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Linear Algebra

Vector Spaces
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INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS
D E F I N I T I O N O F V E C T O R S PA C E
L I N E A R C O M B I N AT I O N S A N D I N D E P E N D E N T S E T S
V E C T O R S U B S PA C E S
B A S E S A N D D I M E N S I O N O F V E C T O R S PA C E S
DIMENSION THEOREM
INNER PRODUCT AND PROJECTIONS
ORTHONORMAL BASES
ORTHOGONAL COMPLEMENT

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Linear Algebra

Vectors in
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Definition:
A vector is characterized by:
- a direction;
- an orientation;
- a length.

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Linear Algebra

Vectors in
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Geometric representation:
In:

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Linear Algebra

Vectors in
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Geometric representation:
z

In:

x
y

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Vectors in
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Some Operations:
Multiplication of vectors by scalars:

2x

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Vectors in
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Some Operations:
Vector addition:

x+y
y

x
x

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Vectors in
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Vector norm:
The length or the norm of the vector
number given by:

is the positive real

Example 1:
Consider

and

, two vectors of

a. Calculate
and
;
b. Do the geometric representation of the vectors:

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Linear Algebra

Vector Space
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Definition:
A set of mathematical objects, not empty, is called a Vector Space if two operations,
addition and multiplication by scalars, are defined and if for all
and for all real
numbers
the following axioms are satisfied:

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Linear Algebra

Vector Space
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To the real numbers


we call Scalars.
To the elements of the vector space

we call Vectors.

Some families of mathematical objects that are Vector Spaces:

polynomials of degree equal or inferior to k;

real functions of real variables which are derivable;

real functions of real variables which are continuous.

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Linear Algebra

Vector Space
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Example 2:
Consider the set

Show that

in which we define the following operations:

with this operations is a real Vector Space.

Example 3:
Consider the set

Show that

in which we define the following operations:

with this operations is not a real Vector Space.


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Vector Space
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Definition:
Given A and B, subsets of a vector space V, the sum of the set A with the set B, that we
write A + B, is defined by

Example 4:
In

In

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Vector Space
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Theorem:
Let E be a real vector space. Let

and

, arbitrary. We have:

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Dependence and
Linear Combination of Vectors
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Definition:
Let E be a real vector space. Let
We say that u is a linear combination of the vectors

if

Example 5:
Consider the following vectors of
(1,-1,2); (0,-1,1) e (2,1,-1)

Verify that the vector (3,3,-2) is a linear combination of this three vectors.
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Dependence and
Linear Combination of Vectors
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Definition:
We say that the set of vectors

is linearly dependent if

If
we say that the set of vectors

is linearly independent.

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Linear Algebra

Dependence and
Linear Combination of Vectors
15

Example 6:
Verify if the set of vectors {(0,2,3), (1,0,0), (0,-1,2)} is linearly independent.

Theorem:
Let

The vectors

be vectors of a real vector space E ( n > 1 ) .

are linearly dependent if and only if

one of them can be written as a linear combination of the


remaining.

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Dependence and
Linear Combination of Vectors
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Theorem:
If

is a set of linearly dependent vectors then any subset of it (not


empty) is also linearly dependent.

If

is a set of linearly independent vectors then any subset of it (not


empty) is also linearly independent.

Example 7:
Study the veracity of the following sentences:
a. Any set of vectors containing the vector 0 is linearly dependent.

b. A subset of a linearly dependent set is linearly dependent.

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Linear Algebra

Vector Subspaces
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Definition:
Let E be a real vector space and F a subset of E.
We say that F is a vector subspace of E if:

Example 8:
Consider the set

with the usual operations of addition and multiplication by a scalar in


Verify if F is a Vector Subspace of
.

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Linear Algebra

Vector Subspaces
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Theorem:
Let

be a set of n vectors of a vector space E.

The set
is a subspace of E.

We say that F is the subspace generated by X and its represented by

Example 9:
Find the values of h in which

belongs to the subspace generated by:

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Linear Algebra

Basis and Dimension of a Vector Space


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Definition:
The vectors

form a basis of a vector space E if:

1. Theyre linearly independent;

2. They span the vector space E.

Theorem:
Any vector of a vector space is written in an unique way as a linear
combination of the vectors of a basis.

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Linear Algebra

Basis and Dimension of a Vector Space


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Definition:
The coordinates (or components) of a vector in a certain basis are the
coefficients used when we write the vector as a linear combination of the
basis vectors.

Definition:
Dimension of a vector space E, dim(E), is the number of vectors that form
a basis of E.

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Linear Algebra

Basis and Dimension of a Vector Space


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Theorem:
In a vector space E of dimension n:
a) There arent sets of linearly independent vectors with more than n vectors;
b) Any set of n linearly independent vectors form a basis;

c) Any set of n generators form a basis.

Example 10:
Find the dimension and a basis for the set:

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Dimension Theorem
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Theorem:
If F and G are vector subspaces of the vector space E,
then F + G is also a vector subspace of E.
Let F and G be two vector subspaces of the vector space E,
then

Definition:
If

, then the sum of the subspaces F and G


is called direct sum and denoted by

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Inner Product
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Definition:
Let x and y be two vectors of
and

, , written in the standard basis

. Their inner product is defined by:

Properties:

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Inner Product
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be the angle formed by the vectors x and y, then

Let

If

then

In this case x and y are called orthogonal.

Theorem:
A set of vectors of

(that doesnt contain the vector 0) mutual orthogonal is linearly

independent, which means that orthogonality implies linear independence.


Any set of n vectors of

mutual orthogonal form a basis.


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Orthogonal Projection
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Theorem:
Let u and v (not 0) be two vectors of

. It is possible to decompose the vector u in

the sum of two vectors,


where u1 has the same direction of v and u2 is orthogonal to v.
The vector u1 is called the orthogonal projection of u onto v and is given by:

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Linear Algebra

Orthogonal Projection
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u2

u
Proj v u

Example 13:
Find the orthogonal projection of u in v, being:
u = (4,2)
and
v = (7,6)

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Linear Algebra

Orthonormal Basis of
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Theorem (Orthogonalization of Gram-Schmidt):


Given an arbitrary basis of

the basis

obtained as follows is orthogonal.

Example 12:
Use the process of Gram-Schmidt to find an orthonormal basis of S:
S = <(3,0,-1);(8,5,-6)>

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Orthogonal Complement
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Definition:
Let

. The set of vectors of

which are orthogonal to all vectors of S is

called the orthogonal complement of S and denoted by

Theorem:
If

is a subspace, then its orthogonal complement,

, also is.

Definition:
A plane (n-1 dimensional) of

, defined by a point

and a normal vector v is the set

that we obtain when adding

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