC trade

and

and the efficiency of the issuance

by 7.5%.13

standards and certification for

Economic

lower

costs.

Professional

procedure.

logistics service providers are


transport

important parts of an effective

Linking

easily

logistics sector. But quantitative

Index (LPI) data with EBA transport

accessible, evident in the number

and

of

licensing categories reveals that

of countries still not publishing

transport services that do not

countries with company-license

their

have an explicit and objective

systems record greater transport

justification should be cut.15

service satisfaction (as measured

In

many

regulations

countries
are

transport

not

regulations

on

government websites. And of the

economic

regulations

Logistics

Performance

by perceptions of freight forwarders

24 countries publishing licensing


requirements online, only 5 offer

Obtaining a company license takes

on the competence and quality of

applicants an online platform to

longer than in other licensing

service provided by road transport

submit their license applications.

systems such as truck regimes.16

service providers) than countries

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 TRANSPORT

77

FIGURE 7.3 Truck-level licenses are issued more expeditiously than


other regulated systems

transport operators.
The costs of technical inspections

Average time to obtain a license


(calendar days)

vary across countries

44.9

One of the key obstacles to an


efficient road transport sector
is

the

condition

of

vehicles,

especially trucks. Trucks in poor


condition

lead

to

unreliable

services and high operating costs


from breakdowns and repair work.

8.4
Company license

This affects road safety and the


environmentfor example, through

Truck license

higher emissions. For users of

Source: EBA database.

road transport services, reliable


services

are

important.

Post-

FIGURE 7.4 Company licenses are more cost-effective than other

harvest losses due to transport

licensing systems

conditions

or

accidents

can

cause a significant loss of income


for farmers. To improve road

License Cost (% income per capita)

safety and reliability of services,

8%

countries need an efficient system

7%

of technical inspections. Regular


inspections

can

ensure

that

vehicles in operation are properly


maintained to ensure their safety
and

durability.18 Frequent

and

systematic vehicle tests make


roads safer and reduce the number
Company license

of accidents.19

Truck license

Source: EBA database.

Regular inspections are mandatory


in all countries except Georgia,
satisfaction),

where technical inspections will

(figure 7.5).17 Truck licenses record

supporting the assumption that

become mandatory only in 2017.

the lowest satisfaction rates of

market entry quality criteria in

And in high-income countries such

any licensing regime (as measured

company-license systems improve

as EU members, the regulator

by the percentage of respondents

the

monitors

with

other

licensing

systems

reporting

high

professionalism

of

road

the

quality

of

the

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 TRANSPORT

78

FIGURE 7.5 Company-license systems record greater user satisfaction

80%
70%

High satisfaction
(good or very good)

Satisfaction rate

60%
50%
40%

Medium satisfaction
(average)

30%
20%

Low satisfaction
(bad or very bad)

10%
0%
Company license

Truck license

Both

Neither

Licensing system
Source: EBA database, LPI database.
Note: Graph developed based on question 19-1 of the 2014 LPI Survey. The LPI collects data in 33 of the 40 EBA countries.

technical inspection by introducing

and the average validity of these

Additional

minimum standards and certifying

certificates

denote

centers that ensure compliance

similar across the 40 countries.

(six

months)

are

an

transport

rights

increased

freedom

of movements and operations


allowed to foreign firms willing

with the requirements. But in


countries without such regulations,

Few countries are truly open to

to do business in the domestic

the technical inspection quality

international competition coming

market. In spite of the efforts to

relies on each service provider, so

from their largest trading partner

facilitate cross-border transport,


there

the risk of a low-quality inspection


Harmonizing

wide

disparity

in

liberalizing

actual openness to cross-border

regional road transport services

competition. Only four countries

The average cost of a (first-time)

exposes national service providers

(Denmark, Greece, Poland and

technical

2.9%

to wider regional competition. And

Spain) grant foreign companies

of income per capita, ranging

that can lead to lower transport

the same transport entitlements

between 0.1 and 13.9% (figure

tariffs, higher efficiency and higher

as they do to domestic firms,

7.6), and thus is not a constraining

transport quality.20 EBA transport

and even in such cases there

factor in most countries. But in

indicators measure the number of

are limitations (figure 7.7).21 But

low-income

costs

transport rights granted to truck

when granting transport rights to

more of income per capita than

companies registered in the largest

foreign companies governments

in

neighboring agricultural trading

should make sure that foreign

partner (box 7.2 and figure 7.7).

trucks and transport firms comply

is higher.

inspection

countries

high-income

is

it

countries.

The

average time to obtain a technical


inspection certificate (a few hours)

and

is

with the same standards required

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 TRANSPORT

79

FIGURE 7.6 The cost of technical inspection is not a constraint in most countries, but some disparity is
observed in its relative cost

Tecnical inspection cost (US$)

200

12%

180
160

10%

140
8%

120
100

6%

80
4%

60
40

2%

20
0
Niger
Chile
Nepal
Lao PDR
Russian Federation
Zambia
Denmark
Spain
Bolivia
Philippines
Sri Lanka
Poland
Greece
Nicaragua
Jordan
Vietnam
Kenya
Kyrgyz Republic
Bangladesh
Ukraine
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Turkey
Morocco
Colombia
Cambodia
Guatemala
Tanzania
Ethiopia
Myanmar
Rwanda
Mali
Mozambique
Cte d'Ivoire
Ghana
Burundi
Uganda
Sudan
Burkina Faso
Tajikistan

0%

Techincal Inspection cost (% GNI per capita)

14%

220

Cost (US$)

Cost (% of GNI per capita)

Source: EBA database.


Note: Regular vehicle inspections are mandatory in all countries except Georgia, where technical inspections will only become mandatory in 2017.

BOX 7.2 Transport rights definitions


Transport rights: A truck registered in country A is allowed to transport goods produced in its
country to country B for sale.

Backhauling rights: A truck registered in country A is allowed to load goods in country B and
transport them back to Country A.

Transit rights: A truck registered in country A is allowed to travel through country B to deliver
goods in country C.

Triangular rights: A truck registered in country A is allowed to pick up goods in country B and
transport them to country C.

Cabotage rights: A truck registered in country A is allowed to pick up goods in country B and
transport them to a different point in country B.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 TRANSPORT

80

FIGURE 7.7 Only a few countries allow cabotage

by

20%

40%

60%

80%

85%

Triangular
75%

Transit
Cabotage

100%

93%

Backhauling

transport

Granting

foreign

companies access to the domestic

95%

Transport

cross-border

indicator.23

Share of total countries measured


0%

the

marketfor example, by allowing


importing

and

backhauling

increases cross-border trade and


competition. But many obstacles
to cross-border transport result
from a lack of harmonization or
lack of mutual recognition of a
variety of technical standards,

10%

such as axle-load limits, truck


dimensions and drivers licenses.

Source: EBA database.

So,

Note: Transport rights are entitlements granted by domestic transport authorities to trucking
companies registered in the largest neighboring agricultural trading partner. For this study, transport rights are categorized along five basic rights or freedoms. Cabotage rights imply that foreign

bilateral

agreements
rights

and

multilateral

granting

should

also

transport
address

companies are granted treatment similar to domestic truck companies. Cabotage rights are only

the harmonization and mutual

allowed in Denmark, Greece, Poland and Spain.

recognition of transport standards


that hinder cross-border transport.

to domestic operators. Only in

measured (Denmark, Greece, Spain

Public access to the respective

such a way will licenses maintain

and Poland) demonstrate greater

information on transport rights

minimum

quality

openness to competition from

and applied transport standards

service standards and provide a

truck operators from their largest

should be a fundamental part of

level playing field for competition.

neighboring agricultural trading

harmonization.

safety

and

partner as they grant on average


Community

all five transport rights measured

Greater regional integration and

promotes cross-border transport

by EBA. South Asia (Bangladesh,

easier trade and transit practices

openness

harmonizing

Nepal and Sri Lanka) is the least

reduce entry costs for transport

standards on road transportation

open region with an average of 1.3

service operators in landlocked

and

license

rights granted (figure 7.8). Basic

countries.24 So, achieving efficient

requirements. A larger market

transport rights are granted in

cross border transport by reducing

and greater competition benefit

38 of the 40 countries surveyed,

transit times and transport costs

local producers by improving the

except Myanmar and Sri Lanka.22

is another major objective for

quality and cutting the price of

But 18 countries have a quota on

regional economic communities.25

transport

prompting

the number of permits granted.

OECD countries that are also EU

more producers to participate in

More open transport increases

members are the only countries

regional value chains.

trade, as shown by the correlation

that allow cabotage, which the

between merchandise exports and

European Commission labels a

regional liberalization as measured

free market essential. Allowing

The

East

African
by

standardizing

services,

Regulations in the EU countries

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 TRANSPORT

81

FIGURE 7.8 Regulations in OECD high-income countries demonstrate greater openness to cross-border
competition, while countries in South Asia and East Asia and the Pacific tend to limit the scope of operations
for foreign firms

Transport rights
5
4
3
2
1

Chile
Denmark
Greece
Poland
Spain
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cte d'Ivoire
Ethiopia
Ghana
Kenya
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Rwanda
Sudan
Tanzania
Uganda
Zambia
Bosnia and H.
Georgia
Kyrgyz Rep.
Russian Fed.
Tajikistan
Ukraine
Turkey
Bolivia
Colombia
Guatemala
Nicaragua
Morocco
Jordan
Cambodia
Myanmar
Lao PDR
Philippines
Vietnam
Bangladesh
Nepal
Sri Lanka

OECD high income

Europe & Central Asia

Middle East & North Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa

Latin America & Caribbean

East Asia & Pacific

South Asia
Regional group average

Source: EBA database.

cabotage rights and optimizing

transport.

sector based on minimum

capacity can improve efficiency


and

reduce

environmental

access the road transport

Conclusion

requirements

such

as

vehicle technical inspection

damage.26
Improving access to reliable and

certificates. Tanzanias 2012

economic

affordable transport for agricultural

Goods

require

producers is key to developing and

regulations

contracting parties engaged in

strengthen a countrys agricultural

binding principles to obtain

international

to

sector. There is still plenty of room

and maintain a truck license,

sign a document acknowledging

for countries to improve their laws

including

valid

vehicle

carrier liabilities or a waybill, as in

and regulations and move towards

registration

cards,

vehicle

ECOWAS and the European Union.

good practices identified, such as:

third-party liability insurance,

Some

regional

communities

also

transactions

establish

vehicle
clear

vehicle inspection report from

Farmers can use such transport


documents to claim losses from

carrying

Strong licensing systems to

an authorized inspector or

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 TRANSPORT

82

copy of employment contract

statistics. Colombias Ministry

to sale their production. These

between the driver and the

of Transport consolidates all

actionable indicators can be used

licensee.

laws, regulations, directives,

as a starting point for discussion

decrees,

with policymakers on ways to

notifications

or

discriminatory

resolutions pertaining to road

address

requirements to obtain road

transport and makes them

that might obstruct efficient and

transport

easily

quality transport for agricultural

Eliminate

as

licenses,
certain

such

nationality,

accessible

on

their

regulatory

constraints

governmental website.

producers, buyers and exporters.

Promote market-based price-

Notes

membership in a trucking
organization

and

minimum

operational capacity. Through

setting

its 2003 decree regulating

freight

merchandise

Nicaraguas

road

public

mechanisms
allocation
2005

and

systems.
General

2. Lema and others 2008.

transport, Morocco ensures

road transport law provides

3. World Bank 2010.

any citizen with a nationally-

a solid legal foundation to

4. World Bank 2010.

constituted company can offer

guaranteethat the conditions

5. World Bank 2010.

trucking services, ruling out

of carriage including pricing

6. Araya, Pachn and Saslavsky

the necessity to be a member

and cargo quantities are solely

of a transport association or to

determined by the contracting

have a minimum fleet size.

parties without any external

2012
7. International Road Transport
Union 2007.
8. Lema, de Veen and Abukari

interference.

1. Staatz and Dembl 2007.

2008.

Establish company licenses

9. Teravaninthorn and Raballand

that enforce qualitative criteria

Reforming laws and regulations is

such as good repute, financial

a challenge for policymakers given

standing

professional

the complexity of the transport

competence. In 2014 Turkey

sector. Identifying good regulatory

2014.

reformed

transport

practices is difficult when dealing

11. Company

regulations to create K1-type

with agricultural transport because

licenses

granted

to

licenses requiring operators

besides ensuring efficiency, laws

established

companies

to

to provide proof of minimal

and regulations are also needed

legally offer domestic road

working

to protect clients, consumers and

transport services. For the

maximum fleet age (20 years)

the

unsafe,

purposes of this study general

and national certification for

unreliable and polluting transport.

business registration licenses

managers.

The Transport topic identifies and

are not considered. Instead,

measures several key regulatory

a company-level license is

Make licensing requirements

constraints that can hinder farmers

more

and

from

exclusively for the provision

collect

reaping the benefits of growing

of road transport services. A

and update road transport

urban and rural markets in which

transport license at company

and
their

capital

transparent

accessible,

and

($3,500),

and

environment

agribusiness

from

firms

2009.
10. Osborne, Pachon and Araya.

specific

license:

permit

Specific

required

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 TRANSPORT

83

level

generally

allows

to

15. World Bank 2010; This is


known

the

guillotine concept, in which

registration

license: Truck licenses are

all regulations

road

licenses granted to each truck

certain sector or transaction

inspection

to legally transport goods in

are publicly listed and then

not considered, as these are

the domestic market. For the

automatically rescinded if an

usually not specific to the

purposes of this study vehicle

explicit justification for the

provision of road transport

registration

regulation

services.

road

license.

Truck

certificates

or

worthiness/technical

the

is

regulatory

purposes of this study vehicle

operate several trucks under


same

as

the domestic market. For the

affecting

not

provided

within a certain time frame.

certificates

or

worthiness/technical
certificates

are

17. The LPI is a World Bank project

regulations

published every two years

not considered, as these are

mentioned in this context by

since 2007 and measuring

usually not specific to the

the World Banks Trade and

logistics performance or the

provision of road transport

Transportation

on-the-ground

services.

Assessment

inspection

certificates

are

The

economic

Facilitation
toolkit

issues

would

such

edition covers 160 countries

include

13. Helble and others 2007.

transportation price controls,

and

14. Data analysis demonstrates a

quantitative

from

on

the

of

trade supply chains. The 2014

12. Geginat and Saltane 2014.

limits

as

efficiency

compiles

information

approximately

1,000

moderate positive correlation

provision of trucking services

respondents,

(0.27) between transparency

and so on.

total of around 5,000 country

assessments (website: http://

(defined in this analysis by

16. Company

the scores obtained to the

licenses

granted

to

questions: Are the license/

established

companies

to

permit requirements publicly

legally offer domestic road

available online? and Can the

transport services. For the

2011.

application for a license/permit

purposes of this study general

20. Raballand,

or its renewal be submitted

business registration licenses

electronically? Each country

are not considered. Instead,

is ranked high, medium or low

a company-level license is

to truck companies coming

based on their scores in both

required

from the largest agricultural

questions)

additional

exclusively for the provision

neighboring trading partner

requirements considered as

of road transport services. A

is equivalent to giving foreign

discriminatory

transport license at company

transport

level

treatment

association

and

(mandatory
membership,

specific

license:

permit

generally

Specific

providing

allows

to

lpi.worldbank.org/).
18. IRU 2011.
19. Cuerden, Edwards and Pittman
Kunaka

and

Giersing 2008.
21. Granting

cabotage

firms
with

rights

national
regard

to

minimum operational capacity

operate several trucks under

transport operational freedom.

or nationality criteria). This

the same license. Truck-level

22. Sri Lanka transports goods

correlation is 5% significant

license: Truck-level licenses are

internationally mostly by air or

when controlling for income

licenses granted to each truck

water.

per capita.

to legally transport goods in

23. EBA

cross-border

transport

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 TRANSPORT

84

indicators measure the number

Geginat, C., and V. Saltane. 2014.

Osborne, T., M. C. Pachn and G.

of transport rights granted

Transparent Government and

E. Araya. 2014. What Drives

to the largest neighboring

Business Regulation Open for

the High Price of Road Freight

agricultural trading partner,

Business? Policy Research

Transport in Central America?

including mandatory carriers

Working Paper 7132, World

Policy

liabilities documents.

Bank, Washington, DC.

Paper

6844,

World

Bank,

Helble, M., B. Shepherd and J. S.

25. Runji 2015.


26. European Commission 2006.
References
Araya, G., M. C. Pachn, and
Saslavsky

2012.

Road

Wilson. 2007. Transparency,

Raballand, G., C. Kunaka and B.

Trade Costs, and Regional

Giersing. 2008. The Impact

Integration in the Asia Pacific.

of

Policy

and Harmonization in Road

Paper

Research
4401,

Working

World

Bank,

Five Explanations to High

International

Road

Transport

Union. 2007. IRU Position on

Background

Access to the Profession of

World

Bank, Washington, DC.


Cuerden, R., M.J. Edwards and

Transport Services: A Focus

Research Working Paper 4482,


World Bank, Washington, DC.

Road Passenger and Goods

Runji, J. 2015. Africa Transport

Transport Operator. Position

Policy Performance Review:

Paper. Geneva: IRU.

The Need for More Robust


Transport

M.B. Pittman. 2011. Effect


of Vehicle Defects in Road

Liberalization

Landlocked Countries. Policy

Costs of Service Provision.


Paper,

Regional

on Zambia and Lessons for

Washington, DC.

Freight in Central America:

Lema, C., J. de Veen, and M. Abukari.

Saharan

Policies.

Transport
Discussion

Policy

Program

Research Laboratory Limited.

Review of IFAD Rural Roads,

Paper

103,

Published

Travel and Transport (RTT)

Washington, DC.

Transport
Project

Report

PPR565.
Commission.

2006.

2008.

Experiences,

19942007.

International

Fund

Agricultural Development.

for

Sub-

Africa

Comprehensive

Accidents.

European

Working

Washington, DC.

24. World Bank 2014.

D.

Research

World

Bank,

Staatz, J., and N. Dembl. 2007.


Agriculture for Development

Road Transport Policy: Open

in

Roads across Europe. Brussels:

Background Paper for the

European Commission.

World
2008.

Sub-Saharan
Development

Africa.
Report

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 TRANSPORT

85

Teravaninthorn,

S.,

and

G.

Raballand. 2009. Transport


Prices and Costs in Africa: A
Review of the International
Corridors.

Policy

Research

Working Paper 46181, World


Bank, Washington, DC.
World Bank. 2010. Trade and
Transport

Facilitation

Assessment: A Practical Toolkit


for

Country

Implementation.

Washington, DC: World Bank.


. 2014. Improving Trade
and Transport for Landlocked
Developing
Ten-Year

Countries:
Review.

World

BankUnited Nations report


in preparation for the 2nd
United
on

Nations

Conference

Landlocked

Developing

Countries (LLDCs).

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

86

8. EBA TOPICS
UNDER DEVELOPMENT
In this second year of the EBA

and

proper

When connecting to the internet

project, some topics have been

management of water rights is

from remote areas, farmers can

refined

and

essential to a well-functioning

access key resources such as

several new topic areas added. The

agricultural sector. Livestock is

real-time data on market and

information and communication

another area where governments

transport

technology (ICT) topic area was

design regulations to ensure the

on

piloted during the first year of

supply, safety and quality of animal

farming techniques as well as

the EBA project and restructured

production

several tools for production and

this year to include data about

methodology for these two topic

marketing.

policies and regulations on mobile

areas will be developed in the next

and communication technologies

and internet services. The land

EBA cycle.

facilitate

and

restructured

the

security

and

inputs.

scoring

seed

prices,

information

varieties,

pests

Better

and

information

farmers

access

to

markets, particularly to improved

topic was expanded to include


new areas on tenure security, land

Two cross-cutting themes were

seed

sales and lease markets. Given

introduced

So,

the nature of the land topic and

yeargender and environmental

disseminate

the legitimate interests involved,

sustainability. The gender analysis

provide extension services in rural

further

be

presented below shows how the

areas using the internet, mobile

carried out and some new areas

data collected on several relevant

applications and text and voice

could be included next year, such

indicators

interpreted

services, alongside more traditional

as the cost of registering group

through the lens of gender.The

channels of communication such

rights, the time and cost of land

environmental

as the radio and extension agents.

surveying process, the procedural

theme crosses several existing

safeguards in case of expropriation

topicsmainly seed and water

This multifaceted approach gives

and the management of land

to assess practices that protect

policymakers

records. These developments will

natural resources for agricultural

to

contribute to a more balanced

production.

community

consultations

will

and

can

analyzed

be

this

sustainability

scoring methodology.1
Two

new

topic

areas

varieties
many

interact

and

fertilizers.2

governments

now

information

and

an

opportunity

with
and

the

farming

develop

more

targeted regulatory and policy


were

Information and communication

interventions for agribusinesses.

technology

Appropriately

designed

ICT

regulations can ensure market

developed this year: water and


livestock. Water is an essential

Mobile phones and the internet are

liberalization

input to agricultural production,

powerful tools for farmers today.

in the ICT sector, leading to fair

and

competition

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

87

retail prices, more high-quality

funds, which use contributions

In all 7 countries costs are publicly

mobile

from

available online.

services

and

greater

multiple

to

expansion

of

mobile market penetration.3 By

finance

contrast, burdensome licensing

network coverage and mobile

Government

requirements

services.

improve access to ICT services

can

hinder

the

sources

users needs.
EBA

ICT

indicators

laws,

regulations

measure

and

to

in rural areas. The last mile of

competition and innovative mobile


services solutions responsive to

strategies

policies

addressing ICT services in rural

Agricultural

e-extension

telecommunication infrastructure

services. These data address

in rural areas is usually expensive,

how the government provides

and the resulting benefits do not

agricultural

information,

always make up for the costs.7

particularly on market prices

Governments differ in how they

and weather.

address

areas. The indicators focus on

this.

The

solutions

include tying coverage and quality

the institutional framework for

Licensing regimes in the ICT

requirements to licenses, offering

service providers to operate and

sector. Licenses are an effective

tax breaks to providers that cover

expand

and

tool for governmentsnot only to

hard-to-reach

government strategies to improve

regulate competition and generate

mobile operators to offer social

farmers access to ICT services

revenue, but also to define the

tariffs to eligible customers in rural

and agricultural information.

obligations of market players on

areas and setting up universal

matters relevant to farmers and

access funds for infrastructure or

agribusinesses,

other outreach projects.

mobile

Licensing

networks

regimes

the

such

as

rural

requiring

These

data

coverage. Obtaining a license to

countries

ICT

offer telecommunication services

Universal access funds are popular

licensing framework, validity

is costly and may obstruct entry

in developing countries since they

and associated costs. The

for mobile operators. EBA data on

generate

data

ICT collected this year show how

sources, including contributions

price

licensing regimes vary among

from

quality

the 40 EBA countries. Individual

international

standards, with a particular

licenses are most prevalent.4 Only

well as direct funds from the

emphasis on standards in

7 countries have implemented

government budget.8 They help

rural areas.

a general authorization regime

expand ICT coverage in otherwise

for

commercially

ICT

sector.

measure

also

cover

management,
regulations

in

areas,

Government

spectrum

retail
and

strategies

mobile

cellular

services.5

funds

from

mobile

multiple

operators and
organizations,

unviable

as

areas.9

to

Compared with other licensing

But

improve access to ICT services

regimes, the general authorization

collecting contributions, selecting

in rural areas. These data

regime has greater transparency

projects, disbursing funds and

describe government policies

and competition, as well as lower

monitoring and evaluating the

and measures to facilitate

costs, since it creates a level

impact of projects require capable

ICT in rural areas, including

playing field among providers and

administrators

and

universal access and service

simplifies the regulatory process.6

organizational

structures.10

establishing

the

funds,

transparent
Of

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

88

the 40 countries studied, 24 have

many countries the vast majority of

international

a universal access fund that has

agricultural land lies outside formal

volatile

started collecting funds. Despite

legal protection.14 To encourage

contribute

having a universal access fund in

investments that can increase

productive

place, 4 countries (Bangladesh,

productivity, rights to land must be

especially in Sub-Saharan Africa.20

Burkina Faso, Kenya and Niger)

secure and transferable. Indeed,

have never disbursed funds for ICT

landowners will be willing to

Secure,

projects.

invest more to improve production,

enables the use of agricultural land

such as planting perennials and

as collateral, which can increase

Agricultural e-extension services.

establishing irrigation,15 when they

access to credit and agricultural

Information asymmetries between

believe their land will be protected

investment.21

participants in agricultural value

from

operate smoothly, land transfers

chains

expropriation.16

can

impede

farmers

conflicting

claims

and

countries.11

Access

commodity
to

the

and

markets

scarcity

agricultural

of

land,

transferable

tenure

Where

markets

(through sale or lease) can operate

access to markets, especially in


developing

investment

to allocate land efficiently.22 This is


Security

of

tenure

be

critical for skilled farmers seeking

formal

to expand and invest in more

can

to information enables farmers

guaranteed

through

to participate in value chains,

mechanisms,

such

state-

intensive production and for those

scale up production and increase

granted titles and state-backed

seeking to exit farming to be able

revenues.12 E-extension services

legal enforcement. It can also be

to invest the value of their land in

can address the information deficit

guaranteed through community-

other economic sectors.

farmers face in remote areas and

administered customary tenure,

empower them to engage more

where

in

as

EBA

land

customary rights as legitimate

the

rights

marketing. In 22 of the countries

and

firms

studied,

provide

frameworks must recognize all

transfer

agricultural e-extension services,

legitimate land rights (including

the

mainly for market prices and

informal and customary rights

procedures that give effect to

weather.

where applicable), enable their

these rights. Security of tenure23

recordation

agricultural

production

governments

and

Land

the

state

protects

protection.18

recognizes

them.17

and

Legal

indicators
of

to

measure

individuals

and

register,

use

and

agricultural

land

and

of

the

administration

ensure

their

and

transferability

Customary

land

are

important

for

of

rights24

increasing

tenure continues to play a large role

agricultural

Access to agricultural land and

in agricultural production in many

different market actors at different

the legal and regulatory regimes

countries and statutory recognition

levels of economic development.

underpinning

that

of customary land tenure regimes

The administrative mechanisms

fundamental

to

can

that

access

are

economic

help

protect

agricultural

development.13 Land is a key factor

producers from conflicting claims

of agricultural production, and for

to customary land and government

many rural families it is the most

expropriation.19 This is important

valuable asset they possess. But in

as population growth, increased

productivity

guide

them

must

for

be

transparent and easily navigable.25


Land tenure security. These


data

include

information

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

89

on the types of land tenure

Ethiopia, Mozambique,26 Myanmar,

property registry, and the first-time

granted by countries (private

Lao PDR and Tajikistan. Of the

registration process is no longer

or

the

remaining 3, Vietnam provides for

applicable.30

informal

use rights of up to 50 years (or 70

public

ownership),

formalization
rights

of

of

and

years for larger investments) and

Countries adopt different ways of

communities and the security

Tanzania27 and Zambia both allow

addressing first time registrations

that land registration provides.

use rights of up to 99 years. Thirty-

of land rights, but the processes

nine of 40 countries allow for land

can generally be classified as

Land sales and lease markets.

rights to be used as collateral for

either judicial or administrative,

Impediments to transferring

accessing credit.28 In Ethiopia,

depending

land

such

while holders of perpetual use

body

transfers (whether leases or

rights cannot mortgage them,

Chile has both a judicial and an

sales) reduce the likelihood

those holding leases to land use

administrative process depending

of

rights can use them as collateral.

on the value of the land. The cost of

data

In Zambia, too, leaseholders can

first-time registration also follows

address how land sale and

use their lease rights as collateral.

one of two general regimesa flat

and

individuals

registering

efficiency-enhancing

exchanges.
lease

These

markets

including

function,

does

on

which

the

type

of

formalization.

rate or a percentage of the lands

government

First-time registration of informally

value. Some countries have both.

land

sales

held land rights is important

While collecting taxes is important,

restrictions

on

such

as

price

controls,

to ensure land tenure security,

it can discourage the formalization

land

ownership

ceilings,

particularly in developing countries.

of informal rights if it exceeds the

minimum farm sizes and other

Thirty-one

actual cost of land registration.

restrictions on the ability of

individuals to register agricultural

individuals and companies to

land rights for the first time based

Land sales and lease markets.

buy, sell or lease land.

solely on open, exclusive and

Private ownership of land is not

notorious possession of the land.29

a requirement for land markets

Land tenure security. Of the 40

Six countries in the study allow

to operate efficiently. In 39 of 40

countries surveyed, 32 recognize

for registration of land use rights

countries those who hold rights

private ownership of land. In the

after possession for a statutorily

to agricultural land can lease

remaining 8 countries all land

stated period, even though they do

those rights to other agricultural

is owned by the state, but the

not recognize private ownership.

producers. For the 8 countries

government allows for long-term

Of the 40 countries surveyed, 24

without private land ownership, 3

leases or land use rights. The

allow for the first-time registration

(Myanmar, Lao PDR and Tajikistan)

difference between the two is

of customary rights including 13 of

allow buying and selling perpetual

blurred by because not all leases

14 Sub-Saharan African countries.

use rights. In Tanzania, Vietnam

are based on market rates and

Three countries (Denmark, the

and Zambia no perpetual rights

land use rights often come with an

Kyrgyz Republic and Rwanda)

existonly long-term use rights or

annual fee. Five of these 8 allow for

have registered all privately held

leases, which can be subleased. In

perpetual land rights of some form:

land

Ethiopia perpetual use rights exist

plots

countries

at

the

allow

immovable

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

but cannot be sold, though they

to meeting the increasing global

can be leased for up to 15 years if

demand for food.32

90

Permits

for

water

use.

Effective water use permit


systems provide secure rights

the lessee engages in mechanized


Access to irrigation water can

to water users and allow

be constrained by its depletion

resource managers to ensure

dispossession of land whether

and

or

sufficient water supply for

sale, lease or mortgage. Although

inappropriate regulation can also

future crop cycles. These data

private

lead to the mismanagement of

measure the legal security of

allowed in Ukraine, there has

water

hamper

water use permit systems by

been a moratorium on sales of

access to irrigation water for

examining public notification

agricultural land since 2004.

both small and large agricultural

requirements, permit duration

producers.33 For example, if legal

and

Governments often restrict the

rights surrounding the use of

curtailment

sale and lease of land. Nineteen

water are insecure, agribusinesses

scope of application of the

countries impose at least one

could reduce or forgo investments

permit system that exempts

restriction on the sale of land

because of concerns that water

small-scale

(minimum size of subdivision,

supplies will be unreliable or

the systems efficiency and

maximum number of hectares,

insufficient to meet production

sustainability by examining

setting minimum or maximum

targets. Similarly, the absence

pricing water as a resource.

prices) and 7 countries impose at

of

least two of them. And 17 countries

mechanismssuch

restrict

user

agriculture.
the

In

constitution

property

Mozambique
prohibits

ownership

registration

to

any

is

leases

pollution.

Insufficient

resources

and

decentralized
associations

compensation
of

for

rights,

the

agriculture

and

governance
as

water

(WUAs)

to

Decentralized

irrigation

management.

Decentralized

spanning a minimum number of

manage irrigation infrastructure

mechanisms

years.

may prevent some farmers from

governance

securing equitable access to water

resources and infrastructure,

and limit their ability to voice

such as WUAs, can improve

grievances and resolve water-

system efficiencies and allow

related disputes.

farms to have a greater role

Water
Access

to

irrigation

water

is

in

directly connected to the success

the

for

the

of

decisions

water

affecting

of farmers and agribusinesses: a

EBA water indicators measure the

their access to water.34 These

sufficient and stable water supply

quality of laws and regulations

data measure the extent to

can lead to larger crop yields and

that affect the ability of both small

which the legal framework

more reliable production patterns.

and large commercial farms to

enables WUAs to manage

The highest crop yields from

get access to adequate quantities

irrigation

irrigation are more than twice

of water at the times and places

granting them the authority to

those from rain-fed agriculture, and

needed

production,

decide on water allocations,

the use of irrigation can increase

through

irrigation

set and collect fees and

crop

infrastructure and decentralized

monitor and enforce rules.

institutions.

They

yields

by

100400%.31

Irrigation systems are thus critical

for

crop

appropriate

infrastructure,

also

measure

by

WUA

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

91

membership restrictions and

information of interest to water

alike. Formal permit requirements

whether WUAs are included

users and reducing the potential

are not appropriate for all water

in broader decisions on basin

for disputes.

users in all contexts.38 Some

planning and water resource

countries exempt some categories


A long duration for water use

of small-scale water users from

permits can also enhance the

the obligation to obtain a permit,

For

security of water use rights. In EBA

based on specific thresholds or

commercial farms of all sizes the

countries the duration of water

defining

security of water rights affects

use permits varies from 2 years in

as the volume of water used,

farmers decisions for investing,

Burundi to 75 years in Spain. The

land area, intended water use,

producing

average duration is approximately

means of water extraction and

20 years for both surface water

recognized

water use permit system either

and groundwater. Across regions,

rights. Twelve EBA countries have

recognizes existing water use rights

OECD

countries

exemptions that can facilitate

or creates new water use rights.

had the longest average permit

water access for small commercial

Of the countries studied 35 have

duration, and Sub-Saharan Africa

farms using surface water (16 for

a permit system for both surface

the shortest. Farmers are more

groundwater).40

water and groundwater use.36 Only

likely to make bigger investments

Jordan and the Kyrgyz Republic

with long duration permits. But

In response to water scarcity

require the permit system only

governments need to balance that

concerns and increasing demand,

for groundwater, and 3 countries

incentive with the need to conserve

many countries impose fees on

have no formal permit system for

and protect water resources.37

the use of water resources. An

water use. Such legal gaps could

Fourteen

appropriate fee structure is often

send negative signals to investors

Ghana,

and commercial farms about a

Turkeyhave legislation that gives

efficiently

higher risk in securing enough

the granting agency discretion

conservation,41 though the specific

water for planned crop production

to determine the duration at the

systems vary significantly across

operations. Almost half the EBA

time of issuance. While this gives

countries.42

countries (19) have a statutory

the resource manager flexibility

countries

obligation for the authority issuing

to set permit durations based on

charge permit holders for surface

permits

announce

resource planning needs, it could

water used (29 for groundwater).43

new permit applications for both

reduce predictability and thus

surface water and groundwater

increase

use,

commercial farms.

management.
Permits

for

water

crops

commercial

to

and

use.

locating

operations.35

publicly

enhancing

transparency

high-income

countriesincluding
the

Philippines

investment

risks

and

for

characteristics,39

customary

considered

such

water

to

allocate

water

and

promote

water

Twenty-eight
allow

Decentralized

authorities

EBA
to

irrigation

management. In recent decades

for existing and potential water

many countries have taken steps

users on the allocation of water

requirement,

to decentralize the governance of

resources. The transparency of a

despite its benefits, can impose

water resources and infrastructure,

permit system contributes to the

a large burden on smallholder

implementing local participatory

security of water rights by sharing

farmers and granting agencies

management systems,44 mainly

formal

permit

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

92

should

exclude leaseholders and other

the supply of safe feed resources

be supported by a strong legal

land users that are not registered

can ensure production efficiency

framework.45 Five EBA countries

owners from membership.

and create an environment for

through

have

WUAs,

introduced

which

full

high-quality input throughout the

specific

legislation on WUAs. Another 26

Livestock

countries have specific provisions

livestock

production

process.52

Regulations that encourage the

for WUAs in their laws and

Livestock production accounts for

genetic improvement of livestock

regulations for sectors such as

up to 40% of global agriculture GDP,

breeds that are more efficient at

water, irrigation and agricultural

trending toward 5060%.47 Fueled

converting feed to body mass

development. The remaining 9

by a surge in global demand,

can

countries have no specific legal

livestock production is growing

reduce feed expenditures, cutting

recognition of WUAs, which are

faster than any other agricultural

production costs.53 In this respect,

subject to the general framework

production.48 Over the last 30 years

gene banks are important for

for associations or cooperatives.

population growth, urbanization

conserving

and rising incomes have steadily

for current and future breeding

Among the 31 countries that have

increased global consumption of

activities.54

specific provisions or full legislation

animal protein. For example, global

on WUAs, several features have

consumption of meat increased

EBA livestock indicators measure

to do with the establishment and

from 30 kg per capita in 1980 to

the supply, safety and quality of

internal organization of WUAs.46

40 kg per capita in 200549 and

animal production inputs. Data

In 16 countries the law explicitly

to 42.9 kg per capita in 2012.50

also focus on the existence and

permits WUAs to establish, monitor

The fastest growth in production

quality of such infrastructure as

and enforce their own rules in areas

and consumption has been in

databases, gene banks and testing

such as water use, fee payment

developing countries, particularly

laboratories.

and infrastructure maintenance.

in Asia.51

Also in 16 countries (a different

increase

productivity

genetic

and

material

Livestock genetic resources.

set) the law permits WUAs to

Such a steady increase in global

Regulating livestock genetic

directly

fees

livestock consumption, production

resources facilitates breeding

maintenance;

and trade offers substantial market

by encouraging farmers to

in 12 of them fees are freely set

opportunities for actors in the

select for specific traits while

by the WUA to cover expenses.

livestock value chains, including

ensuring

This legal autonomy and cost

input suppliers. This calls for

of local animal breeds. The

recovery ensure that WUAs have

direct support of policymakers

data describe the legislative

sufficient capacity and powers

in designing and implementing

framework

to improve and maintain the

regulations. Laws and regulations

improvement (such as genetic

infrastructure that brings water to

addressing the development and

evaluation),

commercial farms. Despite sharing

conservation of genetic resources,

new breeds and recognition

the previously mentioned good

the availability and quality of

of breeder organizations. Data

practices, Spain and Tanzania

veterinary medicinal products and

also cover functioning gene

for

collect

infrastructure

irrigation

the

conservation

for

breed

registration

of

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

93

banks for conserving livestock

evaluation

performance

different focus areas prescribed by

genetic material.

testing), new breed registration

international guidelines is limited.

(herd bookkeeping and pedigree

Of the 35 countries that regulate

Animal disease prevention and

certificate)

recognition

animal feed resources, only 15

veterinary inputs. Prevention

of

organizations

address all four areas included in

and control of animal diseases

(registration and accreditation). Of

the Codex Alimentarius Code of

and

and

breeding

of

quality

the 40 countries surveyed only 17

Practice for Good Animal Feeding,

livestock

medicinal

inputs

have a gene bank with functioning

while 33 address at least one of

are

to

sustainable

cryogenic storage capacity. Of the

the four areas. Burundi, Ghana, Lao

commercial livestock sector.

23 countries that do not have a

PDR, Rwanda and Uganda are the

The

gene bank, 18 are low-income or

five countries that do not regulate

lower-middle-income

animal feed resources.

availability
key
data

accessibility

collected
to

cover

national

countries.

livestock

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chile,

diseases and registration of

Greece, Jordan and the Russia are

veterinary medicinal products

the only high-income and upper-

and veterinary vaccines.

middle-income countries without a

Mitigating the negative effects

national gene bank.

of

databases

and

Safety

of

on

animal

feed

Environmental sustainability

agricultural

production

on

natural resources, such as soil,

resources. Safe livestock feed

Animal disease prevention and

water and plant resources, is

increases animal productivity

veterinary

inputs.

cost

one of the biggest challenges

and improves animal health,

associated

for

an

facing agriculture today. Not only

thus

production

application package for registration

are these resources required for

costs for livestock producers

and market authorization is low in

sustaining production, but their

and contributing to the safety

Nepal, at only $2, while in Greece

careful maintenance is essential

of food of animal origin. The

it is high, at $16,500.55 The time

for

data cover the regulation of

regulators take to review such

to

match

feed

including

applications and issue a decision

So

regulations

standards for the production,

also varies greatly. In the Kyrgyz

increased agricultural production

composition and safety of

Republic it takes only 3 days for

while adhering to environmental

feed. They also cover labeling

authorities to review a dossier and

good practices can enable farmers

requirements for animal feed

issue a decision, whereas in West

around the world to produce more

and the accreditation of feed

African Economic and Monetary

without depleting resources.

testing laboratories.

Union (UEMOA) countries it can

reducing

resources,

Livestock genetic resources. Only

The

submitting

global

food

production

population
that

growth.
facilitate

take up to 400 days and in Tanzania

As a result of the Green Revolution,

548 days.

plant

genetic

declined

23 countries regulate breeding

among

diversity

has

domesticated

activities, and fewer than half have

Safety of animal feed resources.

species since 1960, particularly the

a comprehensive breeding law that

While most EBA countries regulate

intraspecies diversity in farmers

covers breed improvement (genetic

feed

fields and farming systems. The

resources,

coverage

of

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

94

main cause of this genetic erosion

resources.

is the increased use of improved

measure the regulations and

seed varieties instead of more

institutions

genetically diverse local varieties.56

plant genetic resources. Ex situ

management.

But the development of improved

conservation conserves plant

measure

seed varieties relies on the use of

genetic resources outside their

resources

genes found in local varieties and

natural habitats, while in situ

in

wild relatives of domesticated

conservation59 is mainly used

the

watershed

crops. Without the genes from

for wild species, including

for

transboundary

these crop wild relatives (CWRs),

CWRs in wild habitats.60

management, through bilateral

These
for

lands and water sources.

data

conserving

water

resource

These

data

whether

an

are

water
managed

integrated

way
level

at
or,

water

or multilateral structures.

many useful traits would not


exist in todays improved seed

Integrated

Sustainable

use

of

plant

genetic resources. These data

varieties.57

Monitoring water resources.

measure the regulations that

These

Water is another natural resource

either promote or inhibit the

quantity and quality of water

crucial to sustainable agricultural

increased use of genetically

monitoring for both surface

production but under increasing

diverse plants, the possibility

and groundwater. Specifically,

pressure

of commercializing seeds of

the data report on water

and

landraces,61 and the rights

resource inventories and water

By

granted to farmers over farm-

quality standards.

from

agricultural
the

intensified

production

associated

pollution.58

between

expected

the

Some interesting results were

water

withdrawals and existing supplies,

measure

saved seeds.

2030 there will be a deficit of


40%

data

Access

to

plant

genetic

collected this year in 29 EBA

and this will reach 50% for a third

resources.

data

countries62 to set the foundation

of the worlds population, mostly

measure the rules of access

for further indicator developments

in developing countries. Adopting

applicable to germplasm held

next year.

policies

publicly by gene banks or by

and

legislation

that

These

Conservation

communities.

address growing water scarcity

developing countries.
EBA

environment

indicators

plant

genetic

resources. All 29 countries have a

is essential for agriculture, which


takes 85% of water withdrawals in

of

Regulation

of

agricultural

national plan for the conservation

activities. These data measure

and sustainable use of biological

whether

good

agricultural

diversity, including plant genetic

are

promoted

diversity.63 Among them, only 13

practices

measure laws and regulations that

through

and

have established a national plant

safeguard the long-term availability

regulations

promoting

inventory specifically documenting

and use of natural resources for

cover crops, siting livestock

landraces or crop wild relatives

agricultural production.

operations relative to water

of cultivated plants. For ex situ

sources and creating buffer

conservation, all countries studied

zones

report having functioning gene

Conservation of plant genetic

such
as

between

laws

agricultural

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

95

banks or collection systems. But

saved, used, exchanged and sold.

between

any

livestock

facility

and nearby surface water bodies.

while all EBA countries in East


Asia and the Pacific, Europe and

Access to plant genetic resources.

Sixteen address the establishment

Central Asia and Latin America

Breeders and farmers often rely

of

and the Caribbean regions have

on genetic material found in

agricultural

gene banks set by law, only one-

other countries to develop new

nutrient run-off into surface water

third of the Sub-Saharan countries

varieties, so genetic resources

bodies. And 15 regulate laws or

and none of the South Asian and

must be shared to sustain food

policies addressing cultivation and

Middle Eastern and North African

production and overcome diseases

irrigation on steeply sloping soils.

countries do.

and climate change. Globally 18

Europe and Central Asia is the only

countries have a law that regulates

region where more than half of the

Sustainable use of plant genetic

access to plant genetic resources.

surveyed countries have policies

resources. Informal seed systems

In Latin America and the Caribbean

or laws addressing the use of

must be retained alongside formal

access is subject to the issuance

cover crops.66

seed systems, given the significant

of a permit. In 7 EBA countries

contribution

seed

the conditions applicable to the

Integrated

systems to genetic diversity and

issuance of those permits differ

management. Eighteen surveyed

the ability of both to complement

for national and foreign applicants.

countries have laws establishing

each

The International Treaty on Plant

watershed commissions, which

focus

Genetic Resources for Food and

enable

predominantly on formal seed

Agriculture requires its members to

of the upper and lower parts

systems and most are silent on the

facilitate access to crops identified

of a watershed.67 All mainland

production and commercialization

as the most relevant to human

countries

of landraces. One exception is

consumption.65 Twenty-two EBA

transboundary water resources,

the European Directive 2008/62

countries are signatories, but only

and all are signatories to regional

(for

crops

Jordan, Kenya, Morocco, Poland,

or bilateral agreements for their

threatened by genetic erosion

Spain, Tanzania and Zambia have

management and use. While most

and adapted to regional and

satisfied this specific requirement.

of the transboundary agreements

have

local

of

other.64
seed

the

informal

All

laws

that

protection

conditions),

countries

of

implemented

buffer

zones
land

adjacent
to

prevent

water

integrated

to

resource

management

surveyed

have

establish authorities to address

by Denmark, Greece and Spain,

Regulation

agricultural

cost and benefit sharing,68 Chile,

which

establishes

activities. Regulation or policy

Denmark and Turkey do not have

specific procedures to market

guidance on good agricultural

a separate management authority

landraces. Twenty-one countries

practices can transform production

for such waters.

have laws that allow farmers to

methods and contribute to a more

save and use harvested seeds of

environmentally

an improved variety. Uganda also

agriculture

allows the exchange of those

Among EBA countries 10 have

groundwater availability can avoid

seeds among farmers. And four

laws or policies providing for a

overexploitation and be used to

countries allow those seeds to be

minimum distance of separation

develop early warning systems for

formally

of

in

the

sustainable

Monitoring

water

long

Monitoring

surface

term.

resources.
water

and

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

96

shortfalls and to design mitigation

agropreneurs.70 They have less

laws

measures. Nineteen EBA countries

decision-making

over

from men, and in 100 countries

have laws that require monitoring

basic assets, inputs and services,

women face gender-based job

both the quality and quantity of

including land, livestock, labor,

restrictions.74 In Russia a woman

surface water and groundwater

technology, education, extension

cannot drive a truck carrying

by a national authority. Most EBA

and financial services. Due to their

agricultural producea constraint

countries (26 of 29) have national

remote location and lack of formal

relevant to EBA since one of the

inventories for surface water and

education, they have less direct

indicators looks at market access

21 for groundwater. In total, 14

access to markets.

and operations for trucking service

power

countries (Bangladesh, Colombia,


Denmark,

women

differently

companies. Some countries restrict

Greece,

If women had the same access to

womens ability to be considered

Mozambique,

productive resources as men, they

a head of household, which can

the Philippines, Poland, Russia,

could increase yields on their farms

prevent them from getting financial

Uganda, Vietnam and Zambia)

by 2030%. That could raise total

assistance

share all four good practices

agricultural output in developing

of decision-making bodies, like

laws requiring both surface water

countries and reduce the number

water user associations or farmer

and

monitoring

of hungry people in the world by

cooperative boards, two areas

and national inventories for both

1217%.71 Yet recent studies in

measured by EBA indicators. Not

surface water and groundwater.

Africa have shown that, even with

getting finance prevents women

Twenty-two EBA countries have

equal access to improved seed

from overcoming the initial costs

laws that establish an authority to

and fertilizer, yields of women

of entering certain value chains

develop water quality standards,

farmers are lower than those of

the costs can be in money or time.

and 25 countries legally set these

male farmers. So other factors

Not being part of decision-making

standards.

standards

beyond access can influence the

bodies means that policymakers

typically address the quality of

effectiveness of these resources

may not address womens specific

water for domestic use rather than

for

legal

issues and constraints. In some

for irrigation (the case in only 11 of

restrictions, lack of information,

countries laws restrict married

those countries).

social norms, market failures and

womens ability to travel outside

institutional constraints.72

the home, register a business or

Jordan,

Ethiopia,

treat

Kenya,

groundwater

But

the

women,

such

as

Gender

or

becoming

part

open a bank account.75


Reforming

laws

that

directly

Women make up 43% of the global

affect womens capacity to own

Beyond direct legal discrimination

agricultural workforce, with large

and manage property, conduct

some rules and regulations can

regional and national variations.69

business, open accounts in own

hurt women more because they

Yet due to constraints that prevent

names and otherwise use public

typically have less access to

them from fully participating in

institutions and services increases

information, greater restrictions

agricultural value chains, they

womens economic empowerment

of time and capital and more

continue

and participation in agricultural

constraints

value chains.73 In 155 countries

access.76 High costs of market

as

to

farmers,

be

unrecognized

producers

and

to

institutional

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

97

entry and burdensome regulations

How can EBA indicators be used to

to operate limit the products and

regulate agribusiness inclusively?

services offered by agricultural


resource and service providers

EBA indicators address constraints

leading to higher prices, again

women

in

hurting women more because they

8.1).

Governments

have less capital and fewer assets.

implement laws and regulations

A lack of input dealers and financial

to directly or indirectly enhance

services in remote locations can

female participation in economic

be a constraint for many women

activitiesimproving

producers who want to engage

development and social welfare.77

agribusiness

(table
could

economic

in business activities but cannot


afford to travel to major cities.

TABLE 8.1 EBA topic areas focus on constraints relevant to womens participation in agribusiness
EBA TOPIC

SPECIFIC CONSTRAINT FOR WOMEN

LAND

Fewer than 20% of landholders worldwide are women. They often face legal constraints in owning and
inheriting land, which often disadvantage them when claiming land after a divorce or the death of a
husband or father. In 35 countries the law treats female surviving spouses differently from male spouses.78
119 Beyond the direct legal discrimination, burdensome and opaque land administration procedures
increase the cost and time to register transfers of ownership for both men and womenthough this can
be more prohibitive for women, who generally have less time and capital. In Ethiopia, Ghana and Rwanda
womens lack of land tenure security could be one reason for the lower productivity of their agricultural
plots.79 120 EBA land indicators aim to improve regulations on tenure security and ease restrictions on land
right transfers.

WATER

Womens limited access to water for agriculture is linked to their limited access to land and inheritance
rights. As a result of insecure land rights, women can be marginalized in water user associations and
farmers organizations, which often formalize farmer access to water. In many instances restrictions
for association membership are based on land ownership, and membership is limited to the head of the
household only.80 Such bylaws exclude women since many women do not own land and men are the heads
of households. Women can also be barred from decision-making positions within such organizations,
based on the same discriminatory restrictions. But it is important for women to be on the boards of user
associations and farmers organizations since they can inform gender-sensitive water management
practices.81 EBA water indicators address the legal frameworks that enable water user associations to make
decisions affecting all users of water and irrigation in the country.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

EBA TOPIC

SPECIFIC CONSTRAINT FOR WOMEN

SEED,

Many countries struggle with low use of agricultural inputs, reducing farmers productivity and livelihoods.

FERTILIZER AND

But women face unequal access to inputs due to several factors, including a lack of credit, property

MACHINERY

ownership and appropriate extension services. In other words, gender differences in access to land and
credit cause gender differences in access to inputs. Female-headed households are less likely to use
fertilizer than male-headed households, with differences ranging from 25 percentage points to 3 percentage
points. The same goes for machinery use between men and women, from 20 percentage points to less
than 1 percentage point across countries.82 In addition to using fewer inputs, women tend to use lower
quality inputs, either due to capital constraints or a lack of information. And women tend to use inputs
incorrectly more often than men do. This is partly due to the fact that extension services are tailored to
men, and women often receive second-hand information or lack access to extension service providers due
to cultural norms.83 Insecure land rights and credit constraints mean that women seldom own the land they
farm and generally have smaller plots than men. So they have fewer incentives to use agricultural inputs
and technology.84 EBA indicators of inputs measure the market constraints for seed, fertilizer and tractors.
Regulations that ease the burden on importers and dealers of these inputs can make them more readily
available and affordable in remote regions, and thus more accessible to women farmers. Improving the
quality control of fertilizer, seeds and machinery is also key to ensuring that increased input use boosts
womens productivity.

LIVESTOCK

It can be easier for women to acquire livestock than land, especially poultry and smaller ruminants.85
Rural women account for two-thirds of livestock keepers.86 But empirical evidence, national statistics and
data on the role of women in livestock value chains are scarce, making it difficult to draw conclusions on
the specific constraints women face in the livestock sector. Women have fewer rights of ownership over
livestock and its means of production in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East and North Africa regions.
They have more control over animals in Latin America and the Caribbean and East Asia and the Pacific.87
Other gender-specific concerns for women in livestock production or service provision include cultural
norms, unequal control over production and access to information on disease prevention.88
EBA livestock indicators measure factors affecting the supply, safety and quality of animal production
inputs. They also focus on the existence and quality of specific infrastructure such as gene banks, testing
laboratories and databases. The legal framework surrounding animal genetic resources and food security
can benefit women livestock keepers.

FINANCE

The share of female farmers who have access to credit is, on average, 5 to 10 percentage points lower
than for male farmers. Women face discriminatory legal provisions or bank practices dictated by cultural
norms, which require women to seek the approval of a male guardian before their loan application can be
processed. And when credit requires collateral, women are disadvantaged relative to men because they
have less land to secure a loan.89 In addition, delivery channels of financial services may inadequately serve
women, especially in rural areas.90 EBA finance indicators measure laws and regulations for microfinance
institutions, credit unions and branchless banking such as agent banking and electronic money. The
indicators account for alternative sources for movable collateral, such as warehouse receipts. All five can
help improve financial inclusion and the access women have to financial resources.

98

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

99

EBA TOPIC

SPECIFIC CONSTRAINT FOR WOMEN

TRANSPORT

Transport services and the quality of roads enable those in rural areas to reach markets, purchase inputs
and sell goods. The cost of transport and lack of affordable options can be a particular constraint for
women. In addition to their lack of capital to procure these services, the lack of service providers can
also increase the time they have to spend working outside the home.91 EBA transport indicators look at
constraints on the market access and operation of trucking companies, including servicing demand using
foreign-owned trucks. Removing or reducing these constraints could benefit women by reducing costs of
transport and increasing the availability of transport services in a country.

MARKETS

The participation of female producers in agricultural value chains depends on many factors.92 Owning
sufficiently large parcels of land, which women lack, is often a prerequisite to enter contract farming
arrangements with buyers. Women make up a minority of participants in contracted production as diverse
as barley and sugar in South Africa, tea and horticulture in Kenya, rice, sorghum and sunflower in Uganda
and French beans in Senegal.93 With limited access to credit, female producers can also be constrained
in their capacity to invest in better inputs and equipment, which in turn affects their ability to upgrade
processes and product to meet buyers requirements for quantity and quality.94 The benefits of social
capital, such participation in farmers cooperatives or professional associations range from facilitating
access to inputs and equipment to sharing market information and to strengthening links with buyers.95
Women are less likely to participate in farmer-based organizations and female leadership is even rarer.96
Social norms, time constraints and high membership fees may limit womens willingness and capacity to
participate.
Reducing the transaction costs of obtaining the documents required for export, such as phytosanitary
and quality certificates, can help resource-constrained producers, especially female farmers. Lowering the
fees to join professional organizations such as commodity boards or acquire mandatory licenses can also
facilitate female producers access to social capital and marketing opportunities. And enabling regulations
for cooperative creation and growth can help women leverage collective action in agricultural production
and marketing.

ICT

The positive impact of ICTs on farmers access to production and marketing information and services
potential and realis well documented.97 It also raises hope for addressing the information needs of
women farmers for new farming practices, crop management, market prices and marketing opportunities.98
But women are less likely than men to own a mobile phone, for example.99 They have less access to ICTs
because of illiteracy, cultural attitudes against womens access to technology and a reluctance to patronize
cyber cafs, often owned and visited by men.100 Rural women may also lack access to ICT infrastructure,
such as mobile phone networks, outside the main urban centers. EBA ICT indicators investigate licensing
regimes and regulations for service provider operations that affect the availability of ICT services in the
countryand government strategies and initiatives to increase access and use of ICT services in rural
areas. Indicators of e-extension services can help in analyzing the ICT-supported provision of agriculturerelevant information, such as weather forecasts and market prices, for the benefit of both women and men.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

Interesting insights can emerge

100

is

Notes

required

to

obtain

separate individual license in

by analyzing EBA data with other


gender specific datasets. EBA data

1. For information about areas

order to offer a specific service

supports the finding that there is

covered by the ICT and land

using specific technologies.

a positive relationship between

indicators

Exact

regulations that allow bank agents

year of the EBA project please

across

and mobile money and increased

visit the website: http://eba.

also

account ownership among men

worldbank.org.

InfoDev

and women in rural areas (figure


8.1).101

Easing

market

2. Ogutu,

during

Okello

the

and

first

countries.
with

vary
Compare

terminology

and

in

International

Telecommunication

Otieno

Union

2015a.

2014.

entry

definitions

Broadband

5. General authorization regimes

microfinance institutions and credit

Commission study of 165

provide greater flexibility than

unions could help provide financial

countries between 2001 and

individual licenses. They are

services to women without access

2012 showed that countries

technology and service neutral

due to bank lending policies. And

with

stronger

competition

and providers meeting certain

expanding womens ability to use

had

average

broadband

different types of movable goods

penetration

as collateral, including warehouse

for

receipts,

and up to 26.5% higher for

and operation requirements for

could

increase

3. The

their

UN

fixed

mobile

chances to secure a loan.

(Broadband

broadband

range of telecommunication

than

services.
6. InfoDev

and

International

Telecommunication

markets

Union

2015.

Commission

7. World Bank 2011.

2013).
4. Under an individual licensing

8. Mobile

regime every service provider

operators

contribute

typically

percentage

FIGURE 8.1 More people have bank accounts in countries that allow branchless banking

Account at a financial institutions, female (% age 15+)


Account at a financial institutions, male (% age 15+)

63.5
53.9

22.7

29.4

36.8
23.6

25.0

Agent banking and e -money Agent banking allowed, e not allowed


money not allowed
Source: EBA database; Global Findex Database 2014.

are

permitted to offer a wide

broadband

noncompetitive

requirements

higher

1.4%
line

minimum

26.8

E-money allowed, agent


banking not allowed

Agent banking and e -money


allowed

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

101

of their gross revenue to a

99 years. It should also be

defined as nongovernmental

universal access fund.

noted that a separate land

organizations

governance regime exists in

and other water users form to

Zanzibar.

manage an irrigation system

9. InfoDev

and

International

Telecommunication
Union

2015;

International

Telecommunication

Union

28. Land holders in Mozambique


are prohibited by Article 109
of

(ITU) 2013.

the

Constitution

at the local or regional level


(Vapnek and others 2009).
35. Ausness 1983.
36. Many

of

these

countries

mortgaging

11. Ogutu, Okello and Otieno 2014.

they

12. Qiang and others 2011.

improvements to the land.

50 years to create formal

29. When used in this context,

permit systems (Van Koppen

13. Cotula, Quan and Toulmin

though

farmers

10. Ladcomm Corporation 2013.

can

land,

from

that

mortgage

any

notorious is a legal term

2006.

undertook reforms in the past

and others 2014).

and

of art. It means that it is well

37. Ausness 1983.

Resource Management Office

known that the person is

38. Van Koppen and others 2014.

2013.

in possession of the land.

39. Van Koppen and others 2014.

In the context of adverse

40. The case study used for

possession in most legal

purposes of data collection

systems the possession must

involved a mixed subsistence

fulfill five elements: 1. Open

and commercial farm on a 2

(not

Exclusive

hectare plot, with more than 30

also

years of similar use of water.

14. USAID

Land

15. Coudouel

Tenure

and

Paternostro

2006.
16. Besley 1995.
17. Coudouel

and

Paternostro

2006.
18. Committee on World Food

hidden)

(others

are

2.
not

in

possession) 3. Notorious (well-

41. ICWE 1992.

19. Knight 2010.

known) 4. Adverse (contrary to

42. Briscoe

20. Idem.

the legal interests of a third

and others 2002; Rogers and

21. Feder and Tongroj 1987.

party) 5. For a statutorily

others 1998.

22. Deininger 2003.

stated duration of time. Here,

23. Idem.

because the land does not

24. Lerman, Csaki and Feder 2002.

belong to a third party the 4th

25. Crabtree-Condor and Casey

element is dropped.

2007; Groenfeldt 2000; Salman

30. Doing Business database.

1997; Vapnek and others 2009.

Security 2012.

2012.
26. DUATs

obtained

occupancy

are

through
perpetual,

32. FAO

2002;

while DUATs obtained by grant

Schoengold

are limited to 50 years.

2007.

27. In Tanzania customary rights


of occupancy can be perpetual,

and

44. Garces-Restrepo and others

and

Hodgson 2009.

Zilberman

46. Hodgson 2009.

others

2009;

47. Steinfeld and others 2006.


48. IAASTD 2009.

33. Vapnek and others 2009.


34. Alternatively

collected this year.

1996;

FAO

Johansson

43. Data on water fees were not

45. Vapnek

31. FAO 1996; FAO 2002.

1996;

known

as

49. FAO 2009a.

though they are customarily

irrigation associations, user

50. FAO 2015.

administered. Granted rights

associations, or water user

51. Thornton 2010.

of occupancy are limited to

organizations, WUAs may be

52. FAO 2010a.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

53. Lamb and others 2013.

improvement

54. FAO 2012a.

others 2013.).

55. The World Organization for

(Maxted

and

102

their use. To ensure easy


access to those crops that

62. The EBA country sample for

are most relevant to human

Animal Health (OIE) requires

environmental

sustainability

consumption, it created the

that

provide

includes

following

29

Multilateral System (MLS) of

animal

countries: East Asia and the

Access and Benefit Sharing

diseases, but this is only for

PacificCambodia, Lao PDR,

for seeds. Appendix 1 of the

notifiable diseases.

the

ITPGRFA identifies the priority

countries

information

on

the

Philippines,

Vietnam;
Asia

crops that are important for

Poland,

food security and on which

others

Russia, Spain, Turkey; Latin

countries are interdependent

from the over-application of

America and the Caribbean

(FAO 2009b).

chemical or organic fertilizers.

Bolivia,

56. FAO 1997.

Europe

57. Louwaars and de Boef 2012.

Denmark,

58. Resulting

among

of

the

traditional

Greece,

Chile,

Colombia;

66. FAO 2010b.


67. FAO 2007.

also

Jordan, Morocco; South Asia

68. UN-Water 2008.

conservation

Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka;

69. FAOSTAT database.

and

Sub-Saharan

70. World Bank 2011a.

conservation

includes

Central

Middle East and North Africa

59. FAO 2009b.


60. In-situ

and

locally

AfricaBurkina

adapted varieties of crops on

Faso, Burundi, Cte dIvoire,

71. FAO 2011.

farm (referred to as on-farm

Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali,

72. World Bank and ONE 2015.

conservation).

Mozambique, Niger, Tanzania,

73. FAO 2011; Quisumbing and

61. Landraces
relatives

and

crop

are

genetically

wild

generally

diverse

and

others 2014; World Bank 2007.

Uganda, Zambia.
63. All 29 countries are parties to
the Convention on Biological

plant

resources

adopted a National Biodiversity

agriculture.

Strategy Plan (NBSAP). The

2010.

Landraces are domesticated

CBD reports that most CBD

77. World

plants that have developed

member countries (94%) have

2012; World Bank 2011; World

unique characteristics through

adopted such plans; https://

Bank and ONE 2014.

repeated

www.cbd.int/nbsap/.

food

and

in

situ

grower

selection and thus are often


closely

associated

with

specific geographical location


and

traditional

farming

have

75. World Bank 2015a.

Diversity

for

and

wbl.worldbank.org.

therefore are important for


genetic

(CBD)

74. For the latest data, see: http://

64. Louwaars, de Boef and Edeme

Development

Report

78. Women, Business and the Law


database.
79. World Bank and ONE 2014.

2013.
65. The International Treaty on
Plant

76. Simavi, Maul and Blackden

Genetic
Food

and

80. FAO 2002.

Resources

81. Ibid.

Agriculture

82. World Bank 2011a.

systems. Crop wild relatives

for

are undomesticated species

facilitates the exchange and

83. World Bank and ONE 2015.

that are closely related to

conservation of plant genetic

84. World Bank 2011a.

crops and whose traits are

materials, as well as the

85. Njuki and Miller 2012.

of potential benefit for crop

fair sharing of benefits from

86. FAO 2012b.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 EBA TOPICS UNDER DEVELOPMENT

103

87. See

Women

Livestock

Besley, T. 1995. Property Rights

2006.

and

focus on technical knowledge

Theory and Evidence from

Distributional

at

Ghana. Journal of Political

Reforms.

Economy, 103(5): 90337.

World Bank.

gender/thematic/livestock/

Incentives:

Analyzing

Managers in the Third World: a


http://www.ifad.org/

Investment

Coudouel, A., and S. Paternostro.


the

Impact

of

Washington,

DC:

live_ap2.htm.
Briscoe, J. 1996. Water as an

Crabtree-Condor, I., and L. Casey.

89. Quisumbing and others 2014.

Economic Good: The Idea and

2012. Lay of the Land. ActionAid

90. Dermish and others 2011

What It Means in Practice.

International: Johannesburg.

91. World Bank 2011a.

Proceedings of the Sixteenth

92. Rubin and Manfre 2014.

Congress of the International

93. Idem.

Commission on Irrigation and

Policies

for

94. Idem.

Drainage, Cairo: 177201.

Poverty

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88. FAO 2012b.

Deininger,

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Land

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Research Report, World Bank,

95. Meinzen-Dick and others 2014.

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Broadband Commission. 2013.The

96. Idem.

K.

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State

of

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Universalizing

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99. Quisumbing and others 2014.

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100. World Bank 2011b.

Commission: Geneva.

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2013:
Dermish,

A.,

C.

Kneiding,

P.

Leishman and I. Mas. 2011.


Branchless

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Banking Solutions for the Poor:

101. Allen and others 2012.

A Survey of the Literature.

Committee on World Food Security.


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ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 1

107

APPENDIX 1.
METHODOLOGY

Enabling the Business of Agriculture measures regulations that can improve market access for producers,
providing data and analysis that allow policymakers to compare their countrys policies, regulations and
market conditions with those of others. Data covers 40 countries in the following 11 areas: seed, fertilizer,
machinery, finance, markets, transport, land, information and communication technology (ICT), water, livestock
and environmental sustainability. Six of the topics were chosen for scoring and are presented below. The other
5 will go through further refinement and be scored next year.
The data for all sets of indicators presented are current as of March 31, 2015.
The report team welcomes feedback
on the methodology. All the data
and sources are publicly available
Country assumptions and characteristics

at http://eba.worldbank.org.

Region and income group

Legal indicators

Enabling the Business of Agriculture uses the World Bank re-

Legal indicators emerge from a


reading of the laws and regulations.
In this case, the team identified
good regulatory practices for each
topic area. The individual questions
are

assigned

numerical

scores

ranging from 0 to 1 (see topic


notes below for details). For each
indicator developed, the scores of
individual questions are averaged
and multiplied by 100, resulting
in a final score ranging from 0 to
100. The scores of the different
indicators within one topic are also
averaged into a topic score (0100).

gional and income group classifications, available at http://


data.worldbank.org/about/country-and-lending-groups.
While the World Bank does not assign regional classifications to high-income countries, regional averages presented
in figures and tables in the report include countries from
all income groups. For the report, high-income OECD countries are assigned the regional classification as OECD high
income.
Gross national Income (GNI) per capita
Enabling the Business of Agriculture 2016 uses 2014 income
per capita as published in the World Banks World Development Indicators 2015. Income is calculated using the Atlas
method (current U.S. dollars). For cost indicators expressed
as percentage of income per capita, 2014 gross national
income (GNI) in U.S. dollars us used as the denominator.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 1

108

Most of the EBA topics constitute an individual per se market; the key actors in those markets are governed by a
set of rules that facilitate or hinder their business activities as they affect their market entry and operations both
locally and internationally. At the same time, those key actors need to respect the necessary safety standards
and quality control in a sector as sensitive as agriculture established by the relevant laws and regulations.
Topics cover the following cross-cutting categories.

Operations measures the requirements for local companies to enter the market (such as the registration of
seeds and fertilizer products, licensing of trucking companies or requirements to start a MFI) and develop
their respective agribusiness activities (such as the rules governing operations of producers and farmers
organizations, activities allowed for agent banking or freight allocation for transportation of agricultural
products);

Quality control focuses on regulations governing plant protection, safety standards for users of machinery
or quality control for seeds and fertilizer products.

Trade looks into the trade restrictions for exporting agricultural products, as well as importing fertilizer and
tractors (given the lack of production in many countries) and cross-border transport rights;

Similar to the topic scores, each country has also a score for each cross-cutting category, averaging their
scores in the specific indicators belonging to that category (table A1.1).
TABLE A1.1 Legal indicators per topic and cross-cutting category
OPERATIONS
SEED

QUALITY CONTROL

TRADE

Seed registration (0100)


Seed development and
certification (0100)

SEED SCORE
(0100)

FERTILIZER

Fertilizer registration (0100)

Fertilizer quality control


(0100)

Fertilizer Import requirements


(0100)

FERTILIZER
SCORE (0100)

MACHINERY

Tractor dealer requirements


(0100)

Tractor standards and safety


(0100)

Tractor import requirements


(0100

MACHINERY
SCORE (0100)

FINANCE

Microfinance institutions
(0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
E-money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)

MARKETS

Production and sales


(0100)

TRANSPORT

FINANCE SCORE
(0100)

Cross-border transportation
(0100)

Truck licenses (0100)


OPERATIONS SCORE
(0100)

MARKETS
SCORE (0100)

Plant protection (0100)

QUALITY CONTROL SCORE


(0100)

TRADE SCORE (0100)

TRANSPORT
SCORE (0100)

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109

Time and motion indicators


Time and motion data refer to the efficiency of the regulatory systemfor example, the number of procedures
and the time and cost to complete a process such as certifying seed for sale in the domestic market. Data of
this type are built on legal requirements and cost measures are backed by official fee schedules when available.
Time estimates often involve an element of judgment by respondents who routinely administer the relevant
regulations or undertake the relevant transactions. To construct the time estimates for a particular regulatory
process, such as completing the requirements to import fertilizer, the process is broken down into clearly
defined steps and procedures. The time to complete these steps is verified with expert respondentsthrough
conference calls, written correspondence and visits by the teamuntil there is convergence on a final answer.
The specific rules followed by each topic on defining procedures, time and cost estimates is described in the
following pages. Time and motion indicators are presented and analyzed in the report, but are not assigned a
particular score (table A1.2). The reason is that some processes follow good practices, such as the tests for
evaluating and registering new seed varieties and the technical review by a variety release committee, while
others may be redundant, such as an additional formal approval by a minister after the technical review. The
individual good practices have been singled out and scored under the legal indicators. Since the time for taking
the tests depends not only on regulations but also on the countrys cropping seasons, it would be unfair to
penalize countries for their specific geographical conditions. The methodology on time and motion indicators
will be further developed next year.
The following assumptions and definitions were used to make the data comparable across countries.
TABLE A1.2 Time and motion indicators per topic and cross-cutting category

SEED

OPERATIONS

QUALITY CONTROL

TRADE

Seed registration:

Fertilizer import requirements:

procedures, time and cost


FERTILIZER

Fertilizer registration: procedures, time and


cost

cost of import permit and importer


registration for importers of fertilizer

MACHINERY

Tractor import requirements:


cost of import permit and importer
registration for importers of tractors

FINANCE

MARKETS

Agricultural exports: documents, time and


cost (per shipment)

TRANSPORT

Truck licenses:
time, cost and validity of company
licenses, truck permits and vehicle
inspections

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 2

APPENDIX 2.
TOPIC DATA NOTES
Seed
EBA seed indicators seek to identify the obstacles affecting the timely introduction and production of highquality seed from formal sources, by examining availability of initial seed classes, requirements for the
evaluation and registration of new varieties and seed quality control requirements.
Two sets of indicators have been developed:

Seed registration.

Seed development and certification.

Seed indicators have four main types of respondents: (i) seed producers and companies, (ii) seed associations,
(iii) relevant government authorities (such as a ministry of agriculture seed authority) and (iv) academia. In
addition, local and international technical experts from donor-funded seed programs and nongovernmental
organizations were also consulted. Data were collected through interviews conducted during country visits
directly with respondents as well as by email and teleconference calls from Washington, DC.
Responses from respondents were crosschecked by reading the applicable laws and regulations to the extent
that these were available. Secondary research was also performed when necessary, such as the verification of
information via recently published literature and online searches. In addition to the initial consultations with seed
experts, the team received technical contributions on the methodology, data selection and the interpretation of
the regulations from Joseph Cortes and Adelaida Harries. Lloyd Le Page also provided technical expertise on
the indicator methodology.
To make the data comparable across countries, several assumptions about the evaluation and registration
process are made.
Assumptions for evaluation and registration of new maize varieties
The variety:

Is a maize variety that has been developed by the private sector.

Is being registered for the first time in the entire country.

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111

Has not been registered in any other country.

In exceptional cases when maize varieties are not being developed by the private sector in the country, is
an imported maize variety, which may have been previously registered elsewhere.

Procedures
A procedure is defined as any interaction of the seed companys owner, manager, or employees with external
parties, including any relevant government agencies, lawyers, committees, public and private inspectors and
technical experts. All procedures that are legally or in practice required for the seed company to register a new
seed variety are counted. Procedures are consecutive but can be simultaneous, such as the tests that need to
be performed to evaluate the new variety.
Time
Time is recorded in calendar days and captures the median duration necessary to complete each procedure. It
is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day. Although procedures such as testing
may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (that is, simultaneous procedures start on
consecutive days). A registration process is considered completed once the new variety has been released and
commercial production can start. Any tests performed by the company prior to filling an application are not
counted. It is assumed that the companys owners, managers or employees have had no prior contact with any
of the officials.
In most countries, a new variety must pass standard tests in order to be released. Those tests are needed to
evaluate the varietys distinctiveness, uniformity and stability (DUS tests) and its value for cultivation and use
(VCU tests). The time required by law to perform these tests is often based on the number of cropping seasons
required to test different aspects fully. This presents a methodological challenge in how the time is accounted
and compared because countries can have one or two cropping seasons per calendar year depending on their
geography. In addition, a cropping season in a country with one season per calendar year tends to last longer
than one in a country with two seasons per year (estimated to 135 days in countries with one season and 182
days in countries with two seasons). So the time needed for the tests differs by climate.
The time for tests requiring a specified number of cropping seasons is measured in the following way:
Countries with two cropping seasons per calendar year (two testing seasons per year):

If one season is required by law to perform the tests, 135 days are counted for the testing procedure.1

If two seasons are required by law to perform the tests, 275 days are counted. This accounts for the 2
seasons of 135 days each and 5 days to account for the time needed to plow and prepare the land before
the next cropping season (135 + 5 + 135 days)

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112

If three seasons are required by law to perform the test, 500 days are counted. This accounts for a full
calendar year including two seasons (365 days) and an additional testing season (135 days).

Countries with one cropping season per calendar year (one testing season per year):

If one season is required by law to perform the tests, 182 days are counted for the testing procedure.2

If two seasons are required by law by law to perform the tests, 547 days are counted. This accounts for the
full calendar year including one season (365 days) and an additional testing season (182 days).

If three seasons are required by law to perform the test, 912 days are counted. This accounts for two full
calendar years including one season (365 + 365 days) and an additional testing season (182 days).

Costs
Only official costs are recorded, including fees and taxes. In the absence of fee schedules, a government
officers estimate is taken as an official source. In the absence of a government officers estimate, estimates
by seed companies are used. If several seed companies provide different estimates, the median reported value
is applied. Professional fees (notaries, lawyers or accountants) are only included if the company is required to
use such services. All costs are indicated in U.S. dollars and as a percentage of the countrys income per capita.
TABLE A2.1 Scoring methodology for seed
Indicator
(category)

Description

What is measured?

How it is scored?

Seed registration
(operations)

This indicator looks at the


legally mandated processes
and practices required to
introduce a locally developed
new maize variety into the
domestic market

1. The law establishes a variety


release committee (VRC) in
the country

A score of 1 if yes

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Indicator
(category)

Description

What is measured?

How it is scored?

2. The composition of the legally


mandated variety release
committee includes the
private sector

A score of 1 if private and public


sectors are equally represented (or if
majority of private sector members)

A score of 0.75 if private sector


representation between and

A score of 0.5 if private sector


representation between and 1/8

A score of 0.25 if private sector


representation between 1/8 and 0

A score of 0 if no private sector


representation or no variety release
committee
3. The variety release committee
(VRC) meets regularly in
practice

A score of 1 if the VRC meets on


demand, or at least twice a year in
a country with 2 crop seasons or at
least once a year in a country with 1
crop season

A score of 0 if the VRC meets once


a year in a country with 2 crop
seasons or less than once a year in a
country with 1 crop season, or if the
VRC does not exist or meet at all
4. A variety can be
commercialized immediately
after the recommendation of
the VRC

A score of 1 if yes.

This question has double weight (2/8)


with regard to the other questions of
this indicator (1/8)
5. The country has a variety
catalog listing new varieties
and if it is available online

A score of 1 if yes.

A score of 1/2 if a variety catalog


exists but it is not available online
6. The catalog specifies agroecological zones suitable
for plantation of each listed
variety

A score of 1 if yes

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 2

Indicator
(category)

Description

114

What is measured?

How it is scored?

7. The variety catalog is updated


frequently

A score of 1 if the catalog is updated


twice or more a year if the country
has 2 crop seasons, or if the catalog
is updated once a year if there is one
crop season
A score of 1/2 if the catalog is
updated once a year if the country
has 2 crop seasons.
A score of 0 if the catalog is updated
less than once a year irrespective of
the number of crop seasons

8. Total procedures to evaluate


and register a new variety

Not scored

9. Total time to evaluate and


register a new variety

10. Total cost to evaluate and


register a new variety

Seed
development
and certification
(operations)

This indicator measures the


legal requirements for the
production of initial seed
classes and the certification
of new varieties

1. The country currently


implements regulation
governing plant breeders
rights

2. Private enterprises are eligible


to produce breeder/pre-basic
seed of local public varieties
for use in the domestic market
3. Private enterprises are eligible
to produce foundation/basic
seed of local public varieties
for use in the domestic market
4. Private sector can access
germplasm from the national
gene bank
5. Materials for research and
development of new varieties
can be imported without
further government field
testing
6. There is an established
system for licensing public
varieties to private seed
enterprises for production and
sale in the domestic market

A score of 1 if yes

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115

Indicator
(category)

Description

What is measured?

How it is scored?

7. The regulations allow for a


private institution or seed
companies to be accredited
to carry out the certification
process

A score of 1 if yes. For countries that


do not allow this practice, this question
is not counted when aggregating the
indicator scores (bonus point)

8. There is an official fee


schedule established for seed
certification activities carried
out by the public sector

A score of 1 if yes

Specific terms
Basic/foundation seed has been produced under the responsibility of the maintainer according to the generally
accepted practices for the maintenance of the variety and is intended for the production of certified seed. Basic
or foundation seed must conform to the appropriate conditions in the regulations and the fulfillment of these
conditions must be confirmed by an official examination.
Breeder/pre-basic seed is directly controlled by the originating or sponsor plant breeding institution, firm or
individual, and is the source for the production of seed of certified classes.
Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) testing is a test performed to compare candidate varieties for
registration with varieties already listed in seed register on these qualities:

Distinctness (UPOV definition): A variety shall be deemed distinct if it is clearly distinguishable in at least
one character from any other variety whose existence is a matter of common knowledge at the time of
filing the application for registration.

Uniformity (UPOV definition): A variety shall be deemed to be uniform if, subject to the variation that
may be expected from the particular features of its propagation, it is sufficiently uniform in its relevant
characteristics.

Stability (UPOV definition): A variety shall be deemed stable if its relevant characteristics remain unchanged
after repeated propagation by the method that is normally used for the particular variety.

Seed certification (OECD definition) is the quality assurance process during which seed intended for domestic
or international markets is controlled and inspected by official sources to guarantee consistent high quality
for consumers. This process involves: (i) controlling the seed in previous generations, (ii) conducting field
inspections during the multiplication process to ensure there is little contamination and that the variety is true
to type, (iii) growing samples of the known seed in control plots to ensure that the progeny is conform to the
characteristics of the variety and (iv) testing the seed quality in laboratories.
UPOV is the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, an intergovernmental organization
based in Geneva, Switzerland. Its mission is to provide and promote an effective system of plant variety

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 2

protection, with the aim of encouraging the development of new varieties of plants for the benefit of society. To
be a member, the law of a country must conform to the standards of the 1991 Act of the UPOV Convention. The
country can also have an observer status after having officially expressed an interest in becoming a member
of UPOV and participating in the sessions of the Council. To date, 71 countries have a member status and 57
countries, an observer status.
Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) is a test performed to assess whether a variety has characteristics and
properties that affect improvement in cultivation or in the utilization of the harvest or its products in comparison
to the existing listed varieties.
Variety (UPOV definition) is a plant grouping within a single botanical taxon of the lowest known rank, which,
irrespective of whether the conditions for the grant of a breeders right are fully met, can be:

defined by the expression of the characteristics resulting from a given genotype or combination of
genotypes.

distinguished from any other plant grouping by the expression of at least one of the said characteristics.

considered as a unit with regard to its suitability for being propagated unchanged.

Variety catalog is a list of varieties that have been registered and released by a national authority and can be
produced and marketed in a country or region as certified seed.
Variety release committee is the committee that decides whether a new variety can be registered and introduced
on the domestic market.
Fertilizer
EBA fertilizer indicators measure laws and regulations on the registration, import and quality assurance of
fertilizer products. The indicators focus on areas that are important for companies who want to import and sell
fertilizer in a country.
Three sets of indicators have been developed:

Fertilizer registration.

Fertilizer quality control.

Fertilizer import requirements.

Fertilizer indicators have three main types of respondents: (i) fertilizer companies, (ii) relevant government
authorities (for example, the ministry of agriculture) and (iii) agricultural input dealer associations. The
questionnaire targets all three groups of respondents, whereby the time and motion component is typically

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117

answered by the private sector. Data were collected through interviews conducted during country visits directly
with respondents and also by email and teleconference calls from Washington, DC.
To make the data comparable across countries, several assumptions about the fertilizer company and the
fertilizer product are used, as detailed below:
Assumptions about the business and registered fertilizer
The business:

Is a fertilizer importer.

Imports fertilizer to sell in the country.

Has registered at least one new fertilizer product in the country.

Does not operate in an export processing zone or an industrial estate with special import or export privileges.

The destination port for importation of fertilizers is the most used port in the country. If the country is landlocked,
it is assumed that the most used border posts are employed.
The fertilizer:

Is a new chemical fertilizer product that has not previously been registered in the country.

Procedures
A procedure is defined as any interaction of the companys owners, managers or employees with external
parties, for example, government agencies, lawyers, auditors, notaries and customs or border authorities. It
includes all procedures that are officially required for the business to legally perform its described activities,
such as registering and importing fertilizer. Interactions among owners, managers and employees are not
counted as procedures.
Time
Time is recorded in calendar days and captures the median duration of each procedure. The time span for each
procedure starts with the first filing of the application or demand and ends once the company has received
the final document, such as the fertilizer registration certificate. It is assumed that the companys owners,
managers or employees have had no prior contact with any of the officials.
Costs

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118

Only official costs required by law are recorded, including fees and taxes. If possible, the relevant fee schedule
or calculation formula should be indicated (for example, as a percentage of the companys capital). Professional
fees (notaries, lawyers or accountants) are only included if the company is required to use such services. All
costs are indicated in U.S. dollars and as a percentage of the countrys income per capita.
TABLE A2.2 Scoring methodology for fertilizer
Indicator
(category)

Description

What is measured?

How it is scored?

Fertilizer
registration
(operations)

As many countries require fertilizer to


be registered before they can be sold
commercially, this indicator measures
required procedures for fertilizer
registration

1.

A score of 1 if yes

The private sector is required to


register fertilizer

1a. The registration is not limited


to a specific time period or reapplication is not needed

A score of 1 if yes

1b. If registration is limited to


a specific time period, the
following scores are assigned

A score of 0.75 if equal


to or greater than 10
years
A score of 0.5 if greater
than or equal to 5 years,
and less than 10 years
A score of 0.25 if greater
than or equal to 2 years
and less than 5 years
A score of 0 if less than
2 years

1c. The renovation of application is


automatic

A score of 1 if yes, or if the


renovation is not required

2.

There is an official fertilizer


catalogue listing all registered
fertilizer

A score of 1 if yes

3.

The catalogue is accessible


online

A score of 1 if yes

4.

Total number of procedures


legally required to register a new
fertilizer product

Not scored

5.

Total time to register a new


fertilizer product

Not scored

6.

Total cost to register a new


fertilizer product

Not scored

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119

Indicator
(category)

Description

What is measured?

How it is scored?

Fertilizer quality
control (quality
control)

This indicator focuses on labeling


requirements, legislation on the
sale of mislabeled and open
fertilizer containers, and practices in
monitoring fertilizer quality

1.

A score of 1 if yes

The fertilizer law requires


labeling of fertilizer containers
(bags, bottles)

1a. The following scores are


assigned with regard to the label
content

A score of 1/3 is assigned


to each of the following
elements:
brand name
net weight or volume
content description

2.

Fertilizer import
requirements
(trade)

As fertilizer production is
concentrated in only a few countries,
requiring most others to rely on
imports, this indicator focuses on
the private sectors role and the
requirements for importing fertilizer

The fertilizer law prohibits the


sale of mislabeled fertilizer bags

A score of 1 if yes

2a. The fertilizer law establishes


a penalty for the sale of
mislabeled fertilizer

A score of 1 if yes

3.

A score of 1 if yes

The fertilizer law prohibits


the sale of opened fertilizer
containers/bags

3a. The fertilizer law establishes a


penalty for the sale of opened
fertilizer containers/bags

A score of 1 if yes

1.

A fertilizer product that has


previously been registered in
another country does not need
to be re-registered in the country

A score of 1 if yes

2.

The private sector is allowed to


A score of 1 if yes
import fertilizer in the country for
its own use

3.

The private sector is allowed to


import fertilizer in the country in
order to sell it

A score of 1 if yes

4.

Foreign firms are allowed to


import fertilizer in order to sell it

A score of 1 if yes

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Indicator
(category)

Description

120

What is measured?

How it is scored?

5.

A score of 1 if yes

The private sector is required


to register as an importer of
fertilizer in order to sell it. The
registration is not limited to a
specific time period

5a. If registration is limited to


a specific time period, the
following scores are assigned

A score of 0.75 if equal


to or greater than 10
years
A score of 0.5 if greater
than or equal to 5 years
and less than 10 years
A score of 0.25 if greater
than or equal to 2 years
and less than 5 years
A score of 0 if less than
2 years or the importer
registration is not
required

5b. Cost of the registration

Not scored

6.

A score of 1 if no

The private sector is required


to obtain an import permit to
import fertilizer

6a. If import permit is required, the


following scores are assigned

A score of 0.8 if permit is


not limited to a specific
time period
A score of 0.6 if valid for
12 months or longer
A score of 0.4 if valid for
6 months or longer and
less than 12 months
A score of 0.2 if valid for
longer than 1 month and
less than 6 months
A score of 0 if valid for 1
month or less

6b. Cost of the import permit

Not scored

Specific terms
Blend is any combination or mixture of fertilizer products.
Fertilizer form is the form in which the fertilizer is presented, for example, liquid, granules, powder, spikes, tablets

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 2

121

or pellets.
Fertilizer product is any product containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, or any recognized plant nutrient
element or compound that is used for its plant nutrient content.
Fertilizer types are as follows:

NPK is composed of three main elements: Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K), each of these
being essential in plant nutrition.

Urea is a form of nitrogen fertilizer with an NPK (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium) ratio of 46-0-0.

DAP, diammonium phosphate, is the worlds most widely used phosphorus (P) fertilizer.

MAP (Monoammonium phosphate).

MOP, Muriate of Potash, is the most common form of potash.

Potash or fertilizer potassium (K), sometimes called potash.

Ammonium Nitrate is a salt of ammonia and nitric acid that is widely used in fertilizers. The substance can
be used in explosive compounds, which is why many countries have imposed specific regulations for its
transport, storage and handling.

Machinery
EBA machinery indicators measure obstacles facing tractor dealers wishing to import tractors for sale. Besides
meeting the requirements for import and registration, the indicators also measure the regulations for standards
and safety.
Three sets of indicators have been developed:

Tractor dealer requirements.

Tractor standards and safety.

Tractor import requirements.

Machinery indicators have four main types of respondents: (i) agricultural machinery manufacturers, (ii)
importers, (iii) machinery dealers and (iv) relevant government authorities (such as the ministry of agriculture).
Data were collected through interviews conducted during country visits directly with respondents and also by
email and teleconference calls from Washington, DC.
To make the data comparable across countries, several assumptions about the machinery company and the
machinery product are used, as detailed below:
Assumptions about the business and the agricultural tractor

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122

The business:

Is an importer or dealer of agricultural tractors.

Does not operate in an export processing zone or an industrial estate with special import or export privileges.

The destination port for importation of tractors is the most used port in the country. If the country is landlocked,
it is assumed that the most used border posts are employed.
The tractor:

Is a new or second-hand two-axle/four-wheel drive (4WD) tractor.

Costs
Only official costs required by law are recorded, including fees and taxes. If possible, the relevant fee schedule
or calculation formula should be indicated (for example, as a percentage of the companys capital). In cases
where no official costs are in place, the median of the responses from respondents is computed. Professional
fees (notaries, lawyers or accountants) are only included if the company is required to use such services. All
costs are indicated in U.S. dollars and as a percentage of the countrys income per capita.
TABLE A2.3 Scoring methodology for machinery
Indicator
(category)

Description

Tractor dealer
requirements
(operations)

This indicator measures


legal requirements with
regard to suitability
testing of agricultural
tractors, specific
licensing required to
operate a tractor, as
well as warranties and
post-sale services that
must be provided at the
retail level

What is measured?
1.

How it is scored?

Requirement to obtain proof of


A score of 1 if proof of suitability
suitability for the import of new
is required and the cost is below
agricultural tractors and associated
10% of GNI per capita
cost.
A score of 0.75 if proof of
suitability is required and the
cost is equal to or greater than
10% and less than 25% of GNI per
capita
A score of 0.5 if proof of
suitability is required and the cost
is equal to or greater than 25% of
GNI per capita and less than 50%
of GNI per capita
A score of 0.25 if equal to or
greater than 50% of GNI per
capita
A score of 0 if proof of suitability
is not required

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123

Indicator
(category)

Description

What is measured?
2.

Requirement to register the tractor


once the machine is imported and
associated cost

How it is scored?
A score of 1 if registration is
required and has no cost, or the
cost is lower than 2% of GNI per
capita
A score of 0.75 if registration is
required and the cost is equal
to or greater than 2% of GNI per
capita and lower than 5% of GNI
per capita
A score of 0.5 if registration is
required and the cost is equal
to or greater than 5% of GNI per
capita and lower than 10% of GNI
per capita
A score of 0.25 if registration is
required and the cost is equal to
or greater than 10% of GNI per
capita
A score of 0 if registration is not
required

3.

Requirement of a special operators


license in order to operate an
agricultural tractor

A score of 1 if yes

4.

Requirement that producers and


sellers of agricultural tractors are
responsible for providing post-sale
services. The following scores
are assigned with regard to the
provision of post-sale services

A score of 0.2 is assigned to each of


the following post-sale services
repair of tractors
replace or return poor quality
tractors
supply of spare parts
train users on the use of tractors
train users on maintenance of
tractors

Tractor standards
and safety (quality
control)

These indicators look at


legal requirements with
regard to operational
safety and performance
standards of tractors. A
score of 1 is assigned
for each of the following
6 data points

1.

Requirement that tractors must


be equipped with a fixed roll-over
protective structure (ROPS)

A score of 1 if yes

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Indicator
(category)

Description

124

What is measured?

How it is scored?

2.

Exemption from this requirement


if the owner provides proof by
the tractor manufacturer that the
tractor was not designed to be fitted
with a ROPS

A score of 1 if yes

3.

Requirement that tractors must


be equipped with a seatbelt. The
following scores are assigned

A score of 1 if ROPS and


seatbelts are required
A score of 2/3 if ROPS are
required and seatbelts are not
required
A score of 1/3 if neither ROPS nor
seatbelts are required
A score of 0 if ROPS are not
required and seatbelts are
required

4.

Establishment of sanctions for


owners of agricultural tractors that
fail to comply with safety standards

A score of 1/3 is assigned to each of


the following
Establishment of sanctions for
lack of seatbelts
Establishment of sanctions for
lack of ROPS
Establishment of sanctions for
not being in possession of an
operators license

Tractor import
requirements
(trade)

These indicators look


at aspects of importing
agricultural tractors and
harvesters, including
the private machinery
sectors role and the
required procedures to
import

5.

Requirement that manufacturers


and sellers of agricultural tractors
comply with national quality and
performance standards

A score of 1 if yes

6.

Requirement that tractor standards


must be in accordance with
international standards (e.g.
International Organization for
Standardization, ISO)

A bonus point is assigned to those


countries that have this requirement

1.

The private sector is allowed to


import new agricultural tractors

A score of 1 if yes

2.

The private sector is allowed to


import second-hand agricultural
tractors

A score of 1 if yes

3.

The private sector is allowed to


import spare parts for agricultural
tractors

A score of 1 if yes

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Indicator
(category)

Description

What is measured?

How it is scored?

4.

Requirement for pre-shipment


inspections of new agricultural
tractor

A score of 1 if yes

5.

The private sector is required


to register as an importer of
agricultural tractors. The registration
is not limited to a specific time
period

A score of 1 if yes

5a. If registration is limited to a specific


time period, the following scores are
assigned

A score of 0.75 if equal to or


greater than 10 years
A score of 0.5 if equal to or
greater than 5 years and less than
10 years
A score of 0.25 if equal to or
greater than 2 years and less than
5 years
A score of 0 if less than 2 years,
or registration is not required

5b. Cost of the registration

Not scored

6.

A score of 1 if yes

The private sector is not required to


obtain an import permit to import
agricultural tractors

6a. If import permit is required, the


following scores are assigned

A score of 0.8 if permit is not


limited to a specific time period
A score of 0.6 if permit is valid for
12 months or longer
A score of 0.4 if permit is valid for
6 months or longer and less than
12 months
A score of 0.2 if permit is valid
longer than 1 month and less
than 6 months
A score of 0 if permit is valid for 1
month or less

6b. Cost of the import permit

Not scored

Specific terms
Agricultural tractor means a two- or four-wheel drive type vehicle or track vehicle of more than 20 engine
horsepower, designed to furnish the power to pull, carry, propel or drive implements that are designed for
agriculture. All self-propelled implements are excluded.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 2

Roll-over protection structures (ROPS) are attached to the tractor frame and come as either two post fixed or
foldable, four post, or as an integral part of a ROPS cab. They generally will limit a side overturn to ninety
degrees (90) and will provide an important safety zone for the operator provided the operator is wearing the
seat belt.
Finance
EBA finance indicators measure laws and regulations that promote access to a range of financial services,
with focus on areas that are relevant for potential customers that are partially or fully excluded from traditional
financial services due to factors such as their geographical location or available type of collateral.
Five sets of indicators have been developed:

Microfinance institutions (MFIs).

Credit unions.

Agent banking.

Electronic money (e-money).

Warehouse receipts.

Finance indicators have three main types of respondents: financial sector supervisory authorities, financial
lawyers and legal officers of financial institutions. Data collection includes interviews conducted during country
visits directly with respondents, followed by rounds of follow-up communication via email and conference calls
with respondents as well as with third parties. Data are also verified through analyses of laws and regulations,
including review of public sources of information on banking law, warehouse receipt law, financial institutions
law and others.
Assumptions about the financial institutions
Microfinance institutions (MFIs): MFIs are financial institutions that specialize in the provision of small-volume
financial services (such as credit, deposits and loans) to low-income clients. MFIs can take deposits, lend and
provide other financial services to the public and are licensed to operate and supervised by a public authority.
Credit unions: Credit unions are member-owned, not-for-profit financial cooperatives that provide savings,
credit and other financial services to their members. There are typically two types of financial cooperatives: (i)
small financial cooperatives that provide services only to their members and are typically supervised by either
the central bank, the department of cooperatives, or the ministry of financethey are referred to as savings and
credit cooperatives (SACCOs) in some countries, and (ii) cooperative banks that take deposits from and lend
to the public and are regulated under the main financial institution laws and supervised by the central bank.
The credit union indicator measures small financial cooperatives to be consistent with the topics emphasis on

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127

small-scale lending and financial inclusion.


TABLE A2.4 Scoring methodology for finance
Indicator
(category)

Description

What is measured?

How it is scored?

Microfinance
institutions
(operations)3

This indicator
measures the
regulations for
deposit-taking MFIs

1.

Score of 1 if yes

The economy allows and regulates deposittaking MFIs

2. The regulated minimum capital adequacy ratio


for MFIs is at least equal to, or no more than
2 percentage points higher, than the capital
adequacy ratio for commercial banks

3. Loan sizes of MFIs are not limited to a specific


amount or are greater than 10 times the GNI per
capita if there is a specific amount4

4. The law requires MFIs to disclose the effective


interest rate or a proxy to loan applicants

5.

MFIs are required to fully provision a delinquent


unsecured loan after the same number of days
required for commercial banks, or within half the
number of days required for commercial banks

6. The law requires MFIs to subscribe to a deposit


insurance system

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 2

Indicator
(category)

Description

128

What is measured?

How it is scored?

7. Minimum capital required to establish an MFI.


Scores are divided into four groups (1, 2/3, 1/3 and
0) based on each countrys minimum mandatory
capital requirement as a multiple of GNI per
capita. Threshold values are determined based on
distribution

A score of 1 if the mandatory


capital requirement is greater
than 0 but less than 201
times the GNI per capita of
the country
A score of 2/3 (0.66) if
the mandatory capital
requirement is equal to or
greater than 201 times, but
less than 501 times the GNI
per capita
A score is 1/3 (0.33) if the
minimum mandatory capital
requirement is equal to or
greater than 501 times the
GNI per capita, but less than
1001 times the GNI per capita
A score of 0 if the minimum
mandatory capital
requirement is equal to or
greater than 1001 times the
GNI per capita of the country
or if there is no provisions on
minimum capital requirement

Credit unions
(operations)

This indicator
measures the
regulations for credit
unions

1. The economy has a law regulating credit


unions, or there is a specific section of a general
cooperatives law that regulates the governance
and operation of credit unions

2. 30 or fewer members are required to establish a


credit union

3. The law defines ratios to ensure financial stability


of credit unions

4. The law requires credit unions to disclose the


effective interest rate or a proxy to loan applicants

Score of 1 if yes for each


question

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129

Indicator
(category)

Description

What is measured?
5. Minimum capital required to establish a credit
union. The scores are divided into four groups (1,
2/3, 1/3 and 0) based on each countrys minimum
mandatory capital requirement as a multiple of
GNI per capita. Threshold values are determined
based on distribution

How it is scored?
A score of 1 if the
mandatory capital
requirement is greater than
0 but less than 11 times
the GNI per capita of the
country
A score of 2/3 if the
mandatory capital
requirement is equal to or
greater than 11 times, but
less than 51 times the GNI
per capita
A score of 1/3 if the
minimum mandatory
capital requirement is equal
to or greater than 51 times
the GNI per capita, but less
than 101 times the GNI per
capita
A score is 0 if the minimum
mandatory capital
requirement is equal to
or greater than 101 times
the GNI per capita of the
country or if there is no
provisions on minimum
capital requirement

Agent banking
(operations)5

This indicator
measures the entry
and operational
requirements for
agent banking

1. There exists a legal framework to regulate agent


banking activities

Score of 1 if yes

2. Whether there are minimum standards in order to


qualify and operate as an agent in the following
areas: 1) has to be an operating/established
business, 2) has to have positive financial
records, 3) has to have real-time connectivity to
a commercial bank. Each standard is weighted
equally with a score of 1/3

A score of 1/3 for each


standard

3. Type of contracts that agents can enter with


financial institutions

A score of 1 is assigned
if agents are allowed to
enter both exclusive and
nonexclusive contracts

For example: A score of 1


if the law states all three of
the minimum standards as
requirements to qualify and
operate as an agent. If the law
states only two out of three of
the minimum standards, the
score is 2/3

A score of is assigned if
only nonexclusive contracts
are allowed
A score of 0 is assigned if
only exclusive contracts are
allowed

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 2

Indicator
(category)

Description

130

What is measured?

How it is scored?

4. The types of services agents can offer on behalf


of a bank. This data point looks at 7 services: cash
deposits, cash withdrawals, transfer of funds to
other customers accounts, bill payments, balance
inquiry, opening a deposit account and collection/
processing of loan application documents. Each
of the above services is equally weighted and
worth 1/7 of a point

A score of 1/7 for each


service

5. Whether commercial banks are liable for the acts


of commission and omission of agents providing
financial services on their behalf

A score of 1 if the legislation


states that commercial banks
are liable
A score of 0 if they are not
liable

Electronic
money
(e-money)
(operations)

This indicator
measures the
legal framework
for e-money, in
particular the entry
and operational
requirements for
non-bank e-money
issuers

1. E-money is allowed

Score of 1 if yes for each


question

2. Non-bank businesses are allowed to issue


e-money

3. Non-bank e-money issuers are required to keep a


minimum of liquid assets to safeguard customer
funds
4.

The requirements for non-bank businesses to


receive a license to issue e-money. The four
requirements are:

an initial capital requirement; for


the initial capital requirement,
countries are divided into four
groups (1, 2/3, 1/3, 0) based on the
countrys capital requirement as a
multiple of its GNI per capita

A score of 1*1/4 if the


capital requirement is less
than 101 times the GNI per
capita but greater than 0
A score of 2/3*1/4 if the
minimum capital is equal to
or greater than 101 times the
GNI per capita but less than
501
A score of 1/3*1/4 if the
minimum capital is equal to
or greater than 501 times the
GNI per capita but less than
901
A score of 0 if the minimum
capital requirement is equal
to or greater than 901 times
the GNI per capita or if there
is no provisions on minimum
capital requirement

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131

Indicator
(category)

Description

What is measured?

interoperability with other existing


electronic money payment/transfer
systems

existence of internal control


mechanisms to comply with AntiMoney Laundering and Combatting
Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT)
laws, standards and measures

consumer protection measures


such as consumer recourse
mechanisms, consumer awareness
programs, etc.

How it is scored?
A score of if the law states
the requirement and 0 if it
does not

Each of the above services is equally weighted with a


score of

Warehouse
receipts
(operations)

This indicator
measures the
regulations
facilitating the
use of agricultural
commodities as
collateral

1. The economy has a law regulating the operation


of warehouse receipts, or the regulation of
warehouse receipts is included in other general
legislation

Score of 1 if yes for each


question

2. Warehouse operators are required to file a bond


with the regulator or pay into an indemnity fund
to secure performance by him of his obligations
as a warehouse operator

3. Warehouse operators are required to insure the


warehouse or the stored goods against fire,
earthquakes, theft, burglary or other damage

4. Warehouse receipts are negotiable

5.

Types of warehouse receipts that are legally


valid: paper-based, electronic or both

A score of 1 is assigned if the


law allows both paper-based
and electronic warehouse
receipts and if electronic
warehouse receipts are
explicitly mentioned in the
regulation
A score of is assigned if the
law allows only paper-based
receipts
A score of 0 is assigned if
warehouse receipt is not
recognized or used

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 2

Indicator
(category)

Description

What is measured?
6. Information that must be listed on a warehouse
receipt for it to be valid. There are 4 details
measured: location of storage, amount in
storage, description of goods (type, quality and
harvest) and information on security interest over
the goods (certificate of pledge)

132

How it is scored?
Each piece of information
counts for of a point
For example, a score of 1 is
assigned if all 4 pieces of
information are required to be
listed on the receipt for it to
be legally valid
A score of is assigned if
only 3 above the pieces of
information are required to
be listed on the receipt, and
so on

Specific terms
Agent banking is the delivery of financial services through partnership with a retail agent (or correspondent) in
order to extend financial services to locations where bank branches would be uneconomical.
Capital adequacy ratio is a measure of a banks total capital expressed as a percentage of its risk-weighted
assets.
Credit unions are member-owned, not-for-profit financial cooperatives that provide savings, credit and other
financial services to their members.
Effective interest rate is the annual interest rate plus all fees associated with the administration of the loan to
the client. It is a symbol of the total cost of the loan to the client. Proxies for the effective interest rate are the
annual percentage rate or the amortization table/schedule for the loan.
E-money refers to money that is stored and exchanged through an electronic device and not associated with
a deposit account at any financial institution. Examples include electronic funds transfers and payments
processed through mobile phones or prepaid cards.
Microfinance institutions (MFIs) are financial institutions specializing in the provision of small-volume financial
services (credit, deposits, loans) to low-income clients, which can take deposits, lend and provide other financial
services to the public and are licensed to operate and supervised by a public authority.
Negotiable receipts allow a transfer of ownership without having to physically deliver the commodity.
Non-bank businesses are those that do not hold a banking license, including telecoms, post offices or other
businesses licensed by the central bank or financial supervisory authority to issue e-money.

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133

Provisioning rules determine how much money banks must set aside as an allowance for bad loans in their
portfolios. The share of a loan that must be covered by provisioning can either be the full loan amount or the
part that is not secured by collateral (unsecured share).
Ratios to ensure financial stability can include liquidity ratio, capital adequacy ratio, solvency ratio, credit to
deposit ratio, assets to liabilities ratio, stable funding ratio, net loan receivables to total assets and others.
Countries address the issue of stability of credit unions using different criteria, therefore all the ratios above
can be included in this measure.
Warehouse receipts are documents issued by warehouse operators as evidence that specified commodities are
of stated quantity and quality, deposited or stored at particular locations by named depositors and owned by
the beneficiary of the receipt issued. Where supported by an appropriate legal framework, warehouse receipts
can serve as a form of collateral to obtain a loan from financial institutions and facilitate future sales.
Markets
EBA markets indicators measure obstacles faced by agribusinesses in the production and marketing of
agricultural products and when accessing foreign markets. Phytosanitary regulations that favor agricultural
trade through the promotion of plant and crop health are also assessed.
Three sets of indicators have been developed:

Plant protection.

Production and sales.

Agricultural exports.

Markets indicators have six main types of respondents: (i) government agencies (responsible for trade,
customs, plant protection and cash crops), (ii) private producers, processors and exporters of agricultural
products (both domestic and multinational companies) and related trade/export associations, (iii) farmers
organizations, including unions, federations, cooperatives and other similar entities, (iv) chambers of commerce,
(v) lawyers, and (vi) freight forwarders and customs brokers. Data were collected from these respondents using
four different surveys: two for the public sector and two for the private sector. Data were collected through
interviews conducted during country visits directly with respondents and also by email and teleconference
calls from Washington, DC.
To render data on production and sales as well as agricultural export more comparable across countries, several
assumptions about the business, the agricultural products and the trading partner are used, as detailed below:
Assumptions about the contracted product

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 2

The contracted product is defined as the most produced non-processed non-cereal product in terms of gross
production value (current million U.S. dollars). All data are sourced from FAOSTAT, using the production data
of 2012 (the latest available year). Cereal crops are excluded from the analysis because they are less suitable
for agricultural production contracts due to high risks of side-selling in well-developed local or export markets,
the reduced need for technical assistance to meet market specifications and reduced price differentials at each
point in the supply chain.
Assumptions about the business
The business:

Performs general agricultural trading activities.

Does not operate in a special export processing zone.

Assumptions about the export product and trading partner


The export products are defined and grouped as cash crops, cereals, fruits and vegetables according to the
Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System 1996 version (HS 96). All data are sourced from the
UN Comtrade Database, using the export data from 200913. For each country, the combination of the product
and the partner country which represents the highest five-year average export value (in U.S. dollars) is selected.
For example, cereal export to Zimbabwe is selected for Zambia. In addition, for countries where cash crops
are selected as the export product, the HS 4-digit product within the category that is exported the most to the
partner country is used for studying the legal and regulatory requirements. For example, coffee export to the
United States is selected for Colombia since coffee is the top product in the cash crop category and the United
States is Colombias main trading partner.
Assumptions about the shipment

Is transported via a 20-foot full container-load.

Weighs 10 metric tons.

All packing material that requires fumigation (such as wood pallets) is assumed to be treated and marked
with an approved international mark certifying that treatment.

Requirements to export
A requirement for purposes of the study is any legally required qualification or document that must be obtained
by the exporter (Company A) in order to export the selected product to the trading partner. These requirements
may apply to the trader (annual export license or mandatory memberships) or to the consignment on a per
shipment basis (phytosanitary certificate or fumigation certificate). These requirements involve interactions

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135

with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, laboratories and other relevant institutions.
All requirements mandated in the law in order to complete the export transaction outlined by the case study are
taken into account, even if they may be avoided in certain cases. Buyer-driven requirements or documents are
not considered for purposes of the study. The following principles apply to the requirements recorded:

Only requirements specific to the export product group (or the top exported subproduct within that group)
and agricultural products more generally are captured. Customs procedures or documentary requirements
that are not specific in this way are not measured (certificate of origin, generalized system of preferences
(GSP) certificate, export declaration, commercial, shipping or transport documents, letter of credit and so
on).

Mandatory membership of a public or private entity is included if it is required to obtain and exercise the
right to export the selected product or agricultural products more generally.

Trader-level export licenses include any document or action that is required to obtain and exercise the right
to export, including registration or accreditation requirements, or traditional licenses.

Documents are collected on a per shipment basis and one document includes both application and
completion of the process (phytosanitary certificate, quality certificate from a private laboratory).

Where multiple documents are obtained simultaneously, they are recorded as separate documents but
time is adjusted to reflect their simultaneity.

The mandatory documents required by both the country studied and the selected trading partner are
included.

Both public and private fumigation certificates are excluded if they are not required by the laws of
either the country studied or the selected trading partner. Only fumigation that is required for the
product itself is captured and separate fumigation for packaging prior to its purchase and use is not
included.

Time
Time is recorded in calendar days and captures the median duration to obtain each mandatory document to
export on a per shipment basis. Time to complete membership requirements or to obtain trader-level licenses is
not captured. The time span for each document starts with the first filing of the application or demand and ends
once the company has received the final document, such as the phytosanitary certificate. It is assumed that
the companys owners, managers or employees have had no prior contact with any of the officials and that the
company completes each procedure to obtain the document without delay on its side. The following principles
apply to the documents coded:

It is assumed that the minimum time required for each document is 1 day, except for documents that can
be fully obtained online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day.

Although multiple documents may be obtained (and related processes completed) simultaneously, the
process to obtain each document cannot start on the same day (that is, simultaneous processes start on

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consecutive days).

If the process to obtain a document can be accelerated for an additional cost and is available to all types
of companies, the fastest legal process is chosen and the related costs are recorded. Fast-track options
applying only to firms located in an export processing zone or to certain accredited firms under authorized
economic operator programs are not taken into account.

Costs
The costs include all official fees and fees for legal or professional services if such services are required by
law to complete the qualification requirement or obtain a document. Service fees (charged by fumigation
companies or private laboratories) are only included if the company is required by law to use such services.
Traditional (scheduled) border taxes and tariffs are not captured. Other special charges or taxes that apply
to the export product or subproduct, or the export of agricultural products generally, are included only where
they result in the issuance of a stand-alone mandatory document to export or are needed to obtain another
mandatory document to export.
Where possible, laws, regulations and fee schedules are used as sources for calculating costs. In the absence
of fee schedules, estimates by public and private sector respondents are used. If several respondents provide
different estimates, the median reported value is applied. In all cases the cost excludes bribes. All costs are
indicated in U.S. dollars and as a percentage of the countrys income per capita.

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137

TABLE A2.5 Scoring methodology for markets


Indicator
(category)

Description

Plant
protection
(quality
control)

This indicator looks at the


strength of the domestic
plant protection framework
by considering the legal
obligations applicable to
domestic pest management

What is measured?

1.

There is an obligation on the national


plant protection agency or another
government agency to carry out pest
surveillance activities on plants in
your country

2.

There is an obligation on producers/


land owners to monitor and report
outbreaks of pests to the government

3.

The government or national plant


protection agency maintains a list
of regulated quarantine pests that is
accessible to the public

4.

The list of regulated quarantine pests


is uploaded to the IPPC website

5.

A pest database that contains


details on the pests present in
your country, such as their current
status, geographical distribution
and/or treatment, is available on a
government website

6.

Pest risk analysis (PRA) is provided


for in the law OR there is a
designated unit in the government to
carry out PRA

7.

Phytosanitary inspections on imports


of plant products may be carried out
on a risk basis

8.

Phytosanitary legislation covers both


domestic containment and import/
export quarantine procedures at the
border

How it is scored?

A score of 1 if yes

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138

Indicator
(category)

Description

What is measured?

How it is scored?

Production
and sales
(operations)

This indicator measures legal


requirements with regard to the
establishment and activities of
farmers cooperatives, the ease
of engaging in contract farming
arrangements and resolving
related disputes

Please note that questions 1 and 2


on licenses are based on the selected
contracted product:

A score of 1 if no

1.

The producer or seller requires a


license to sell the contracted product
or to engage in an agricultural
production contract

2.

The contractor needs a license to


purchase the contracted product or
engage in an agricultural production
contract

3.

Farmers cooperatives can seek


loans or lines of credits provided by
non-members

4.

Farmers cooperatives can merge

5.

Minimum capital requirement to


establish a farmers cooperative

A score of 1 if yes

A score of 1 if there is no
minimum capital requirement
A score of 0.25 if the minimum
capital requirements is equal to
or less than 1 times the income
per capita
A score of 0 if the minimum
capital requirement is greater
than 1 times the income per
capita

6.

Mediation/conciliation can be
attempted after the start of judicial
proceedings upon either courtreferral or application of the parties

A score of 1 if yes

7.

Enforceability of a settlement
agreement reached through an
extra-judicial and/or extra-arbitral
negotiation, conciliation or mediation

A score of 1 if the settlement


agreement has the same
enforceability as a court
decision
A score of 0.5 if the settlement
agreement can acquire the
same enforceability as a court
decision upon submission
to a judicial body or upon
notarization
A score of 0 if the settlement
agreement is enforceable only
under the laws of contract

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139

Indicator
(category)

Description

What is measured?

How it is scored?

Agricultural
export (trade)

This indicator looks at the


mandatory requirements to
export the selected product to
the selected trading partner
at the trader level and per
shipment

1.

Exporters do or do not have to be a


member of a specific association
or organization in order to obtain
the right to export the selected
product or agricultural products more
generally

Not scored

2.

Exporters do or do not have to obtain


a trader-level export license in order
to export the selected product or
agricultural products more generally
to the selected trading partner

3.

Total number of mandatory


documents required to export

4.

Total time to obtain mandatory


documents required to export

5.

Total cost to obtain mandatory


documents required to export

Specific terms
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) is any litigation process or procedure, other than adjudication by a presiding
judge in court, in which a neutral third party assists in or decides on the resolution of the issues in dispute.
Farmers cooperatives are also known as agricultural cooperatives, farmers organizations, or producers
associations. A farmers cooperative is defined as a voluntary, jointly-owned and democratically controlled
association of farmers created to support and promote the economic interests of its members through joint
economic activity, including, but not limited to, production, processing and marketing of agricultural products.
If different types of farmers organizations exist in a countrys laws, that which most closely adheres to this
definition is selected for study.
Inspections on a risk-management basis involve an import monitoring programme where the monitoring (the
number of consignments inspected) is established on the basis of predicted risk through pest risk analysis
(PRA).
Mediation is an ADR process in which a neutral mediator helps the parties discuss and find a mutually acceptable
solution. The mediators role is strictly facilitative; he or she does not decide in favor of one party or another, but
guides the parties toward a consensual resolution.

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Pest risk analysis (PRA) is defined as [t]he process of evaluating biological or other scientific and economic
evidence to determine whether a pest should be regulated and the strength of any phytosanitary measures to
be taken against it.6 It consists of three stages: initiating the process for analyzing risk, assessing pest risk
and managing pest risk.
Phytosanitary measures include [a]ny legislation, regulation or official procedure having the purpose to prevent
the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests, or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine
pests.7
Plant protection encompasses regulations, policies and institutional frameworks that affect plant health in a
country, including domestic pest management measures as well as phytosanitary controls at the border.
Production and sales encompasses regulations, policies and institutional frameworks that impact the production,
processing, marketing and sales of agricultural products in a country.
Regulated quarantine pest refers to [a] pest of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby
and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled.8
Settlement agreement is a mutually acceptable solution found by the parties upon conciliation or mediation.
Transport
EBA transport indicators measure regulatory and administrative constraints affecting the market access and
operations of reliable and sustainable commercial road transport services and the regulatory requirements for
cross-border transportation.
Two sets of indicators have been developed:

Truck licenses.

Cross-border transportation.

Transport indicators used two different questionnaire versions targeting: (i) private sector respondentsmainly
trucking associations, trucking companies, freight forwarders, lawyers; and (ii) public sector respondents
mainly ministries of transport, road transport regulatory authorities and ministries of infrastructure. Data
were collected through interviews conducted during country visits directly with respondents, by email and
teleconference calls from Washington, DC and by local staff in the different target countries.

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141

To make the data comparable across countries, several assumptions about the trucking company and its
environment were made, as detailed below:
Assumptions about the business
The business:

Is a limited liability company.

Is 100% domestically owned.

Has between five and 10 employees.

Owns a maximum of five trucks; each truck has two axles and a loading capacity of 20 metric tons.9

Rents a garage.

Transports agricultural products within the country, including perishable goods.

Does not transport fertilizers, pesticides or any hazardous products.

The information on transport licenses and permits refers exclusively to domestic operations. The section on
cross-border transportation assumes trade is undertaken with the largest neighboring agricultural trading
partner.
Time
Time is recorded in calendar days and captures the median duration of obtaining the required company or
truck license. The timespan starts once all required documents have been submitted to the relevant authority
and ends once the company has received the final document. The minimum time to obtain a company or truck
license is one day. It is assumed that the companys owners, managers or employees have had no prior contact
with any of the officials.
Cost
Costs capture only official costs required by law, including fees and taxes. Transport laws and regulations have
been used as legal basis when available, and an estimation from respondents have been used when not. In
such cases where no official costs are in place, the median of responses is computed. This section assumes
all documents have been submitted correctly. All costs are indicated in U.S. dollars and as a percentage of the
countrys income per capita.
Validity
Validity is measured for company and truck licenses and for technical inspections. Validity is expressed in
years.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 2

142

TABLE A2.6 Scoring methodology for transport


Indicator
(category)

Description

Truck licenses
(operations)

This indicator
categorizes the different
licensing regimes to
provide commercial
road transport services
in the domestic market.
It also measures the
extent to which license
requirements and
application submissions
are available online,
additional legal
requirements to obtain a
license/permit and price
and freight allocation
regulations affecting
road transport services
in the domestic market

What is measured?
1.

Type of licensing regime required


for a company to legally transport
agricultural products in the
domestic market

How it is scored?
A score of 1 if only company license
required
A score of 0.5 if both company and
truck licenses are required
A score of 0.25 if only registry,
franchise/public concession or truck
license is required
A score of 0 if no license is required
This question has double weight (2/7)
with regard to the other questions of this
indicator (1/7)

2.

Online availability of license or permit A score of 1 if yes


requirements
This question is not scored for countries
without a license or permit

3.

Availability of an electronic
submission platform for license or
permit application or renewal

A score of 1 if yes

Additional requirements for obtaining


the relevant licenses, permits,
inspections and certificates with
regard to nationality, membership
with a trucking association or
operational size

A score of 1 if none of the following


is a requirement to obtain a license
/ permit: (a) membership to an
association, (b) being of a specific
nationality and (c) certain operational
size (number of trucks)

4.

This question is not scored for countries


without a license or permit

A score of 2/3 if one is required


A score of 1/3 if two are required
A score of 0 if all three are required to
obtain a license or permit
5.

Government regulation of prices for


agricultural road transport service

A score of 1 if no

6.

Presence of a queuing system (also


known as a tour de rle)binding
for all trucking companies and used
to access or allocate freight in the
country

A score of 1 if no

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 2

143

Indicator
(category)

Cross-border
transportation
(trade)

Description

What is measured?

How it is scored?

Licenses and permits

1.

Total time to obtain a license


at company level to transport
agricultural products by truck

Not scored

2.

Total cost to obtain a license at


company level

3.

Validity of the license at company


level

4.

Total time to obtain a permit or


license at truck level

5.

Total cost to obtain a license or


permit at truck level

6.

Validity of the permit or license at


truck level

7.

Total cost of a vehicle technical


inspection

8.

Validity of vehicle technical


inspection

1.

Requirement of a written contract


acknowledging carriers liabilities
in cross-border transportation
transactions

A score of 1 if yes

2.

The right of foreign trucking


companies registered in the largest
agricultural trading partner to
transport goods into the country

A score of 1 if yes

3.

Existence of quotas on the number


of transport right permits granted

A score of 1 if no

This indicator measures


the restrictions to
cross-border transport
including the regulation
of carriers liabilities

A score of 0 if yes or if no transport


rights granted

4.

The right of foreign trucking


companies registered in the largest
agricultural trading partner to
transport goods back from the
country (backhauling)

A score of 1 if yes

5.

The right of foreign trucking


companies registered in the largest
agricultural trading partner to
transport goods from the country
into a third country (triangular rights)

A score of 1 if yes

6.

The right of foreign trucking


companies registered in the largest
agricultural trading partner to transit
through the country

A score of 1 if yes

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 2

Indicator
(category)

Description

144

What is measured?

How it is scored?

7.

A score of 1 if yes

The right of foreign trucking


companies registered in the largest
agricultural trading partner to
transport goods between two points
within the country (cabotage)

Specific terms
Freight allocation:

Deregulated market: Market actors can freely interact with each other.

Freight allocation occurs through direct contracting between a producer or trader and a trucking
company.

Direct contracting is facilitated by a freight exchange (platform in which freight supply and
demand are made public to all actors).

Regulated market: Freight allocation is influenced or organized by a third party.


Queuing system (tour de rle): freight allocation practice by which freight is sequentially allocated
by trucking associations, unions or the government.

Cross-border transportation:

Transport rights: A truck registered in Country A is able to transport agricultural goods produced in its
country into Country B for sale.

Backhauling rights: A truck registered in Country A is able to transport agricultural goods into Country
B for sale, load other goods in Country B and carry them back to Country A.

Transit rights: A truck registered in Country A is able to travel through Country B to deliver agricultural
goods into Country C.

Triangular rights: A truck registered in Country A is able to pick up agricultural goods in Country B and
transport them to be delivered into Country C.

Cabotage rights: A truck registered in Country A is able to pick up agricultural goods in Country B and
deliver them to a different point in Country B.

Notes
1.

Based on the average growing time for medium-maturing varieties of maize.

2. Seasons in countries with one season per calendar year tend to last longer.
3. High-income and upper-middle-income countries are not measured under the MFI indicator.
4. In some countries, the maximum loan an MFI can extend is limited to a percentage of deposits or a
percentage of core capital. This language is included in regulations for risk management, intended to limit
the exposure of the institution to a single borrower. For countries with this type of loan limitation, EBA

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 2

145

considers it no limit because the currency value corresponding to that percentage is so high as to present
no effective limit to borrowers.
5. High-income and upper-middle-income countries are not measured under the agent banking indicator.
6. International Plant Protection Convention 2005. p. 16.
7. International Plant Protection Convention 2005. p. 17.
8. International Plant Protection Convention 2005. p. 18.
9. A truck is defined as one tractor unit, excluding the trailer.
References
2005. Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms. International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures No. 5. Rome: FAO

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 3

APPENDIX 3.

ALTERNATIVE WAYS OF PRESENTING THE DATA


The following are two alternative ways of presenting EBA data. The questions used to build the accessibility
of agribusiness regulatory information and discrimination of agribusiness regulations scores are questions
also used to build the topics and cross-cutting categories scores. For example, a seed variety catalogue
(within accessibility of agribusiness regulatory information) also belongs to the seed registration (operations)
indicator, so it is part of the seed score and the operations score. Similarly, the eligibility of the foreign firms to
import fertilizer (within discrimination of agribusiness regulations) belongs to the fertilizer import requirements
(trade) indicator, so it is part of the fertilizer score and the trade score.
Discrimination of agribusiness regulations
The data on discrimination of agribusiness regulations were collected across six EBA topics (table A3.1). For
each question, countries where the nondiscriminatory feature under study is in place are assigned a score of 1;
those without such features are assigned a score of 0. The total score of the 18 questions reflects the number
of good practices related to nondiscrimination. These questions are also part the corresponding topic and
score.
TABLE A3.1 Discrimination of agribusiness regulations data by topic
GOOD PRACTICES BY TOPICS
SEED

1.

The mandatory participation of private sector representatives in seed variety release committee

2.

The eligibility of private enterprises to produce breeder/pre-basic seed of local public varieties for use in
the domestic market

3.

The eligibility of private enterprises to produce foundation/basic seed of local public varieties for use in
the domestic market

4.

The accessibility of germplasm from the national gene bank for the private sector

5.

The existence of a system for licensing public varieties to private seed enterprises for production and sale
in the domestic market

FERTILIZER

6.

The eligibility of the private sector to be accredited to carry out the certification process

7.

The eligibility of the private sector to register fertilizer

8.

The eligibility of the domestic firms to import fertilizer in order to sell it

9.

The eligibility of the foreign firms to import fertilizer in order to sell it

146

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 APPENDIX 3

147

MACHINERY

10. The eligibility of the private sector to import new agricultural tractors and harvesters
11. The eligibility of the private sector to import second-hand agricultural tractors and harvesters
12. The eligibility of the private sector to import spare parts for agricultural tractors and harvesters

FINANCE

13. The eligibility of non-bank businesses (businesses that do not hold any financial institution license) to
issue e-money

MARKETS

14. The absence of minimum capital requirements to establish a farmers cooperative

TRANSPORT

15. In addition to company and/or truck level licenses as well as technical inspections, the absence of other
requirements regarding nationality, membership with a trucking association or operational size for a
transport operator to offer commercial road transport services in the domestic market
16. The eligibility of foreign trucking companies registered in the countrys largest agricultural trading partner
to transport goods into the country
17. The eligibility of foreign trucking companies registered in the countrys largest agricultural trading partner
to transport goods back from the country (backhauling)
18. The eligibility of foreign trucking companies registered in the countrys largest agricultural trading partner
to transport goods between two points within the country (cabotage)

Accessibility of agribusiness regulatory information


The data on accessibility of agribusiness regulatory information were collected across five EBA topics (table
A3.2). For each question, countries where the information accessibility feature under study is in place are
assigned a score of 1; those without such features are assigned a score of 0. The total score of the 10 questions
reflects the number of good practices related to access to information. These questions are also part the
corresponding topic and score.
TABLE A3.2 Accessibility of agribusiness regulatory information data by topic
GOOD PRACTICES BY TOPICS
SEED

FERTILIZER

FINANCE

1.

The existence of a seed variety catalog listing new varieties

2.

The online availability of the seed variety catalog

3.

The existence of an official fee schedule for seed certification activities carried out by the public sector

4.

The existence of an official catalog listing all registered fertilizer

5.

The online availability of the fertilizer catalog

6.

The legal requirement for credit unions to disclose their effective interest rate or the annual percentage
rate to loan applicants

MARKETS

7.

The existence of a list of regulated pests

8.

The availability of a database on a government website that lists pests present in the country, their current
distribution and/or status

TRANSPORT

9.

The online availability of the transport license/permit requirements

10. The existence of an electronic procedure to apply and/or renew the transport license/permit

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 COUNTRY TABLES

COUNTRY TABLES
The team collected data in 40 countries in the following 11 areas: seed, fertilizer, machinery, finance,
markets, transport, land, information and communications technology (ICT), water, livestock and
environmental sustainability. Six of the topics were chosen for scoring and are presented in this
section.

148

BANGLADESH
70.8

52.8

SEED

FERTILIZER

70.8

SEED

52.8

FERTILIZER

38.1

MACHINERY

60.1

FINANCE

80.4

MARKETS

60.7

TRANSPORT

84.4
2a
3a
0.0a
57.1

45.0
7
951
702.6 (65.1)
66.7
46.7
238.2 (22.1)
0

37.5
13.3
63.3
238.2 (22.1)
446.6 (41.3)
57.1
60.0
100
25.0
58.3
85.7
75.0
1
1
6.0 (0.6)
0
N/A

64.3
N/A
N/A
N/A
3.5
30.0 (2.8)
3
10.7 (1.0)
1
57.1

60.6

OPERATIONS ()

SOUTH ASIA
LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

38.1

60.1

MACHINERY

FINANCE

80.4

149

60.7

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

51.7

QUALITY CONTROL ()

55.7
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. Registration is not available for maize varieties. Private companies can, at their discretion and at no cost, list maize varieties in the national catalogue. This is what the
procedures and time capture.

BOLIVIA
84.4

LATIN AMERICA & CARIBBEAN


LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

63.3

SEED

FERTILIZER

84.4

SEED

63.3

FERTILIZER

38.3

MACHINERY

65.3

FINANCE

81.3

MARKETS

67.9

TRANSPORT

81.3
5
517
711.3 (25.1)
87.5
20.0
N/Aa
N/Aa
N/Aa
100
70.0
0
No data
25.0
6.7
83.3
0
N/A

66.7
93.3
0
91.7
75.0
100
62.5
1
2
54.0 (1.9)
0
N/A

64.3
N/A
N/A
N/A
4.5
10.0 (0.4)
1
10 (0.4)
1
71.4

59.8

OPERATIONS ()

38.3

65.3

MACHINERY

FINANCE

81.3

150

67.9

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

56.4

QUALITY CONTROL ()

74.9
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. The private sector is not required to register fertilizer.

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA


42.0

94.4

SEED

FERTILIZER

42.0

SEED

94.4

FERTILIZER

44.0

MACHINERY

18.1

FINANCE

93.8

MARKETS

71.4

TRANSPORT

12.5
No practice
No practice
No practice
71.4
100
2
31
23.3 (0.5)
100
83.3
0
N/A

37.5
27.8
66.7
N/A
N/Aa

N/A b
0
N/A b
0
54.2
100
87.5
1
1
26.7 (0.6)
0
N/A

71.4
60
266.7 (5.6)
10
30
33.3 (0.7)
10
60.0 (1.3)
1
71.4

61.5

OPERATIONS ()

44.0

EUROPE & CENTRAL ASIA


UPPER MIDDLE INCOME

18.1

MACHINERY

FINANCE

93.8

151

71.4

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

71.8

QUALITY CONTROL ()

73.8
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. 10% of customs value. b. Upper-middle-income countries are not measured under the micronance institutions indicator and agent banking indicator.

BURKINA FASO
54.2

43.9

SEED

FERTILIZER

54.2

SEED

43.9

FERTILIZER

40.6

MACHINERY

37.2

FINANCE

58.9

MARKETS

60.7

TRANSPORT

65.6
No practice
No practice
No practice
42.9
0
N/Aa
N/Aa
N/Aa
66.7
65.0
2.0 (0.3)
2.0 (0.3)
37.5
6.7
77.5
30.4 (4.3)
2.0 (0.3)

42.9
60.0
0
83.3
0

92.9
25.0
2
2
19.2 (2.7)
0
N/A

50.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
1
21.0 (3.0)
0.5
87.0 (12.3)
0.5
71.4

45.3

OPERATIONS ()

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
LOW INCOME

40.6

37.2

MACHINERY

FINANCE

58.9

152

60.7

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

32.8

QUALITY CONTROL ()

71.3
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. The private sector is not required to register fertilizer.

BURUNDI
53.8

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
LOW INCOME

62.2

SEED

FERTILIZER

53.8

SEED

62.2

FERTILIZER

35.6

MACHINERY

21.3

FINANCE

60.7

MARKETS

53.6

TRANSPORT

21.9
No practice
No practice
No practice
85.7
60.0
No practice
No practice
No practice
66.7
60.0
N/A
No data
33.3
13.3
60.0
N/A
No data
66.7
40.0
0
0
0

71.4
50.0
3
6
3.0 (1.1)
1
240.7 (89.2)
35.7
N/A
N/A
N/A
1
12.0 (4.5)
0.5
18.1 (6.7)
0.5
71.4

45.9

OPERATIONS ()

35.6

21.3

MACHINERY

FINANCE

60.7

153

53.6

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

43.3

QUALITY CONTROL ()

63.8
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .

CAMBODIA
68.8

57.2

SEED

FERTILIZER

68.8

SEED

57.2

FERTILIZER

26.5

MACHINERY

32.0

FINANCE

67.9

MARKETS

57.1

TRANSPORT

37.5
6
407
187.0 (18.5)
100
45.0
3
No data a
506.5 (50.1)
66.7
60.0
No data
No data

6.3
6.7
66.7
N/A
N/A

85.7
0
74.3
0
0

85.7
50.0
3
7
86.6 (8.6)
0
N/A

57.1
10
365.2 (36.2)
2
3.5
11.0 (1.1)
1
26.8 (2.7)
1
57.1

49.1

OPERATIONS ()

EAST ASIA & PACIFIC


LOW INCOME

26.5

32.0

MACHINERY

FINANCE

67.9

154

57.1

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

41.1

QUALITY CONTROL ()

61.3
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. No data on application for registration, but approval by committee takes 56 days.

CHILE

OECD HIGH INCOME


HIGH INCOME

93.8

43.3

SEED

FERTILIZER

93.8

SEED

43.3

FERTILIZER

43.3

MACHINERY

N/Ab

FINANCE

93.8

MARKETS

65.7

TRANSPORT

87.5
5
848
920.8 (6.2)
100
0
N/Aa
N/Aa
N/Aa
66.7
63.3
N/A
20.1 (0.1)
50.0
13.3
66.7
N/A
N/A
-

100
87.5
1
1
0c
0
N/A

60.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
15.4 (0.1)
0.5
71.4

60.8

OPERATIONS ()

43.3

N/Ab

MACHINERY

FINANCE

93.8

155

65.7

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

55.8

QUALITY CONTROL ()

67.1
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. The private sector is not required to register fertilizer. b. High-income countries are not measured under the nance topic. c. The cost is 0.002 US$ (0.0001% of income per
capita)

COLOMBIA
75.0

91.1

SEED

FERTILIZER

75.0

SEED

91.1

FERTILIZER

50.0

MACHINERY

89.4

FINANCE

93.8

MARKETS

78.6

TRANSPORT

50.0
5
591
4,526.4 (58.2)
100
100
3
48
No data
100
73.3
0
31.3 (0.4)

70.0
13.3
66.7
No data
N/A
N/Aa
93.3
N/Aa
91.7
83.3
100
87.5
2
4
No data b
1
0

71.4
57
268 (3.4)
Indenite c
N/A
N/A
N/A
156.4 (2.0)
2
85.7

84.3

OPERATIONS ()

LATIN AMERICA & CARIBBEAN


UPPER MIDDLE INCOME

50.0

89.4

MACHINERY

FINANCE

93.8

156

78.6

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

66.9

QUALITY CONTROL ()

75.2
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. Upper-middle-income countries are not measured under the micronance institutions indicator and agent banking indicator. b. The cost of document 1 (phytosanitary certicate)
is $33.9 (0.4% of income per capita). The cost of document 2 (quality certicate) could not be obtained. c. Has to be validated every year.

CTE D'IVOIRE
54.7

64.4

SEED

FERTILIZER

54.7

SEED

64.4

FERTILIZER

45.4

MACHINERY

37.7

FINANCE

58.0

MARKETS

60.7

TRANSPORT

59.4
6
368
2,082.2 (134.2)
50.0
60.0
No practice
No practice
No practice
66.7
66.7
59.5 (3.8)
N/A
25.0
27.8
83.3
59.5 (3.8)
N/A

42.9
60.0
0
85.4
0

78.6
37.5
3
No data
No data
1
198.3 (12.8)
50.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
1
49.6 (3.2)
2
87.1 (5.6)
0.5
71.4

51.0

OPERATIONS ()

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

45.4

37.7

MACHINERY

FINANCE

58.0

157

60.7

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

44.0

QUALITY CONTROL ()

73.8
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .

DENMARK
87.5

82.2

SEED

FERTILIZER

87.5

SEED

82.2

FERTILIZER

80.7

MACHINERY

N/Aa

FINANCE

85.7

MARKETS

100

TRANSPORT

87.5
6
690
4,640.5 (7.6)
87.5
80.0
2
31
267.7 (0.4)
83.3
83.3
N/A
N/A
86.7
72.2
83.3
N/A
N/A
-

71.4
100
0
0
0
1
667.5 (1.1)
100
27
0
10
N/A
N/A
N/A
190.5 (0.3)
1
100

85.1

OPERATIONS ()

OECD HIGH INCOME


HIGH INCOME

80.7

N/Aa

MACHINERY

FINANCE

85.7

158

100

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

85.2

QUALITY CONTROL ()

88.9
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. High-income countries are not measured under the nance topic.

ETHIOPIA
58.9

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
LOW INCOME

34.4

SEED

FERTILIZER

58.9

SEED

34.4

FERTILIZER

28.5

MACHINERY

59.8

FINANCE

55.4

MARKETS

52.4

TRANSPORT

75.0
4
620
488.9 (88.9)
42.9
20.0
N/Aa
N/Aa
N/Aa
66.7
16.7
N/A
N/A
18.8
6.7
60.0
15.3 (2.8)
5.2 (0.9)

47.6
60.0
91.4
0
100
85.7
25.0
3
No data b
80.9 (14.7)
1
9.0 (1.6)

61.9
1
34.6 (6.3)
1
N/A
N/A
N/A
19.4 (3.5)
1
42.9

50.9

OPERATIONS ()

28.5

59.8

MACHINERY

FINANCE

55.4

159

52.4

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

32.8

QUALITY CONTROL ()

39.8
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. The private sector is not required to register fertilizer. b. The time to obtain document 1 (phytosanitary certicate) is 1 day, and the time to obtain document 3 (fumigation
certicate) is 1 day. The time to obtain document 2 (quality certicate) could not be obtained.

GEORGIA
75.0

EUROPE & CENTRAL ASIA


LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

68.9

SEED

FERTILIZER

75.0

SEED

68.9

FERTILIZER

44.4

MACHINERY

37.7

FINANCE

86.6

MARKETS

65.7

TRANSPORT

62.5
6
534
No data
87.5

90.0
5
765
260.6 (7.0)
50.0
66.7
N/A
N/A
33.3
33.3
66.7
N/A
N/A

0
80.0
0
50.0
58.3

85.7
87.5
2
5
95.6 (2.6)
0
N/A
60.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
71.4

63.6

OPERATIONS ()

44.4

37.7

MACHINERY

FINANCE

86.6

160

65.7

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

56.9

QUALITY CONTROL ()

68.3
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .

GHANA
40.6

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

59.4

SEED

FERTILIZER

40.6

SEED

59.4

FERTILIZER

39.2

MACHINERY

41.7

FINANCE

71.4

MARKETS

65.7

TRANSPORT

43.8
6
757
No data
37.5

45.0
4
255
1,445.4 (89.2)
66.7
66.7
158.4 (9.8)
N/A
37.5
13.3
66.7
N/A
N/A

42.9
80.0
60.5
25.0
0
92.9
50.0
3
8
5.9 (0.4)
3
2,435.6 (150.3) a

60.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
99 (6.1)
1
71.4

52.9

OPERATIONS ()

39.2

41.7

MACHINERY

FINANCE

71.4

161

65.7

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

43.3

QUALITY CONTROL ()

68.3
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. The total cost excludes the cost of Ghanas Cocoa Export License, which could not be quantied and was recorded as variable based on contributor responses and the applicable regulations.

GREECE
73.4

OECD HIGH INCOME


HIGH INCOME

93.3

SEED

FERTILIZER

73.4

SEED

93.3

FERTILIZER

74.6

MACHINERY

N/Aa

FINANCE

90.2

MARKETS

92.9

TRANSPORT

46.9
6
729
1,911.4 (8.7)
100
100
7
211
1,282.4 (5.8)
100
80.0
N/A
135.0 (0.6)
83.8
73.3
66.7
N/A
N/A
-

92.9
87.5
0
0
0
1
809.9 (3.7)

85.7
60
674.9 (3.1)
10
N/A
N/A
N/A
141.7 (0.6)
1
100

87.2

OPERATIONS ()

74.6

N/Aa

MACHINERY

FINANCE

90.2

162

92.9

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

86.9

QUALITY CONTROL ()

82.2
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. High-income countries are not measured under the nance topic.

GUATEMALA
71.0

66.9

SEED

FERTILIZER

71.0

SEED

66.9

FERTILIZER

40.6

MACHINERY

46.3

FINANCE

86.6

MARKETS

72.9

TRANSPORT

56.3
4
166
67.5 (2.0)
85.7
35.0
2
105
12.5 (0.4)
100
65.8
No data
No data

25.0
13.3
83.3
622.6 (18.1)
N/A
0
40.0
91.4
25.0
75.0
85.7
87.5
1
1
6.3 (0.2)
0
N/A

60.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
100 (2.9)
1
85.7

53.8

OPERATIONS ()

LATIN AMERICA & CARIBBEAN


LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

40.6

46.3

MACHINERY

FINANCE

86.6

163

72.9

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

66.9

QUALITY CONTROL ()

78.3
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .

JORDAN
71.0

MIDDLE EAST & NORTH AFRICA


UPPER MIDDLE INCOME

67.8

SEED

FERTILIZER

71.0

SEED

67.8

FERTILIZER

42.1

MACHINERY

21.7

FINANCE

83.9

MARKETS

66.7

TRANSPORT

56.3
No practice
No practice
No practice
85.7
70.0
3
36
15.0 (0.3) a
66.7
66.7
13.6 (0.3)
13.6 (0.3)
36.3
13.3
76.7
13.6 (0.3)
13.6 (0.3)
N/A b
40.0
N/A b
25.0
0

92.9
75.0
1
1
2.7 (0.1)
0
N/A

61.9
3
203.3 (3.9)
1
1
521.7 (10.1)
1
40.7 (0.8)
1
71.4

58.9

OPERATIONS ()

42.1

21.7

MACHINERY

FINANCE

83.9

164

66.7

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

51.7

QUALITY CONTROL ()

71.6
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. Cost of application for registration is $15, but cost of lab report is unknown. Approval by the National Committee is free. b. Upper-middle-income countries are not measured
under the micronance institutions indicator and agent banking indicator.

KENYA
90.6

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

50.0

SEED

FERTILIZER

90.6

SEED

50.0

FERTILIZER

57.2

MACHINERY

72.9

FINANCE

50.9

MARKETS

75.0

TRANSPORT

93.8
6
321
1,798.5 (140.5)
87.5
0
N/Aa
N/Aa
N/Aa
66.7
83.3
327.0 (25.5)
N/A
43.8
61.1
66.7
N/A
N/A
90.5
86.7
87.1
100
0

64.3
37.5
4
6
130.8 (10.2) b
2
1,602.3 (125.2)
78.6
N/A
N/A
N/A
1
32.7 (2.6)
1
10.9 (0.9)
1
71.4

58.3

OPERATIONS ()

57.2

72.9

MACHINERY

FINANCE

50.9

165

75.0

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

55.1

QUALITY CONTROL ()

73.8
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. The private sector is not required to register fertilizer. b. The total cost excludes the cost of document 4 (export release order), which requires payment of an ad valorem levy (1%
of ex-warehouse price for tea exports sold at the tea auction).

KYRGYZ REPUBLIC
48.9

63.9

SEED

FERTILIZER

48.9

SEED

63.9

FERTILIZER

63.9

MACHINERY

79.8

FINANCE

80.4

MARKETS

72.9

TRANSPORT

40.6
5
970
2,850.7 (228.1)
57.1
75.0
5
730
277.9 (22.2)
50.0
66.7
N/A
N/A
75.0
33.3
83.3
N/A
N/A

61.9
100
91.4
87.5
58.3
85.7
75.0
1
2
10.1 (0.8)
0
N/A

60.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
12.4 (1.0)
1
85.7

70.7

OPERATIONS ()

EUROPE & CENTRAL ASIA


LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

63.9

79.8

MACHINERY

FINANCE

80.4

166

72.9

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

52.8

QUALITY CONTROL ()

78.6
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .

LAO PDR
45.5

EAST ASIA & PACIFIC


LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

60.6

SEED

FERTILIZER

45.5

SEED

60.6

FERTILIZER

20.0

MACHINERY

34.3

FINANCE

83.9

MARKETS

69.0

TRANSPORT

62.5
No practice
No practice
No practice
28.6
45.0
4
No data
7.9 (0.5)
83.3
53.3
N/A
3.1 (0.2)
0
6.7
53.3
N/A
1.2 (0.1)
66.7
80.0
0
25.0
0
92.9
75.0
2
3
151.0 (9.4)
0
N/A

66.7
30
24.4 (1.5)
1
7
67.2 (4.2)
1
2.4 (0.2)
1
71.4

47.4

OPERATIONS ()

20.0

34.3

MACHINERY

FINANCE

83.9

167

69.0

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

55.0

QUALITY CONTROL ()

59.4
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .

MALI

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
LOW INCOME

56.0

71.1

SEED

FERTILIZER

56.0

SEED

71.1

FERTILIZER

27.8

MACHINERY

37.2

FINANCE

55.4

MARKETS

67.9

TRANSPORT

40.6
No practice
No practice
No practice
71.4
80.0
4
90
No data
66.7
66.7
0
3.0 (0.4)
0
6.7
76.7
0
3.0 (0.4)

42.9
60.0
0
83.3
0

85.7
25.0
1
3
19.8 (2.7)
0
N/A

64.3
N/A
N/A
N/A
3
31.6 (4.4)
1
34.6 (4.8)
0.5
71.4

53.9

OPERATIONS ()

27.8

37.2

MACHINERY

FINANCE

55.4

168

67.9

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

32.8

QUALITY CONTROL ()

71.6
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .

MOROCCO
85.9

50.4

SEED

FERTILIZER

85.9

SEED

50.4

FERTILIZER

52.0

MACHINERY

71.9
6
585
469.9 (15.6)
100
0
N/Aa
N/Aa
N/Aa
94.4
56.7
N/A
0
55.0
44.4
56.7
N/A
0

0
0
0
0
0

60.7

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

FINANCE

Microfinance institutions (0100)


Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)

TRANSPORT

45.5

72.3

Tractor dealer requirements (0100)


Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)

60.7

OPERATIONS ()

FINANCE

Fertilizer registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)

MARKETS

50.0
3
0
Indenite d
N/A
N/A
N/A
47 (1.6)
1
71.4

52.0

MACHINERY

169

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)

72.3

82.1
62.5
2
No data b
No data c
2
No data

MIDDLE EAST & NORTH AFRICA


LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

Production and sales (0100)


Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

67.1

QUALITY CONTROL ()

61.6
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. The private sector is not required to register fertilizer. b. The time to obtain document 1 (phytosanitary certicate) is 3 days. The time to obtain document 2 (inspection
certicate) could not be obtained. c. The cost of document 1 (phytosanitary certicate) is $17.6 (0.6% of income per capita). The cost of document 2 (inspection certicate) could
not be obtained. d. License is revoked if any of the pre-requirements are not fullled.

MOZAMBIQUE
90.6

46.1

SEED

FERTILIZER

90.6

SEED

46.1

FERTILIZER

42.5

MACHINERY

29.8

FINANCE

83.9

MARKETS

60.7

TRANSPORT

81.3
7
582
500.0 (79.4)
100

30.0
No practice
No practice
No practice
50.0
58.3
200.0 (31.7)
81.6 (13)
37.5
6.7
83.3
5548.1 (880.6)
N/A
57.1
66.7
0
25.0
0

92.9
75.0
1
2
13.4 (2.1)
0
N/A

64.3
N/A
N/A
N/A
2.5
130.5 (20.7)
5
34.4 (5.5)
0.5
57.1

57.5

OPERATIONS ()

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
LOW INCOME

42.5

29.8

MACHINERY

FINANCE

83.9

170

60.7

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

43.9

QUALITY CONTROL ()

66.3
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .

MYANMAR
53.6

61.9

SEED

FERTILIZER

53.6

SEED

61.9

FERTILIZER

21.4

MACHINERY

24.6

FINANCE

42.0

MARKETS

22.6

TRANSPORT

50.0
6
306
445.1 (35.1)
57.1
45.0
3
42
122.4 (9.6)
100
40.8
55.6 (4.4)
55.6 (4.4)
0
6.7
57.5
11.1 (0.9)
55.6 (4.4)

42.9
80.0
0
0
0
71.4
12.5
2
4
20.3 (1.6)
0
N/A

31.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
11.5
2.2 (0.2)
1
51.7 (4.1)
1
14.3

37.6

OPERATIONS ()

EAST ASIA & PACIFIC


LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

21.4

24.6

MACHINERY

FINANCE

42.0

171

22.6

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

39.7

QUALITY CONTROL ()

37.5
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .

NEPAL
55.8

SOUTH ASIA
LOW INCOME

57.2

SEED

FERTILIZER

55.8

SEED

57.2

FERTILIZER

21.0

MACHINERY

50.0

FINANCE

81.3

MARKETS

44.0

TRANSPORT

68.8
5
611
0
42.9

45.0
3
1125
49.4 (6.8)
66.7
60.0
0
83.9 (11.5)
6.3
6.7
50.0
N/A
N/A

57.1
93.3
74.3
25.0
0
100
62.5
2
2
5.3 (0.7)
0
N/A

45.2
N/A
N/A
N/A
2
303.7 (41.6)
0.3
1.0 (0.1)
0.5
42.9

50.4

OPERATIONS ()

21.0

50.0

MACHINERY

FINANCE

81.3

172

44.0

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

45.3

QUALITY CONTROL ()

51.0
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .

NICARAGUA
54.9

64.4

SEED

FERTILIZER

54.9

SEED

64.4

FERTILIZER

41.5

MACHINERY

31.2

FINANCE

67.0

MARKETS

75.0

TRANSPORT

81.3
6
650
15,265.0 (834.2)
28.6
35.0
2
30
1,600.0 (87.4)
100
58.3
50.0 (2.7)
25.0 (1.4)

31.3
13.3
80.0
0
No data
0
60.0
0
25.0
70.8

71.4
62.5
2
2
28.9 (1.6)
1
0
64.3
N/A
N/A
N/A
7.5
94.3 (5.2)
5
12.1 (0.7)
0.5
85.7

48.0

OPERATIONS ()

LATIN AMERICA & CARIBBEAN


LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

41.5

31.2

MACHINERY

FINANCE

67.0

173

75.0

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

58.6

QUALITY CONTROL ()

74.7
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .

NIGER

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
LOW INCOME

43.8

42.2

SEED

FERTILIZER

43.8

SEED

42.2

FERTILIZER

24.4

MACHINERY

36.8

FINANCE

54.5

MARKETS

60.7

TRANSPORT

37.5
No practice
No practice
No practice
50.0
0
N/Aa
N/Aa
N/Aa
66.7
60.0
N/A
39.9 (9.3)

0
6.7
66.7
N/A
N/A

42.9
60.0
0
81.3
0
71.4
37.5
1
3
10 (2.3)
0
N/A

50.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
1
39.9 (9.3)
0.5
0.3 (0.1)
0.5
71.4

33.7

OPERATIONS ()

24.4

36.8

MACHINERY

FINANCE

54.5

174

60.7

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

36.9

QUALITY CONTROL ()

66.0
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. The private sector is not required to register fertilizer.

PHILIPPINES
92.2

57.2

SEED

FERTILIZER

92.2

SEED

57.2

FERTILIZER

68.7

MACHINERY

72.6

FINANCE

52.7

MARKETS

65.5

TRANSPORT

84.4
6a
571 a
0.0 a
100
65.0
3
114
108.9 (6.0) b
66.7
40.0
No data
No data
53.8
72.2
80.0
1200 (34.9)
N/A c

85.7
100
0
89.6
87.5

67.9
37.5
2
3
97.3 (2.8)
1
113.5 (3.3)

59.5
235
136.1 (4)
5d
N/A
N/A
N/A
12.8 (0.4)
1
71.4

68.5

OPERATIONS ()

EAST ASIA & PACIFIC


LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

68.7

72.6

MACHINERY

FINANCE

52.7

175

65.5

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

58.8

QUALITY CONTROL ()

63.8
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. Registration is not mandatory, therefore we do not account for non-mandatory costs. b. The cost of application for registration and eld testing is $108.9 but there is no data on
the lab reports. c. 1020% of import value. d. Licenses can be issued with varying validity from a minimum of 1 year up to a maximum of 5 years.

POLAND
78.1

OECD HIGH INCOME


HIGH INCOME

94.4

SEED

FERTILIZER

78.1

SEED

94.4

FERTILIZER

66.7

MACHINERY

N/Aa

FINANCE

90.2

MARKETS

92.9

TRANSPORT

56.3
6
699
979.2 (7.1)
100

100
4
60
219.8 (1.6)
100
83.3
N/A
N/A
66.7
66.7
66.7
N/A
N/A
-

92.9
87.5
0
0
0
0
N/A

85.7
90
249.5 (1.8)
15
N/A
N/A
N/A
78 (0.6)
1
100

84.7

OPERATIONS ()

66.7

N/Aa

MACHINERY

FINANCE

90.2

176

92.9

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

84.7

QUALITY CONTROL ()

83.3
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. High-income countries are not measured under the nance topic.

RUSSIAN FEDERATION
67.0

67.6

SEED

FERTILIZER

67.0

SEED

67.6

FERTILIZER

64.7

MACHINERY

N/Ab

FINANCE

80.4

MARKETS

65.7

TRANSPORT

62.5
5
716
0a
71.4
75.0
5
424
9,059.9 (68.6)
61.1
66.7
N/A
N/A

56.3
77.8
60.0
N/A
168.3 (1.3)
-

85.7
75.0
4
12
33.4 (0.3)
0
N/A

60.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
34.6 (0.3)
1
71.4

68.8

OPERATIONS ()

64.7

EUROPE & CENTRAL ASIA


HIGH INCOME

N/Ab

MACHINERY

FINANCE

80.4

177

65.7

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

71.3

QUALITY CONTROL ()

66.0
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. Registering up to ve varieties in a year is free of charge. b. High-income countries are not measured under the nance topic.

RWANDA
27.7

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
LOW INCOME

61.7

SEED

FERTILIZER

27.7

SEED

61.7

FERTILIZER

41.1

MACHINERY

59.1

FINANCE

56.3

MARKETS

71.4

TRANSPORT

12.5
No practice
No practice
No practice
42.9
45.0
5
No data
14.9 (2.3)
66.7
73.3
29.8 (4.6)
0
33.3
33.3
56.7
N/A
0

61.9
73.3
87.1
72.9
0

100
12.5
1
No data a
0.3 (0.0)
1
1,602.3 (246.5)

71.4
7
158.5 (24.4)
1
N/A
N/A
N/A
29.8 (4.6)
1
71.4

56.1

OPERATIONS ()

41.1

59.1

MACHINERY

FINANCE

56.3

178

71.4

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

37.5

QUALITY CONTROL ()

67.1
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. The time to obtain document 1 (phytosanitary certicate) is 2 days. The time to obtain document 2 (quality certicate) could not be obtained.

SPAIN

OECD HIGH INCOME


HIGH INCOME

81.3

86.1

SEED

FERTILIZER

81.3

SEED

86.1

FERTILIZER

69.6

MACHINERY

N/Aa

FINANCE

90.2

MARKETS

97.6

TRANSPORT

62.5
6
598
2,841 (9.6)
100
75.0
1
90
0
100
83.3
N/A
N/A

68.8
73.3
66.7
N/A
N/A
-

92.9
87.5
0
0
0
1
0

95.2
3.5
50.9 (0.2)
Indenite b
N/A
N/A
N/A
94.9 (0.3)
1
100

82.6

OPERATIONS ()

69.6

N/Aa

MACHINERY

FINANCE

90.2

179

97.6

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

86.9

QUALITY CONTROL ()

83.3
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. High-income countries are not measured under the nance topic. b. Has to be validated every 2 years. License is revoked if any of the pre-requirements are not fullled.

SRI LANKA
53.6

72.2

SEED

FERTILIZER

53.6

SEED

72.2

FERTILIZER

40.1

MACHINERY

30.3

FINANCE

41.1

MARKETS

36.9

TRANSPORT

50.0
4
298
0
57.1
80.0
3
187
73.5 (2.2)
83.3
53.3
147.0 (4.3)
0
18.8
26.7
75.0
7.4 (0.2)
N/A

0
60.0
0
91.7
0

57.1
25.0
3
4
273.2 (8)
2
222 (6.5)

73.8
N/A
N/A
N/A
1.5
101.1 (3.0)
1
15.1 (0.4)
1
0

52.3

OPERATIONS ()

SOUTH ASIA
LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

40.1

30.3

MACHINERY

FINANCE

41.1

180

36.9

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

45.0

QUALITY CONTROL ()

42.8
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .

SUDAN
76.6

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

63.3

SEED

FERTILIZER

76.6

SEED

63.3

FERTILIZER

45.9

MACHINERY

27.1

FINANCE

61.6

MARKETS

65.7

TRANSPORT

53.1
5
654
12,554.3 (721.5)
100
80.0
4
29
65.9 (3.8)
66.7
43.3
82.4 (4.7)
33.0 (1.9)
50.0
44.4
43.3
82.4 (4.7)
33.0 (1.9)

85.7
0
0
50.0
0

85.7
37.5
2
No data a
41.9 (2.4)
0
N/A

60.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
205.9 (11.8)
1
71.4

63.2

OPERATIONS ()

45.9

27.1

MACHINERY

FINANCE

61.6

181

65.7

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

49.5

QUALITY CONTROL ()

52.7
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. The time to obtain document 1 (phytosanitary certicate) is 7 days. The time to obtain document 2 (fumigation certicate) could not be obtained.

TAJIKISTAN
56.7

40.6

SEED

FERTILIZER

56.7

SEED

40.6

FERTILIZER

47.8

MACHINERY

32.0

FINANCE

74.1

MARKETS

78.6

TRANSPORT

56.3
No data
No data
No data
57.1

55.0
No data
No data
No data
0a
66.7
N/A
N/A
50.0
26.7
66.7
N/A
N/A

95.2
40.0
0
25.0
0

85.7
62.5
2
6
62.9 (5.9)
0
N/A

85.7
30
111.0 (10.5)
5.0 b
N/A
N/A
N/A
138.8 (13.1)
1
71.4

60.9

OPERATIONS ()

EUROPE & CENTRAL ASIA


LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

47.8

32.0

MACHINERY

FINANCE

74.1

182

78.6

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

29.7

QUALITY CONTROL ()

68.3
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. According to the Law On Production and Safe Use of Pesticides and Agrochemicals (03/07/2012), quality control is not regulated. b. Not less than 5 years.

TANZANIA
71.9

75.0

SEED

FERTILIZER

71.9

SEED

75.0

FERTILIZER

51.4

MACHINERY

74.2

FINANCE

54.5

MARKETS

67.9

TRANSPORT

56.3
6
333
652.1 (70.1)
87.5

60.0
5
578.5
9,899.5 (1,064.5)
100
65.0
No data
No data
37.5
33.3
83.3
N/A
N/A

71.4
100
87.1
25.0
87.5

71.4
37.5
4
13
39 (4.2) a
1
No data

64.3
N/A
N/A
N/A
3
47.4 (5.1)
1
29.6 (3.2)
1
71.4

63.2

OPERATIONS ()

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
LOW INCOME

51.4

74.2

MACHINERY

FINANCE

54.5

183

67.9

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

56.9

QUALITY CONTROL ()

73.3
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. The total cost excludes the cost of document 3 (radioactivity analysis certicate), which is approximately 0.3% of the FOB value of the goods exported.

TURKEY
76.6

EUROPE & CENTRAL ASIA


UPPER MIDDLE INCOME

66.7

SEED

FERTILIZER

76.6

SEED

66.7

FERTILIZER

54.3

MACHINERY

79.7

FINANCE

69.6

MARKETS

83.3

TRANSPORT

78.1
6
646
3,367.3 (31.0)
75

70.0
3
50
180.7 (1.7)
50.0
80.0
No data
No data
46.3
50.0
66.7
N/A
N/A
N/A a
60.0
N/A a
79.2
100
64.3
75.0
3
3
19 (0.2)
1
0

81.0
4
4280.5 (39.5)
5
N/A
N/A
N/A
142.7 (1.3)
1
85.7

69.6

OPERATIONS ()

54.3

79.7

MACHINERY

FINANCE

69.6

184

83.3

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

58.3

QUALITY CONTROL ()

77.5
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. Upper-middle-income countries are not measured under the micronance institutions indicator and agent banking indicator.

UGANDA
44.2

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
LOW INCOME

56.4

SEED

FERTILIZER

44.2

SEED

56.4

FERTILIZER

51.0

MACHINERY

46.3

FINANCE

58.9

MARKETS

31.3
5
523
0a
57.1

45.0
5
691
1,708.9 (258.9)
66.7
57.5
379.8 (57.5)
0
56.3
13.3
83.3
N/A
N/A

66.7
40.0
0
25.0
100

92.9
25.0
4
No data
No data
1
569.6 (86.3)

75

78.6
N/A
N/A
N/A
1
41.8 (6.3)
1
76 (11.5)
1
71.4

60.5

OPERATIONS ()

51.0

46.3

MACHINERY

FINANCE

58.9

185

75.0

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)

TRANSPORT

Truck licenses (0100)


Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

35.0

QUALITY CONTROL ()

70.8
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .
a. In practice, the National Agriculture Research Organization (NARD), which is in charge of registration , has not been charging fees for these procedures.

UKRAINE
74.1

EUROPE & CENTRAL ASIA


LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

80.6

SEED

FERTILIZER

74.1

SEED

80.6

FERTILIZER

62.7

MACHINERY

41.6

FINANCE

86.6

MARKETS

65.7

TRANSPORT

62.5
6
714
1,136.4 (31.9)
85.7
75.0
5
325
25,537.2 (717.3)
100
66.7
N/A
N/A
43.8
77.8
66.7
N/A
N/A

0
40.0
42.9
25.0
100
85.7
87.5
3
5
31.2 (0.9)
0
N/A

60.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
39.3 (1.1)
1
71.4

63.4

OPERATIONS ()

62.7

41.6

MACHINERY

FINANCE

86.6

186

65.7

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

88.4

QUALITY CONTROL ()

68.3
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .

VIETNAM
62.5

EAST ASIA & PACIFIC


LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

70.0

SEED

FERTILIZER

62.5

SEED

70.0

FERTILIZER

24.4

MACHINERY

45.3

FINANCE

80.4

MARKETS

54.8

TRANSPORT

62.5
6
901
8,050.8 (426.0)
62.5

60.0
3
15
50.0 (2.6)
100
50.0
N/A
20.0 (1.1)
0
6.7
66.7
N/A
N/A

71.4
80.0
0
75.0
0
85.7
75.0
2
3
38.5 (2.0)
1
0

81.0
3
9.2 (0.5)
7
N/A
N/A
N/A
16.1 (0.9)
0.5
28.6

55.7

OPERATIONS ()

24.4

45.3

MACHINERY

FINANCE

80.4

187

54.8

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

60.6

QUALITY CONTROL ()

48.4
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .

ZAMBIA
70.3

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
LOWER MIDDLE INCOME

56.7

SEED

FERTILIZER

70.3

SEED

56.7

FERTILIZER

39.2

MACHINERY

51.3

FINANCE

61.6

MARKETS

67.9

TRANSPORT

53.1
5
544
1,045.0 (59.4)
87.5

40.0
4
211
4,249.8 (241.5)
66.7
63.3
0
183.0 (10.4)
37.5
13.3
66.7
N/A
N/A

66.7
40.0
0
50.0
100
85.7
37.5
5
11
190.6 (10.8)
0
N/A

50.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
90
17.6 (1.0)
1
5.2 (0.3)
1
85.7

55.8

OPERATIONS ()

39.2

51.3

MACHINERY

FINANCE

61.6

188

67.9

MARKETS

TRANSPORT

Seed registration (0100)


Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Seed development and certification (0100)
Fertilizer registration (0100)
Procedures (number)
Time (days)
Cost in US$ (% income per capita)
Fertilizer quality control (0100)
Fertilizer import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for fertilizer in US$ (% income per capita)
Tractor dealer requirements (0100)
Tractor standards and safety (0100)
Tractor import requirements (0100)
Cost to register as an importer of tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Cost to obtain an import permit for tractors in US$ (% income per capita)
Microfinance institutions (0100)
Credit unions (0100)
Agent banking (0100)
Electronic money (0100)
Warehouse receipts (0100)
Production and sales (0100)
Plant protection (0100)
Export documents per shipment (number)
Time to prepare export documents (days)
Cost of export documents in US$ (% income per capita)
Trader licensing and membership requirements (number)
Cost of licenses and membership in US$ (% income per capita)
Truck licenses (0100)
Time to obtain company license (days)
Cost to obtain company license in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of company license (years)
Time to obtain truck permit (days)
Cost to obtain truck permit in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of truck permit (years)
Cost to obtain vehicle technical inspection in US$ (% income per capita)
Validity of vehicle inspection (years)
Cross-border transportation (0100)

39.2

QUALITY CONTROL ()

71.9
TRADE ()

The operations score is an average of seed, fertilizer, machinery, nance, markets and transport indicator scores indicated with a . The quality control score is an average of seed,
fertilizer, machinery and markets indicator scores indicated with a . The trade score is an average of fertilizer, machinery and transport indicator scores indicated with a .

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

189

LOCAL EXPERTS
GLOBAL RESPONDENTS

Md. Joynal Abedin, Ministry of Local

Monsanto

Government, Rural Development and


Africa Legal Network (ALN)

OLAM

Cooperatives

AGCO

One Acre Fund

Rozina

Afroz,

Bangladesh

Agricultural Research Institute


Baker & McKenzie

Pioneer
Iftekhar

Ahmed,

Bangladesh

Bayer Animal Health

SQM

Agricultural Research Institute

Bayer CropScience

Syngenta

Vinay Ahuja, DFDL

Ceva Sant Animale

Syngenta Foundation

Shahid Akbar, Bangladesh Institute


of ICT in Development (BIID)

Clifford Chance

Tilleke & Gibbins


Lamisa Alam, Kamal Hossain &

Colibri Law Firm

VimpelCom

Associates

DFDL

Vodafone Group Plc

S. M. Khorshed Alam, Bangladesh


Agricultural Research Council

FINCA

YARA
Saiful Alam, Ministry of Water

GALVmed

BANGLADESH

Resources

Hester Biosciences Limited

Bangladesh Agricultural Research

Mohsin Ali, WAVE Foundation

Institute
Shah Mohammad Arefin, Lal Teer

IFDC
Hatim Industries Ltd.

Seed Limited

Karnaphuli Fertilizer Co. Ltd (KAFCO)

Jennifer

John Deere
Legacy

Legal

Corporate Law firm

KWS
Microcredit
Merial

Ashraf,

(MRA)

Regulatory

Authority
Mohammed

Ayub,

Development Academy (RDA)

Rural

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

190

Abdul Halim Bhuiyan, Bangladesh

Altaf Hossain, Directorate General

Md.

Agricultural

of Drug Administration (DGDA)

Agricultural Research Institute

Amjad

Mohammed Khairul Islam, Jagorani

Development

Tariqul

Islam,

Bangladesh

Corporation (BADC)
Sharif Bhuyian, Kamal Hossain &

Hossain,

Bangladesh

Agricultural Research Institute

Chakra Foundation (JCF)

Anwar Hossain, WAVE Foundation

Towhidul

Associates

Israil

Hossain,

Ishrat Jahan, International Fertilizer


Development Center (IFDC)

Md. Mozammel Ali Chowdhury,


Md. Sanwar Hossain, S Hossain &

Md. Abdul Jalil, Land Records and

Associates

Survey Department, Ministry of Land

Ahmed Zaker Chowdhury, Kamal


Hossain & Associates

Mohammad Iqbal Hossain


Ahmed

Kafiluddin,

Subrato Dey, ADESH

Shahadat Hossain, ACDI/VOCA

Fertilizer Association

Chowdhury Md. Feroz Bin Alam,

S. M. Jahangir Hossain

A.

Z.

M.

Bangladesh

Momtazul

Karim,

Department of Agricultural Extension

Bangladesh Bank
Nazmul Huda, Bangladesh Society
Rajiv Ghandi, Hester Biosciences

Legal

Bangladesh

Agricultural Research Institute


Young Power in Social Action

Legacy

Corporate Law firm

Ahnaf Chowdhury, Kamal Hossain &


Associates

Islam,

(DAE)

of Seed Technology
Abu Raihan Muhammed Khalid,

Ltd

Raihan Khalid & Associates

Arif Imtiaz, OGR Legal


Bishwojit Ghosh, Jagorani Chakra
Foundation (JCF)

Mohammad

Iqbal,

Bangladesh

Chemical Industries Corporation

Anwar

Hossain

Khan,

Department of Agricultural Extension


(DAE)

Golam Zilani, Milky Way Shipping


Lines (Pvt.) Limited

Md.

M. Amir-UI Islam, Amir & Amir Law


Associates, member of Lex Mundi

Munzur Murshid Khan, Advance


Animal Science Co. Ltd.

Md. Osman Goni, OGR Legal


Md. Monjurul Islam

Md.

Aminul Haque, Advance Animal

Abdul

Malek,

Bangladesh

Science Co. Ltd.

Md. Nazrul Islam, Bangladesh Bank

Agricultural Research Institute

Aminul Haque, Come To Save

Raisul Islam, Kamal Hossain &

Moin Ghani, Kamal Hossain &

Cooperative (CTS)

Associates

Associates

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

191

Ahmed Moinuddin, Advance Animal

Quazi Rezaul Islam, Ministry of Local

Quazi Ludmila Zaman, Amir & Amir

Science Co. Ltd.

Government, Rural Development and

Law Associates, member of Lex

Cooperatives

Mundi

Durlave Roy, Northern Agro Services

BOLIVIA

Md. Rezwan Molla, Bangladesh


Agricultural Research Institute

Ltd
Instituto Nacional de Innovacin

Mohamm Monsured
Sheikh Saiful Rajib, S Hossain &
Md. Abu Fazal Munif, Legacy Legal

Agropecuaria y Forestal (INIAF)

Associates
La Autoridad de Supervisin del

Corporate Law firm


Kalidas

Sarkar,

Department

of

Nujhat Naeem, Banglalink Digital

Livestock Services (DLS), Ministry of

Communications Ltd.

Fisheries and Livestock

Sistema Financiero (ASFI)


Ministerio de Desarrollo Rural y
Tierras

Afrina

Naznin,

Legacy

Legal

Corporate Law firm


Md.
of

Aminur
Local

Rahman,

Ministry

Government,

Shafique Shafiquzzaman, Maxwell


Stamp Ltd

Nibol Ltd.

Sreekanta Sheel

Sociedad

Kuri Siddique, Kamal Hossain &


Servicio

Associates
Government,

Rural

Nacional

Agropecuaria

Md. Mizanur Rahman, Ministry


Local

Comercial

Industrial (SACI)

Rural

Development and Cooperatives

of

Annima

de

Sanidad
Inocuidad

Alimentaria (SENASAG)

S. K. Sinha, ASA

Development and Cooperatives


Mashrufa
Md. Moshiar Rahman, Bangladesh

Tanzin,

Rural

Viceministerio de Desarrollo Rural y

Development Academy (RDA)

Agropecuario

Ashraf Uddin, Pedrollo nk Ltd.

Yara

Md. Amir Uddin, Bangladesh Bank

Mauricio Becerra de la Roca

Road Transport Authority


Pulak Rangan Shaha, Ministry of
Agriculture

Donoso, Becerra de la Roca Donoso


Bazlur

Rashid,

Department

of

Nashir Uddin, Biswas Agrovet Ltd.

& Asociados SRL

Read Uddin, Jus Counsel

Jos Campero, Instituto Nacional de

Agricultural Extension (DAE)


Innovacin Agropecuaria y Forestal

Md. Abdur Razzaque, Ministry of


Agriculture

Md.

Wahiduzzaman,

Jagorani

(INIAF)

Chakra Foundation (JCF)


Magaly
Naandanjain

Castillo

Tamayo,

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

192

Ichn Ma, Indacochea & Asociados

Remi Castro vila, SENASAG

Gabriela Santucho, SUR CARGO


S.R.L.

Maritza Cspedes, Biognesis-Bag

Sergio Diego Martnez Calbimonte,


Larry Serrate, AgroNyade

Marcal Consultores
Gonzalo Colque, Taller de Iniciativas
en Estudios Rurales y Reforma

Marco

Antonio

Torrico

Agraria (TIERRA)

Navia,

Viceministerio

Pablo Stejskal, Stejskal & Asociados

de
Alvaro Tufio

Telecomunicaciones
Sergio Jos Dvila Zeballos, C.R.&F.
lvaro

Rojas Abogados

Otondo

Maldonado,

Instituto Nacional de Innovacin


Diego Fernando Rojas Moreno,

David Wilson, Instituto Nacional de


Jaime Alfredo Palenque Quintanilla,

Font,

Indacochea

Nacional de Reforma Agraria

Agropecuaria y Forestal (INIAF)

C.R.&F. Rojas Abogados


rsula

Marcos Vargas Caravallo, Instituto

&

Association of Agricultural Input


Suppliers (APIA)

Asociados

Reforma Agraria
Jos Noel Zamora, Banco Prodem
S.A.

Humberto Gandarillas, Deutsche

Mara Laura Paz G., Indacochea &

Gesellschaft

Asociados

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Rodrigo Pea

Banking Agency of the Republic of

fr

Internationale

Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH


Srpska

Carlos L. Gerke, Estudio Jurdico


Gerke, Soc. Civ.

Gustavo Pozo Vargas, Viceministerio


de Telecomunicaciones

Banking Agency of the Federation of


Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBA)

Alberto Guzmn, AGC Consultora


Silvia Quevedo, AG Logistics

MCO EKI

Jorge Guzmn, Banco Prodem S.A.


Pablo Quispe, Trucks Logistics

AgroDar s.p.z.

Alonso Indacochea, Indacochea &


Asociados

Carlos Quitn
State Veterinary Office of Bosnia-

Cesar Iriarte, Sociedad Industrial

Blanca Roca, CTG Andrea (Gentica

y Comercial de Riego y Agricultura

Lquida) PIC
Sneana Akulovi, Direction for the

Sicra Ltda.
Carlos Saavedra, HELVETAS Swiss
Jose Nelson Joaquin, Universidad

Intercooperation

Autnoma Gabriel Ren Moreno


Carlos Sanabria, ATT Bolivia
Fabrizio Leigue Rioja, AG Logistics

Herzegovina

Plant Protection

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

193

of

Smiljana Kneevi, Plant Health

Enida

Agriculture, Water Management and

Protection Administration of Bosnia

Agriculture, Water Management and

Forestry of the Federation of Bosnia

and Herzegovina

Forestry of the Federation of Bosnia

Eldin

Alikadi,

Ministry

Pecikoza,

Ministry

of

and Herzegovina

and Herzegovina
Danijela Kondi, University of Banja
Marina Anti, University of Banja

Amer Rami, Advokatska kancelarija

Luka

Rami Amer

Luka
Meliha Kovaevi, Communications

Adela Rizvi, Advokatska kancelarija

Regulatory Agency

Sadina Bina, MCO EKI

Tkali-uli,
Stevan Dimitrijevi, Karanovi &

Smiljana

Kraljevi,

Nikoli

Agriculture, Water Management and

Ministry

of

Forestry of the Federation of Bosnia


Amina Djugum, Mari & Co. Law

Prebani,

Rizvi,

Jusufbai-Goloman
Philippe Sabot, Merial

and Herzegovina
Aleksandar Saji, Saji Advokatska

Firm
Tarik Kupusovi, Hydro-Engineering
Draen Mari, Euro Part HB d.o.o

Firma

Institute Sarajevo
Zlatan Salihovi, Communications
Dajana

Nusmir Huski, Huski Law Office

Legin-Dedi,

Microcredit

Regulatory Agency

Foundation Sunrise
Jesenka

Jahi,

Ministry

Emina Saraevi, Saraevi and

of

Agriculture, Water Management and

Branko Mari, Mari & Co. Law Firm

Gazibegovi Lawyers (SGL)

Vladimir

Nadida

Forestry of the Federation of Bosnia


and Herzegovina

Marku,

Karanovi

&

Sari,

Communications

Regulatory Agency

Nikoli
Ljubia Kaavenda, InfoMap Novi
Grad

Dragan

Mataruga,

Republic

of

Tanja Savii, Karanovi & Nikoli

Srpska Inspectorate
Selim kalji, University of Sarajevo

Kenan Karahasanovi, Ministry of


Agriculture, Water Management and

Dragana

Mehmedovi,

Forestry of the Federation of Bosnia

Association

Mehmed Spaho, Spaho Law Office

Ena Mesihovi, Huski Law Office

Dragan Stijak, Saji Law Office

Ensar Osmi, Ziraat Bank

Vladimir unjar, EKO-BeL Laktai

AMFI

and Herzegovina
Almin Karamehi, EKO-BeL Laktai
Ivana Karanovi, Karanovi & Nikoli
Bojana Tkali uli, Advokatska
kancelarija Tkali-uli, Prebani,
Rizvi, Jusufbai-Goloman

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

Vojislav Trkulja, University of Banja

Didier

Balma,

Luka

lEnvironnement

194

Institut
et

de

Recherches

Halidou

Compaor,

Institut

de

lEnvironnement et des Recherches

Agricoles (INERA)

Agricoles (INERA)

Theodore Bele, Direction Gnrale

Arnaud Chabanne, CB nergie

Ismet Veli, Ismet Veli Law Firm


Larisa Veli, High Judicial and

des

Amnagements

et

du

Prosecutorial Council of Bosnia and

Dveloppement de lIrrigation (MAH)

Laurent Compaor

Frdric Belem, United Bank for

Konkourou Coulibaly, AGRIMOTOR

Herzegovina (HJPC)
eljko epi, Transkop Tuzla

Africa Burkina (UBA Burkina)


Gertrude Marie Mathilda Coulibaly/

BURKINA FASO

Patinde Marie Louise Elonore

Zombr,

Blemlilga, The Volta Basin Authority

Account

Boukar

Yempabou Coulidiati, Association

Millnium

Challenge

ACFIME-CREDO
Bikienga,

Comit

Centre International de Recherche-

Interprofessionnel du Riz du Burkina

Dveloppement sur lElevage en

(CIRB)

TIN BA
Amadou Dao

Zone Subhumide
Mamoudou Birba, Le Cadre dAction
Chambre dAgriculture du Burkina

des Juristes de lEnvironnement

Philippe dArondel de Hayes, Houet


Select

Faso
Adama
Ministre de lAgriculture

Bitie, Fisconsult-Biti &


Jean de Foucauld, Ceva Sant

Associs

Animale
Valentin Akue, United Bank for

Boukary Boly, Socit dExportation

Africa Burkina (UBA Burkina)

du Faso (SEFA)

Mamadou Cellou Diallo, Bagrple

Sienou Al Hassan, Tropic Agro

Issaka Bougoum, SN Ranch du

Amidou

Chem

Koba BF

Ouagadougou

Mamadou Boukouma, Ministre des

Henri Girard, Terre Verte

Laeticia

Aoue/Some, Juris-Gouv

International Consulting SARL

Garane,

Universit

de

Infrastructures, du Dsenclavement
Philippe Goabga, Telecel Faso

et des Transports
Diallo Ali Badara, Union Nationale
des Producteurs de Coton du Burkina

Yves

Bertrand

Capo-Chichi,

Michel Havard, CIRAD

Agriculture et Artisanat, Agence pour


Lon Badiara, Genetic Center
Boureima Bado, GRAINE sarl

la promotion de la Petite et Moyenne

Dioyel Laeticia Hetie, Juris-Gouv

Entreprise

International Consulting SARL

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

195

Innocent Hien, United Bank for

Mahamane Miampo, Agence pour

Modibo Ouedraogo, Agriculture et

Africa Burkina (UBA Burkina)

la promotion des exportations du

Artisanat, Agence pour la promotion

Burkina (APEX)

de la Petite et Moyenne Entreprise

Issoufou Maga, Organisation des

Mohamed Ouedraogo, Sudconseil

Etienne Kabore, Bagrple


Flicit

Kabor,

Maison

de

Transporteurs Routiers du Faso


T. Jeremy Ouedraogo, Ministre

(OTRAF)

lEntreprise du Burkina Faso

de la Recherche scientifique et de
Lassin

Kabor,

Ministre

des

Infrastructures, du Dsenclavement

Dibi Millogo, Partnenariat National

lInnovation

de lEau
Yassia Ouedraogo, UCOBAM

et des Transports
Charles Adolphe Nanema, Ministre
Saidou Kabr, AGRODIA

de lAgriculture de lHydraulique et

Emma

des Recherches Halieutiques

lAgriculture de lHydraulique et des

Nadine

Bonaventure

Kr,

Syndicat

Ministre

de

Recherches Halieutiques

Issaka Kanazoe, Airtel Burkina Faso


S.A.

Palm,

Nar,

Ministre

de

lAgriculture de lHydraulique et des

Souleymane Pind, Ministre des

Recherches Halieutiques

Ressources Animales (MRA)

Aristide Ongone Obame

Brahima Rabo, Union des Chauffeurs

National des Transporteurs Routiers


de Voyageurs du Burkina (SNTRV-B)

Routiers du Burkina (UCRB)


Georges Kinou, Union Nationale

Ochuko

des Producteurs de Riz du Burkina

Industries

Patrick

Otoba,

Saso
Bationo

Rakissiwinde,

Conseil

Burkinab des Chargeurs (CBC)

Faso (UNPR-B)
Abou Simbel Ouattara, Moablaou
Lancina Ki, West African Economic

S.A.

Philippe Sabot, Merial

Laurent Ouedraogo, Direction de la

Adaman Sanfo, MCA

and Monetary Union (UEMOA)


Diara Kocty/Thiombiano, Centre

modernisation et de la mcanisation

National

agricole (DMMA)

de

Multiplication

des

Pierre Sanon, Socit Nationale


damnagement du Territoire et de

Animaux Performants (CMAP)


Mahamadi Ouedraogo, Ministre
Amoulyakar Arnaud Kon, United

de la Recherche scientifique et de

Bank

lInnovation

for

Africa

Burkina

(UBA

Daouda Sanou, Airtel Burkina Faso


S.A.

Burkina)
Mamouna
Joachim Kon, Cyfu Agro

lEquipement Rurale

Ouedraogo,

Union

Nationale des Producteurs de Riz du

Issouf Sanou, Fdration Nationale

Burkina Faso (UNPR-B)

des

Organisations

(FENOP)

Paysannes

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

Jacob

Sanou,

Institut

de

Ansenekoun

196

Dsir

Some,

Ibrahima

Traor, Ministre des

lEnvironnement et de Recherches

Ministre des Ressources Animales

Infrastructures, du Dsenclavement

Agricoles (INERA)

(MRA)

et des Transports

Irene

de

Franois

Communications

Logistics

Sare/Kanzie,

Rgulation

des

Autorit

Some,

Bollor

Africa

Hamma

Electroniques et des Postes (ARCEP)


Albert
Moumini

Savadogo,

Union

Karim Traor, Monsanto

Soudre,

Ministre

des

Yacouba,

Institut

International dIngnierie de lEau et

Ressources Animales (MRA)

de lEnvironnement

Roland A. Sow, Bollor Africa

Jean Pierre Yamogo, ETY-GTZ

Internationale pour la Conservation


de la Nature (UICN)

Logistics
Aoua

Sawadogo,

Rseau

Blaise

des

caisses populaires du Burkina Faso

Yoda,

Ministre

de

lAgriculture de lHydraulique et des

Laurent Stravato, iDE

Recherches Halieutiques

(RCPB)
Kalga Tanga, Saso Industries

Jonas Yogo, Agro Productions

Daouda Sawadogo, Rseau des


caisses populaires du Burkina Faso

Yamine Tangongosse, AGRODIA


Roger Zangr, Ministre de la

(RCPB)
Evariste Tapsoba, Ministre de

Recherche

Maliki Sawadogo, Ministre des

lAgriculture de lHydraulique et des

lInnovation

Infrastructures, du Dsenclavement

Recherches Halieutiques

scientifique

de

Rufive Zougrana, Conseil Burkinab

et des Transports
Issaka Tapsoba, GGTI Motors

des Chargeurs (CBC)

Agence pour la Promotion de la Petite

Assiongbon

BURUNDI

et Moyenne Entreprise Agriculture et

Commission de lUnion Economique

Artisanat (APME2A)

et

Neerbewendin

et

G.

Sawadogo,

Montaire

Tko-Agbo,
Ouest

Africaine

Banque de la Rpublique du Burundi

(UEMOA)
NAHA S.U.

Sadou Sawadogo
Salif

Tentica,

Ministre

de

Abdoulaye R Semd, Ministre

lAgriculture de lHydraulique et des

des Ressources Animales (MRA)

Recherches Halieutiques
Rubeya & Co Advocates

Ministre des Ressources Animales


Ali Traor, Conseil Burkinab des

(MRA)

Chargeurs (CBC)
El Hadj Kassoum K. Simpore,
Organisation

PPFO Fertilizer

des

Daudi Amani, African Promotion


Company (APROCO)

Transporteurs

Routiers du Faso (OTRAF)

Albert Arakaza

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

197

Donatien

Bahimenda,

Collectif

des Producteurs des Semences du

Boris Ininahazwe, Banque de Crdit

Damien

Macumi,

de Bujumbura

National Foncier

Desire Irakoze, Leo (U-Com)

Ren Madebari, ENSafrica

Flora Irakoze, Banque Nationale de

Batrice Maregeya, Ministre de

Dveloppement conomique

lAgriculture et de llevage

Patrick Itangishaka, SDV Transami -

Renilde

Bollor Africa Logistics

Promotion Company (APROCO)

Richard Kaderi, African Promotion

Deusdedit Mchomba, CRDB Bank

Programme

Burundi(COPROSEBU)
Jean-Claude

Barakamfitiye,

Muyango Law Firm


Leger Bruggeman
Marius

Bucumi,

Autorit

de

Masunku,

African

Rgulation de la Filire Caf (ARFIC)


Mnard Bucumi, CRDB Bank

Company (APROCO)
Jean Marie Vianney Musangwa,

Franois Butoke

Louise Kamikazi, WISE

Turame Community Finance S.A.

Leone Comin, International Fertilizer

Ferdinand Kantungeko

Astre Muyango, Muyango Law


Firm

Development Center (IFDC)


Batrice

Kanyange,

Ministre

Christophe Gahungu, Water, Climate

de lEau, de lEnvironnement, de

and Development Programme for

lAmnagement du Territoire et de

Africa

lUrbanisme

Bruce Mwile, CRDB Bank


Leopold Nahawenimana, Direction
des Titres fonciers et du Cadastre

Fidle Gahungu, Office national

Emmanuel Karikurubu, Ministre du

de contrle et de certification des

Transport

national
Dieudonne Nahimana, Institut des

semences (ONCCS)
Arnaud

Kimana,

Ministre

de

Sciences Agronomiques du Burundi

Paul Gatin, SHER Ingnieurs-conseil

lAgriculture et de llevage

(ISABU)

Hakizimana Anselme, ATRIDA

Bernard Kinyata, Receka Inking

Jonathan Nahimana, Econet

Richard Havyarimana, Forum des

Festus Ciza alias Kigazi, Association

Joseph

Organisations

pour la promotion des Palmiculteurs

Organisations

Agricoles du Burundi (FOPABU)

du Burundi (APROPABU)

Agricoles du Burundi (FOPABU)

Clodette Inarukundo, Inarukundo

Ida Marie Mabushi, Diamond Trust

Grard Ndabemeye, Ministre de

Claudette

Bank Burundi (DTB)

lAgriculture et de llevage

des

Producteurs

Nahayo,
de

Forum

des

Producteurs

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

Cyprien

Ndayishimiye,

Rseau

Rgine

Mireille

198

Niyongabo,

Emmanuel

Nshimirimana,

Muyango Law Firm

BIRATURABA

Clestin Niyongere, Institut des

Eric

Prosper Ndihokubwayo, Deutsche

Sciences Agronomiques du Burundi

transporteurs

Gesellschaft

(ISABU)

Burundi (ATIB)

Fortunate Niyonkuru, Muyango Law

Daniel Ntawurishira, SODETRA Ltd.

des institutions de microfinance au


Burundi-RIM

fr

Internationale

Ntangaro, Association des


internationaux

du

Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH


Emmanuel Ndorimana, Ministre

Firm
Philomne

de lEau, de lEnvironnement, de
lAmnagement du Territoire et de

Ntiharirizwa,

Twitezimbere

Emmanuel Niyonzima

lUrbanisme
Melchiade
Christian Nduwayo, Cabinet de

Niyonzima,

General

Trading and Transport (GTT)

Fdrale de Commerce et dIndustrie


du Burundi

Matre Placide Gatoto


Grgoire
Gilbert Nibigirwe, Gilbert & Partners
Cyriaque

Adelin Ntungumburanye, Chambre

Nibitegeka,

Nkeshimana,

Direction

des Titres fonciers et du Cadastre

Jean Claude Ntwari, Office national

national

de contrle et de certification des


semences (ONCCS)

Nibitegeka
Albert

Advocates

Nkunumana,

Direction

des Titres fonciers et du Cadastre


Claver Nigarura, Rubeya & Co

Emery Nukuri, Universit du Burundi

national
Boland Rasquinha, Pharma Bolena

Advocates
Pierre Claver Nkunzabagenzi, Hope
Fund

Ena Rasquinha, Pharma Bolena

Laurent Nkurikiye, BUCOFCO

Roland Brian Rasquinha, Alchem

Agricoles et des Services Divers

Eric Nkurunziza, Universit Lumire

Alice Remezo, Milk Chel

(SOCEASED)

de Bujumbura

Alice Nijimbere, Mkono & Co


Fiston

Nikiza,

Commercialisation

Socit
des

de

Intrants

Thodomir
Emery Ninganza, Christian Aid

Franois

Nkurunziza,

Armajaro

Rishirumuhirwa,

Agrobiotec

Burundi S.U.R.L.
Dogratias

Pascal Niyingabo, Direction des

Rurimunzu,

Agence

Titres fonciers et du Cadastre

M. Louise Nsabiyumva, Caisse

de Rgulation et de Contrle des

national

Cooprative dEpargne et de Crdit

Tlcommunications (ARCT)

Mutuelle (CECM)
Alfred Niyokwishimira, Ministre de

Lauren

lAgriculture et de llevage

Coffee

Rosenberg, Long Miles

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

199

Joseph Lovell, BNG Legal

Salvator Ruzima

Sithisak Law office

Prosper Ruberintwari, Food and

Telecommunication

Agriculture

Cambodia (TRC)

Agriculture

Lotfi Allal, Food and Agriculture

Sokla San, P&A Asia Law Firm

Organization

of

the

Regulator

of

Menghak Phem, Royal University of

United Nations (FAO)


Organization of the United Nations

Philippe Sabot, Merial

Buon

(FAO)
Maros Apostol, Thaneakea Phum
Eliakim Sakayoya, Ministre de

Cambodia

Limited (TKL)
Vong

lAgriculture et de llevage

Sarinda,

Co-operative

Association of Cambodia (CAC)

Ravindranath Balakrishnan
Sezibera,

SETHAVITOU

Notary Public of The Kingdom of

Steve Sahabo, CofiCo s.a.

Annick

Sarakmony,

Confdration

des associations des producteurs

Sopheak

Chan,

agricoles pour le dveloppement

Investment and Development Co.,

(CAPAD)

Ltd

Angkor

Green

Saruth Chan, Ministry of Agriculture,


Forestry and Fisheries
Chanvireak Seng, DFDL

Alexis

Sinarinzi,

Agence

de

Sam Ol Chhim, Central Law Firm


Leanhour Seng, Kong Hour Rice Mill

Rgulation et de Contrle des


Tlcommunications (ARCT)

Martin Desautels, DFDL

Import Export Co., Ltd

Alexandre Sindayigaya, Diamond

H. Naryth Hem, BNG Legal

Thyse Seng, Kong Hour Rice Mill


Import Export Co., Ltd

Trust Bank Burundi (DTB)


Kimsreng
CAMBODIA

Kong,

Ministry

of

Environment

Say Sony, PRASAC Microfinance


Institution Ltd

Boost Riche (Cambodia) Co., Ltd

Kundi Lay, Co-operative Association


of Cambodia (CAC)

Sovan Meas, BNG Legal

Hun Lak, Mekong Oryza Trading Co.,

Yon Sovann, Bayon Cereal Co., Ltd

Chuan Wei (Cambodia) Co. Ltd.


DFDL

Ltd
Tayseng Ly, HBS Law Firm &

Heifer International

Andy Lay, City Rice Import Export

Consultants

Co., Ltd
Yap Thoeurn, Cambodian Farmer

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and


Fisheries
P&A Asia

Robert Lay, City Rice Import Export

Association

Federation

Co., Ltd

Agricultural Producers

of

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

Hartono

Tiodora,

Multico

MS

200

Marlene Brokering, Brokering &

Pamela Grandon

Luarte Abogados

(Cambodia) Co Ltd

Hermes Guerrero, Ministerio de


Carlos Browne, Brokering & Luarte

CHILE

Bienes Nacionales

Abogados
Nelson

Centro Latinoamericano para el


Desarrollo Rural (RIMISP)

Gutierrez

Gonzalez,

Conservador de Bienes Races de

Carlos Bustos, Quinzio Abogados

Coronel
Miguel

Fondo Esperanza

Canala-Echeverria,

Asociacin

de

Exportadores

de

Marcelo

Huenchuir

Gmez,

National Customs Service

Frutas de Chile A.G. (ASOEX)

Fundacin Banigualdad

Oficina de Estudios y Polticas

Maricela

Camila Lavin, Carey Lawyers

Agrarias (ODEPA)

Association of Seed Producers of

Canto,

National

Chile (ANPROS)

Alejandro Len, Universidad de Chile

Alberto Cardemil, Carey Lawyers

Francisco

Salinas y Fabres S.A


Lobos,

Asociacin

Gremial Chilena de Empresarios del

Servicio Agrcola y Ganadero (SAG)


Claudia Castillo, Quinzio Abogados

Transporte Internacional de Cargas


por Carretera

Soquimich Comercial S.A. SQM


Magaly

Castillo

Tamayo,

Naandanjain

Ivan Marambio

Lohengrin Corts Cea

Eduardo Martin, Carey Lawyers

Exportadores de Frutas de Chile A.G.

Ins De Ros Casacuberta, Araya &

Raul Mazzarella, Carey Lawyers

(ASOEX)

Ca Abogados

Maria

Fernanda

Almendras

Arriagada, Elecnor Chile S.A


Edmundo Araya, Asociacin de

Felipe Meneses, Carey Lawyers


Matas Araya, Araya & Ca Abogados

Tamara Del Ro
Sebastin Norris, Araya & Ca

Rodrigo Astete Rocha, Servicio

Sebastin R. Donoso, Sebastin

Agrcola y Ganadero (SAG)

Donoso y Asociados Abogados

Abogados
Mario Olivares, Cooprinsem

Pedro Pablo Ballivian, Barros &

Patricio

Gajardo,

Errzuriz Abogados

Rodrguez Law Firm

Gajardo

&
Carolina

Olivares

Transportes Olivares
Andres Bittner, Chilolac

Enrique Garcs B., R&Q Ingeniera


S.A.

Matias Orfali

Agurto,

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

201

Rodrigo

Orlandi

Arrate,

Boreal

Gestin Inmobiliaria Limitada

Centro Nacional de Investigaciones

Miguel

Corts

de Caf - Cenicaf

Asociacin Nacional De Empresas


Transportadoras

Ren Pinochet Chateau, Novafeed

Federacin Nacional de Cafeteros de

Mendieta,

De

Carga

Por

Carretera (ASECARGA)

Colombia
Julin Camilo Cruz Gonzlez, Cruz

Loreto Poblete F., Quinzio Abogados


Sebastian

Querol

Financiera Amrica

& Asociados

Instituto Colombiano Agropecurio

Freddy Diez, Procam SA

Rodriguez,

Ministerio de Bienes Nacionales

(ICA)
Diego Escobar, Abonamos

Maria Teresa Quirke Arrau, Quirke


& Cia

Instituto Colombiano de Desarrollo


Pedro

Rural (INCODER)

Fuentes,

Ministerio

de

Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural

Julio Recordon, Carey Lawyers


Yara

P. German Dario Arias

Roberto Saelzer, Universidad de


Concepcin

Andrew Abela, Abela Maldonado &


Alberto Gomez Mejia, Red Nacional

Asociados Abodagos

de Jardines Botnicos de Colombia

Miguel Saldivia, Carey Lawyers


Miguel Achury Jimenez, Bancama
Alfonso Silva, Carey Lawyers

Ana

S.A., Banco de las Microfinanzas

Patricia

Heredia

Vargas,

Ministerio de Salud y Proteccin


Jos Miguel Stegmeier Schmidlin,

Massiel Alvarez Alarcn, Bancama

Sociedad Agrcola de Bio Bio AG.

S.A., Banco de las Microfinanzas

Social
Jairo Herrera Murillo, Asociacin

Rodrigo Benitez Ureta, Baker &

Felipe Ardila, Comercial de Riegos

De

Transportadoras

McKenzie
Luis Fernando Catao Crdoba,
lvaro Varas, Araya & Ca Abogados

Nacional

Federacin
Transportadoras

de
de

Empresas
De

Carga

Por

Operadores

del

Carretera (ASECARGA)

Empresas
Carga

de

Martha

Jama,

Rafael Vergara, Carey Lawyers

Colombia (FEDETRANSCOL)

Campo, S.A

Jaime Zaldumbide, Carey Lawyers

Juan

Juan Nicolas Laverde, Brigard &

Fernando

Cifuentes,

Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo


COLOMBIA

Urrutia

Rural
Luis Fernando Macas Gmez,

Asociacin Nacional de Mdicos


Veterinarios de Colombia (AMEVEC)

Macas Gmez Asociados Abogados

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

202

Ministre de lAgriculture

Guerra,

Oscar Romero Guevara, Unidad

Superintendencia de Notariado y

de Planificacin de Tierras Rurales

Registro

(UPRA)

MTN

Juana Micn, Brigard & Urrutia

Esteban Rubio, Brigard & Urrutia

Office National de Dveloppement de

Jairo

Alonso

Mesa

la Riziculture (ONDR)
Sergio Michelsen Jaramillo, Brigard

Ricardo

Sabogal,

& Urrutia

Restitucin de Tierras

Unidad

de
Syndicat National des Transporteurs
de Cte dIvoire

Julieth

Andrea

Navarrete

Amparo Scorcia
Audrey

Fernndez, Corpoica

Abouo,

SCPA

Bil-Aka,

Guillermo Tejeiro, Brigard & Urrutia

Brizoua-Bi & Associs

Carlos Umaa Trujillo, Brigard &

Allouko Aka Alexandre, PolyPompes

Urrutia

Ivoire

Camilo Valencia, Camilo Valencia

Fataye

Abogados

lAgriculture

Jorge Vargas, Invasa Maquinaria

Louise Akanvou, Centre National de

S.A.S.

Recherche Agronomique

Banco de las Microfinanzas

Irene Velandia, Brigard & Urrutia

Eric Bably, BK & Associs

Andrs Ramn Rodrguez, Gmez-

Juan Hernando Velasco Lozano,

Binde Binde, Africa Trans-Logistics

Pinzn Zuleta

Unidad de Planificacin de Tierras

International

Camilo Pardo, Unidad de Restitucin


de Tierras
Jorge Alejandro Pinzon
Dora Ins Rey Martnez, Unidad

Akamou,

Ministre

de

de Planificacin de Tierras Rurales


(UPRA)
Jackeline Rincn C., Bancama S.A.,

Rurales (UPRA)
Bob Clark, Socit TECHNOSERVE

Bernardo Rodriguez Ossa, Parra


Jorge

Rodrguez Sann SAS


Juan Pablo Rodrguez Surez,
Bancama

S.A.,

Banco

de

Enrique

Vlez

Garca,

Superintendencia de Notariado y

Tata

Dagnono,

Registro

Brizoua-Bi & Associs

CTE DIVOIRE

Henri Danon, Ministre de la Poste

SCPA

Bil-Aka,

las

Microfinanzas

et des Technologies de lInformation


Carlos

Ignacio

Rojas

Gaitn,

Callivoire

et de la Communication

Chambre de Commerce & dIndustrie

Jean de Foucauld, Ceva Sant

de Cte dIvoire

Animale

Asociacin Nacional de Exportadores


de Caf de Colombia (ASOEXPORT)

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

203

Sylvain

lAgriculture

lAgriculture

Aka, Brizoua-Bi & Associs

Bamba Moussa Mahan, Mahan

Stanislas

Group Industries

Investment Corporation

NGuessan MBahia, Africa Pure

Emmanuella

Technology

Partners

Soumaiga

Farrouna,

Syndicat

National des Transporteurs de Cte

Kouakou,

Jessica Nanou Waota, SCPA Bil-

Kouadio Jean Esse, Ministre de

Ministre

de

Zz,

Bloomfield

dIvoire
NDatien

Sverin

Guibessongui,

Zoro,

AnyRay

&

Cabinet ICT Consulting


Jean

Patrick

Ndoume,

Office

DENMARK

Ivoirien des Chargeurs (OIC)

Peter Harlech Jones, GALVmed

Danish Agency for Digitisation


Bachir Herv Dissou, Agro Afrique

Boni NZue, Centre National de


Recherche Agronomique

Danish AgriFish Agency

Jean Thierry Oura, CTE DIVOIRE

Danish Agro

Simplice Houphout, BK & Associs


Kindni
Kon,

Koukouni

SCPA

Kignelman

AGRI
Danish Business Authority

KONE-NGUESSAN-

KIGNELMAN

Socit

Civile

Philippe Sabot, Merial


Danish

Professionnelle dAvocats
Idrissa
Edmond Koffi, Centre National de

Seynou,

Ministre

de

Veterinary

and

Food

Administration

lAgriculture
Finanstilsynet (The Danish FSA)

Recherche Agronomique
Didier

Medard

Sossah, Bureau

national dtudes techniques et de

Nestor Kouakou Koffi

Nykredit Bank A/S

dveloppement (BNETD)
Kan

Marcel

Konan,

Yara

Socit
Lacina Soumahoro

Cooprative Anouanz-Douekoue

Hans
Sekou

Konat,

Foncier

Rural,

Assiongbon
et

Kone,

Ministre

de

Montaire

Ouest

Africaine

(UEMOA)

et

du

Dveloppement

Neumann

Andersen,

Department of Agroecology, Climate

Lidde Bagge Jensen, The Danish


Kalifa Tour, Office Ivoirien des

Michel Kouakou, Centre National de

Mathias

Jean Philippe Tour, Versus Bank

Durable

Recherche Agronomique

Advokatpartnerselskab

and Water, Aarhus University

lEnvironnement, de la Salubrit
Urbaine

Horten

Commission de lUnion Economique

Ministre de lAgriculture
Augustin

Tko-Agbo,

Abildstrm,

Chargeurs (OIC)

Nature Agency

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

204

Marie Blanner, The Danish Nature

Peter Odifier, G.O. Transport &

Lise Viftrup, Danish Environmental

Agency

Spedition A/S

Protection Agency, Ministry of the


Environment

Niels Borum, Lexsos Advokater

Per Olsen, Danish Agriculture and


Food Council

ETHIOPIA

Henning Otte Hansen, The Royal

Ethiopian

Danish Agricultural Society

Transformation Agency (ATA)

Peter

Tigray

Jean de Foucauld, Ceva Sant


Animale

Agricultural

Hkun Djurhuus, Bech-Bruun


Peter Fenger, Bryggeriforeningen

Pedersen,

Fasterholt

Agricultural

Research

Maskinfabrik

Institute

Jan

Teshome Gabre-Mariam Bokan Law

(Danish Brewers Association)


Persson, Danish Transport

Sreen Kolind Hvid, Seges P/S

Authority

Office

Eva Juul Jensen, The Danish Nature

Robin Philip, Bruun & Hjejle Law

Muradu Abdo Srur, Addis Ababa

Agency

Firm

University

Julie

Bak,

Ministry

of

Food,

Agriculture and Fisheries of Denmark

Kenny

Rasmussen, Ministry of

Tigistu Abza, Ministry of Agriculture

Justice
Achamyeleh Gashu Adam, Institute

Jakob Kamby, Kammeradvokaten

Anders Refsgaard, COWI A/S

of Land Administration

Ulf Kjellerup, COWI A/S

Alexandre

Melaku Admassu, Pioneer Hi-bred

Louise

Lundsby

Lund,

Schleimann-

Jensen, Bech-Bruun

Seeds Ethiopia P.L.C

Anders Ankr Srensen, Danish

Alishume

AgriFish Agency

Biodiversity Institute

Jakob Srensen, Holst

Bassam Alayyat, Alayyat Group

Wessel, Bech-

Bruun
Birgitte

Latif

Danish

Ahimed,

Ethiopian

AgriFish

Agency

Ethiopia
Michael Svane, DI Transport

Sren Stenderup Jensen, Plesner


Amsalu Alemayehu, Wasasa

Jakob Mgelvang, Danish AgriFish

Andreas Tamasauskas, Ronne &

Agency

Lundgren

Belachew Yirsaw Alemu, Institute


of Land Administration

Mark Villingshj Nielsen, Bech-

Mette Thomsen, Danish AgriFish

Bruun

Agency

Abenezer

Asfaw,

Consulting & Training

Boot

Coffee

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

205

Fikadu Asfaw, Fikadu Asfaw and

Ephrem Demeke, Ethio Telecom


Asaminew

Ashenafi,

Getachew,

Agricultural

Deribew, Commercial

(ATA)

Bank of Ethiopia
Rajiv Ghandi, Hester Biosciences

Input Supply Enterprise


Motuma
Girmaye Ayalew, Global Africa

Didita,

Ethiopian

Ltd

Biodiversity Institute
Fikremariam

Workneh

Ayalew,

Ethiopian

Agricultural Transformation Agency

Yibeltal Dubale, Ethiopian Road

Fikadu Dupasa, Limu Inara Farmers

Gurji, Fikadu Asfaw and

Associates Law Office

Multi-purpose Cooperative Union


Kedir Bushira Hassan, Addis-Vet-

Sector Development
Tesfa-alem
Ayenew,

Ethiopian

Biodiversity Institute
Yodit

Aga Amsalu Ayana, Integrated Seed

Ghion,

Transport Authority

(ATA)

Ashinafi

Ethiopian

Agricultural Transformation Agency

Associates Law Office


Getenesh

Seyoum

Ethiopian

Embaye,

Mekelle

Pty Ltd/PLC

University
Abdulmen Ibrahim

Biodiversity Institute
Dilnesa Fentahun

Haftom Kesete, Haftom Kesete

Million Bekere, Cooperative Bank of


Oromia

Adugna Fite, Oromia Agriculture

Kahsay Law Office

Bureau, Participatory Small scale


Diliba Beyene, Oromia International

Irrigation

Bank

(PASIDP)

Development

Program

Kibret Alemayehu, Dejen Cross


Border Level 1-A Freight Transport
Owners Association

Zewdie Bishaw, International Center

Teshome

Gabre-Mariam

for Agricultural Research in the Dry

Teshome Gabre-Mariam Bokan Law

Teshome

Areas (ICARDA)

Office

Agriculture

Andrea Bues, Leibniz Institute for

Teklay

Regional Development and Structural

Mochaland PLC

Glibanos

Bokan,

Gebrehiwot,

Lakew,

Ministry

of

Gezahegne Lemma, Alpha Truckers


Association

Planning (IRS)
Zelalem

Gebretsadik,

Veterinary

Hailu Leta, Aggar Micro Finance S.C.

Moti Cheru, Veterinary Drugs and

Drugs and Feed Administration and

Feed Administration and Control

Control Authority (VDFACA)

Patrick Maluku, Monsanto

Alehegn

Getnet Yawkal Mebratu, Mebratu

Authority (VDFACA)
Aberra Debelo, Sasakawa Global
2000

Gebru, Moenco Kalitiy

Machinery Branch

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

Henoki

Melaku,

Ethiopian

Agricultural Transformation Agency

Netsanet

206

Woldekidan,

Awash

David Egiashvili, National Agency of


Public Registry

International Bank

(ATA)
Dagninet

Yimenu,

Damtit

Zelalem Mesele, ZK flowers P.L.C

Pharma Trading Co.

Kedir Musema, Ries Engineering

Teshome

Yohannes,

Gonofaa

Microfinance

Robson Mutandi, The International

Vet

Levan

Gachechiladze,

Isragreen

LLC
Buusaa

Nata Ghudushauri, LLC MFO Credo

Share

Company

Archil Giorgadze, Dechert LLP

Emiru Zewdie, ALPPIS

Lasha Gogiberidze, BGI Legal

Fund for Agricultural Development


(IFAD)
Mearaf Nur, Mearaf

Bedru Law

Tewodros

Zewdie,

Horticultures

Office

Ethiopian

Producers

Levan Gotua, Begiashvili & Co

and

Exporters Association

Irakli Gvilia, BLC Law Office

GEORGIA

Nana

Philippe Sabot, Merial


Janashia,

Caucasus

Environment NGO Network

Manaye Abera Shagrdi


Colibri Law Firm
Eleni

Shiferaw,

Vakhtang Janezashvili, BGI Legal

Ethiopian
Tea Abramidze, Notary Chamber of

Biodiversity Institute

Georgia
Getachew

Shimels,

LLC

GAWT
Tina Adamia, Caucastrans Express

International Business PLC

Ltd
Ermias

Teshome,

Nino

Kharitonashvili,

Notary

Chamber of Georgia

Ethiopian

Agricultural Transformation Agency

Giorgi Begiashvili, Begiashvili & Co


Nino Khopheria, Notary Chamber of

(ATA)
Alexander Bolkvadze, BLC Law
Misikire

Rusudan Kacharava, Terra DeNovo

Tessema,

Ethiopian

Georgia

Office
David Khrikadze, BDO Legal

Biodiversity Institute
Archil Chachkhiani, VTB Bank
Fekadu

Tilahun,

Avtandil

Ethiopian

Agricultural Transformation Agency

Korakhashvili, National

Zurab Chkheidze, Begiashvili & Co

Academy of Sciences of Georgia

Jean de Foucauld, Ceva Sant

Ana Kostava, Dechert LLP

(ATA)
Daniel

Weldegebriel

Ambaye,

Animale
Tamar Mamporia, DLA Piper

Institute of Land Administration


Malkhaz Dzadzua, MFO Crystal

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

207

Tamar Tevdoradze, BGI Legal

Nicola Mariani, Dechert LLP

Martin Ali, Ministry of Food and


Agriculture (MoFA)

Ekaterina

Meskhidze,

National

Nino

Tevzadze,

Caucasus
Emmanuel

Environment NGO Network

Agency of Public Registry

K.M.

Alognikou,

International Fertilizer Development


Irakli Mgaloblishvili, Mgaloblishvili,

Tamara Toria, Georgian Farmers

Kipiani, Dzidziguri (MKD)

Association

Center (IFDC)
William Amanfu

Tamar

Mtvarelidze,

Caucasus

Bela Tskhvediani, VTB Bank


Daniel S. Amlalo, Environmental

Environment NGO Network


Nino
Kakha Nadiradze, Association for

Zambakhidze,

Georgian

Protection Agency

Farmers Association
David Andah

Farmers Rights Defense


GHANA
Eka

Naobishvili,

Ministry

Patrice

of
Ministry of Food and Agriculture

Agriculture

Annequin,

International

Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC)

(MoFA)
Kwasi Anokurang-Budu, EB-ACCION

Sophio Natroshvili, BGI Legal


Nana
Association

Shawbell Consulting

SLC

OLAM

Asamoah Owusu-Akyaw, Private

Phirosmanashvili,
for

Farmers

Rights

Transport Association of Ghana

Defense
Samuel Achaw Ofosu, Veterinary

Issac Asare, AGRA

Irakli Pipia, DLA Piper

Council

Rusudan Gergauli, LPA Law Firm

Adingtingah

Apullah

Patrick,

Savanna Seed Services Company

Emelia

Desiree

Atta-Fynn,

EB-

ACCION SLC

Limited

Philippe Sabot, Merial

William

Awuku

Ahiadormey,

Nino Sesitashvili, BLC Law Office

Prince Afful, EB-ACCION SLC

Agricare Limited

Ilya Shapira, Isragreen LLC

Maxwell Agbenorhevi, USAID Feed

Johnson Kwadzo Badzi, EB-ACCION

the Future

SLC

Irakli Sokolovski, Dechert LLP


Anthony

Akunzule,

Veterinary

Services Directorate, Ministry of

Nino Suknidze, DLA Piper

Kwaku

D.

Berchie,

Pan-African

Savings & Loans

Food and Agriculture (MoFA)


Rusudan
Office

Tchkuaseli,

BLC

Law

Charles A. Biney, The Volta Basin


Authority

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

208

Isabel Boaten, AB & David

Isaac Karikari, Karicel Foundation

Philippe Sabot, Merial

Goh Charles, Vodafone Ghana

Japhet

Elizabeth

Lartey,

International

Rosebud

Afua

Alifo

Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC)

Tetteh, Erat Services

Francis Mensah, African Fertilizer

George Agyemang Sarpong, G.A.

and Agribusiness Partnership (AFAP)

Sarpong & Co.

Andrew Mercer, Mercer & Company

Emmanuel Kaaviele Tinsari, Lands

CK Djan-Suleiman, Zaklan Consult


Raymond Codjoe, R.A.Codjoe Law
Offices
Wilson

Darkwah,

Commission

Irrigation

Development Authority, Ministry of

Kwabena

Food and Agriculture

Company

Nimakoh,

Mercer

&
Isaac Yaw Azadagli, Agricultural
Development

Siegfried Kofi Debrah, International

&

Mechanization

Anita Nsiah, Mercer & Company

Limited (ADEMEC)

Samuel

Albert Yeboah Obeng, Foresight

Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC)


Bazaanah
Cooperative

Fidelis,

Ghana

Credit

Unions

Association (CUA)

Nuamah

Dankwah,

Generation Club

Nwabiagya Rural Bank


Ben

Nyamadi,

Irrigation

GREECE

Development Authority, Ministry of


Peace Gbeckor-Kove, Environmental

Food and Agriculture

Ministry of Rural Development and


Food

Protection Agency
Kwame Oppong-Anane, Opporhu
Sergio Godoy, Yara

Agricultural and Rural Development

Mediterranean Plant Conservation

Consultancy Ltd.

Unit,

Mediterranean

Agronomic

Institute of Chania (MAICh)

Michael Gyan Nyarko, AB & David


Isaac Kofi Osei, Mechanical Lloyd
Peter Harlech Jones, GALVmed

Co. Ltd.

Tampakis Fresh Co

Abdul Razak Haruna, Alfayi Co. Ltd

Richard Osei-Amponsah, University

Yara

of Ghana
Manolis Agrimanakis, TROXOI & TIR

Thomas Havor, Seed Producers


Association of Ghana (SEEDPAG)

Francis Owiredu, Advans Ghana


Savings and Loans

Nikolaos

Athanassiadis,

GENERALIS Law Firm

George K.A. Brantuo


Gyasi Poku, Indchem Royal Ltd.
Kwabena

Evangelia Balla

Kankam-Yeboa, Water

Research Institute

George Prah, Ministry of Food and


Agriculture (MoFA)

AP

&

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

209

Savvas

Balouktsis,

Importers

Machinery

Representatives

Theodora

Kouloura,

Hellenic

Maria

Oikonomou,

Ministry

Fertilizers and Chemicals ELFE s.a.

Reconstruction of Production

Georgia Kourakli

Ioannis

of

Association (MIRA)
Evangelos

Baltas,

Panagopoulos, National

Technical University of Athens

National
Marinos Kritsotakis

Technical University of Athens

Stefanos Panayiotopoulos, Zepos &


Sofia Chatzigiannidou, Zepos &

Irene

C.

Kyriakides,

Yannopoulos Law Firm

Georgopoulos Law Firm

Kyriakides

Yannopoulos Law Firm


George

Jean de Foucauld, Ceva Sant

Persa

Lampropoulou,

Animale

Anagnostopoulos Law firm

Sotirios Douklias, KG Law Firm

Evagelia

Liakopoulou,

Telecommunications
Elisabeth Eleftheriades, KG Law

Ilias

and

G.

Parissopoulos,

Agricultural

Research

National
Center

&

Institute of Agricultural Machinery


Hellenic
Post

Kalliroi Passiou, G. Karavokyris &


Partners Consulting Engineers s.a.

Commission (EETT)
Michael Paterakis, Dr. Paterakis and

Firm
Spiros

Livieratos,

Maria Giannakaki, Karageorgiou &

Telecommunications

Associates

Commission (EETT)

Hellenic
and

Partners

Post
Alexandros

Protofanousis,

Protofanousi Fruits SA
Anthony B. Hadjioannou, Kyriakides

Christina Manossis, ZEUS KIWI SA


Nikos Protofanousis, Protofanousi

Georgopoulos Law Firm


Evangelia Mantzou

Fruits SA

Marinos Kandylis, Olympias SA

Evangelia Rammou, Public Notary

International Transport

Greece

Ioanna

Kyriaki-Korina

Stavros Karageorgiou, Karageorgiou


& Associates
Ioannis Karavokyris, G. Karavokyris
& Partners Consulting Engineers s.a.

Michalopoulou,

Raptopoulou,

Michalopoulou & Associates

Kyriakides Georgopoulos Law Firm

Maria Mimikou, National Technical

Antonios Sifakis, Haidarlis - Sifakis

University of Athens

Law Offices

Anthony Narlis, Geodis Calberson

Panagiotis

GE

Agroconsults

Nikolaos Kondylis, N. Kondylis &


Partners Law Office
Ioanna

Kontopoulou,

Telecommunications

and

Commission (EETT)
Ilias Kotsopoulos, OTE S.A

Hellenic
Post

Stamatopoulos,

Neoklis Stamkos, KEPA

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

Katerina

Tassi, Karageorgiou &

210

Gilvert Garcia, Aimar Group

Vernica Orantes, QIL+4 ABOGADOS

Len Garca, Yara

Victor Orantes, SERCA, S.A.

Harald Himsel

Guillermo

Associates
Kimon Tsakiris, KG Law Firm
Ortiz

Aldana, Ganaderia y Alimentacion

Eleftherios Vagenas, V. ATTIS LTD


Julio

Artemio

Asociacin

Antonios Voulgarakis, Nature sa

Austreberto

Jurez

de

Morn,

Transportistas

Unidad de Normas y Regulaciones


Coordinacion,

Ministerio

de

Internactionales (ATI)

Agricultura

Miguel Juarez Pelaez, Direccin

Mlida Pineda, Carrillo y Asociados

GUATEMALA
General de Transportes

All Logistics S.A.

Ana Gabriela Platero Midence,


Anavi Guatemala

Karen Larson, Friendship Bridge

Arias & Muoz Guatemala

Superintendencia de Bancos de

Herver Lpez, Tecnica Universal,

Paris Rivera, INSIVUMEH

Guatemala

S.A. (Tecun Guatemala)


Bernhard Roehrs, AgroAmrica
Maria Luca Soto Santos, Consejo

Pedro Arias, Duwest

de

Usuarios

del

Transporte

Maricarmen

Rosal

de

Donis,

Internacional de Guatemala

Integrum

Maria Mercedes Marroqun de

Jorge Eduardo Salazar, Ministerio

Abraham Buezo, Asociacin de

Pemueller,

de

Semilleristas de Jocotn (ASEJO)

Asociados, S.C.

Ana Beatriz Clavera, Duwest

Pedro

Adolfo Brito Gmez, Marroqun


Prez & Asociados, S.C.

Marroqun

Pablo

Prez

&

Agricultura,

Ganadera

Alimentacin
Marroqun

Prez,

Ligia

Salazar,

Arias

&

Muoz

Marroqun, Prez & Asociados, S.C.

Guatemala

Vivian Luca Morales Herrera, Arias

Juan Salvador Sandoval, Ministerio

& Muoz

de

Alejandro Cofio, QIL+4 ABOGADOS


Carlos Roberto Cordn Krumme,

Agricultura,

Ganadera

Alimentacin

Cordn Ovalle & Asociados


Pedro Aragn Munoz, Aragn &
Jean de Foucauld, Ceva Sant

Aragn

Edwin Snchez, FUNDEA

Oswaldo Oliva, National Federation

Ricardo Santa Cruz Rubi, Agexport

Animale
Hctor

Fajardo,

Transportistas
(CATRANSCA)

Camara

de

Centroamericanos

of Financial Cooperatives
Yashira Shutuc, Aimar Group

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

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Jamal Abu Umaro, Nagel Company

Aura Cristina Son Ic, Duwest

Rakan Baybars, Rakan Baybars Law


Office

Daniel Humberto Sosa Casasola,

Zeinab Ahmad Al Momany, Specific

Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadera

Union for Farmers Productive

Ahmad Ekor

Sultan Al Fayez, Ali Sharif Zubi

Ahmad Faidi, Faidi Law Firm

y Alimentacin
Advocates and Legal Consultants

Armando Soto, Duwest

Ziad A. Ghanma, Central Bank of


Arturo Soto, Sosa & Soto Abogados

Jawad Al-Bakri, University of Jordan

Jordan

Jos Daniel Tistoj Chan, Ministerio

Abdullmalik

Baha Halasah, Information and

de

Telecommunications

Agricultura,

Ganadera

Toledo-Cotera,

Regulatory

ARTLEX-

Ahmed

Al-Fayad,

Attorneys at Law

Agriculture

Jos Urrutia, BK Consulting

Nada

Communications

Technology

Association of Jordan

Commission

Alimentacin
Enrique

Al-Eassawi,

Ministry

of

Zuhair

Hattar,

Land

Transport

Regulatory Commission LTRC

Al-Frihat,

Ministry

of

Lubna Hawamdeh, Ali Sharif Zubi


Advocates and Legal Consultants

Agriculture
Neftali Villanueva
Al-Ansari
JORDAN

Almashakbeh,

Telecommunications

Regulatory

Khaled Hudhud, Information and


Communications

Technology

Association of Jordan

Commission
Central Bank of Jordan
Monther
Department of Lands and Survey

Al-Reefai,

Ministry

of

Agriculture
Afram

Jordan
Monsanto

Zeyad Jadan
Jamil,

Information

Jamal Alrusheidat, The National

Communications

Center for Agricultural Research and

Association of Jordan

and

Technology

Extension (NCARE)
Mazen Kalbouneh, Green Produce

Zahra Wa Shajara For Agricultural


Services

Hazim

Al-Smadi,

Ministry

of

Fodder Hydroponics System

Agriculture
Sameh Mahariq, Alwatani (National

Alaa Abbassi, Abbassi Law Office


Ibrahim
Raed Abd el Qader, The National

Amosh,

Amosh

Legal

Services & Arbitration


Mohammad Majdalawi, University

Center for Agricultural Research and


Extension (NCARE)

Microfinance Bank)

Emad Awad, Ministry of Agriculture

of Jordan

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

212

Luma Mdanat, Ali Sharif Zubi

Pamella Ager, Halmiton, Harrison &

Advocates and Legal Consultants

Mathew

Sameer Jaywant, SunCulture


Duncan Ndiguran

Ghassan Obeidat, Jordan Valley

David

Joseph

Angwenyi,

Authority

Mohammed Muigai Advocates

Sammy

Kamanth,

Equity

Bank

Limited
Fida

Rawabdeh,

Ministry

of

Francis Chabari
Sarah Kiarie-Muia, Kaplan & Stratton

Agriculture
Grace
Yahya Shakhatreh, The National

Chilande,

International

Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC)


Brenda

Center for Agricultural Research and


Extension (NCARE)
Bassam

Snobar,

University

of

Advocates
Kihara,

Kenya

Revenue

Gilly Cowan, GALVmed

Authority

Harm Duiker, SNV

John Kinaga, KickStart International

Martin Fisher, KickStart International

Evelyn Kyania, B.M Musau & Co.

Jordan
Advocates

Ali Subah, Ministry of Water and


Paul

Irrigation
Sami

Telfah,

Telfah

Gacheru,

Igeria

&

Ngugi

Advocates

Mary Njuguna, SNV

Rajiv Ghandi, Hester Biosciences

Paul Makepeace

Trading

Company

Ltd
Nathaniel Makoni, ABS TCM Ltd

John Yancura, FINCA


Hugo De Groote, CIMMYT

Michael Mbiti, Anjarwalla & Khanna

KENYA
Anthony Frederick Gross, A. F Gross

Advocates

Advocate

Monsanto

Laura Mburu, Orange


Antony Guto Mogere, Mohammed

One Acre Fund

Muigai Advocates

Saidi Mkomwa, African Conservation


Tillage Network (ACT)

Syngenta Foundation
Peter Harlech Jones, GALVmed

Mona Doshi, Anjarwalla & Khanna

Yara
Richard Harney, Coulson Harney
Aisha

Abdallah,

Anjarwalla

&

Advocates
Gillian Kadenyi Muriithi, Deepa

Khanna (A&K)
Samir Ibrahim, SunCulture
Carilus Ademba, Sacco Societies
Regulatory Authority

Advocates

Paul Isako, SNV

Industries Ltd.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

213

Benjamin Musau, B.M Musau & Co.

Ruslan

Dirk Schaefer

F.

Beishenkulov,

Inspectorate

Advocates

for

State

veterinary

Sonal Sejpal, Anjarwalla & Khanna

phytosanitary

Advocates

Government of the Kyrgyz Republic

Denis Tiren, International Fertilizer

Abdelhak

Timothy Mwangi, DAMCO

Development Center (IFDC)

Logistics Group LLC

Eunice Mwongera, Hillside Green

KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

Turkmen Bootaev, Association of

John

Mutunga, Kenya National

safety

under

and
the

Farmers Federation
Benyagoub,

IGCC

the International Road Transport

Growers and Exporters

Operators

CJSC Agrimatco Ltd


Charles Nichols, SunCulture
Ministry
Peter Njuguna, Sacco Societies

of

Agriculture

and

Daria Bulatova, Lorenz International

Melioration

Lawyers

Public Association AgroLead

Ruslan Derbishev, OJSC Commercial

Regulatory Authority
Bank KYRGYZSTAN

Martin Nyamweya, SNV


Vega Plus

Samara

Gilbert Obati, Egerton University

Dumanaeva,

Lorenz

Azizbek Abdiev, ARIS

International Lawyers

Maksat Abdykaparov, AVEP Public

Natalya Galivets, IGCC Logistics

Fund

Group LLC

Fred Ojiambo, Kaplan & Stratton


Bridget

Okumu,

International

Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC)


Myrzagul

Aidaralieva,

Lorenz

Kymbat

Ibakova,

Lorenz

Phillip Onyango, Kaplan & Stratton

International Lawyers

International Lawyers

Edwin Oseko, Ministry of Agriculture,

Niyaz Aldashev, Lorenz International

Abduhakim

Livestock and Fisheries

Lawyers

Association of Kyrgyzstan

Abdybek Asanaliev, Kyrgyz National

Daniar Jasoolov, Association of

Agrarian University

Farms (KARAGAT)

Kerim Begaliev, Colibri Law Firm

Gulchehra

Anne

Marie

Gesellschaft

Ran,
fr

Deutsche

Internationale

Islamov,

Seed

Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

Kydykbek

Beishekeev,

Irrigation Project

On-Farm
Evgeny Kim, Lorenz International
Lawyers

Philippe Sabot, Merial

Aiyl

Bank

Ben Roberts, Liquid Telecom Kenya


Nat Robinson, Juhudi Kilimo LLC

Kamchibekova,

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

214

Nurlan Mamatov, Kyrgyz-Turkish

Anastasiia Tsoi, Lorenz International

Vincent

Manas University

Lawyers

Development Co., Ltd

Baktybek Tumonbaev, CJSC Atrium

Phachone Bounma, Department of

Holding

Livestock and Fisheries, Ministry of

Umtul

Muratkyzy,

Lorenz

International Lawyers

Bounleua,

Sengarthit

Agriculture and Forestry


Niazbek

Aldashev,

Lorenz

Kunduz Turgumbaeva, Frontiers


Chay

International Lawyers

Bounphanousay,

National

Agriculture and Forestry Research

Uran Tursunaliev

Institute (NAFRI)

Rafael Nurahunov, CronaTrans


Gulnara Uskenbaeva, Association of
Ulan

Orozbekov,

Ministry

of

Supplier (Producers and Distributors)

Lao Co., Ltd.

Transport and Communications


Aleksei
Olesya

Paukova,

Companion

Jakkrit Bunmee, Tilleke & Gibbins

Vandaev,

Kalikova

&

Associates

Somsadasak

Canlayany,

Lao

Freight Forwarder Co., Ltd

Financial Group CJSC MFC


Dmitriy Vetlugin, Sky Mobile LLC
Tulegen

Sarsembekov, Eurasian

Beeline

Chanthone Chanthavong, Ministry


of Posts and Telecommunications

Development Bank
Zhigitaly Zhumaliev, Department of
Temirbek

M.

Shabdanaliev,

Crop Production Development

Nawika

Charoenkitchatorn,

Lao

Premier International Law Office

Association of Carriers of Kyrgyzstan


LAO PDR

Syyang Chertoi, Ministry of Posts

Baktybek Shamkeyev, Central Asia


International Consulting
Nurlan

Smanov,

State

EXIM Company Limited

and Telecommunications

Microfinance Association

Phoukong Chidhouplok, Ministry of


Post and Telecommunications

Communications Agency under the


Government of Kyrgyz Republic

PK Interfreight Co., Ltd


Malavan

Chittavcong,

National

Talant Soltobekov, LBD Consulting

Agroforex Company

University of Lao

Chynara

United

Department of Agriculture Extension

Aristotle David, VNA Legal Sole Co.

Program

and Cooperatives (DAEC), Ministry of

Ltd.

Nations

Suiumbaeva,
Development

(UNDP)

Agriculture and Forestry


Michael

Dwyer,

Center

Nurlan Tokonov, AVEP Public Fund

Agns Couriol, DFDL

International Forestry Research

Mirlanbek Torobekov, Frontiers

Vinay Ahuja, DFDL

Rupert Haw, DFDL

for

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

215

Konrad Hul, VNA Legal Sole Co. Ltd.

Sengchanh

Phetkhounluang,

Department of Agriculture Extension

Andy Schroeter, Sunlabob Rural


Energy Systems Co., Ltd

Xayluxa Insyxiengmai, Ministry of

and Cooperatives (DAEC), Ministry of

Post and Telecommunications

Agriculture and Forestry

Senesakoune Sihanougong, DFDL

Alexia Jolliot, VimpelCom Lao co.,

Khamphaeng Phochanthilath, VNA

Sinouk Sisombat, Sinouk Coffee

Ltd

Legal Sole Co. Ltd.


Viengkham Sodahak, Department

Nonxay Keosysom, M-FLAC Trading

Vanthieng Phommasoulin, Ministry

of

Agriculture

Extension

and

Sole Co., Ltd

of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF)

Cooperatives (DAEC), Ministry of


Agriculture and Forestry

Khamouane

Khamphoukeo,

Department of Agriculture Extension

Oudom Phonekhampheng, National


Saiya

University of Laos
Kham Phoui, Ministry of Agriculture

Agriculture and Forestry

Sikhoun Tiamtisack, Lao Freight

and Forestry (MAF)


Leedae,

Lao

SCU

Huasae Chaleun

and Cooperatives (DAEC), Ministry of

Natchar

Thammavongseng,

Forwarder Co., Ltd

Premier
Phoumy

International Law Office


Khamkong Liemprachanh

Phoumanivong,

Department of Agriculture Extension

Arpon

Tunjumras, Lao Premier

and Cooperatives (DAEC), Ministry of

International Law Office

Agriculture and Forestry


Sounthone Vong, Department of

Thavisak Manodham, Ministry of


Post and Telecommunications

Yatkeo Phoumidalyvanh, Ministry

Livestock and Fisheries, Ministry of

of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF)

Agriculture and Forestry

Vichit Sadettan, Lao International

Settha Vongpuckdy, ACLEDA Bank

Freight

Lao Ltd

Keochai Mayyavongsink, ACLEDA


Bank Lao Ltd

Forwarders

Association

(LIFFA)

Sonevilay Nampanya

Manivone Vongxay, Ministry of


Somlack

Nhoybouakong,

Lao

Vanpheng Sayakone, Ministry of

Industry and Commerce

Posts and Telecommunications

Freight Forwarder Co., Ltd

Soulivanh Voravong, Ministry of


Somphone Phasavath, Lao Freight

Bouaphet Sayasane, Ministry of

Forwarder Co., Ltd

Public Works and Transport

Agriculture and Forestry (MAF)


Huang Wei Jie, M-FLAC Trading Sole

Kingkeo

Phengmixay,

Trading Sole Co., Ltd

M-FLAC

Visone Saysongkham, Bank of the


Lao PDR

Co., Ltd

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

Sisomphone

Yangnouvong,

Department of Agriculture Extension

216

Cyril Achcar, Groupe Achcar Mali


Transit

Amadou Ongoiba, ARC EN CIEL

and Cooperatives (DAEC), Ministry of


Jean de Foucauld, Ceva Sant

Agriculture and Forestry

Souleymane Niar

SARL

Animale
Philippe Sabot, Merial

MALI
Elie Dembele

Nafo Samak, Groupe Achcar Mali

Autorit Malienne de Rgulation


des Tlcommunications/TIC et des

Fanta Dembele, MicroCred

Transit

Fanta Diallo, Office de Protection

Idrissa Nonmon Sanogo, Direction

des Vgtaux

Rgionale des Services Vtrinaires

Postes (AMRTP)
Conseil Malien des Transporteurs

de Kayes

Routiers (CMTR)
Samba Diallo

Amadou Sidib, Institut dEconomie

Eurolait Mali
Boubacar Diawara, DYNAPHARM

de lElevage et de la Pche

International Fertilizer Development


Messotigui

Center (IFDC)

Rurale (IER), Ministre de lAgriculture

Diomande,

Mali

Protection des Cultures (M.P.C)

Frdric Sidib

Oumar Ampoural Dolo, Cabinet

Assiongbon

dExpertise

Commission de lUnion Economique

Kafo Jiginew
Syngenta Foundation

en

Dveloppement

et

Agricole et Rural

Montaire

Tko-Agbo,
Ouest

Africaine

(UEMOA)

Rhaly Ag Mossa
Bakary Doumbia, Socimex SARL

Abdoulaye Traor, Etude, Formation,

Daouda Ba, Vaughan Avocats


Seydou Doumbia, La Ficelle - SCPA

Evaluation et Conseils (EFEC - sarl)

Association

Michel Havard, CIRAD

Amadou Traor, Vesta Industries

Cheickna Bounajim Ciss

Abdoulaye

Abou

Berthe,

Sasakawa

Africa

Permanente
Abdoulaye Ciss, Africa Trade &

Keita,

Assemble

des

Chambres

dAgriculture du Mali (APCAM)

industry system
Mama Kon, Institut dEconomie
Aminata Coulibaly, MALIMARK A2F

Rurale (IER), Ministre de lAgriculture


de lElevage et de la Pche

Oumar Kalifa Coulibaly, Direction


Gnrale des Douanes

Hady Ly, Carrires et Chaux

Bakary Yaffa, Etablissements Yaffa


et Frres

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

217

Zouhir Imad, Socopim Premium

MOROCCO

Khalid Tadlaoui, MCI Sant Animale

Group
Rachid Tahri

Socit Nationale des Transports et


Amine Kandil, Charaf Corporation

de la Logistique (SNTL)

Abdelaziz Zerouali
Samira

Yara

Khallouk,

Agence

Nationale de Rglementation des


Soufiane Alami, Agridata Consulting

MOZAMBIQUE

Tlcommunications (ANRT)
Ajuda de Desenvolvimento de Povo

Saleh M. Amine, Cour Internationale

Abdelatif

Laamrani,

de Mdiation et dArbitrage (CIMEDA)

Laamrani Law

Cabinet

para Povo
Citrum de Maputo

Chakib Ben El Khadir, Association

Mehdi Megzari, Sayarh & Menjra

Marocaine des Importateurs du

Law Firm

Couto,

Graa

Associados,

Sociedade de Advogados

Matriel Agricole (AMIMA)


Ahlam
Youssef Bencheqroun, Al Amana

Mekkaoui,

Boulalf

&
Eduardo Mondlane University

Mekkaoui

Microfinance
Lamghari
Hanane Boumehdi, Maroc Agroveto

Omar,

Africa

Matanuska Moambique Limitada

Transcontinental Shipping Sarl


Ministry of Agriculture (MINAG)

Holding
Rachid Oumlil, ANUMA

MozFoods - Vanduzi

El Hassane Bourarach, Institut


Agronomique et Vtrinaire Hassan

Farrouk Rajaa, TransfaroS.A.R.L


Otilio Assamundine

II
Abdelali Regag, Tamwil El Fellah

Francisco Avillez, Sociedade de

Baptiste Dungu, MCI Sant Animale


Nesrine Roudane, Nero Boutique
Mustapha El Khayat, Association

Law Firm
John

Marocaine de la Logistque
Philippe Sabot, Merial
Talhi

Faouzi,

Maroc

Advogados (SCAN)
Greenbelt

Fertilizantes de Moambique, Lda


(GBF)

Agroveto

Holding

Christie-Smith,

Mohamed Sabik
Joo Chunga, FRUTISUL

Ali Hajji, SEWT

Omar Sayarh, Sayarh & Menjra Law


Firm

Alcinda Cumba, FL&A

Mohamed Sinan, Ecole Hassania

Mario Jorge de Almeida Matos,

des Travaux Publics

Biochem

Peter Harlech Jones, GALVmed

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

Fion De Vletter

218

Bernardo Mahoro, Sal & Caldeira,

MYANMAR

Advogados, LDA.
East-West Seed International Ltd.

Teresa Falco, Vieira de Almeida &


Associados (Atlas Lda)

Paulino

Munisse,

Instituto

de

Investigao Agrria de Moambique


Tito Fernandez, Lurio University

Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation

(IIAM)
Ministry of Communications and

Alexander Fernando, International

Pedro Murreriua, Ministrio dos

Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC)

Transportes e Comunicaes (MTC)

Information Technology
Ministry of Co-operatives

Aase Ditlefsen Ferro, First Natural

Simon Norfolk, Terra Firma Lda


Ministry of Transport

Choice (Mocambique), Lda


Munyaradzi Amos Nyambiya

Myanmar Microfinance Bank

Ana Isabel Fotine Mponda, Ministry


of Public Works and Housing

Afonso Osorio
Myanmar Livestock Federation

Italino Francisco, Caixa Comunitria

Marino Pascoal, Caixa Comunitria

de Microfinanas

de Microfinanas

Tom Holloway

Enoque

Raimundo

SGS (Myanmar) Limited


Changamo,

Than Aung, E.F.R Express Services

Caixa Comunitria de Microfinanas

Limited

Philippe Sabot, Merial

U Myint Aung, International Fertilizer

Luis Junaide Lalgy


Development Center (IFDC)

Donovan Liedeman
Fernando Sequeira, AgriFocus

U Soe Htun Aung, Ministry of

Anselmina L. Liphola, Ministry of


Land, Environment and Development

Elsa Adlia Timana, Ministry of

Agriculture and Irrigation

Agriculture (MINAG)
Myint Aye, UN Habitat

Fernanda Lopes, FL&A


Adriaan van den Dries

Darrel Chon, OV Logistics

Bernardo Lus Tembe, Hluvuku


Loureno Venia, Fundo Nacional
Neves Macuacua

de Estradas

Elcidio Madeira, Astros

Carlos

Zandamela,

Patricia Curran, Telenor


Ministry

of

Bridget Di Certo, DFDL

Agriculture (MINAG)
Katherine East, DFDL

Natalino Magaia, Medimoc SA


Llionel Zisengwe, iDE

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

219

Ei Ei Mon, Ministry of Construction

U Win Myaing, Ministry of Agriculture

U Tint Aung, Myanmar Rice Millers

and Irrigation

Association

James Finch, DFDL


Aung

Khin

Rajiv Ghandi, Hester Biosciences

International

Ltd

Association

Myint,

Myanmar

Freight

Benjamin K. Wagner, BNG Legal

Forwarders
U Min Wai, Ministry of Agriculture
and Irrigation

William D. Greenlee, Jr, DFDL

Daw Yi Yi Myint, Ministry of


U Aung Win, Ministry of Agriculture

Agriculture and Irrigation

and Irrigation

Alvi Hakim, DFDL


Wazo
Min Aung Hein, Harmony Myanmar

Win

Myint,

Aquamarine

Shipping

Kyaw Win Htun, Telenor

Nay Lin Zin, Myanmar Rice Millers

Ko Ko Yelwin, DFDL

Agro Group Co, Ltd.


Robert

Htun

Nwe,

Harmony

Association
U

Myanmar Agro Group Co, Ltd.

Zaw

Win

Naing,

Myanmar

Nichole Cross, DFDL

Microfinance Bank Limited

Mechanization Department, Ministry

San Oo, Ministry of Environmental

NEPAL

of Agriculture and Irrigation

Conservation and Forestry

Hla

Htun,

Agricultural

Nepal Telecommunications Authority


Grahame

Hunter,

International

Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC)

Michael

Rodenmark,

YOMA

Strategic Holdings Ltd.

Bipin

Adhikari,

Kathmandu

University
Thin

Khaing,

United

Nations

Daniel Susnjar, Telenor


Chandramani Adhikari, Allied Law

Development Program (UNDP)


Thin

Khaing,

United

U Htun Thein, Customs Department

Services

Yi Mon Thu, E.F.R Express Services

Durga

Limited

Entrepreneurs Association of Nepal

Nations

Development Program (UNDP)

Prasad

Adhikari,

Seed

(SEAN)

U Ko Ko, Agricultural Mechanization


Department, Ministry of Agriculture

U Aung Kyaw Sow, Myanmar Rice

and Irrigation

Millers Association

Madan Bhatta, Nepal Agricultural


Research Council (NARC)

Dolly Kyaw, International Fertilizer

U Aung Thein, Myanmar Rice Millers

Development Center (IFDC)

Association

Jibaraj Bhattaraii, Federation of


Truck Transport Entrepreneurs

U Han Thein Maung, Ministry of

U Thaung Win, Myanmar Rice

Agriculture and Irrigation

Millers Association

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

Shashi

Bisht,

Department

of

Irrigation (DoI)
Devendra

Gauchan,

Bioversity

220

Rabindra Pradhan, Himalayan Bank

Manoj Nidhi Wagle, Department of

Ltd.

Customs

Netra Prasad Osti, National Animal

NICARAGUA

Science Research Institute

International

Agro xito S.A


Pankaj

Joshi,

Salt

Trading

Padam Bahadur Rana


Agroalfa

Corporation Limited
Damodar
Khoj

Raj

Katwal,

Nepal

Drip

Regmi, Jeevan Bikas


Asociacin

Samaj

Productores

Exportadores de Nicaragua (APEN)

Irrigation Pvt. Ltd


Pramod
Bishal

de

Khanal,

Kathmandu

Kumar

Shah,

Shivam

Organisation

ChamAgro

Bhola Shankar Shrestha, Nepal

CISA AGRO

University
Bharat Kharel, Bhrikuti Development

Agricultural

Bank

(NARC)

Research

Council
Instituto de Proteccin y Sanidad
Agropecuaria (IPSA MAGFOR)

K.B. Lama Syangtan, Bindhavasini


Savings

Co-operative

Kumar

Maquipos, S.A.

Society

Ltd.(BISCOL)
Sanjay

Dipesh Shrestha, Suva Transport

Mandal, Jeevan

Shreemat

Shrestha,

Nepal

Agricultural

Research

Council

Nicaragua Machinery Company

(NARC)
Ramac S.A.

Bikas Samaj
Bhuwon Ratna Sthapit, Bioversity
Yogendra Mandal, Jeevan Bikas

International

Marvin Altamirano, ATN Asociacin


de Transportistas de Nicaragua

Samaj
Prabin Subedi, Paramount Legal
Atul Nagar

Advisory Services Pvt. Ltd.

Eddy

Francisco

Instituto

Nicaragense

Mahendra P Khanal, Seed Quality

Mahesh Kumar Thapa, Sinha-Verma

Telecomunicaciones

Control Center

Law Concern (SVLC)

(TELCOR)

Pratima Pandey, Nepal Agricultural

Pradip Thapa, Bindhavasini Savings

Daniel

Research Council (NARC)

Co-operative Society Ltd.(BISCOL)

Nicaragua

Tung Raj Pathak, Mahakali Irrigation

Satya Narayan Verma

Hilda

Project

de

Ampi,

Araya,

Arias

Argello,
ganaderos

(ASOGACHO)

de
Correos

&

Muoz

Asociacin
de

Chontales

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

221

Silvio Arguello, Consortium Taboada

Celina

y Asociados

Instituto

Delgado

Castelln,

Nicaragense

Telecomunicaciones
Jos Blandn, Comisin Nacional

Orlando Lpez, Aquatec S.A.

de
Correos

Eduardo Martinez Silva, Agricons


S.A.

(TELCOR)

Ganadera de Nicaragua (CONAGAN)


Lacayo,

Fernando Medina Montiel, Oficina

Annely Bravo, Instituto Nicaragense

Federation of Agricultural Producers

de Leyes Dr. Fernando Medina

de Telecomunicaciones y Correos

of Nicaragua (UPANIC)

Montiel

Michael

Edwin

Healy

(TELCOR)
Maricarmen

Espinosa

Segura,

Lea

Montes

Lagos,

Abogado

Maria Auxiliadora Briones

Central Law Molina & Asociados

Nicaragua

Bismarck

Pablo Flores, GANASOL

Lesbia Moreno, Abogado Nicaragua

Armando Gmez, Federation of

Julio

Agricultural Producers of Nicaragua

Americano de Cooperacin para la

(UPANIC)

Agricultura (IICA)

Cardoza

Delgadillo,

GANASOL
Milton Castillo, Heifer International
Salvador
de

Castillo,

Asociaciones

Mungua,

Instituto

Inter-

Federacin

Ganaderas

de

Nicaragua (FAGANIC)

Soln
de

Guerrero,

Asociaciones

Federacin
Ganaderas

de
Claraliz

Nicaragua (FAGANIC)

Oviedo,

Alvarado

Asociados

Ana Cecilia Chamorro, Arias &


Muoz Nicaragua

Manuel Narvaez

Luca Guevara, Central Law Molina &


Roger Prez Grillo, Arias & Muoz

Asociados

Nicaragua

Luis Chamorro, MERCONCOFFEE


Myriam Jarquin, Corte Suprema de
Sergio Antonio Chamorro Urcuyo

Justicia, Instituto Altos Estudios

Mirian Reyes, Ministry of Transport

Judiciales

and Infrastructure

Mario Davila, Finca Vida Joven


Edmundo

Lacayo,

Gloria Maria De Alvarado, Alvarado

Instituto

Nicaragense

y Asociados

Telecomunicaciones

de

Ana Teresa Rizo, Arias & Muoz


Nicaragua

Correos

(TELCOR)

Denis Salgado

Rodolfo Lacayo Ubau, Autoridad

Alfonso Jos Sandino Granera,

Nacional Del Agua

Consortium

Jean de Foucauld, Ceva Sant


Animale

Abogados
Marln Lpez, GANASOL

Centro

Amrica

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

222

Jos Evenor Taboada, Consortium

Rseau National des Chambres

Jean de Foucauld, Ceva Sant

Taboada y Asociados

dAgriculture du Niger (RECA)

Animale

Mahatan Sani Abdou, Ministre de

Abdoulaye Djadah, Banque Agricole

lAgriculture

du Niger

Salou Abdou Doro, LAutorit de

Boube Issouf, Negoce International

Rgulation des Tlcommunications

Niger

Carlos

Csar

Consortium

beda
Centro

Torres,
Amrica

Abogados
Alejandro Vargas, MERCONCOFFEE

et de la Poste (ARTP)
Alvaro

Vargas,

Asociaciones

Federacin
Ganaderas

Salifou Karimou, Airtel Niger

de
de

Adamou Kodo Abdourahamane,


Aboubacar

PADMIF

Nicaragua (FAGANIC)

Malam

Massou,

Institut National de la Recherche


Roberto Villegas, PROCOCER R.L.

Buckner Akouete Koffi, International

Agronomique du Niger (INRAN)

Crops Research Institute for the


Moudy Mamane Sani, Direction

Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)

Eduardo Zamora

Gnrale
Abey

Frederik Zeuthen, Caf Nor

Bazou

Alhou, Secrtariat

de

la

Protection

des

Vgtaux

permanent du Code Rural


Illya Miko, Food and Agriculture

NIGER
Idrissa
Abattoir Frigorifique Rgional de

Ambalam,

Groupe

Organization of the United Nations


(FAO)

SANECOM/GPSA

Maradi
Maliki
de

AFCOM

Barhouni,

Commerce,

Chambre

dIndustrie

et

Maman-Lawal Mossi Bagoudou,


Banque Agricole du Niger

dArtisannat du Niger
Achatou

Agrimex
Moussa
Centrale

dApprovisionnement

en

Intrants et Materiels Agricoles

Bola,

Projet

de

Nasser,

Ferme

Semencire Ainoma

dveloppement des exportations et


des marchs agro-sylvo-pastoraux

Mahamane

(PRODEX)

Institut National de la Recherche

Nasser

Laouali,

Agronomique du Niger (INRAN)

Chambre de Commerce, dIndustrie


et dArtisanat du Niger (CCIAN)

A.

Adamou

Danguioua,

Haut

Commissariat lInitiative 3N

Zalika Maiga, Ets Kazali & Fils

Fadjimata

Amadou

Direction Gnrale du Gnie Rural


Haut Commissariat lInitiative 3N
Ministre de lAgriculture

Gali

Adam

Dantia,

Ouattara,

Ministre de la Communication et

Agriculture

des Relations avec les Institutions

United Nations (FAO)

Food

Organization

of

and
the

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

223

Mamoudou Oumarou, Chambre de

Rose Marie M. King-Dominguez,

Oldreach Trucking Services

Sycip

Commerce dIndustrie et dArtisanat

Salazar

Hernandez

&

du Niger

The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas

Gatmaitan

Zakary Rhissa, Fondation Taboghor

Universal Harvester, Inc.

Franco Aristotle G Larcina, Sycip


Salazar Hernandez & Gatmaitan

Ruben P Acebedo II, Sycip Salazar

Philippe Sabot, Merial

Victor P. Lazatin, Angara Abello

Hernandez & Gatmaitan

Concepcion Regala & Cruz Law Firm

El-Hadj Saminou, Office National


des Amnagements Hydro Agricoles

Jescel

Alday-Salvaleon,

(ONAHA)

Animal Health

Bayer
Paul Limson, Bureau of Animal
Industry, Department of Agriculture

Ousmane

Mamane

Sani,

ONG

Ferdinand Castillo, AKC Trucking


Romualdo C. Martinez, Philippine

Karkara
Ferdinand Correa, Correa Trucking

and Mechanization (PHILMECH)

Idrissa Tchernaka, Etude dAvocats


Marc Le Bihan & Collaborateurs

Rubina Cresencio, Bureau of Animal


Industry, Department of Agriculture

Assiongbon

Center for Postharvest Development

Edgardo V. Olego, Confederation


of Truckers Association of the

Tko-Agbo,
JJ Disini, Disini & Disini

Philippines

Pablo M. Gancayco, Gancaycos,

Joel R. Panagsagan, Super Trade

Balasbas & Associates

Enterprises

des Amnagements Hydro Agricoles

Rajiv Ghandi, Hester Biosciences

Felix C. Paraguya, Jr., FPJMLP

(ONAHA)

Ltd

Customs Brokerage

Wouro Yahia, Etude dAvocats Marc

Nicolette Gica, 1st Valley Bank

Roel R. Ravanera, Xavier Science

Commission de lUnion Economique


et

Montaire

Ouest

Africaine

(UEMOA)
Labaran Yahaya, Office National

Foundation

Le Bihan & Collaborateurs


Norlito
Attaoulahi Zakaouanou, Ministre

Gicana,

Fertilizer

and
Lailani Rose Rico, Bureau of Animal

Pesticide Authority

Industry, Department of Agriculture

du Transport
Reynaldo
PHILIPPINES

Gregorio,

Philippine

Center for Postharvest Development

Philippe Sabot, Merial

and Mechanization (PHILMECH)


Joaquin V. Sayoc, Romulo, Mabanta,

Allied Botanical Corporation


Tanya Hotchkiss, Cantilan Bank, Inc.
Fortuna Ranch

Buenaventura, Sayoc & De Los


Angeles

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

Delfin C. Suministrado, Agricultural

224

Jean de Foucauld, Ceva Sant

Ulenberg Sp. z o.o.

Animale

Machinery Testing and Evaluation


WBW Weremczuk Bobel & Partners,

Center

Micha Fereniec, Greenberg Traurig

Attorneys at Law

LLP

Rodolfo H. Tamayo, Agri Component


Monika Adamin, Clifford Chance

Corporation

Maciej Gorgol, Warsaw Bar of

LLP

Advocates

Raul Urbiztondo, Cantilan Bank, Inc.


Wojciech Andrzejewski, Kancelaria
Rolando Victoria, ASKI (Alalay Sa

Prawna Piszcz, Norek i Wsplnicy

Kaunlaran, Inc.)

Spka komandytowa

Olaf Gnther-Borstel, Yara


Kamil Jankielewicz, Allen & Overy

Rey Yparraguirre, Cantilan Bank, Inc.

Aleksandra Auleytner, Domaski


Zakrzewski Palinka (DZP)

Wiesawa

Kasperska-Woowicz,

Institute of Technology and Life

POLAND
Igor Bkowski, Bkowski Kancelaria

Sciences

Radcowska

Clifford Chance LLP

Anna Klimach, University of Warmia


General Veterinary Inspectorate

Agnieszka

Bieda,

Department

and Mazury in Olsztyn

of Geomatics, AGH University of


International

Cooperation

Anna

Science and Technology

Kluczek-Kollar,

Misiewicz,

Mosek & Partners Counsellors - at -

Department, Agricultural and Food


Quality Inspection (IJHARS)

Marta Bryjak, White & Case LLP

Law

Kancelaria Adwokatw i Radcw

Zofia Buliska-Radomska, Plant

Anita Kwartnik-Pruc, Department

Prawnych Lipiski & Walczak

Breeding

of Geomatics, AGH University of

and

Acclimatization

Science and Technology

Institute (IHAR)
National

Water

Management
Jarosaw

Authority

Bydosz,

Department

of Geomatics, AGH University of


Office of Electronic Communications
(UKE

Urzd

Institute

of

Technology and Life Sciences


Mirosaw Leszczyski, John Deere

Dariusz Godzisz, Ipsen Polska Sp


zoo

Financial

abdzki,

Science and Technology

Komunikacji

Elektronicznej)
Polish

Leszek

Musio,

Kancelaria

Prawna Piszcz, Norek i Wsplnicy

Supervision

Authority (KNF)

Przemysaw

Agnieszka Dawidowicz, University

Spka komandytowa

of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn


Polish Seed Trade Association (PIN)

Marcin Olszak, Polish Financial


Supervision Authority

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

225

Joanna Organiciak-Pachta, Salt

Witold

City Pharma Center

Studziski,

Partnerzy

Studziski

Adwokacka

Spka

Konstantin Chaykin, Altayskiy Fond


Mikrozaymov

Partnerska
Ekaterina Dudina, Beiten Burkhardt

Magorzata Paysa, Polish Agency


Jolanta Wyszatkiewicz, Ministry of

for Enterprise Development

Agriculture and Rural Development


Piotr

Parzych,

Geomatics,

Department

of

University

of

AGH

Irina Glazkova, Avakov Tarasov &


Partners

Marcin Zaczyski, Plant Breeding

Science and Technology

and Acclimatization Institute (IHAR)

Alexey Konevsky, Pepeliaev Group

Agata Pawlak-Jaszczak, Kancelaria

Izabela

Evgeniya Konovalova Dudinova,

Prawna Piszcz, Norek i Wsplnicy

Wardyski & Partners

Cargill

Leszek Zielonka, Zielonka-Steckert-

Polina Krymskaya, Federal Service

Wsplnicy

for State Registration Cadastre and

Zieliska-Baroek,

Spka komandytowa
Pawe Piotrowski, Clifford Chance

Cartography in Moscow

LLP
RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Alexey Kuzmishin, Beiten Burkhardt

Marcin Piszcz, Kancelaria Prawna


Piszcz, Norek i Wsplnicy Spka

Avakov Tarasov & Partners


Vladislav I. Kvashnin, Digesta ILC

komandytowa
Central
Piotr Smolarczyk, Greenberg Traurig

Bank

of

the

Russian

Federation

Anton Lachinov, VimpelCom

John Deere

Maxim Levinson, Baker Botts LLP

Monsanto

Anastasia

LLP
Mikoaj Steppa, Rural Development
Foundation (RDF)

Likhacheva,

National

research university
Katarzyna Szczepaniak, National

Marc Bartholomy, Clifford Chance

council of agricultural chambers

LLP

Alexander

Nadmitov,

Nadmitov,

Ivanov & Partners


Chamber

Aleksey Belugin, Eurasian Center

of Merchants, Grain Processors

for Food Security, Moscow State

Ella Omelchenko, Clifford Chance

and

University

LLP

Valentin Borodin, VB & P

Maksim Prigon

Maciej

Tomaszewicz,

Foodstuff

Producers

(Izba

Gospodarcza Handlowcw)
Dominik Wakowski, Wardyski &
Partners

Olga

Brovkina,

Association

of

Dmitry Raev, Morgan Lewis

International Road Carriers (ASMAP)


Artem Rodin, CMS Legal

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

Hibamana,

226

Kannan

Anastasia Serebrennikova, Clifford

Pie

Chance LLP

Chambers

University

Elena V. Syrykh

Gafigi Jean Paul, Pannar

Jules

Amicus

Law

Narayanan,

Theoneste

Hawassa

Ndahayo,

Umutanguha Finance Company Ltd.


Robert Woolley

Potel Jossam, Kayonza District

(UFC)

Sergei Yudaev, ZAO Ambar

Channy Kalisa, Kigali Golden Farm

Emmanuel Ngomiraronka, Ministry


of Agriculture and Animal Resources

Jonas Kamili, Banque Populaire du

RWANDA

Peter Ngugi, Yara

Rwanda
Nyiombo Investments
Regina

Kayitesi, Private Sector

Theogene

Niyibigira,

Rwanda

One Acre Fund

Federation

National Genebank

Rwanda Natural Resources Authority

Brian Kirungi, Airtel Rwanda Limited

Beatrice Niyokwizigirwa, Rwanda


Agriculture Board (RAB)

(RNRA)
Kizito
Alexis Bizimana, KCB Bank Rwanda

Safari,

Bona

Fide

Law
Felicien

Chambers

Niyoniringiye,

Rulindo

District
Vianney

Bizimana,

Banque

Elonie Mukandoli, National Bank of


Rwanda

Alfred Nkubili, ENAS

Nyaruyonga,

Jean Baptiste Mutabazi, Rwanda

Bernard

International Fertilizer Development

Utilities Regulatory Authority (RURA)

Bank of Rwanda

Sylvain

Livingstone Nshemereirwe, Access

Populaire du Rwanda
Jeanne

dArc

Nsengiyumva,

National

Center (IFDC)
Moses Kiiza Gatama, Equity Juris

Muyombano,

Rwanda

Natural Resources Authority (RNRA)

to Finance Rwanda

Dominique

Jean Bosco Rusagara, Intraspeed

Chambers
Mvunabandi,

Bob Gatera, Balton Rwanda Ltd

Smartfarming Rwanda Ltd

Ltd

Jonathan Gatera, National Bank of

Mwitende Ladislas, Top Services

Philippe Sabot, Merial

Rwanda

Enterprises Ltd
Didier Sagashya, Rwanda Natural

Henry Gitau, Balton Rwanda Ltd

Susan

Nambi,

Equity

Juris

Resources Authority (RNRA)

Chambers
Peter Harlech Jones, GALVmed

Gerard Mutimura Sakufi, Banque


Populaire du Rwanda

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

227

Mohammed

Salim,

Green

Age

International Ltd.
Jean

Damascene

Ministerio

de

Agricultura,

Rosa

Huertas

Alimentacin y Medio Ambiente

Confederacin

(MAGRAMA)

Duero

Yara

Vicente

Gonzlez,

Hidrogrfica

del

Serugero,

National Bank of Rwanda

Izquierdo

Garcia,

Departamento de Aduanas de la
Josephine Umurewa, Development

Margarita Arboix Arzo, Autonomous

Bank of Rwanda

University of Barcelona

Agencia Tributaria de Espaa


Jaime Jaume, Semilla

Grace

Umutoni,

Private

Sector

Ignacio Cantonnet, TERGUM


Carlos Jimenez

Federation
Alberto

Cortegoso

Vaamonde,

Esperance Uwimana

Cuatrecasas Gonalves Pereira

lvaro Lpez-Jorrn, Garrigues

Kabalisa Vincent de Paul, Rwanda

David Cota Mascuana

Jos Luis Mauri Alarcn, Irritec


Iberia SA

Natural Resources Authority (RNRA)


Rafael de Sdaba

Juan Muguerza Odriozola, J&A

SPAIN
Alfonso de San Simn, San Simn
Asociacin Nacional de Obtentores

& Duch
Luis Murillo Jasol, Cuatrecasas

Vegetales (ANOVE)
Diego de San Simn, San Simn &
Bioibrica S.A.

Garrigues, S.L.P.

Gonalves Pereira

Duch
Adrin Nogales, Colegio Oficial de

Catalan Water Agency

Ingenieros

Paulo Felix, CEPEX Spain

de

Telecomunicacin

(COIT)
Compagnie Fruitire Espaa

Alfredo Fernndez Rancao, J&A


Jos

Garrigues, S.L.P.
Juan Jos Gil Panizo, Federacin

Grupo Fertiberia

Palma

Fernndez,

Gmez-Acebo & Pombo Abogados

Compaa Maquinaria 93
Grupo AN

Luis

Nacional

de

Asociaciones

S.L.P.

de

Empresarios

de

Transporte

Juan Pardo, Asociacin Comercial

Discrecionales

de

Mercancas

Espaola de Fertilizantes (ACEFER)

(FENADISMER)
Nicols Nogueroles Peir, Colegio

John Deere
Juan Gonzlez, Garrigues

de Registradores de la Propiedad y
Mercantiles de Espaa

MIGASA
Matas Gonzlez, Vodafone Espaa,
S.A.U.

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

228

Luis Prez de Ayala, Cuatrecasas

Asanka Abeysekera, Tiruchelvam

Rohan Fernando, Tea Exporters

Gonalves Pereira

Associates

Association (TEA)

Pedro Portellano, Garrigues

Asoka Ajantha, Janathakshan

Bhavani Fonseka, Center for Policy


Alternatives (CPA)

Millan Requena Casanova

Asela

Angammana,

AgStar

Fertilizers PLC

Tilani Ford, F.J. & G. De Saram

A.R Ariyaratne, Sri Lanka Council for

Tharindu Gallage, Empire Teas Pvt

Agricultural Research Policy (CARP)

Ltd

M. Ziard Caffoor, Ceylon Grain

Helani Galpaya, LIRNEasia

Lourdes Rodriguez Lopez, Plaza


Forwarding SL
Elicia Rodrguez Pual, Cuatrecasas
Gonalves Pereira

Industries
Dilum Gamage, Julius & Creasy

Alicia Snchez Muoz, Ministerio


de Economa y Competitividad

Jean de Foucauld, Ceva Sant


Rajiv Ghandi, Hester Biosciences

Animale

Ltd

Emilio Sidera Leal, Ministry of


Public Works

Savantha De Saram, D.L. & F. De


Saram

Dilini Gunaratne, Julius & Creasy

Anil de Silva, Dave Tractors &

Thilanka Haputhanthrie, Julius &

Combines (Pvt) Ltd

Creasy

Sashanee de Silva, Gowers Law

Hettiarachchi

SRI LANKA

Firm

Colombo Tea Traders Association

CIC Agribusinesses (Pvt) Limited

Sameera S Dissanayake, Sri Lanka

Anura Herath, The International

Council for Agricultural Research

Fund for Agricultural Development

Dilmah Tea Ltd

Policy

(IFAD)

Empire Teas Pvt Ltd

Manjula Ellepola, F.J. & G. De Saram

Ranila Hurulle, Julius & Creasy

Sri Lanka Council for Agricultural

Anjali Fernando, F.J. & G. De Saram

Shanika

Ignacio Sols Martel, AgroVegetal


Gonzalo Ulloa Suelves, Gmez
Acebo & Pombo, Abogados, SLP
The

Jayasekera, Sri Lanka

Council for Agricultural Research

Research Policy (CARP)


Lakshman
Ranjith Abeykoon, Tea Exporters

Hemaratne,

Fernando,

CIC

Policy (CARP)

Agribusinesses (Pvt) Limited


Nilusha Kapugama, LIRNEasia

Association (TEA)
Mayuri Fernando, D.L. & F. De Saram

Uma Kitulgoda, F.J. & G. De Saram

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

229

Navindra Liyanaarachchi, SANASA

J.M. Swaminathan, Julius & Creasy

Wala Hassan Aboalela, El Karib and


Medani Advocates (EKM)

Federation Ltd.
Nuwanthi Upeksha, CL Synergy Pvt
Ltd

Ahmed Adam

Roshana Waduge, Ceylon Fertilizer

Faisal Ahmed, Transnile for Trade &

Ameer Mahuroof, Gowers Law Firm

Co. Ltd.

Agriculture

Ashwini Natesan, Julius & Creasy

Aruna Weerakoon, Agro Culture

Mohamed

Trends Pvt Ltd.

National Seed Council

Waruna Madawanarachchi, C.I.C.


Seed & Foliage

Chaminda

Nissanka,

Brown

Alhassan

Ahmed,

&
Anil

Company PLC

Wickremasinghe,

Jinasena

Alawia

Alhamadabi,

National

(PVT) Ltd.

Information Center

for Agricultural Research Policy

Udara Widanagamage, CL Synergy

Inaam Attiq, Aztan Law Firm

(CARP)

Pvt Ltd

Simon Padmini, Sri Lanka Council

Sarah
Sameera Wijerathna, Dialog Axiata

Ranga Pallawala, Janathakshan

Badreldin,

Raiba

Land

Transport, Elnefeidi Group

PLC
Sami Balla Ibrahim, Widam Food

Laknadhi Perera, Julius & Creasy


SUDAN
Nihara

Perera,

Sudath

Omer El Dirani

Perera
Alpha Group

Associates

Mustafa
Oswin

Perera,

University

of

Elbashier,

Mustafa

Family Bank

Elbashier Law Office

Kenana Sugar Company

Salah Eldin Elaghbash, Brilliance

Peradeniya
Sudath

Perera,

Sudath

for Development and Services

Perera
Ministry

Associates

of

Water

Resources,
Afaf

Irrigation and Electricity

Ministry

Muhammed Kamal Abass, CTC

Ltd.

Shaimaa Elhassan, Raiba Land

Group
Rajapaksha,

Transport, Elnefeidi Group

AgStar

Fertilizers PLC

Hassabo

Abbas,

Ministre

de

lAgriculture et de lIrrigation

Yahia Awad Elkareem

Ula

Sami Freigoun, CTC Group

Shobitha Ranasinghe, Empire Teas


Pvt Ltd

of

Agriculture and Irrigation

Ranjith Rajapakse, Jinasena (PVT)

Saman

Elguzouli,

Makkawi

Abdelrahman,

Ministry of Agriculture & Irrigation

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

230

Rajiv Ghandi, Hester Biosciences

Abdul Hamid Rhametalla, Landell

Bahtier

Ltd

Mills Ltd

Mushovir

Philippe Sabot, Merial

Dzhamshed

Amr

Hamad,

Haggar

Holding

Bahriddinov,

Neksigol

Buzurukov,

Ltd.

ISFARAFUD

Company
Salman Salman

Nargis

Salih Hamid, Savings & Social


Mahmoud Seddon, Harvest Hybrid

Development Bank

Hamidova,

International

Road Transport Association (AIATT)

Seed Co
Zafar Hudoikulov, Yovar

Peter Harlech Jones, GALVmed


Hassan Shakir

Davron

Isaev,

Vickram Swaminath, Raiba Land

Advisory

Services

Transport, Elnefeidi Group

(FAST)

Mohamed Tangasawi

Davlatyor

Tayeb Hassabo, Aztan Law Firm


Hawaii

Abdulwhab

Almahdi,

USAID
in

Farmer
Tajikistan

Ministry of Transport, Roads and


Bridges

Jumakhonov,

First

MicroFinance Bank
Mohamed Alhadi Ibrahim, Elnilein

Azhari Traifi, Aztan Law Firm


Matraim Jusupov, Kyrgyz Republic

Engineering & Spare Parts Co.ltd


TAJIKISTAN

Research Institute of Irrigation

Mechanization Administration

AccessBank Tajikistan

Alisher Khoshimov, Colibri Law Firm

Idris Idris

BDO Academy Tajikistan

Matazim

Nawal

Ibrahim,

Agricultural

Kosimov,

Livestock

Institute TAAS
Mubarak

Mahgoub,

AL

Nelein

Legal Consulting Group


Nurlan Kyshtobaev, Grata Law Firm

Engineering & Spare Parts


OJSC Agroinvestbank
El

Tahir

Ibrahim

Shirinbek Milikbekov, Colibri Law

Mohamed,

Agricultural Research Corporation

Zhanyl

Abdrakhmanova,

Colibri

Firm

Law Firm
Insaf

Mohammed

Firdavs Mirzoev, Nazrisho & Mirzoev

Musa,

Agricultural Research Corporation

Firdavs

Abdufatoev, Ltd. ORO

Law Firm

Isfara
Azam

Mahmoud Numan
Aiembek
Osman Elmakki Osman Elmakki

Akramov,

National

Association of Derkhan farms

Mushovir

Murtazaev,

Neksigol

ENABLING THE BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 2016 LOCAL EXPERTS

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ByTrade Tanzania

Julie Adkins, SNV

the Republic of Tajikistan

Davis & Shirtliff

Joy Alliy, VELMA Law

Amindjon Parpiev, Bard & Co

Engiteng Dairy

Mahmoud

Zulfiya H. Odinaeva, Ministry of


Transport and Communications of

Ahmed

Ally,

Allied

Transport
Kurbonali Partoev, Cooperation for

ETC Agro Tractors and Implements

Development

Ltd

Stephen Axwesso, Brevis attorneys

Tulegen

Forbix Attorneys

Hamisi

Sarsembekov, Eurasian

Chimwaga,

Mwanga

Community Bank

Development Bank
International Fertilizer Development
Marina Shamilova, Legal Consulting

Center (IFDC)

Raphael

L.

Agriculture,

Group
Azizbek

Sharipov,

Daluti, Ministry of
Food

Security

and

LonAgro Tanzania Ltd

Cooperatives

Metl Agro Tractors & Implements Ltd

George Fernandes, East African

National

Association of Derkhan farms

Law Chambers
Sherzod Sodatkadamov, Nazrisho

Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security

& Mirzoev Law Firm

and Cooperatives

Rajiv Ghandi, Hester Biosciences


Ltd

Mahinakhon

Suleymanova,

Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries


Development

Edward Greenwood, FINCA

Ministry of Water and Irrigation

Sharif A. Hamad, Breeders Tanzania

Business of the Republic of Tajikistan

Tanzania Bureau of Standards

Niko Janssen, SNV

Nargis

Tanzania Farmer Services Center Ltd

Peter Harlech Jones, GALVmed

Neksigol Mushovir
Matluba

Uljabaeva,

National

Association of Small and Medium

Usmanova,

National

(TFSC)

Association of Derkhan farms

Theresia Hubert, Tanzania Bureau


Alimardon

zimov,

Center

for

Tanzania Fertilizer Company Ltd.

of Standards

Tanzania Meat Board

Aron Johson Kitaka, Ministry of

implementation of land cadastre


system

Transport
TANZANIA

Tanzania Official Seed Certification


Institute (TOSCI)

Vian Karamaga, Allied Transport

Yara

Buberwa Kafanabo, BEST-Dialogue

Advans Bank Tanzania Ltd.

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Peter Kasanda, Clyde & Co


Neema

Lwise

Kileo,

232

Deonice Mshida, Agricultural Seed

Ravi Periyasamy, Balton Tanzania

Agency

Ltd

Astute
Benjamin

Attorneys

Mtaki,

Tea

Research

Edimitha Protace, Tanzania Bureau

Institute of Tanzania

of Standards

Arnold Munisi, Brevis attorneys

Hassan Tino Rajab, CBS Law Offices

R.J. Mwageni, Posta na Simu

Juma Reli, Bank of Tanzania

Agapiti E. Kobello, Bank of Tanzania


Canuth

Komba,

Agriculture,

Food

Ministry
Security

of
and

SACCOS Ltd.

Cooperatives

Kelvin

Remen,

Tanzania

Gunga Kumar Gunga, DAMCO

Paul Myovela, OLAM

Horticultural Association (TAHA)

Barney I. S. Laseko, Prime Ministers

Joseph Mwaipaja, Tanzania Bureau

Hem Chandro Roy, BRAC Tanzania

Office

of Standards
Martin Ruheta, Veterinary Services,
Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries

Yaya Ndjore, TIGO

Amalia Lui, Clyde & Co

Development
Peter

A.

Lupatu,

Ministry

of

Adolf Ndunguru, Tanzania Revenue

Transport

Authority

Philippe Sabot, Merial

Elvin Lwakabare, DAMCO

Martha Ngalowera, Vice Presidents

Charity Safford, Vodacom

Office
Ial Samakande, Irrigrow

Justo N. Lyamuya, Ministry of Lands,


Housing and Human Settlement

Leo Ngowi, Surface and Marine

Development

Transport

Regulatory

Authority

Sebastian Sambuo, Rural Urban


Development Initiatives (RUDI)

(SUMATRA)
Mashiku Majo, National Irrigation
Commission

Patrick

Ngwediagi,

Agriculture,
Eli-Tunu Mallamia, Tanzania Truck

Food

Ministry
Security

of

Ulhas Sardesai, OLAM

and
Ujwalkanta Senapati, OLAM

Cooperatives

Owners Association (TATOA)


John
Patrick Maluku, Monsanto

Nkoma,

Communications

Tanzania
Regulatory

Cecilia Boniface Shiyo, CBS Law

Authority

Offices

Victor B. Mrema, Brevis attorneys


David
Hassan Mruttu, Ministry of Livestock
and Fisheries Development

Amish Shah, ATZ Law Chambers

Nyanye,

University

Michigan

State
Baldwin Shuma, Tanzania Seed
Trade Association (TASTA)

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Nahson Sigalla, Surface and Marine

Barlas Balcioglu, Balcolu Seluk

Orhan

Transport

Akman Keki

Mavioglu & Alkan Law Office

Nevzat Birisik, Ministry of Food,

Yaar Orhan, Ministry of Food,

Agriculture and Livestock

Agriculture and Livestock

Hamdi iftiler, May-Agro Seed Co.

Senem Kathrin Gler, Law Office

Regulatory

Authority

Yavuz

Maviolu,

ADMD

(SUMATRA)
Emmanuel Simbua, Tea Research
Institute of Tanzania
Kunt & Partners

Lait Simukanga, National Irrigation


Jean de Foucauld, Ceva Sant

Commission

Fatih

Animale
Tariro

Sithole,

Quton

Association

of

International Freight Forwarders

Tanzania

Limited

ener,

Glperi Eldeniz, GPE Law Firm


Vakur Smer, Selcuk University

Elia Timotheo, East Africa Fruits

Hakk Emrah Erdogan, Ministry of

Farm and Company Ltd.

Food, Agriculture and Livestock

Seyma Gozde Tokyay, Bicak Hukuk


Law Firm

Sixtus Toke, Ministry of Agriculture,

Bilal Erkek, General Directorate of

Food Security and Cooperatives

Land Registry and Cadastre

Sevilay Topcu, ukurova University

Raymond Wigenge, Directorate of

zgr Eryz, John Deere

mit Yldz, Ministry of Environment


and Urbanization

Food Safety, Tanzania Food and Drug


Authority (TFDA)

Ismail G. Esin, Baker & McKenzie


Yusuf Yormazolu, May-Agro Seed

Nicholas Zervos, VELMA Law

Ali Can Gren, Balcolu Seluk

Co.

Akman Keki
UGANDA

TURKEY
Ceylan Kara

Abdunassar

Turkish Cooperative Association


Ali

Kasaci,

Ministry

of

Food,

of

Lands,

Olekwa,
Housing

and

Ministry
Urban

Trkiye Yem Sanayicileri Birlii

Agriculture and Livestock

Development

Can Adamoglu

Yaln Kaya, Trakya University

Charles Abuka, Bank of Uganda

Fulya Koc Arslan, Monsanto

Aysegl Kibaroglu, MEF University

John Anglin, Paramount Dairies Ltd

Sedat Bakici, General Directorate of

Ayhan Kullep

John

Atalyeba,

Services Ltd.

Land Registry and Cadastre


Ahmet Kumru, Kumrular Livestock

ATACO

Freight

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Robert Ayume, Brazafric Enterprises

Harriette Kasirye, Orange Uganda

Jim

Ltd

Limited

Solutions (U) Ltd

Justine Bagyenda, Bank of Uganda

Nicholas

Kauta,

Ministry

of

Agriculture, Animal Industry and


Sudhir Balsure, DSV Swift Freight

Mugenyi,

Engineering

Mugenyi

&

Co

Advocates

Fisheries (MAAIF)
John Mulumba Wasswa, National

International (Uganda) Ltd.

Agricultural Research Organisation

Robert Kintu, FIT Uganda LT


Jonathan

Asa

Middleton,

(NARO)

Bukenya, Bora AgroHalid Kirunda, National Livestock

Technologies Ltd

Augustine

Resources Research Institute

Mwendya,

Uganda

National Farmers Federation

Arthur Byara, Onyango Advocates


Allan Kobel, Magezi, Ibale & Co.
Rajiv Ghandi, Hester Biosciences

Irene

Advocates

Nabwire

Jingo, Bank of

Uganda

Ltd
Timothy Kyepa, Development Law
Andrew Gita, USAID Feed the Future

Brenda

Associates

Namulondo,

National

Agricultural Research Organisation


Sylver Kyeyune, Pride Microfinance

Peter Harlech Jones, GALVmed

(NARO)

Ltd.
Viola Namuyaba, Pride Microfinance

Moira Imong
Bob
Brian

Kaggwa,

Impala

Legal

Paul

Lusembo,

Pride

Ltd.

Microfinance Ltd.
Nicholas Ndawula

Advocates and Consultants


Alex

Lwakuba,

Ministry

of

Agriculture, Animal Industry and

Donald

Environment Management Authority

Fisheries (MAAIF)

Advocates

William Kambugu, Ministry of Lands,

John Magezi, Magezi, Ibale & Co.

Bosco

Housing and Urban Development

Advocates

Trade International Co. Ltd

William Martovu, Heifer International

Patrice

Ronald

Andrew

Kaggwa,

Kamugisha,

National

Bank

of

Nyakairu,

Ochira

ENSafrica

Lawino, Tropical

Ocungirwoth,

Housing

Finance Bank

Uganda
Richard Masagazi, Pearl Seeds Ltd
Eldad

Karamura,

James Olobo, Uganda Chamber of

Bioversity

International

Astrid Mastenbroek, Wageningen


UR

Emmanuel Kasimbazi, Makerere


University

Centre

Innovation

for

Commerce

Development
Robert Opio, Ministry of Lands,
Housing and Urban Development

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Richard Oput, Ministry of Lands,

UKRAINE

Alexey Khomyakov, Asters

National Bank of Ukraine

Peter

Housing and Urban Development


Commission

Peter Otimodoch, Otis Garden Seeds


State Veterinary and Phytosanitary
Samuel Powell, Northern Uganda

Kovalenko,
on

Irrigation

and

Drainage (ICID)

Service of Ukraine
Alexander

Agricultural Centre
Anton
B.W. Rwabwogo, Mukwano Group

International

Babak,

Lavrynovych

&

Kravchenko,

Bayer

Animal Health

Partners
Lesya Kravchuk, CLAAS Ukraine

Richard

A.

Engineering
Technology

Saasa,

Agricultural

Eugene Blinov, Astapov Lawyers

and

Appropriate

International Law Group

Igor Kutovoy, John Deere

Alexander Borodkin, Vasil Kisil &

Olga Kutsevych, Taras Shevchenko

Partners

Kyiv National University

Myroslav Denis

Tatyana Kuzmenko, AiG Law Firm

Research

Institute

(AEATRI)
Philippe Sabot, Merial
Abraham

Salomon,

Agriworks
Bohdan

Uganda Ltd.

Dmukhovskyy,

Astapov

Anton

Lukovkin,

Misechko

&

Lawyers International Law Group

Partners Law Firm

Dmytro Donenko, Engarde Attorneys

Iryna Marushko, Lavrynovych &

at Law

Partners

Vitaliy Fedchuk, Monsanto

Sergiy

Illa Sanjeevi, Grow More Seeds and


Chemicals Limited
Seruwo Solomon, Bukoola Chemical
Industries Ltd

Oberkovych,

Gvozdiy

&

Oberkovych Law Firm


Irene Ssekyana, Greenwatch

Oleksandr Fedorov, KWS


Pavlo Odnokoz, Asters

Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Makerere

Viacheslav

University

Syngenta

Gavrylianchyk,
Roman

Ognevyuk,

Engarde

Attorneys at Law
Stephen

Tumwesigye,

Onyango

Volodymyr Gopchak, KWS


Maxim Oleksiyuk, WTS Tax Legal

Advocates
Andrii Grebonkin, Clifford Chance
Eva Zaake, National Agricultural

Consulting, LLC

LLP
Pavlo Oliinyk, Engarde Attorneys at

Research Organisation (NARO)


Artem Khaliavka, Creative Group
(PJSC )

Law

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Mark Opanasiuk, Inyurpolis Law

236

Pham

VIETNAM

Hung

Cuong,

Vietnam

Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Firm
C.P. Vietnam Corporation
Vitali

Polishchuk,

Institute

Duc Dang, Indochine Counsel

of

Hydraulic Engineering and Land

Institute of Policy and Strategy for

Reclamation

Agriculture and Rural Development

Thuan Dinh Quang, Phuoc and

(IPSARD)

Partners

Roman Puchko
Petrovietnam
Mykola

Pugachev,

Institute

of

Fertilizer

and

Doan Doan Tuan, Institute for Water

Chemicals Corporation

and Environment (IWE)

State Bank of Vietnam

Pham Van Dong, Department of

Agrarian Economics
Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture

Alexey Pukha, Aleksey Pukha &


Partners

Tilleke & Gibbins Consultants Limited

and Rural Development (MARD)

Victor Ryabchun, Plant Production

Le Duy AnW, Yara

Do Huu Dung, Department of Animal


Health, Ministry of Agriculture and

Institute nd. V. Ya. Yuryev of NAAS


Tran Tu Anh, SNV

Rural Development (MARD)

Pham Quoc Bao, SANCO Freight Ltd

Nguyen Quy Duong, Plant Protection

Philippe Sabot, Merial


Department, Ministry of Agriculture

Irina Selivanova, Inyurpolis Law


Firm

Quoc Doan Bao, Syngenta

and Rural Development (MARD)

Viktoriya Taran, KWS

Rajarshi Chakravorty

Viet Thanh Duong

Viktor Teres, Heifer International

Nguyen Ba Chat, Vietnam Institute

Nguyen Duy Dang

of Agricultural Engineering and PostRoman Volkov, ICT-Zahid

Harvest Technology (VIAEP)

Andrew Fitanides, Baker & McKenzie

Yulia Yashenkova, AiG Law Firm

Nguyen Thi Quynh Chi, General

Rajiv Ghandi, Hester Biosciences

Department of Vietnam Customs

Ltd

Hydraulic Engineering and Land

Va Linh Chi, Vietnam Academy of

Huong Thanh Ha, Plant Protection

Reclamation

Agricultural Sciences

Department, Ministry of Agriculture

Olga

Zhovtonog,

Institute

of

and Rural Development (MARD)


Anton Zinchuk, Inyurpolis Law Firm
Olena Zubchenko, Lavrynovych &
Partners

Kim Van Chinh, Institute of Policy


and Strategy for Agriculture and

Le

Son

Ha,

Rural Development (IPSARD)

Department, Ministry of Agriculture

Plant

Protection

and Rural Development (MARD)

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Oanh H. K. Nguyen, Baker &

Nguyen Ha, DFDL

Hiep Pham, Hiep PK Cafe

McKenzie
Thu Thien Pham, YKVN

Tran Thu Hang, Vietnam Cooperative


Thanh Lam Nguyen, Vietnam Seed

Alliance

Tuan Pham Quoc, Phuoc and

Trade Association

Partners

Nguyen Hiep, Transworld Cargo


Thi Hong Duong Nguyen, Indochine

Logistics

Counsel

Vu Phan, Indochine Counsel

Thi Nguyet Nga Nguyen, Ministry of

Nguyen Anh Phong, Institute of

Transport

Policy and Strategy for Agriculture

Nguyen Hoa, DFDL


Nguyen Hong Hai, Duane Morris

and Rural Development (IPSARD)


Thi Phuong Loan Nguyen

Vu Thi Huong, SNV

Pham Ngoc Phuoc, SANCO Freight


Trung Anh Nguyen, Vietnam Made

Nguyen Huy, Rigonfruit

Ltd

Co., Ltd
Marieke van der Pijl, Gide Loyrette

Tran Huy, Rigonfruit


Tuan Nguyen, ANT Lawyers

Nouel Law Firm

Nam Nguyen Hoai, Ministry of

Franck Renaudin, Entrepreneurs du

Tran Mai Kien, Vietnam Institute

Agriculture and Rural Development

Monde

of

(MARD)

Thang Huynh, DFDL

Meteorology,

Hydrology

and

Mehdi Saint-Andre, Yara

Environment (IMHEN)
Khanh Nguyen Hong, Directorate of
Cuong Le, DFDL

Water Resources

Yee Chung Seck, Baker & McKenzie

Nguyen Thi Kim Loan, HSBC Bank

Chung Nguyen Thi Phuong, Phuoc

Vivek Sharma

and Partners
Gal Stephen, ACE (Anh Chi Em)

Bui Van Minh SNV


Nguyen Nang Nhuong, Vietnam
Nguyen Dong Nghia, Rigonfruit
Huyen Tram Nguyen, Gide Loyrette

Institute of Agricultural Engineering

Nguyen Thac Tam, Co-operative

and

Bank of Vietnam (CPCF)

Post-Harvest

Technology

(VIAEP)
Nguyen Thi Thanh Binh, SANCO

Nouel Law Firm

Freight Ltd

Ha Phuong Nguyen, SNV


Lam Nguyen, PEJA (S.E.A.)
Hac
Mau

Dung

Nguyen,

Vietnam

National University of Agriculture

Thuy

Nguyen,

Fertilizer

Association of Vietnam (FAV)

Duyen

Nguyen

Thi,

Vietnam

Academy of Agricultural Sciences

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Nguyen

Thi

Thuy, Ministry of

238

Torsten Velden, Bayer Crop Science

Chris Bishop, AgDevCo

Nguyen Quoc Viet, Vietnam Institute

Habasonda Calvin, Bank of Zambia

Agriculture and Rural Development


Tran Thanh Thuy, Vietnam Institute

of Agricultural Engineering and Post-

of

Harvest Technology (VIAEP)

Meteorology,

Hydrology

and

Simon Cammelbeeck, World Food


Programme

Environment (IMHEN)
Dzung Vu, YKVN

Phillip K. Chibundi, Chibundi & Co.

Ha Thuy Hanh, National Agriculture


Vu Ngoc Quynh, Vietnam Codex

Extension Centre

Law Practice

Office
Nguyen

Tram

Anh,

Chris

Transworld
Hoa Xuan Vuong, Vietnam Institute

Cargo Logistics

of
Thuy Thanh Thi Tran, Tien Giang
Capital

Aid

Fund

for

Meteorology,

Hydrology

Chiinda, Hitech Logistics

Limited

and

Environment (IMHEN)

Prisca Chileshe, IITA

Terence Wilson

Abigail

Womens

Economic Development

Chimuka,

Africa

Legal

Network (ALN)
Trung Kien Tran, S&B Law

ZAMBIA
Sydney Chisenga, Corpus Legal

Kien Tran Trung, Multico (Vietnam)

Airtel

Practioners

Bank of Zambia

Arshad Dudhia, Musa Dudhia & Co

Co Ltd
Tran Quang Truong, SNV
Community
Tran Van Trang, General Department

Markets

For

Robin Durairajah, Chibesakunda &

Conservation (COMACO)

Co

Copperbelt Universty

Emmanuel Manda, Musa Dudhia &

of Vietnam Customs
Co

Vi Sieu Trinh, Bayer Crop Science


Kasensa Collaboration
Hoang

Trung,

Plant

Reagan

Protection
Engineering

and

Blankfein

Gates,

The

Judiciary of Zambia, High Court

Department, Ministry of Agriculture

Terrafirma

and Rural Development (MARD)

Surveying Consult (TESCO)

Ndola

Nguyen Diep Tuan, DKSH Vietnam

Zenith Business Solutions

Rajiv Ghandi, Hester Biosciences


Ltd

Co., Ltd.
Alan McNab, Backloads Zambia
Tran Duc Tuan, Vietnam Institute of

Limited

Agricultural Engineering and PostHarvest Technology (VIAEP)

Milind Amin, Saro Agro Ltd

Shuller Habeenzu, ITM Consult

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Nsondo Hamulondo, NWK Agri-

Christian Morris, NWK Agri-Services

Musenge

Sakala,

Africa

Legal

Network (ALN)

Services
Kenneth Msiska, Zambia Agricultural
Coillard

Hamusimbi,

Zambia

Jessica Schicks, AB Bank Zambia

Research Institute (ZARI)

National Farmers Union (ZNFU)


Robert
Wilhelm Hesse, Agland ltd
Chance

Kabaghe,

Indaba

Mtonga,

Truckers

Dick Siame, The International Fund

Association of Zambia (TAZ)

for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

Parick Muchimba, Amiran Ltd.

Peter Sievers, COWI

Victor

Mike Sikazwe

Agricultural Research Policy Institute


Michael

Kalimamukwento,

Musabula, Ventus Legal

Practitioners
Armando M Sirolla, AB Bank Zambia

Bridgepac Investments Ltd


Mioamba Musambo, Stanbic Bank
Zambia

Judith Tembo

Chanda Musonda, Africa Legal

Wesley Litaba Wakunuma, Hivos

Chapwa Kasoma

Network (ALN)

Foundation

Linda Kasonde, Mulenga Mundashi

Godfrey Mwila, Zambia Agricultural

Kasonde Legal Practioners

Research Institute (ZARI)

Lazarous Kalumba, Nishati Clearing


and Forwarding

Humphrey

Katotoka,

Zambia

Patricia Nachilima, Ventus Legal

National Farmers Union (ZNFU)

Practitioners

Jones Kayawe, Zambeef Products

Perry Ngoma, CropLife Zambia

plc
Dickson Nguni, Zambia Agricultural
George

Liacopoulos,

Zdenakie

Research Institute (ZARI)

Commodities Ltd
Ashok Oza, Saro Agro Ltd
Caesar Lubaba, National Livestock
Epidemiology and Information Centre

Sharad Oza, Saro Agro Ltd

Banji Milambo, Bank of Zambia

Nathan Phiri, Official Seed Testing


Station Mount Makulu, Seed Control

Gerald Monga, Central Veterinary


Research Institute

and Certification Institute