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Turbulence statistics in a rotating ribbed channel

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Turbulence statistics in a rotating ribbed channel

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhff

Vagesh D. Narasimhamurthy , Helge I. Andersson

Fluids Engineering Division, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Available online xxxx

Keywords:

Surface roughness

System rotation

Square rods

Reynolds stress budget

Coriolis forces

a b s t r a c t

The combined effects of system rotation and rib-roughness on turbulent channel ow have been investigated by means of direct numerical simulations. The 40 wall-units high square ribs were placed on both

walls in a non-staggered arrangement with pitch-to-height ratio 8. Mean ow elds and turbulence statistics for rotation numbers Ro 2 and 6 were presented and compared with corresponding data for

Ro 0. The ow eld in the vicinity of the ribs was affected differently on the two sides of the rotating

channel. The separated ow region behind the pressure-side ribs shrinked with increasing Ro and the

originally d-type roughness turned into a k-type roughness. At Ro 6, a pressure-loss reduction of about

20% was found. In spite of the 10% blockage due to the ribs, the ow eld exhibited a statistical homogeneity in the streamwise direction over more than half of the channel. The turbulence statistics were

substantially affected by the system rotation with enhanced and reduced turbulence levels along the

pressure and suction sides, respectively. Among other things, we also learned that the combined inuences of rib-roughness and system rotation on the turbulent ow eld in rotating channels cannot be

foreseen by straightforward superposition.

2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The turbulent ow of a liquid or a gas through plane channels

and straight rectangular ducts represents classical prototype ows

in uid mechanics. Internal cooling ducts in gas turbines are often

equipped with ribs aimed to enhance the turbulent mixing and

thereby augment the heat transfer rate and the cooling efciency.

The ow and temperature elds in a cooling channel are inevitably

also affected by the blades rotation. In this paper we aim to

explore in detail the combined effects of spanwise ribs and system

rotation on the ow eld in a rotating channel. Although this constitutes a problem of generic interest, the outcome might also be

benecial for the turbulence treatment in computational uid

dynamics (CFD) software aimed at turbomachinery applications;

see e.g. Johnston (1998) and Tucker (2013).

A common feature of almost all predictions of ribbed channel

ows, be it either direct or large-eddy simulations, is that only

one of the walls is roughened by means of transverse ribs while

the other wall remains smooth. In some of these studies the onesided roughness was partly motivated by the laboratory experiments of Hanjalic and Launder (1972), in which only one channel

wall was roughened with the intention to produce an asymmetric

mean velocity prole. The inuence of surface-mounted ribs on the

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: vagesh@alumni.ntnu.no (V.D. Narasimhamurthy), helge.i.

andersson@ntnu.no (H.I. Andersson).

mean ow and the turbulence eld depends on the size of the ribs,

typically the rib height k, and the inter-rib spacing k w, where w

is the rib width and k is the pitch. It is common practice to distinguish between k-type and d-type behavior. k-type roughness

implies that the length of the cavity between two consecutive ribs

is large compared to the rib height, i.e. k w k. Physically this

implies that the shear layer which separates from the corner of a

rib reattaches to the bottom of the cavity. On the contrary, if the

bulk ow is skimming the uid trapped between two consecutive

ribs, the conguration is classied as d-type and the effect of the

ribs are not felt all across the channel; see e.g. Perry et al. (1969),

Jimnez (2004) and Leonardi et al. (2007). A number of direct

numerical simulation (DNS) studies of turbulent ow in rib-roughened channels have appeared after the turn of the century, as summarized by Jimnez (2004) and Krogstad et al. (2005). A

comprehensive investigation on the effect of the pitch-to-height

ratio k=k of ribs on one channel wall was presented by Leonardi

et al. (2003), whereas Ashraan et al. (2004) and Ashraan and

Andersson (2006a,b) studied the effects on the ow eld when

both walls were equipped with k 8k ribs. In laboratory ows,

as well as in DNS and LES, we believe that the ow eld in the

vicinity of a ribbed wall is fairly independent of whether the other

wall is smooth or ribbed. In the core region of the channel, however, the inuence of both walls is felt and the ow eld in the center region is thus different in channels with one-sided roughness

from those with two-sided roughness.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatuidow.2014.10.008

0142-727X/ 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article in press as: Narasimhamurthy, V.D., Andersson, H.I. Turbulence statistics in a rotating ribbed channel. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow (2014),

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatuidow.2014.10.008

V.D. Narasimhamurthy, H.I. Andersson / International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow xxx (2014) xxxxxx

is a prototype problem in uid mechanics and the DNS data provided by Moser et al. (1999) and Abe et al. (2001) are frequently

used for benchmarking. The statistical symmetry about the midplane of the channel is immediately broken if the channel is set

in orthogonal-mode rotation about a spanwise axis. This phenomenon was reported more than four decades ago by Johnston et al.

(1972). Their illuminating ow measurements and visualizations

showed that the mean velocity prole became asymmetric and this

was ascribed to the stabilizing effect of the Coriolis force at the suction side and the destabilizing effect at the pressure side of the

rotating channel. These striking effects of system rotation on an

originally symmetric plane channel ow were reproduced by

Launder et al. (1987) and Launder and Tselepidakis (1994) by solving the Reynolds-averaged NavierStokes equations (RANS) with

second-moment closures. More recent experiments have conrmed and supplemented these ndings, e.g. the hot-wire anemometry measurements by Nakabayashi and Kitoh (1996, 2005)

and the particle-image velocimetry (PIV) measurements by

Visscher et al. (2011). Turbulent ows through a rotating channel

has also been simulated numerically by means of DNS. The results

thus obtained by Kristoffersen and Andersson (1993) and

Lamballais et al. (1996) are fully consistent with the early observations and measurements by Johnston et al. (1972).

The inuence of the Coriolis force which arises from the

imposed rotation depends on the magnitude of the angular

velocity X as well as on the orientation of the rotation axis relative

to the mean ow vorticity vector. It is common practice to dene a

local rotation number S 2X=dU=dy for plane channel ows

where dU=dy is the vorticity of the mean ow (y is the coordinate

normal to the channel walls). The local rotation number S is positive on one side of the Poiseuille ow channel where the ow is

exposed to cyclonic rotation and negative at the other side which

is exposed to anti-cyclonic rotation. The notion of cyclonic and

anti-cyclonic rotation stems from geophysical uid dynamics and

refers to whether the uid rotation tends to be in the same (cyclonic) or opposite (anti-cyclonic) direction as the system rotation;

see e.g. Andersson (2010). Bradshaw (1969) demonstrated that a

uniform shear ow subjected to constant system rotation is

unstable when N SS 1 < 0 and otherwise stable. Both S 0

and S 1 are neutral situations whereas S 12 is the most

unstable situation. Cambon et al. (1994) emphasized that

although linear analysis suggested neutral stability for S 0 and

S 1, the ow eld will be fundamentally different in these

two situations.

A rotating plane Poiseuille ow is thus simultaneously affected

by cyclonic rotation S > 0 at the suction side and anti-cyclonic

rotation S < 0 at the pressure side of the channel since the mean

velocity Uy attains a maximum value somewhere in the center

region and obeys no-slip at both walls. At low and moderate rates

of rotation the following observations were made in the aforementioned studies:

The mean velocity prole Uy became asymmetric and the

position of the maximum velocity was shifted away from the

mid-plane towards the suction side.

The mean velocity seemed to develop a region with a linear variation such that dU=dy 2X. In this region S 1, i.e. neutral

stability.

The turbulence intensity was reduced and sometimes even suppressed near the suction side and enhanced at the pressure side

of the channel.

Streamwise-oriented counter-rotating roll cells occurred at the

pressure side where 1 < S < 0; i.e. the so-called Bradshaw

number N is negative.

where the mean velocity vector and thus the streamlines are parallel with the channel walls. Further complexing ow features

occur in the presence of a sudden expansion of the channel, either

a one-sided expansion as the so called backward-facing step (BFS)

ow or a double-sided expansion (Lamballais, 2014). With the

view to investigate the effects of system rotation on a turbulent

shear layer Rothe and Johnston (1979) examined the free shear

layer which arises when a ow separates from the corner of a

BFS. This particular ow conguration has been widely used for

verication of NavierStokes solvers against benchmark data and

for testing and validation of turbulence models in RANS-based

computer codes. Rothe and Johnston (1979) used the same rotating

apparatus as in the earlier investigation of rotating plane channel

ow (Johnston et al., 1972). Their ow visualisations showed that

the shear layer which separated from the corner of the BFS reattached earlier to the wall downstream of the step when the channel was subjected to anti-cyclonic rotation S < 0, i.e. if the step

was on the pressure side, than if the rotation was cyclonic

S > 0 with the step on the suction side. These primary effects of

rotation on BFS ow were mimicked by RANS calculations by

Nilsen and Andersson (1990) using a second-moment closure.

More recently, DNS studies by Barri and Andersson (2010) and

PIV measurements by Visscher and Andersson (2011) conrmed

the early ow visualizations by Rothe and Johnston (1979) and

provided in addition detailed mean ow and turbulence statistics

on separated ows affected by a Coriolis force due to system

rotation.

Surface-mounted ribs and system rotation both affect the turbulent ow eld in plane channels and ducts. RANS-based computations of the combined effects of transverse ribs and spanwise

rotation on the ow and heat transfer have been reported by

Iacovides (1998) and Raisee et al. (2009). Saha and Acharya

(2005) considered a duct with ribs in a staggered arrangement

on the pressure and suction side with the aim to compare largeeddy simulations (LES) with unsteady RANS-predictions. Detailed

ow eld measurements using PIV have more recently been presented by Coletti and Arts (2011) and Coletti et al. (2012, 2013).

They considered an almost square duct with transverse ribs

mounted on one of the four walls. Fransen et al. (2013) carried

out LES of the same ow conguration. Their simulations compared favorably with the PIV measurements for the stabilizing case

when the ribbed wall was exposed to cyclonic rotation whereas

substantial differences were observed when the duct was subjected to destabilizing anti-cyclonic rotation. Abdel-Wahab and

Tafti (2004a,b) and Viswanathan and Tafti (2006) predicted the

ow and heat transfer in a rotating square duct with surfacemounted ribs by means of large-eddy and detached eddy simulations (DES), respectively. Whereas Fransen et al. (2013) used a

computational domain which comprised 8 rib pitches k, the

domain used by Abdel-Wahab and Tafti (2004b) and

Viswanathan and Tafti (2006) covered only a single rib pitch.

Table 1 provides an overview of the most relevant computational

studies of turbulent ows in rib-roughened channels and ducts

with and without system rotation.

The effects of system rotation on shear ows with almost parallel streamlines are well understood and can be explained in terms

of the mean rotation rate vector and the system rotation vector. In

the presence of ribs, however, the mean ow separates from a rib

and forms a zone of recirculating ow just behind the rib. The associated uid rotation may either be in the same or opposite sense of

the system rotation, e.g. cyclonic or anti-cyclonic, and the magnitude of this localized uid rotation is typically smaller than the

uid rotation associated with the mean ow gradient along a

smooth wall.

Please cite this article in press as: Narasimhamurthy, V.D., Andersson, H.I. Turbulence statistics in a rotating ribbed channel. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow (2014),

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatuidow.2014.10.008

V.D. Narasimhamurthy, H.I. Andersson / International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow xxx (2014) xxxxxx

Table 1

Overview of the most relevant simulations of turbulent ows in square-ribbed channels. The entries are arranged in chronological order. The rib height k and the pitch k are the

essential geometrical parameters. The table does not distinguish between Reynolds numbers Re and rotation numbers Ro based on h (half of the distance between the walls) or

half of the hydraulic diameter. The rough approximation us 0:05U b has been used for the entry by Fransen et al. (2013).

Author(s)

Method

Re

ribs

k=h

k=k

Romax

DNS

180

Abdel-Wahab and Tafti (2004a,b)a

Viswanathan and Tafti (2006)a

Narasimhamurthy and Andersson (2009)

Fransen et al. (2013)a

Present study

DNS

LES

DES

LES

LES

DNS

400

3300

3300

400

390

400

1 30

12

2 24

21

21

28

18

28

0.2

0.2

0.034

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.1

1.33

20

8

10

10

8

10

8

2.0

2.0

6.3

8.0

6.0

Table 2

Computational parameters in some relevant plane channel ow simulations arranged in chronological order. The length Lx and width Lz of the computational domain are given in

terms of the channel half-height h.

Author(s)

Lx

Lz

Nx Ny Nz

Dx

Dz

Abe et al. (2001)

Leonardi et al. (2003)

Ashraan et al. (2004)

Abdel-Wahab and Tafti (2004a,b)a

Viswanathan and Tafti (2006)a

Narasimhamurthy and Andersson (2009)

Fransen et al. (2013)a

Present study

2p

6.4

8

6.53

2.0

2.0

6.4

18.3

6.4

256 192 256

400 140 97

768 160 160

128 128 128

64 64 64

256 128 128

Unstructured

512 320 200

10

9.88

3.6

3.2

10

6.5

4.94

5.83

7.85

10

6.4

3.2

p

p

2.0

2.0

3.2

1.8

3.2

Duct ow simulations with aspect ratio 1 and therefore variable grid spacings.

The rst computer simulations of turbulent ow in an orthogonal-mode rotating plane channel with transverse ribs on both walls

were presented by Narasimhamurthy and Andersson (2009). These

early results were obtained using a fairly coarse mesh on which the

tiniest scales of the ow eld were not adequately resolved. These

simulations can therefore be considered as large-eddy simulations

without an explicit subgrid-scale model. Nevertheless, the results

from this coarse-mesh simulations were found to compare reasonably well with results obtained on a rened grid (Narasimhamurthy

and Andersson, 2011). The aim of the present study is to provide a

comprehensive coverage of the turbulence statistics in a rotating

ribbed channel for three different rotation numbers Ro = 0, 2, and

6 both at mid-cavity and mid-rib locations. In our earlier paper

(Narasimhamurthy and Andersson, 2011) only results at mid-cavity

were presented and only for Ro 6.

2. Flow conguration and numerical method

The ow conguration is as shown in Fig. 1. Roughness elements of square cross-section are considered with height

k=h 0:1 and pitch k=k 8. The present choice of pitch value corresponds to the so-called k-type laboratory roughness (Perry et al.,

1969). The computational domain comprised 8 square ribs on each

channel wall. The reason for having 8 ribs was motivated by the

need to make the length Lx of the computational domain longer

than 6h and thereby allow the two-point correlations of the velocity components to decay to zero for streamwise separations of Lx =2.

The driving pressure-gradient dP=dx is prescribed such that the

Reynolds number based on the channel half-width h and the

1=2

wall-friction velocity us q1 hdP=dx

is equal to 400. This is

essentially the same Reynolds number as the medium Re case

reported by Moser et al. (1999) and Abe et al. (2001) for smooth

channel ows and by Ashraan et al. (2004) for a rod-roughened

channel ow (see Table 2). The roughness height k is therefore

equal to 40 times the viscous length scale m=us . The denition of

comprises eight square ribs on each side of the channel with k w 0:1h and pitch

k 8k 0:8h. The system is rotating with constant angular velocity X about the

spanwise z-axis.

the wall-friction velocity us is routinely used in DNS and LES studies of smooth channel ows, e.g. Moser et al. (1999) and Abe et al.

(2001). In a ribbed channel ow, however, the relative contribution

of viscous wall friction to the overall pressure drop depends on the

rib height k=h, the pitch k=w (k=h), and the Reynolds number Re

(and in the present case also on the imposed system rotation). Nevertheless, us can be adopted as a velocity scale representative of

the driving pressure gradient dP=dx also for ribbed channel ows

even though most of the pressure drop is caused by form drag

(Ashraan et al., 2004).

The NavierStokes equations for an incompressible and isothermal ow in a constantly rotating frame of reference can be written

as,

~i

~

~

~i

@u

@u

@p

1 @2u

~j i

~k

u

ei3k Rou

@t

@xj

@xi Re @x2j

~i

@u

0

@xi

~ i is the

where u

instantaneous velocity component in the xi -direction in a Cartesian

coordinate system (see Fig. 1) which rotates along with the channel

with a constant angular velocity X about the z-axis. The last term on

Please cite this article in press as: Narasimhamurthy, V.D., Andersson, H.I. Turbulence statistics in a rotating ribbed channel. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow (2014),

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatuidow.2014.10.008

V.D. Narasimhamurthy, H.I. Andersson / International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow xxx (2014) xxxxxx

1.5

force and inertia. The centrifugal effects are absorbed in the effec~p

~s 18 Ro2 r2 , where p

~s is the normalized static prestive pressure p

sure and r denotes the dimensionless distance from the axis of

rotation. Periodic boundary conditions are employed in the streamwise and spanwise directions. No-slip and impermeability conditions are imposed on all the rigid surfaces. In the present study

three different rotational numbers are considered, i.e. Ro = 0, 2

and 6.

The governing equations are solved in three-dimensional space

and time using the parallel nite volume code MGLET (Manhart,

2004). The code uses staggered Cartesian grid arrangements. Spatial discretizations of the convective and diffusive uxes are carried

out using a second-order central-differencing scheme. The

momentum equations are advanced in time by a fractional-step

method using a second-order explicit AdamsBashforth scheme.

The Poisson equation for the pressure is solved by a full multi-grid

method based on pointwise velocitypressure iterations. The computational grid is divided into an arbitrary number of subgrids that

are treated as dependent grid blocks in parallel processing. In the

present study, the size of the computational domain in each coordinate direction Lx Ly Lz is 6:4h 2h 3:2h, i.e. practically the

same as in the DNS case of Moser et al. (1999), Abe et al. (2001)

and Ashraan et al. (2004) (see Table 2). In wall-units it will be

L

x Ly Lz equal to 2560 800 1280, respectively. The twopoint correlation data from Abe et al. (2001) indicate that this

domain size is sufcient for the Reynolds number considered. In

addition, spanwise two-point correlation data from the present

study also support their ndings.

The number of grid points in each coordinate direction

N x N y N z is shown in Table 2. Uniform grid spacing is adopted

in the streamwise and the spanwise directions, while a non-uniform mesh is used in the wall-normal direction. The actual grid

is chosen such that grid lines coincide with all sides of the roughness elements and no-slip and impermeability are enforced in the

same manner as at the channel walls without the need of an

immersed boundary method. The square-shaped cross-section of

a rib comprises 8 grid points in the streamwise direction and 40

grid points in the wall-normal direction. The grid resolution close

w 1 and kept constant until y 40,

i.e. up to the crest of the roughness elements. Onwards from there

the mesh is gradually stretched towards the center line to achieve

Dyc 6:6. The ne grid up to y 40 is required in order to adequately resolve the extreme gradients of the velocity variables in

the boundary layer which develops along the upper surface of each

rib (as we will see in the results sections). It is worth mentioning

here that we have also carried out a grid sensitivity test (see

Narasimhamurthy and Andersson (2011)). The total consumption

of CPU time for one case was nearly 60,000 h on an IBM P575+ parallel computer.

3. Results

The direct numerical simulations result in time-varying threedimensional ow elds. After the ow eld has reached a statistically steady state, statistics were obtained by averaging both in

time and in the homogeneous z-direction. The time-averaging

was performed over 400 samples separated 0:05h=us in time, i.e.

over 20 large-eddy time units. The roughness elements induced a

1

0.5

1

3

x/h

3

x/h

3

x/h

(b)

1.5

y/h

2Xh

Ro

us

(a)

y/h

the right hand side of Eq. (1) represents the Coriolis force due to

system rotation and eijk is the alternating unit tensor. The rotation

number Ro is dened as,

1

0.5

(c)

1.5

y/h

1

0.5

numbers: (a) Ro 0; (b) Ro 2; and (c) Ro 6. Contour values are normalized by

u2s and they range from 0.0 (white) to 8.0 (blue). The two black circles in panel (c)

highlights the energetic layers referred to in the text. (For interpretation of the

references to colour in this gure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of

this article.)

equivalence between two points x; y; z and x nk; y; z where k

is the pitch and n is an integer. A pitch-averaging was also utilized

to further improve the quality of the nal statistics. Mean values

thus obtained will be denoted by capital letters and uctuations

~ V v is the velocity component in

by lower case letters, e.g. v

the wall-normal y-direction. A variety of ow statistics will be presented in this paper. Since all statistics vary over the x; y-plane,

we concentrate on wall-to-wall proles at the midpoint of the cavity between two subsequent ribs x=k 0:43 and at the midpoint

of a rib x=k 0:93. It should be noted that these two locations are

chosen to match with the grid points closest to the exact mid-cavity and mid-rib locations x 0:4375k and x 0:9375k.

Let us rst of all consider examples of the instantaneous ow

eld. The kinetic energy of the uctuating ow eld

1

u2 v 2 w2 is shown in Fig. 2. It is readily observed that the

2

energy level is higher in the vicinity of the ribbed wall than in

the center region of the channel. In the lee of each rib, however,

a rather low energy level can be seen (the ow is from left to right).

The instantaneous ow eld in the vicinity of one rib is generally

rather different from the ow eld around a neighboring rib, as

one should expect. Highly spatially and temporally resolved PIV

measurements by Coletti et al. (2013) showed strong rib-to-rib

interactions, i.e. ow features triggered by the rib-induced separation affect the velocity eld up to the following rib.

It is intuitively obvious that the wall-mounted ribs tend to

enhance the turbulence level as compared with a smooth wall.

Although the present ribs are about three times bigger than those

of Ashraan and Andersson (2006b), the ow eld in their

Fig. 12(b) closely resembles the present Fig. 2(a). Since the Reynolds number in the DNS study by Ashraan and Andersson

(2006a,b) was the same as here, the pronounced difference in rib

height remains the same in global and wall units. In the presence

of rotation, however, a more vigorous ow eld is observed along

the lower wall in Fig. 2(b and c) while an almost quiescent ow is

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatuidow.2014.10.008

seen at the upper wall of the channel. These qualitative observations are in accordance with the well-known effects of system rotation in smooth-walled channels, namely a destabilization of the

ow along the anti-cyclonic (pressure) side and a stabilization of

the uid motion at the cyclonic (suction) side (Johnston et al.,

1972; Kristoffersen and Andersson, 1993). At the highest rotation

number Ro 6, distinct high-energy layers can be seen to emerge

upstream of almost all ribs along the upper wall in Fig. 2(c). These

noteworthy ow structures are probably cyclonic vortex sheets

which appear more pronounced when the surrounding turbulence

is damped by the stabilizing rotation. Since the shear layers are

essentially two-dimensional, these shear layers will not be suppressed by stabilizing cyclonic rotation. This situation compares

qualitatively with the cyclonically rotating mixing layer studied

by Bidokhti and Tritton (1992).

Let us denote the streamwise and wall-normal components of

the mean velocity vector Ux; y and Vx; y, respectively, whereas

the mean velocity W in the z-direction is zero due to spanwise

homogeneity. The variation of the mean streamwise velocity U is

shown in Fig. 3. The proles are distinctly different in the near-wall

region. Nevertheless, the proles collapse in the central part of the

channel, at least in the center region from y=h 0:5 to 1.5. Without

rotation, the prole is symmetric about the centerline at y=h 1:0

and exhibits a modest backow U < 0 along the cavity walls. The

16

14

12

Ro = 6

10

Ro = 2

8

6

Ro = 0

4

2

0

-2

0.5

1.5

y/h

friction velocity us for various rotation numbers. Proles are taken at two locations:

() mid-cavity position x=k 0:43; (. . ..) mid-rib position x=k 0:93. The broken

straight line has slope 2X.

y/h

(c)

y/h

0.1

0

0

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.1

0

0

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.1

0

0

(e)

y/h

y/h

(b)

(d)

0.2

(f)

y/h

y/h

(a)

the peak value 20.13 in a smooth channel ow at the same Reynolds number; Moser et al. (1999). This substantial decrease is

obviously caused by the presence of the ribs. The present decrease

DU 11:35 is much larger than DU 7:0 reported by Ashraan

et al. (2004) for the same pitch-to-height ratio at the same Re but

with smaller ribs. Leonardi et al. (2003) reported DU 13:2 for a

case with twice as high ribs but at a signicantly lower Reynolds

number Re 180.

The distinctly different mean velocity proles in Fig. 3 suggest

that the bulk ow rate through the channel may be changed due

to the imposed rotation. Indeed, the Reynolds number Reb based

on the bulk ow velocity decreases modestly from 5056 to 4904

when the rotation number increases from 0 to 2. At Ro 6, however, Reb 6064 which amounts to a 20% increase of the ow rate.

Since the driving mean pressure gradient is the same in all three

cases, the enhanced ow rate is equivalent with pressure loss

reduction.

When the rib-roughened channel is subjected to rotation about

a spanwise axis, the symmetry of the mean velocity prole is broken. Somewhat away from the pressure side of the channel, the

mean velocity U seems to increase almost linearly with y and the

position at which the maximum velocity is observed is offset about

0:4h from the channel center and the effect seems to be independent of Ro. Once again, the mean velocity prole midway between

two ribs is indistinguishable from the prole observed in the center region of the channel at the rib location.

Streamlines deduced from the mean ow are presented in

Fig. 4. The results for the non-rotating case are shown in the two

upper panels and exactly the same topology is observed at both

sides of the channel. The mean ow separates from the corner of

a rib and forms a large separation bubble which lls about 2/3 of

the cavity. The separated shear layer seems to reattach at the bottom of the cavity. However, inspection of the wall shear stress (not

shown here) shows that sw remains negative almost all along the

bottom of the cavity between two consecutive ribs. Here, a saddle

point is formed slightly above the wall at x 0:65h and separates

the large separation bubble from the minor recirculation zone

formed just upstream of the next rib. The circulation in both these

recirculation zones are in the clockwise direction at the lower wall,

whereas a small anti-clockwise bubble can be seen in the lee of the

upstream rib. The latter secondary bubble arises when the return

ow U < 0 along the bottom of the cavity separates due to a local

adverse pressure gradient.

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

2

1.9

1.8

0

2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.9

1.8

0

2

1.9

1.8

0

Fig. 4. Streamlines illustrating the recirculation zones for various rotation numbers: (ac) pressure side of the channel; (df) suction side of the channel. (a, d) Ro 0; (b, e)

Ro 2; (c, f) Ro 6. Here x-axis corresponds to a single pitch x=k.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatuidow.2014.10.008

(a)

(b)

=

Ro

Ro

Ro

0

0

(c)

0.5

Ro = 2

=6

=2

1.5

y/h

Ro = 6

0

0

Ro = 0

0.5

y/h

1.5

1.5

(d) 1.5

0.5

3

Ro

0

Ro = 6

Ro

-0.5

Ro

-1

Ro = 2

0.5

=2

=6

-1.5

Ro = 0

0

0

=0

1.5

y/h

-2

0.5

y/h

Fig. 5. Reynolds stress proles normalized by u2s for various rotation numbers. Symbol (+) in uv plot corresponds to non-rotating smooth-channel data of Moser et al. (1999).

See Fig. 3 for details.

(b)

(a)

0.5

2.5 3

2.5

1.8

2

1.6

(c)

0.5

1.5

1.5

1.8

1.5

1.5

1.6

1.6

1

1.4

1.4

0.5

1.5

1.8

1.4

y/h

1.2

1.2

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.4

2

2.5

0.2

0.5

1.5

0.6

1.5

2.5 3

x/

1.2

0.2

0.5

2

2.5

0.6

0.4

2

2.5

1.5

3.5

4

3.5

x/

0.2

0.5

3.5

3.5

4.5

x/

In the presence of system rotation, the topology of the streamlines becomes distinctly different at the two sides of the channel.

At the suction side (right column) the saddle point which separated the major and minor anti-clockwise circulations is shifted

away from the cavity wall and the secondary separation bubble

seems to vanish so that a continuous backow exists all along

the cavity wall. The ow along the rib elements is now clearly of

the skimming type, i.e. d-type according to Perry et al. (1969). At

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatuidow.2014.10.008

(d) 0.02

(a)

0.7

Ro = 2 Ro = 6

0.01

Ro = 0

0.6

-0.01

Ro = 0

+

0.4

Cuu

Puu

0.5

0.3

Ro = 2

-0.02

-0.03

0.2

0.1

-0.04

-0.05

-0.1

0.5

y/h

1.5

-0.06

Ro = 6

0.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

y/h

(e) 0.06

(b) 0.08

0.06

0.05

Ro = 6

0.04

0.04

Ro = 6

Ro = 2

0.02

0.03

+

Cvv

Pvv

Ro = 0

0

0.02

Ro = 2

-0.02

0.01

-0.04

-0.06

-0.01

Ro = 0

-0.08

(c)

0.5

y/h

1.5

-0.02

0.5

(f) 0.04

0.2

Ro = 6

0.15

0.02

0.1

Ro = 2

0

Ro = 0

Cuv

Puv

0.05

0

-0.02

-0.05

Ro = 0

-0.1

-0.04

-0.15

-0.2

y/h

Ro = 2 Ro = 6

0

0.5

y/h

1.5

-0.06

0.5

y/h

Fig. 7. Mean-strain production rate P ij (left panel) and rotational production rate C ij (right panel) terms normalized by u4s =m for various rotation numbers. Note that

P ww C ww 0. See Fig. 3 for details.

the ow which separates from the rib does now reattach to the

bottom of the cavity at Ro 6 and the major recirculation zone

is clearly separated from the minor zone. The reduction of the

major recirculation zone downstream of the rib is in qualitative

agreement with earlier experimental studies of the ow over a

rotating backward-facing step by Rothe and Johnston (1979) and

Andersson (2010). The originally d-type ow pattern has therefore

been turned into k-type roughness on the pressure side. In our earlier reports (Narasimhamurthy and Andersson, 2009, 2011) we

overlooked that the ow in the non-rotating case was of d-type

and therefore concluded that k-type roughness was turned into

d-type roughness at the suction side.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatuidow.2014.10.008

(a)

Ro = 2

Ro = 0, 6

0.2

0.1

0.2

(b)

x 10

10

-0.1

0.1

Ro = 0

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

Ro = 0

0.1

Ro = 2, 6

-0.1

Ro = 2, 6

vv

-0.2

D+

D+uu

-3

15

0

-0.1

-0.2

1.85

0.4

0.3

0.3

Ro = 6

0.2

Ro = 2

0.5

1.5

y/h

-3

x 10

(d)

Ro = 0

Ro = 2, 6

0.05

Ro = 2, 6

-0.1

0

ww

Ro = 0

0.1

D+

1.5

y/h

-5

Ro = 0

0.1

0.2

1.95

0.05

0.1

-0.05

1.9

1.95

0.1

+

Duv

(c)

0.5

1.9

-5

-10

-0.1

0

0.5

y/h

1.5

-15

0.5

1.5

y/h

Fig. 8. Viscous diffusion term Dij normalized by u4s =m for various rotation numbers (inset: magnied views of pressure- and suction-sides). See Fig. 3 for details.

In order to explain the preceding observations, the four nonzero components of the Reynolds stress tensor are presented in

Fig. 5. Without rotation the diagonal components vary symmetrically across the channel whereas the off-diagonal or shear-stress

component exhibits an anti-symmetric variation. The latter is compared with DNS data by Moser et al. (1999). As for the mean velocity proles in Fig. 3, the Reynolds stresses in the central region of

the channel are independent of the actual streamwise position

whereas substantial differences can be observed near the ribs. In

presence of rotation, the situation is dramatically changed. If the

behavior in the near-wall region is discarded, the streamwise uctuations are reduced at the pressure side whereas the uctuations

in the spanwise and wall-normal directions are increased with

increasing rates of rotation and so is the magnitude of the covariance uv . At the suction side of the channel, however, all the four

Reynolds stress components are reduced when the rib-roughened

channel is subjected to rotation.

The results for the diagonal components of the Reynolds stress

tensor presented in Fig. 5(ac) can be summarized in contour plots

of the mean turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in Fig. 6. Here, TKE is

dened as the time and spatial average of 12 u2 v 2 w2 shown

in Fig. 2. These plots conrm that the Reynolds stresses and thus

TKE is essentially independent of streamwise position in the center

region of the channel. It should be recalled that the mean velocity

proles in Fig. 3 exhibited an almost linear variation over a substantial region from y 0:5h to about y 1:3h in the rotating

channel. The turbulent kinetic energy in this central region of the

ow is clearly increasing with the rate of rotation. The same

(1995) in a rotating channel with smooth walls. Here, TKE

increases monotonically with Ro not only in the core region but

also at the pressure side of the channel. The instantaneous ow

eld in the vicinity of the suction-side ribs in Fig. 2 is distinctly

altered when Ro is increased from 2 to 6. Nevertheless, the contour

lines of TKE near the ribs are surprisingly unaffected.

The striking effects of the system rotation can be explained by

means of the exact transport equation for the second-moments

of the velocity uctuations:

Dui uj

Pij C ij Dij Gij T ij Pij eij

Dt

strain (P ij ), production due to rotation (C ij ), viscous diffusion (Dij ),

pressure diffusion (Gij ), turbulent diffusion (T ij ), pressurestrain

rate (Pij ) and the viscous dissipation (eij ) are dened as:

Pij ui uk

@U j

@U i

uj uk

;

@xk

@xk

5

Dij m

@ 2 ui uj

1 @

@

; Gij

pu d puj dik ; T ij

ui uj uk

@xk

@xk @xk

q @xk i jk

6

p @ui @uj

;

Pij

q @xj @xi

eij 2m

@ui @uj

@xk @xk

7

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatuidow.2014.10.008

0.1

Ro = 2

Ro = 6

0.05

Ro = 0

-0.05

-0.1

0

(b)

0.35

0.3

0.25

8

+

Gvv

0.5

1.5

y/h

0.3

Ro = 6

0.1

0.2

Ro = 2

0.05

0.1

Ro = 0

0.15

0.1

-0.05

1.85

0.2

1.9

1.95

0.1

0.05

0

-0.05

0.5

1.5

y/h

(c) 0.2

0.1

0

uv

channel where V 0. The mean strain production Pvv is zero in a fully

developed plane channel ow in which V 0. In absence of ribs, no

production of wall-normal velocity uctuations takes place without

rotation. The energy associated with vv is redirected from the

streamwise velocity component by means of pressurestrain interactions Pvv . In the present case, however, the bulging of the streamlines

in the vicinity of the ribs in Fig. 4 shows that V 0 in the near-wall

region, at least within 23 rib heights from each of the walls. The

mean ow is typically directed towards the wall in between the ribs

and away from the wall above the ribs, as explicitly shown by

Ashraan et al. (2004) in their Fig. 4(a). The strain rates @V=@x and

@V=@y give rise to modest sources Pvv > 0 or sinks Pvv < 0 just

above the ribs as well as in the cavities between the ribs.

When the ribbed channel is subjected to rotation about the

spanwise axis, also the rotational source term C vv comes into play.

With anti-clockwise rotation X > 0; C vv > 0 at the pressure side

and C vv < 0 along the suction side of the channel. The changeover

from being a rotational source to becoming a sink term is colocated with the change-of-sign of the Reynolds shear stress uv

in Fig. 5d. It is noteworthy that this particular position is shifted

from the channel center towards the suction side in the presence

of rotation, just as in a rotating plane channel ow (Johnston

et al., 1972; Kristoffersen and Andersson, 1993). In the central part

of the channel C vv attains an appreciable level which increases

with the rate of rotation. Since P vv is practically zero, the positive

C vv gives rise to a rather extreme increase of the wall-normal

velocity uctuations, as already observed in Fig. 5b. This phenomenon is well-known from studies of rotational effects in plane

channel ow (Johnston et al., 1972; Kristoffersen and Andersson,

1993). In the present case, however, the production of vv due to

mean strain P vv is also affected by system rotation. This is, however, an indirect effect either due to the rotational-induced

changes of the mean ow eld in Fig. 4 or most likely due to the

enhanced magnitude of uv and vv on the pressure side and the

corresponding reduction along the suction side as shown in

Fig. 5d and b, respectively.

The mean strain P uu is crucial for the turbulence generation in

turbulent ows in a non-rotating plane channel. In that canonical

ow, turbulence is produced due to interactions between the

0.2

-0.1

0.2

G+

@V

@V

4Xuv 4Xuv

Pvv C vv 2 uv

vv

@x

@y

(a)

+

Guu

Eqs. (1) and (2) without any approximations; see e.g. Launder

et al. (1987) and Hanjalic and Launder (2011). It is noteworthy that

the left-hand side comprises not only the local variation @ui uj =@t

but also the advective change U k @ui uj =@xk . The latter contribution

arises due to the presence of the ribs, whereas the former is zero

in the present statistically steady ow. For the sake of completeness, all the different terms on the right-hand side of Eq. (4) are

shown in Figs. 712. We will see that some of the terms are by

far more important than others. Within the framework of a second-moment closure of the Reynolds-averaged NavierStokes

equations, however, all terms are required in a model.

The key to explain the dramatic changes in the turbulence eld

in the presence of system rotation is the production terms associated with mean strain P and rotation C. These terms are shown in

Fig. 7 for the streamwise and wall-normal directions as well as for

the off-diagonal component. The corresponding terms in the spanwise direction, i.e. P ww and C ww , are identically zero in the present

ow case since the two-dimensional mean ow in the x; y-plane

is statistically homogeneous in the spanwise z-direction.

It is tempting to rst look at the production terms for wall-normal uctuations:

-0.2

-0.3

-0.2

-0.4

-0.4

0.1

Ro = 0

Ro = 2

Ro = 6

0

-0.5

0.05

0.5

0.1

0.15

y/h

-0.1

1.85

1.5

1.9

1.95

Fig. 9. Pressure diffusion term Gij normalized by u4s =m for various rotation numbers

(inset: magnied views of pressure- and suction-sides). Note that Gww 0. See

Fig. 3 for details.

Puu 2uv @U=@y P 0, and the source term is unconditionally

positive since the shear stress changes sign at the symmetry plane

where the mean velocity U peaks. This fact motivated Hanjalic and

Launder (1972) to add roughness elements on only one side of

their channel in order to allow P uu to locally attain negative values.

The presence of ribs also induces a streamwise variation of U so

that the total production becomes:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatuidow.2014.10.008

10

(a)

0.2

0.1

0.15

(b) 0.05

0

-0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

-0.05

0

0.05

-0.05

-0.1

-0.1

0.5

-0.1

-0.15

-0.05

-0.15

-0.2

Ro = 0

Tvv

0.05

T+uu

Ro = 2, 6

Ro = 0

1.8

y/h

1.9

-0.2

1.5

Ro = 2

1.5

1.5

y/h

(d) 0.1

(c) 0.05

Ro = 2

Ro = 6

Ro = 0

0.05

-0.05

Tuv

Ro = 0

Tww

Ro = 6

0.5

-0.1

Ro = 2

-0.15

Ro = 6

-0.2

0

0.5

y/h

1.5

-0.05

0.5

y/h

Fig. 10. Turbulent diffusion term T ij normalized by u4s =m for various rotation numbers (inset: magnied views of pressure- and suction-sides). See Fig. 3 for details.

@U

@U

@U

4Xuv 2uv

Puu C uu 2 uu

uv

2X

@x

@y

@y

immediate vicinity of a rib so that the secondary production

2uu@U=@x becomes positive around the rib. This is indeed conrmed in the present case where highly localized peaks of the dotted lines are observed in Fig. 7(a).

The rotational production of uu is exactly opposite to that of vv

since C uu C vv , as evident from Figs. 7d and e. The extra production due to the system rotation therefore tends to reduce the

streamwise uctuations at the pressure side and generate higher

uctuations on the suction side of the channel. The proles in

Fig. 5a show that uu is indeed reduced at the pressure side, at least

outside of the rib-affected region. However, uu is reduced also on

the suction side of the channel. In the wide region where

@U=@y 2X, the positive P uu is practically outweighed by the negative C uu , see the rightmost part of Eq. (9), so that the total source

of streamwise uctuations almost vanishes. On the suction side of

the mean velocity peak, however, the observed decay of uu is

caused by the rotational-induced reduction of uv in Fig. 5d rather

than by the slightly positive C uu . The modications of the streamwise velocity uctuations on the suction side is therefore not a

direct Coriolis force effect on u but rather an indirect effect through

the covariance of u and v. The turbulence eld is affected directly

by the system rotation through the rotational source term C ij

dened in Eq. (5). This is the only explicit appearance of the angular velocity X in the exact second-moment Eq. (4). These direct

changes lead, in turn, to indirect changes in the mean strain production Pij and other terms in the second-moment Eq. (4).

The covariance of u and v is determined by the mean strain and

rotational production terms:

@V

@U

@U

2Xuu vv vv

Puv C uv uu

vv

@x

@y

@y

2Xuu vv

10

It should be noticed that we have used the mean of the mass conservation equation to show that:

uv

@U @V

0

@x @y

11

The primary mean strain production P uv exhibits different signs

on the two sides of the channel and this is directly reected in the

change-of-sign of uv in Fig. 5d. In absence of rotation, both Puv and

uv vary anti-symmetrically from one side to the other. Contrary to

Puv , the rotational production C uv is independent on the mean ow

eld and remains negative as long as the turbulent ow eld

exhibits the usual anisotropy with the streamwise velocity uctuations exceeding the wall-normal uctuations. This is the case in

the near-wall regions on both sides of the rotating channel, but

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatuidow.2014.10.008

11

(a)

(b)

0.15

0.05

Ro = 6

0.1

Ro = 2

-0.05

Ro = 0

Ro = 0

-0.1

vv

uu

0.05

0

-0.05

-0.15

Ro = 2

-0.2

-0.25

-0.1

-0.3

0

(c)

0.5

y/h

1.5

(d)

0.2

Ro = 6

0.5

Ro = 2

0.05

Ro = 0

uv

+

ww

0.1

0.4

0.2

0.3

0

-0.2

0.2

1.5

y/h

Ro = 6

0.4

Ro = 6

0.15

0.5

0.1

Ro = 2

Ro = 0

0

-0.1

0.05

0.1

0.15

-0.2

1.85

1.9

1.95

0.1

0

-0.05

-0.1

0

0.5

y/h

1.5

-0.2

0.5

y/h

1.5

Fig. 11. Pressurestrain rate term Pij normalized by u4s =m for various rotation numbers (inset: magnied views of pressure- and suction-sides). See Fig. 3 for details.

not in the core region where vv > uu. Here, C uv changes sign and

accordingly tends to oppose P uv .

Diffusive transport of second-moments ui uj may arise from viscous effects (Dij ) as well as from turbulent pressure (Gij ) and velocity (T ij ) uctuations. In channel-ow turbulence these terms are

non-negligible only in the near-wall regions. Since the source

terms P ij and C ij both tend to zero at a solid wall, the various diffusion terms become increasingly important as the wall is

approached even though they are practically zero in the core

region of the channel. For the sake of completeness, however, the

terms representing viscous, pressure, and turbulent diffusion are

shown in Figs. 810, respectively. In contrast with a smooth-wall

channel ow, e.g. Moser et al. (1999), all components of the various

diffusion terms except Gww are non-zero in the rib-roughened

channel since the presence of the ribs destroys the statistical

homogeneity in the streamwise direction. The various diffusion

terms are generally enhanced near the pressure side and reduced

at the suction side when the ribbed channel is subjected to rotation. Aside from the turbulent diffusion T ij (see Fig. 10b and d)

the different terms remain negligible in the core region of the

channel. The nite T vv > 0 over most of the region where

@U=@y 2X suggests that the velocity uctuations provide fairly

efcient diffusive transport of vv from the pressure side towards

the suction side. This happens to occur in the region where the

conventional mean-strain production Puu is practically outweighed

by the rotational source C uu .

presented in Fig. 11. In conventional wall turbulence

Puu Pvv Pww < 0 since turbulent energy is transferred

from streamwise to spanwise and wall-normal uctuations. This

route of inter-component energy transfer can also be observed

above the cavity center. Near the bottom of the cavity, however,

turbulence energy is instead transferred from the wall-normal

direction (Pvv < 0) to the streamwise and spanwise directions.

This reversal of the conventional inter-component energy transfer

has also been reported by Ashraan and Andersson (2006a) for

substantially lower ribs. These effects are more accentuated at

the pressure side of the rotating channel than in a non-rotating

channel, whereas reduced energy transfer rates are seen at the suction side.

The nal term in the second-moment transport Eq. (4) is the

viscous energy dissipation rate tensor eij ; see Fig. 12. The highest

values of the individual components of eij are found in the immediate vicinity of the cavity wall and at the top surface of the ribs.

The streamwise component euu in Fig. 12a exhibits its maximum

value at the wall, but a secondary peak can be seen ush with

the top of the ribs. The dissipation evv of the wall-normal velocity

uctuations is substantially increased with increasing rotation and

seems to meet the enhancement of vv in Fig. 5b caused by the

rotational production C vv in Fig. 7e. The off-diagonal component

euv in Fig. 12d attains non-negligible levels, especially in the

near-wall regions. The results in Fig. 12 show beyond any doubt

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatuidow.2014.10.008

12

(a)

(b) 0.03

Ro = 2

Ro = 0, 6

0.2

0.25

0.025

0.1

0.05

0.15

0.02

0.15

0.2

0.1

0.015

0.01

0.1

Ro = 6

0.05

0

0.1

+

vv

0

1.85

(c) 0.5

0.5

1.5

1.5

y/h

Ro = 6

Ro = 2

0.02

0.05

0.5

Ro = 0

Ro = 0

0.1

0

0.05

0.1

0

0.15 1.85

1.9

1.95

0.01

+ww

1.5

Ro = 0

(d) 0.03

Ro = 2

0.2

y/h

0.1

0.3

0.3

1.95

Ro = 6

0.4

0.4

1.9

Ro = 2

0.005

+

uv

uu

0.2

0.2

0.1

-0.01

0.5

y/h

1.5

-0.02

0.5

y/h

eij normalized by u4s =m for various rotation numbers (inset: magnied views of pressure- and suction-sides). See Fig. 3 for details.

center as well as in the near-wall regions. The qualitative trends of

the proles of the different dissipation rate components seem to be

unaffected by rotation.

The data presented in Figs. 712 are meant to give a complete

coverage of how the different terms in the second-moment (or

Reynolds stress) Eq. (4) vary from the pressure to the suction side

of the channel at different rates of rotation. The data has been presented as proles across the channel at two characteristic streamwise locations and may readily be compared with results from

RANS-based predictions. Alternatively, the data can be used to

compare a typical modeled term with the data for the exact term

obtained from our DNSs.

4. Conclusions

We have been able to study in some detail the combined effects of

system rotation and rib-roughness on the turbulent ow in a plane

channel by means of DNS. Even at a rotation number Ro 2, the

mean ow eld and the turbulence statistics became distinctly different from the corresponding results for the non-rotating channel.

The effects of rotation are stronger, and in some aspects different, at

the highest rotation number Ro 6 considered in this paper.

In spite of the 10% blockage due to the ribs, the ow eld exhibited a statistical homogeneity in the streamwise direction over

more than half of the channel. However, the ow eld in this

due to the imposed system rotation. The mean velocity prole

Uy became asymmetric with the peak shifted towards the suction

side of the channel and at the same time tended to a linear variation U y at the pressure side, similarly as in a smooth-wall channel subjected to orthogonal-mode rotation; see e.g. Johnston et al.

(1972) and Kristoffersen and Andersson (1993). The typical anisotropy of the Reynolds-stress tensor in turbulent shear ows were

inverted so that wall-normal velocity uctuations became more

energetic than streamwise uctuations.

The turbulence statistics in the vicinity of the wall-mounted

square ribs were substantially affected by the system rotation

and enhanced and reduced turbulence levels were observed along

the pressure and suction sides, respectively. At the rotation rates

considered the most apparent effects on the turbulence eld can

be interpreted in terms of alterations in the mean-strain and rotational production terms (5) in the budget Eq. (4) for the individual

second-moments. The statistical data provided demonstrate the

substantial inuence of the Coriolis force on the individual components of the Reynolds-stress tensor when the ribbed channel ow

is rotated about the spanwise axis. The rotational or Coriolis terms

C ij dened in Eq. (5) do not appear naturally in the transport equation for the TKE since the contraction C ii is identically zero. Turbulence closures based on the assumption of an isotropic eddy

viscosity, like the k e and the k x models, do therefore not

respond adequately to system rotation. This calls for turbulence

closures at the second-moment level as pioneered by Launder

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatuidow.2014.10.008

et al. (1987) and Launder and Tselepidakis (1994); see also Jakirlic

et al. (2002) and the recent textbook by Hanjalic and Launder

(2011).

The vast majority of DNS and LES investigations of smooth-wall

and rough-wall channel ows, with and without rotation, use periodic boundary conditions in the streamwise direction. The present

length of the computational domain, Lx 8k, is sufcient to allow

the two-point velocity correlations to decay to zero for locations

Lx =2 apart in the streamwise direction. If rib-to-rib interactions

occur, as recently reported in the PIV measurements of Coletti

et al. (2013), we believe that the present choice of Lx is also sufcient to eliminate any adverse effects from the enforced periodicity.

We have learned that the combined inuences of rib-roughness

and the Coriolis force on the turbulence eld in rotating channels

cannot be foreseen by straightforward superposition. Let us, for

instance, consider the dramatic damping of the velocity uctuations in the streamwise direction at the suction side of a rotating

smooth-walled channel, as reported by Johnston et al. (1972) and

Kristoffersen and Andersson (1993). In the present case, uu is also

reduced, but the damping observed in Fig. 5(a) is much more modest and an appreciable level of uu still persists in the near-wall

region in the presence of stabilizing rotation. This is apparently

due to conventional production associated with a signicant mean

shear-rate where the fast bulk ow is skimming the slowly recirculating ow in the rib cavity; see Fig. 4(f). In turbomachinery applications the aerothermal eld is also of major importance for the

performance of the device or the cooling system. The temperature

eld and the heat transfer rate are, however, crucially dependent

on alterations in the mean ow eld in general and on the turbulent ow characteristics in particular. A reliable heat transfer analysis therefore depends crucially on a faithfully reproduced or

predicted ow eld.

Acknowledgments

The work reported herein has been supported nancially by the

Research Council of Norway (RCN) through the project Roughness

and rotating uid turbulence (Project No. 171725/V30). Computing time has been granted by RCN (Programme for Supercomputing) and by the Program in Computational Science and

Visualization (BVV) at The Norwegian University of Science and

Technology (NTNU).

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