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Solid Waste (SW) is known as garbage

Definition - waste materials or waste results from human

and animal activity, whether in the form of solid and semisolid which is regarded as useless and no longer
required.
Solid waste includes municipal solid waste (MSW),

municipal and industrial sewage sludge, and industrial


waste

All types of solid waste generated by


households and commercial establishments,

and collected usually by local government


bodies.

1.Tempat
kediaman

Rumah teres, banglo, Sisa makanan, kertas, kadbod, plastik,


rumah
pangsa,
tekstil, kulit, kayu, kaca, tin minuman,
kondominium, pangsapuri,
logam, abu, sisa merbahaya, tayar
dll.
buruk, dedaun, rumput kering, perabot
buruk, dsbnya.

2.Perdagangan

Pusat beli-belah, kedai, Kertas, kadbod, plastik, kayu, sisa


restoren, pasar, bangunan
makanan,
kaca,
logam,
sisa
pejabat, hotel, kedai
merbahaya, dsbnya.
percetakan,
stesen
minyak, bengkel kereta.

3.Institusi-institusi Sekolah, hospital, penjara, Sama seperti perdagangan.


pejabat-pejabat kerajaan
dan firma-firma.

4.Pembinaan dan Tapak pembinan baru, Kayu, keluli, konkrit, paip, dsbnya.
perobohan
tapak
ubahsuaian
bangunan,
baikpulih
jalanraya dan laluan
pejalan kaki, perobohan
bangnan lama, dll.
5.Perkhidmatan
perbandaran

Pembersihan
jalan, Sisa khas, sampah sarap, lanskap,
lanskap, tempat letak
pembersihan jalan, pemotongan dahan
kereta dan tepi pantai,
pokok, sisa dari tempat letak kereta,
lain-lain pusat rekreasi.
tempat rekreasi dan tepi pantai.

6.Loji
rawatan Loji pembersihan air, loji Sisa-sisa loji rawatan dan enapcemar.
dan penunuan
air sisa, proses rawatan
industri, dll.

semua Sama seperti semua perkara di atas.

7. Sisa pepejal
perbandaran

Sama seperti
perkara di atas.

8. Industri

Pembinaan,
fabrikasi, Sisa pemprosesan industri, bahanindustri ringan dan berat,
bahan skrap.
loji penapisan, loji kimia, Sisa bukan industri seperti sisa
loji janakuasa, perobohan,
makanan, sampah sarap, abu, sisa
dll.
perobohan dan pembinaan, sisa khas
dan sisa merbahaya.

9. Pertanian

Ladang ternakan haiwan, Sisa makanan yang rosak, sisa


ladang-ladang
bijiran,
pertanian, sampah sarap, sisa
ladang kelapa sawit,
merbahaya.
kebun sayur, nurseri, dll.

The types of wastes:


1. Biodegradable Waste
It can be defined as solid waste that
can be decomposed under natural
conditions.
This includes food scraps, paper,
dust, waste and sewage sludge.

Biodegradable Waste

Rubbish

2. Rubbish
It can be defined as solid waste
from residential areas and
businesses, institutions and places
of work.
It does not include solid waste
consisting of food waste and ashes.

regulatory
generation

disposal

Solid Waste
Management
storing
transport
collection

public health, economics, engineering, aesthetics,


and consideration of environmental & public awareness of the
need

Important fundamentals of solid waste management:


1. The quantity of solid wastes
i. Input analysis
- based on the products used by people in the
community
If individuals use 5 cans a week, how many cans being
disposed by a family in a month ?
- only suitable for small and isolated communities
only.
ii. Secondary analysis
-uses an empirical formula for estimating solid waste
generation

iii. Output analysis


- solid waste generation is measured directly through
the product
- more accurate and often used to determine the
quantity of solid waste
- however, the weight of wastes varies with time (days,
weeks, years).
-weather conditions also affect the weight of solid
waste.

Important fundamentals of solid waste


management (cont.)
2. Types of solid wastes
Solid waste consists of:
i. municipal solid waste
ii. industrial waste
iii.dangerous / scheduled wastes
residues are said to be dangerous when it
is flammable, explosive, corrosive, reactive
or toxic.
classified into five categories of radioactive
materials, chemicals, biological materials,
flammable and explosive substances.

Important fundamentals of solid waste


management (cont.)
3. The composition of solid waste
-composition is a term used to describe the
components that make up the solid waste
-its distribution is based on the relative
weight percent
-this information is important to determine
what type of equipment, systems and
management program required to deal with
-solid waste composition varies from one
community to another community
solid waste composition is also influenced by
time
-in various studies on the composition of
municipal solid waste (MSW) obtained varies
according to places of waste generation

Ipoh, 185,000 tonnes solid waste disposed in 2006

1. Sampah sarap Sisa-sisa dari penyediaan makanan,


(garbage)
pasar dan sisa dari penyimpanan &
penjualan hasil-hasil makanan.

Rumah kediaman, restoren,


institusi-institusi, kedai-kedai
& pasar.

2. Sampah
(rubbish)

Bahan boleh terbakar: Kertas, kotak,


tong kayu, kayu, dahan-dahan kayu,
perabot, kadbod, dsbnya. Bahan tak
boleh terbakar: Logam, tin minuman,
perabot logam, kaca, galian.

Sama seperti di atas

3. Habuk/abu
(ashes)

Baki dari pembakaran untuk


Sama seperti di atas
pemanasan dan penyediaan makanan,
tapak loji penunuan.

4. Sampah sarap Dedaun kering, kotoran dari takungan Sepanjang jalanan,tepi-tepi


di jalanan
air, buangan sampah sarap, dsbnya. jalan & lot kosong

5. Bangkai
haiwan

Bangkai kucing, anjing, kuda, lembu,


kerbau

Sama seperti di atas

6. Kenderaan
buruk

Kereta-kereta dan lori-lori buruk.

Sama seperti di atas.

7.Sisa industri

Sisa dari pemprosesan makanan,


skrap logam, kayu

Kilang-kilang, loji janakuasa.

8.Sisa
perobohan

Kayu-kayu reput, paip, batu-bata, konkrit Kawasan perobohan di mana


dan bahan-bahan binaan yang dibuang. akan dibina projek/bangunan
baru, lebuh-raya.

9.Sisa
pembinaan

Kayu skrap, paip dan lain-lain bahan Kawasan pembinaan.


binaan.

10.Sisa khas

Sisa pepejal dan cecair merbahaya, Rumah kediaman, hotel,


bahan mudah meletup, bahan radioaktif hospital, institusi, kedai-kedai
dan sisa-sisa klinikal.
dan industri.

11.Sisa
rawatan
kumbahan

Pepejal dari proses penabiran air sisa & Loji rawatan kumbahan dan
penyingkiran kersik serta enapcemar dari tangki septik
tangki pemendapan dan tangki septik.

moisture content

bulk density
particle size
permeability
biodegradation of organic waste
odor generation

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE


COMPOSITION OF SOLID WASTE

1. Climate
Climate change could result in changes in
temperatures, cloud cover, rainfall patterns,
wind speeds, and storms: all factors that could
impact future waste management facilities
development and operation. The time scales for
climate change and waste management are
similar. For instance, landfill sites can be
operational for decades and still remain active
for decades following their closure. There is,
therefore, a need to consider potential changes
in waste management over significant
timescales and respond appropriately.

2. The frequency of waste


collection
The more frequent waste being
collected, the more waste being
generated
3. Tradition or culture of a
community
Some people do not eat fast food

4. Income per capita


Low-income communities will
generate more solid waste than
food waste such as glass, plastic or
paper the left-over food waste will
be fed to livestock animals such as
chickens, ducks, pigs and so forth.
5. Technological change
Packed / frozen food, canned /
bottled drink
6. Rural and urban areas
In rural areas, the decomposed
wastes can be used as fertilizer for
crops while in urban area, land for
crops is very limited

7. The use of food grinder at


home
- Grinder used to grind food
waste produced during
preparation, cooking or
serving
- reduce the volume of food
waste generated

Important factors of solid waste


management:
1.

Solid waste generation rate.


- waste generation rates vary from one
community to another community,
depending on the size of the community

2.

Chemical composition
- may affect the stability of solid waste in
landfills

3.

Solid waste moisture

4.

Particle size distribution

5.

Density of waste

Factors to consider when storing solid waste:


storage effects of solid waste components
biological decomposition that would cause odour and health
problem
fluid absorption that will be a problem during collection
pollution of waste components which can reduce the value of
recycled waste
Type of storage container
Depends on the characteristics & types of solid waste collection
system, space & aesthetics
Handling in-situ - the work done at the collection centres before
they are collected, such as:
i.
Segregation of waste (separation at source) to facilitate the
recycling process
ii. controlled incinerator e.g. laboratory or clinical waste

Location of the storage containers


depends on the type of accommodation , e.g. terrace
houses , flats ,commercial areas or factories
space available
collection service route

COLLECTION SYSTEM
There are several
activities associated
With solid waste
collection process
carried out by
Local Authority:
Storage
2. In situ handling
3. Collection
1.

Method of Transportation
hydraulic or pneumatic
transportation trucks
solid waste is compressed to:

save space for more volume of


waste can be transported
ii. not attract flies, rats, birds and
wild animals
iii. lightweight waste will not blown
by the wind
iv. fire resistance
i.

Transfer Station -- Facility where solid waste is transferred from collection vehicles
to larger trucks or rail cars for longer distance transport
Factors to consider when choosing the location of transfer stations is as follows:
i.

must be located not far away from sources of waste collected

ii.

place must be accessible and no obstruction

iii.

not located too close to residential area

iv.

construction and operating costs must be more economic

v.

the location must be located away from water sources or ground water to
prevent contamination or poisoning

Solid Waste Collection Method:


i. Haul Container System (HCS)
containers will be emptied and
placed back in its original place ,
the waste transported to transfer
station or disposal site
suitable for areas with high solid
waste generation rate e.g.
markets, wholesale markets or
supermarkets

ii.

Stationary Container System (SCS).

waste container remains on the point of collection

Route Selection
Selection of the optimum route may save costs

and improve operational efficiency of waste


collection
There are several computer programs to select
the route and frequency of collection
Factors should be considered in the route

layout
i.
quantity of waste collected from collection
sites every day
ii. arrangement of collection routes from the
transfer station
iii. routes should be arranged so that the final
location of the collection must be adjacent
to the landfill
iv. accessibility of the route

Method of Solid Waste Disposal


1. Landfill
2. Incineration
3. Composting
4. Pyrolysis

Factors for landfill site selection :


haul distance
1. accessibility to the site
2. soil conditions and topography
3. weather conditions
4. surface water hydrology
5. end-use of landfill
6. local community activities
7. geological and hydrological
conditions

Controlled Combustion /
Incineration
thermal processing of solid waste by
chemical oxidation in a controlled
combustion
by-products produced during combustion
including nitrogen, carbon dioxide and
water vapor, as well as `flue gas', e.g. organic
acids, hydro-chloride (HCl) and SOx,
dioksins and furans
other by-product is ash that is
incombustible organic which contain heavy
metals

incineration temperatures <750 0 C, volatile


material unburned completely will cause
bad odors

Incinerator

Controlled Combustion / Incineration

(cont'd)
The advantages of incineration are: 1.
the volume and weight of waste can be
reduced immediately
2. the final ash formed is stable
requires a small area for disposal
3. the technology used can treat
hazardous materials in a proper and
effective method
4. by adopting conservation of energy
technique, operating costs can be
reduced
1.
2.
3.
4.

The weakness of incineration are: require high cost of capital


skilled workers needed
not all materials may be burned
some materials require more energy for
elimination

Composting
is the process by which organic material is broken
down into simpler forms of matter
The objective of the composting process are: biodegradable organic material stabilized and reduced
the volume of waste
destroy bacteria, pathogens, metamorphosis of insect
and other undesirable microorganisms such as
protozoa and fungi
preserves the nutrients
good compost product can be used to upgrade the
quality of soil, for instance to increase the water
holding capacity of sandy soil

2 types of composting process :


1. Aerobic composting
2. Anaerobic composting
Factors that influence Aerobic
Composting Process
i. Particle size 25 to 75 mm for the
optimum chemical reactions to occur
ii. The ratio of C: N (Carbon to nitrogen
ratio)

Factors that influence Aerobic Composting Process (cont.)


iii. Moisture content
should be in the range 50 - 60%
iv. Temperature
the optimum temperature for the composting process
is 50 to 70 0C
v. PH Control
the optimum pH for microbial activity is 6.5 - 7.5 to
prevent loss of nitrogen as ammonia (NH3) gas, pH
should not exceed 8.5

Factors that influence Aerobic Composting Process (cont.)


vi. mixing process to prevent dehydration on the surface of
the compost
vii. air requirements

Composting methods:
1. heap or windrows
2. aerated static pile
3. reactor or closed
container

Introduction
Waste Management Strategies
"3 Rs Concept reduce, reuse and
recycle
consuming and throwing away less or
cutting down on waste and using products
made to last rather than disposable

Introduction
Waste Management Strategies
"3 Rs Concept reduce, reuse and
recycle
reusing products when possible is even better than recycling,
because the item does not need to be reprocessed before it
can be used again

Introduction
Waste Management Strategies
"3 Rs Concept reduce, reuse and
recycle
recycling turns materials that would normally be turned to
waste into valuable resources by reprocessing

Recovery
is defined as any waste management operation
that diverts a waste material from the waste
stream and which results in a certain product
with a potential economic or ecological benefit

Waste Management Hierarchy 3 Rs Concept

Source
Reduction

Reuse
Recycling and Composting

Landfill with Energy Recovery

Landfill

Literature Review
Steel and tin containers

Literature Review
Carboys

Jerry Cans

Other Potentially Recyclable Materials


i. Feras metals (iron and steel)
from large items like cars, old iron
machine, furniture, kitchen appliances, stairs,
hardware), the construction debris (copper wire, cast
iron pipes and plumbing equipment) & of commercial
& industrial area (appliances, automobiles, trucks,
aircraft, machinery, etc.).
ii. Aluminium
aluminium cans, window frames and doors and roof
gutters
iii. Paper
the main types of waste paper which consists of old
newspapers, cardboard, paper & paper high-grade
mixed.
Paper can be reprocessed into newsprint, insulation
paper and paper bode.

Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of


organic material at elevated temperatures in the
absence of oxygen.
Pyrolysis typically occurs under pressure and at
operating temperatures above 430C (800F).
Pyrolysis of organic substances produces gas and
liquid products and leaves a solid residue richer in
carbon content.
Extreme pyrolysis, which leaves mostly carbon as the
residue, is called carbonization.

16/04/2010 5:49pm

KUALA LUMPUR 16 April - Jabatan Pengurusan Sisa Pepejal Negara (JPSPN) sedang
membina sembilan tapak pelupusan sisa pepejal sanitari antaranya di Negeri Sembilan,
Melaka dan Pahang bernilai RM20 juta setiap satu berikutan penutupan beberapa tapak
pelupusan.
Ketua Pengarahnya, Datuk Dr. Nadzri Yahaya berkata, pihaknya sedang giat menutup
tapak-tapak pelupusan sampah pembuangan terbuka di kawasan sensitif seperti
kawasan tadahan air dan melindungi kesihatan orang awam daripada pencemaran
udara.
Katanya, tapak pelupusan sanitari mempunyai loji rawatan leachate (air larut resapan)
ke dalam sumber air bawah tanah, sistem saluran paip untuk menyerap gas Metana yang
dihasilkan daripada proses pereputan sampah serta sistem penutupan sampah yang
dilupuskan bagi mengelak risiko bau.
Nazri berkata, jumlah tapak pelupusan yang masih beroperasi setakat ini ialah 177 buah
di mana tujuh daripadanya tapak sanitari manakala 114 tapak sudah tidak digunakan
lagi.
Jabatan itu juga mengambil langkah sementara dengan menaik taraf tapak pelupusan
yang tidak sanitari yang tidak dapat ditutup kerana masih tidak menemui tapak
alternatif yang sesuai, katanya.
Beliau berkata, JPSPN juga sedang membina insinerator mini (loki penunu) untuk
menangani masalah sisa pepejal di pulau-pulau dan kawasan tanah tinggi yang tidak
mempunyai kawasan untuk membina tapak pelupusan.
Insinerator mini itu sedang dibina di Langkawi, Tioman, Pangkor, Labuan dan Cameron
Highlands dan dijangka siap akhir tahun ini, katanya. - Bernama