Você está na página 1de 5

9/20/2015

SkinStructureandFunctionflashcards|Quizlet

Skin - Structure and Function


39 terms by dani_mcfarlane

Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Create a free account

What are the four functions of skin?

1. Protection (UV, mechanical,


chemical, thermal plus is a physical
barrier to invasion)
2. Thermoregulation
3. Sensation (Rc for touch, pressure,
pain, temp)
4. Metabolic (Subcutaneous fat as
energy, VitD synthesis)

What are the three layers of the skin?

1. Epidermis
2. Dermis
3. Subcutaneous fat

What are the four types of cells in the


epidermis? What are their functions?

1. Keratinocytes (squamous cells - 95%)


2. Melanocytes - melanin/colour
production
3. Langerhans' cells - immune function
4. Merkel cells - tactile function

What type of epithelium is the


epidermis (cell type)

keratinized stratified squamous

What two openings can be found in the


epidermis?

1. Endocrine sweat ducts


2. Hair follicles

https://quizlet.com/18141694/skinstructureandfunctionflashcards/

1/5

9/20/2015

SkinStructureandFunctionflashcards|Quizlet

What are the four layers of the


Epidermis? In what layer does cell
division occur? What layer is the most
differentiated?

S. Basalis - basal cell layer = cell division


S. Spinosum
S. Granulosum
S. Corneum - most differentiated,
mainly dead cells, looks like a basket
weave

What is the main difference observed


in the epithelium between thick and
thin skin?

Thick skin has very dense and thick


stratum corneum. Thin skin has a think
layer of s. corneum where you can still
see the basket weave pattern

How are keratinocytes attached to one


another?

Desmosomes

What is the renewal rate of the


epidermis?

4 weeks. 2 weeks to get from basal


layer --> granular layer + 2 weeks to
cross s. corneum

The junction between the epidermis


and dermis is characterized by
downward folds of the epidermis called
________ which integrate with upward
projections of the dermis called
__________.

Rete Ridges (epidermis)


Dermal papillae (dermis)

What is hyperkeratosis? What are the


two different subtypes? How does this
present clinically?

Increased thickness of the stratum


corneum (chronic)
1. Orthokeratosis = no nuclei in s.
corneum
2. Parakeratosis - nuclei present in s.
corneum
Both present clinically as SCALE
Often occurs with acanthosis

Spongiosis

(Acute Dermatitis)
Intracellular edema (edema btw
keratinocytes), looks like a juicy papule

Acanthosis

Epidermal hyperplasia = thickening of


the epidermis (chronic)
Often occurs with hyperkeratosis

Atrophy

Thinning of the skin

https://quizlet.com/18141694/skinstructureandfunctionflashcards/

2/5

9/20/2015

SkinStructureandFunctionflashcards|Quizlet

Acantholysis

Loss of attachment between


keratinocytes (desmosomes). Cell
separate and assume round shapes

Lichenification

Thickening of all layers of epidermis


and dermis

What type of epidermal change occurs


(histologically) in acute eczematous
dermatitis?

Spongiosis

What type of epidermal change occurs


(histologically) in Pemphigus Vulgaris?

Acantholysis - loss of desmosomal


connection, keratinocytes round up
and separate

What type of epidermal change has


occurred (histologically) when someone
has rough skin with increased skin
markings as a result of chronic
rubbing?

Lichenification

Melanocytes produce and secrete


melanin. What is melanin synthesized
from and where does this synthesis
take place?

Melanin is synthesized from tyrosine by


typrosinase enzyme. Synthesis occurs
in melanosomes

What factors contribute to the


difference in skin pigmentation?

1. Number and Size of melanosomes


2. Melanosome dispersion in the skin
Note: People of all races have similar
number of melanocytes

How do melanocytes help protect


against UV damage.

Melanocytes produce and secrete


melanin. Melanin synthesis occurs in
melanosomes. Melanosomes are
transferred to keratinocytes and cap
the keratinocyte nucleus protecting it
from UV damage.

The lips, digits and oral cavity are


abundant in what cell type? (in the
epidermis)

Merkel cells (tactile sensation)

Bullous pemphigoid is a blistering


disease that causes separation of _____
from ______.

Epidermis (basement membrane) from


dermis

https://quizlet.com/18141694/skinstructureandfunctionflashcards/

3/5

9/20/2015

SkinStructureandFunctionflashcards|Quizlet

Where are BPAg1 and BPAg2 located?


(Bullous Pemphigoid Antigens)

In the hemidesmosome

What are the two zones of the dermis?


Which one is superficial and which one
is deep? How are collagen fibers
arranged in each?

1. Papillary Dermis = superficial,


collagen is fine and loosely arranged
2. Reticular Dermis = deep, collagen is
thick and densely packed

Where in the skin are blood vessels,


lymphatics and nerves located?

Dermis.
Dermis contains two plexuses,
superficial and deep with connecting
capillaries. Free nerve endings convey
sensory info for touch, temp and pain

What are two functions of blood


vessels in the skin?

Temperature regulation and nutrition

With regards to temperature and heat


regulation, shunting blood to the
superficial plexus results in _______,
shunting blood to deep plexus results
in __________.

Superficial = heat loss


Deep = heat conservation

What is the function of eccrine sweat


glands? Where are they located?

Help regulate body temp by excreting


sweat onto the skin surface. Located
almost everywhere. Structure looks like
a ball of spaghetti with a straw to the
surface of the skin.

What glands are responsible for body


odour?

Apocrine sweat gland. Odour produced


by bacteria on the skin surface with the
apocrine sweat which is actually
odourless.

Where are apocrine glads located (both


in the skin microscopically and around
the body?)

Gland located deep in the dermis. Duct


drains into mid-hair follicle. Located in
axilla, anogenital region, and as
modified glands in the external ear
canal, eyelid, and breast (mammary
gland).

What are the two types of hairs?

Vellus (light and fine)


Terminal (dark and thick - hormonal
dependent)

https://quizlet.com/18141694/skinstructureandfunctionflashcards/

4/5

9/20/2015

SkinStructureandFunctionflashcards|Quizlet

What determines the pigment of a


hair?

The amount of melanocytes in the cells


of the hair bulb (matrix).

What are the two components of the


pilosebaceous unit? What disease is
produced by messed up pilosebaceous
units?

1. Sebaceous gland
2. Hair follicle (with pore at the top)
Acne (open or closed comedone)

What is the primary event in the


pathogenesis of acne?

Development of comedones

What are the three phases of the hair


growth cycle and what occurs in each
phase?

1. Anagen - growing
2. Catogen - regressing
3. Telogen - resting

What is secreted by sebaceous glands?


Where are they located
(microscopically and on the body)?

Sebum, secretion controlled by


androgen activity
Located in the dermis, drain into hair
follicle
Most prominent on scalp, face and
trunk. Palms and soles are the only
regions WITHOUT sebaceous glands

What part of the skin helps insulate the


body from cold and cushions deep
tissue from trauma?

https://quizlet.com/18141694/skinstructureandfunctionflashcards/

Subcutaneous fat

5/5