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SML ISUZU

PROJECT REPORT
In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree for
Six months Industrial training at
SML ISUZU
(FROM JUN 14 NOV 2014)

SUBMITED BY:Chetan Sharma(1152571)


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
SHAHEED BHAGAT SINGH STATE TECHINCAL
CAPMUS
FEROZEPUR

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
1

SML ISUZU

I would like sincerely to thank Mr.Ashwani Kunar(Quality Department), Mr.


Mandeep Sehgal, Mr. Jaideep Malhotra and whole team of SML ISUZU
who helped us in carrying out our training in the Quality Department. Apart
from the technical knowledge we are also getting a real feel of working in a
corporate office. We would like to acknowledge SML ISUZU team and the
engineers for their unconstrained support for our industrial practical training
in the field of engineering. This training has helped us to learn operations of
technology and will continue. So we look forward for giving our support to
any project initiated by the company.
I must place my gratitude towards Mr. Arun Handa for their valuable advice
and guidance in carrying out this enjoyable and productive experience which
is providing great opportunity to search new horizons.

Table of Contents:-

SML ISUZU
Serial no.

Particulars

Page No.

1.

Corporate Profile

2.

Evolving Journey of SML ISUZU

3.

5S Activity in SML ISUZU

1
14

4.

Various Departments of SML ISUZU

15

4.1

Personnel Department

16

4.2

Research and Development Department

16

4.3

Quality Engineering Department

16

4.4

Technology Department

16

4.5

Accounts Department

16

4.6

Purchase Department

17

4.7
5

Maintenance Department

17

SML ISUZU Shop Classification

20

5.1

Body Shop

20

5.
5.2

Frame Line

20-22

5.3

Cabin Assembling Line

22-24

5.4

Paint Shop

24-25

5.5

Pre- Treatment Line

25-28

5.6

Paint Line

28-31

5.7

Vehicle Assembly Shop

31-32

5.8

Cabin Assembly Line

32-33

5.9

Axle Shop

34-35

5.9.1

Front Axle

35-36

5.9.2

Rear Axle

36-37

Differential Assembly

37-40

Engine and Transmission Assembly Line

40-41

Engine Assembly Line

41-42

Engine Testing

43-44

10

Transmission Assembly Line

44-46

5-10
11-13

SML ISUZU
11

Main Assembly Line

46-50

12

Quality Engineering Department

48-49
51-53

13

Metrology Lab: Metrology

51-53

Chemical Composition

50-51

14

Standard Room

51-53

15

55-56

16

Electrical Lab
Project no.1 ( To develop a diagnostic tool )

17

Project no.2 ( air brakes assembling study)

84-122

18

Project no.3 (heat exchange study)

123-154

19

Project no.4 ( To implement 3S)

154-182

20

Appendix

183-189

21

Bibliography

13.1

56-83

190

SML ISUZU LTD

SML ISUZU

Corporate Profile
SML ISUZU was promoted in 5th October 1984 in technical and financial
collaboration
With Punjab tractors limited, Mazda motors corporation and Sumitomo motors
corporation, Japan for manufacturing of light commercial vehicles (LCVs). SML
ISUZU represents two powerful brands: SWARAJ- symbolizing best Indian
technology and engineering.
Mazda Motors Corporation of Japan, established in 1920, is an enterprise of
international repute. Mazda started manufacturing trucks as back in1931. Today
this enterprise has the distinction in being the only company in the world
producing petrol and diesel engine as well as the revolutionary rotary engines.
Mazda is ever seeing the new areas of product excellence and innovation. It
adheres audaciously to 2000 check point before declaring any vehicle road
worthy. The use of robots, latest technology and world class production enables
Mazda to produce vehicles of outstanding quality and performance. No wonder
SML ISUZU has won appreciations all over the world for the quality products that
are rolling out its plant.
The assembly unit of SML ISUZU limited is located at village Asron district
Nawanshahar (Punjab) near the city of Ropar and at a distance of 40kms from
the capital city of Chandigarh the plant has a captivating site. It spread over a
quaint, sprawling 100 acres of land ringed by shiwalik hills on the three of its
sides and river Satluj on the other. The desolate slit hill has been leveled for
construction. The construction at this Rs.50 crores plant, commenced on 16 th
January 1985.work mat the plant at a great tempo and the first vehicles rolled out
at the production line in a record time of one year of laying the foundation stone.

About Mazda
5

SML ISUZU
Earlier known as Toyo Kagyo co. ltd; Mazda Motor Corporation of Hiroshima is
the seventh largest automobile company in the world. This company has the
distinction of developing the wankel rotary engine in 1967. It produces 1.2 million
Vehicles annually manufactured at its plant set up in 16 countries that include
Korea, New Zealand, India and Pakistan.
The main products of Mazda include passengers cars (RX-7,929,323ETC),vans
(T-2000,T-3500,E-1400 etc.),pickups(B-1600,B-2000,E-2200 ETC.) and trucks(T2600,
T-3000, T-3500 etc.). Other products include machine tools, rock drills and gauge
blocks etc.
In Japan, Mazda has its plant at Hiroshima, Hofu and Miyoshi. Recently, FORD
Motors of U.S.A has collaborated with MC to manufacture vehicles in the U.S.
Mazdas high standard R&D quality is reflected in the numerous competitive
awards it has won. Mazda savanna RX-7 got the car of the year award in 1978
and Mazda famila323 won the JAPENESE CAR OF THE YEAR award in the
year 1981. Mazda RX-7 racing car with a rotary engine has won the prestigious
SAFARI CAR RALLY innumerable number of times. Mazda cars, considered
Rothmans car rally, too.
Mazda 323 4WDs have made a fantastic start in the early rounds of the 1987
world rally championship(WRC), taking first place in overall in the Swedish rally
and fifth overall in the Monte Carlo rally. The Mazda RX-7 has won a record sixth
GTU crown since 1982 in the famed Diatona 24 hour race in Florida, U.S.A.
Discipline and its right enforcement is an important hallmark of the SML ISUZU. It
is a great significance in evolving work culture. All the employees, irrespective of
their position or status, have to punch their position or status, have to punch their
when they report for duty. As a result strict punctuality has become a way of life
and work with them.
To ensure industrial peace i.e. absence of the strikes and lockouts, SML ISUZU
believes in creating a contented labour force with a very low rate of absenteeism
and turn over. Reasonably fair wages and various perks like subsidized uniform

SML ISUZU
and transport, mess facilities go a long way in creating identification with the job.
Earnestness, sincerity and spirit of corporation pervade the entire atmosphere of
the company.
No politics of confrontation is found in SML ISUZU. Problems if any are sorted
out through mutual negotiations in an amiable atmosphere of give and take.
These positive steps have been instrumental in evolving work ethos. The happy
absence of industrial disputes in the enterprise speaks volumes for the success
of these and cultivation of work culture. Work culture of work ethos is given high
priority. It is fully recognized that the objective of the enterprise higher and
higher production, productivity and indigenization can be attainted through
commitment in to commonness of goal in each and every member of SML ISUZU
family. The entire planning is undertaken in such a way as to inculcate the spirit
of dedication in each member whether he is a semi-skilled worker or belongs to
the managerial cadre. Many effective steps are taken to bring this about and
important among them are:

Common canteen and mess for all. Same meals are served to all and in
identical utensils. Everybody has to stand in a queue to get his or her
meals.

Common uniform is there for all new members irrespective of there status

No separate cabins for the members of a higher hierarchy. All the


members of a department or a section there of sit and work in one hall
with the manager.

Facing the staff. Every employee carries his or her files, thus inculcating
the spirit of dignity of labour in the staff.

The LCVs are manufactured in five colours- Santos red, Nile blue, Light Beige,
White and Golden Yellow. In addition to this other colours can be made on
demand. The most distinguish feature of these vehicle is that beneath the design
and sleek looks are the study box section tubular crossed braced chassis. The
chassis are more than three times stronger than other vehicle on the road. SML
7

SML ISUZU
ISUZU vehicles are not only stronger on the road but also fuel efficient. Fully
loaded they give an average of 13.5 Km/l at 45 Km/hr. A hydraulic assisted
diaphragm reduces the clutch pressure by 37 percent. A low RPM high torque
engine assures long life and hanging speed for uphill driving. A spacious three
seater cab with three level air vents make the cab extremely comfortable and
driving a treat. A short turning radius gives SML ISUZU an excellent
maneuverability and congested and hill roads.
Prominent among the load carriers SML ISUZU is also manufacturing:

4 wheel drives;

Extend wheel base long chassis mini buses which carry up to 44


passengers;

Deluxe buses carries up to 40 passengers ;

Ambulance developed with active involvement of senior specialist from


post graduate institute of medical science and research, Chandigarh

Hydraulic operated dumpers;

Dual cabin load carriers;

LTC Busses;

SML ISUZU vehicles population today stands over 70,000. SML ISUZU gives
due attention to the marketing part and the employees are highly qualified and
trained to fit the job. SML ISUZU has a vast network of over 128 dealers spread
throughout the country including the A & N Island. Zonal office opened in
Chandigarh, Lucknow, Calcutta, Ahemdabad, Mumbai, Chennai. This helps
substantially in sales promotion, especially for hi-tech products, is also being
emphasized.
Discipline and rigid enforcement without discrimination are important hallmark of
SML ISUZU. It is of great significance in involving work culture. All the
employees, irrespective of their position and status, have to punch their cards
when they report for duty .as a result, strict punctuality has become a way of life
and work with them.

SML ISUZU
To insure industrial peace, i.e absence of strike and lockouts SML ISUZU
believes in making a contended labour force with a very slow rate of absenteeism
Reasonably fair wages and various perks like subsidized uniform and transport,
mess facilities go a long way in creating identification with the job. Earnestness,
sincerity and spirit co-operation pervades the entire atmosphere of the company.
The happy absence of industrial disputes in the enterprises speaks volume for
the success of the firm and cultivation of work culture.
Work culture or work ethos is given very high precedence. It is fully recognized
that the objective of the concerns higher and higher production, productivity,
and indigenization can be attained through commitment into commonness of
GOAL in each and every member of the Swaraj family. The entire planning is
undertaking in such a way so as to in culcate the spirit of dedication in each
member, whether he is a skilled or semi-skilled worker or belongs to the
managerial cadre. Many effective steps are taken to bring this about. Important
amongst them are:
The corporate profile of SML ISUZU LTD. projects a bright future for the
company. That is how it should be considering its importance for our economy. It
is adding its share to the real assets and job opportunities in the areas thus
bringing socio-economic reforms in whole of Punjab.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

S.K. TUTEJA CHAIRMAN


HARKIRAT SINGH

SML ISUZU
K. MACHIDA
T. YOSHIMOTO
Y. TATSUTA
DONALD PECK
MALCOM D. GOUGH
YASH MAHAJAN Vice Chairman
& Managing Director
H. NAGAOAKA - Alternate
Director to K. MACHIDA
T. NAGASHIMA-Alternate
director to Y. TATSUTA
MEMBERS OF THE EXECUTIVE

B.S. DEVGUN

BOARD

P. SHIVRAM

VICE PRECIDENT- FINANCE &

GOPAL BANSAL

COMPONY SECRETARY
AUDITORS

PRICE WATERHOUSE

BANKERS

CANARA BANK
INDIAN OVERSEAS BANK

REGISTERED OFFICE AND

VILLAGE ASRON,

WORKS

DISTT. NAWANSHAHAR
140001 (PUNJAB)

CORPORATE OFFICE

SCO : 204-205,
SECTOR-34A,
CHANDIGARH-160 022

10

SML ISUZU
Evolving Journey of SML ISUZU
1983: SWARAJ vehicles limited (SVL) in corporate in July.
1984: joint venture and technical assistance concluded between Punjab tractors
limited,
Mazda motors corporation and sumito corporation Japan.
1985: Project set up with the capacity of 5,000 LCVs at a capital outlay of Rs200
millions. Equity of Rs 105 million was subscribed by:

SML ISUZU LIMITED


EQUITY SHAREHOLDING PATTERN
AS ON 31st March, 2014
% of Shareholding
1) Punjab Tractors Ltd. (PTL)

14.04%

2) Sumitomo Corporation, Japan

41.03%

3) Mutual Funds/Nationalised Banks

7.97%

4) FIIs

9.31%

5) Public

27.65%

Trail production and test marketing of SML ISUZU truck WT-48, WT- 49 WT50 LCVs; commenced
1986: commercial operation started.
1988: Introduction of indigenously developed bus.
1989: In-house tooling of local production of chassis long member.
1990: In-house developed second truck model (SML ISUZU Super) launched.
1991: Transmission components indigenized.
1992: Components of trucks supplied to ministry of defence (MOD). 500 vehicles
11

SML ISUZU
supplied to defence..
1993: Third truck model (SWRAJ MAZDA PREMIUM) launched.
1994: Declared a sick company under SICA (due to rupee devaluation of 199193)
1995: BIFR approves rehabilitation.
1996: 4- wheel truck developed.
1997: Company ceases to be a sick industrial company on the basis of positive
net worth
4-years of BIFR scheme projection.
1998: complete wipe of f accumulated loses.
1999: Bharat Stage-1 emission norms compiled.
2000: Maiden dividend declared @ 10% technical assistance agreement with
Mazda
Extend up to October 2004.
2000: Cumulative sales crosses 50.000 vehicles, 4- wheel drives ambulance
launched in
March, economy truck SARTAJ launched in August, CNG bus for NCR
Delhi
launched in October, Bharat Stage -2 emission norms compiled.
2002: Profit before tax for FY-2002 crosses Rs100 million and dividend raised to
25%.
2003: Cumulative vehicles sales reached 68,000, profit before tax for FY-2003
grows 115% to Rs 225 millions, dividend enhanced to 45%.

ORGANIZATIONAL SET UP OF SML ISUZU

12

SML ISUZU

MANAGING DIRECTOR
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
VICE PRESIDENT

GENERAL MANAGER

SENIOR MANAGER

CHIEF MANAGER

ASSOCAITIVE VICE
PRESIDENT
DEPUTY GENERAL
MANAGER
MANAGER
ASST MANAGER

ENGINEER

SENIOR ENGINEER

ASST ENGINEER

JUNIOR ENGINEER

5S Activity in SML ISUZU


In order to achieve the goals set up by the concerns effectively and efficiently the
organization follows the 5 S activity that is:

SIEIRI: Classify the things into necessary ones and unnecessary ones.
Discard the unnecessary ones.

13

SML ISUZU

SEITION: Put the things in order so that they are available when needed.

SEISO: Keep the work area and the machine /tool clean so that abnormal
conditions are detected.

SEIKETSU: keep the work area clean as well as the personal cleanliness.
The conditions of the company should be hygienic.

SHITSUKE: There should be all around discipline. The workers should be


taught to work in a disciplined manner.

The result of all this has been rapid increase in output of vehicles and sharp
reduction in cash loses. The turn over for 2000-2001 exceeds Rs. 271 crores.
Today the company manufactures light commercial vehicles like trucks, buses,
police vans, water tankers, ambulance, and special vehicles and also exports to
the countries like Nepal, Zambia, Bangladesh, Kenya, sri-lanka and Jordan.

Various Departments of SML ISUZU


1. Personnel Department.
2. Research and Development.
3. Quality Engineering Department
4. Technology Department
5. Accounts Department
14

SML ISUZU
6. Purchase Department
7. Maintenance Department

Personnel Department
This department is headed by Mr. P.K. Bhardawaj (Chief Manager)
Objectives of the personnel Department :

Recruitment and promotion policies

Welfare schemes

Discipline and grievance redressal

Security

Canteen Services

Introduction to labour laws

Research and Development Department


Structure of R&D Department

Chief Manager

Manager

Senior Engineer

Engineer

Junior Engineer

Draft Men

Further plans of R&D Department

15

SML ISUZU
1. Research on compressed natural gas (C.N.G) engines.
2. To increase the diameter of clutch. Ultimately increase in size of clutch
housing.
3. Installation of modified engine mounting pad test rig.
4. Research on shifting of gears by cables.
5. Bulletproof 4WD vehicles for army.
Quality Engineering Department
This department is headed by Er. K.N. Rai (Senior Manager) is the most crucial
department. The responsibility of the whole department is to ensure the quality of
each incoming as well as outgoing products.
The department is divided in sub- department:1. QE(Receipt)
2. QE(Lab)
3. QE(Vendor)
4. QE(Manufacture)
Technology Department
This department is headed by Mr. Rohit Rastogi (chief. Manager).
This department is sub divided in to following department:

Industrial engineering.

Production engineering.

Tool design.

Accounts Department
This department is headed by Mr. Bhatia (Senior Manager)
Functions of accounts Department
16

SML ISUZU

Sales Accounts.

Purchase Accounts.

Labour Accounts.

Cost Accounts.

Internal Audit.

Purchase Department
This department is headed by Mr. K.I. Malik (General Manager).
Functions of Purchase Department
1. Vendor selection and vendor development.
2. To make list of suppliers.
3. To organize purchase negotiations.
4. Documents/reports generation and their utility.
5. To record vendors performance and subsequent actions.

4.7 Maintenance Department


This department is headed by Mr. H.C Tondon (gen Manager)
Objectives of Maintenance Department
This main objective of this department is to proper conditions of machines and
other equipments and other equipments used in plant and inter- cooling of plant
supply of compressed air through the plant to drive the air guns.

17

SML ISUZU

18

SML ISUZU
Flow Diagram of the SML ISUZU Plant
ENGINE
ASSEMBLY

ENGINE COMPONENTS
FROM WASHING
MACHINE

ENGINE ASSEMBLY
AND TESTING

T/M ASSY
LINE

CABIN
WELDIN
G

BODY
SHOP

LONG MEMBER
STORAGE

PARTS FROM
STORE

TEMPORARY PART
SETTING

FLOOR
ASSEMBLY.

TACK/FULL
WELDING

CABIN
ASSEMBLY

TRANSMISSION
ASSEMBLY AND
TESTING

FRONT/REAR AXLE &


DIFFERENTIAL ASSY.

CABIN PRE
TREATMENT
& BLACK
DIPPING

CARGO BOX
FROM STORE

BAKING

CARGO BOX
ASSEMBLY

SEALANT AND
PRIMER
APPLICATION

SLEEPER
ASSEMBLY

CARGO BOX
WELDING
STRAIN RELIEVING

TRANSMISSION
COMPONENTS FROM
WASHING MACHINE

CABIN & CARGO


ASSY & PAINTING

DOOR WELDING
& ASSEMBLY

CHASSIS PAINTING
FINAL FITTING
AND FINISHING

BAKING

FINAL
PAINTING

CARGO
WASHING
SEALANT
APPLICATION

BAKING
BAKING
TO PAINT SHOP

VEHICLE
ASSEMBLY
LINE

INSPECTION
FINAL
PAINTING
PAINTED
CABIN TO
VECH. ASSY.

PRE DELIVERY
INSPECTION

BAKING

ROAD/SHOWER
TEST

CABIN
DRESSING
WITH SUB
ASSEMBLY

AXLE COMPONENTS
FROM WASHING
MACHINE
CARGO BOX
MOUNTING

AXLE
ASSY LINE

RUST PREVENTIVE
APPLICATION

VEHICLE TO
STOCK YARD

19

INSPECTION

SML ISUZU
5. SML ISUZU Shop Classification
Above is shown a flow chart of SML ISUZU shop floor. It is divided into following
three shops:

Body Shop

Paint Shop

Assembly Shop

Body Shop
Body shop consists of three lines known as Frame line, Cargo line and Cabin
line. After assembly, cabin and cargo is sent to the paint shop and the frame to
the vehicle assembly shop.

Frame Line
In frame assembly line, six different chassis frames are assembled. These are
WT 48, WT 49, WT 50, WT50L and WV26, ELWB. The assembly of these 6
different chassis is completed through 5 different stations which are as follows:

TEMPORARY ASSEMBLY STATION

At this station all cross members are fitted to the side members placing these on
the special type of jig. Then the temporary assembly is taken to the next station
which is known a Tack Welding Station. The temporary assembly is also known
as Side Member and Cross Member Assembly Jig.

20

SML ISUZU

TACK WELDING STATION

At this station other components like brackets, hangers for load springs etc are
positioned on this temporary assembly. At this station small tacks are made to
temporary mount the various components like bracket, hangers for load spring
etc. Then this tack welded assembly is taken to the next station where full
welding of the frame assembly is done. This station is known as Full Welding
Station.

FULL WELDING STATION

The tack welded assembly is mounted on rotating jig which permits easy welding
of tubular cross members. At this station full welding is carried out with the help
of MIG welding.
STRAIN RELIEVING STATION
A special type of fixture is there in the strain relieving station .The fixture has
clamping arrangement along with hydraulic and mechanical operated jacks fitted
on it. The purpose of the jack is to relieve the assembly of the strain developed
during welding. The distortion caused by welding is detected by a scale fitted on
the hydraulic jig. Then this distortion is corrected by applying described pressure
through the hydraulic jacks.

BLACK PAINTING STATION

At this station the complete frame assembly is cleaned by pressurized air and
then black paint is sprayed in the paint booth. From this station the frame is taken
to the vehicle assembly shop sometime by the trolleys and sometime by the fock
lifters.

21

SML ISUZU

FRAME REWORK STATION

At this station finishing of frame is done like grinding, MIG welding and paint
touch up etc and location of components are checked with the help of gauges.
5.1.2 Cabin Assembling Line
The cabin is assembled through four different stations. These are as
follows:

FLOOR ASSEMBLY JIG

Floor assembly has two different jigs. The first jig has pneumatic clamps, where
as the second jig is a rotating jig. The parts which are resistance spot welded are
firstly clamped on the pneumatic clamps. These parts are cross member No-1,
filler plate lamp housing, cross member No -2, bracket master, cylinder gusset
plate, wheel apron, side members, floor pan assembly. Some parts are coated
with a zinc rich primer before being spot welded, those parts are Wheel Apron,
Gusset Plate etc. On the first floor jig some area remains inaccessible so the
floor is taken to rotating jig for spot welding.

SIDE MEMBER ASSEMBLY JIG

Two different jigs are used to assemble the L.H.S. and R.H.S. frames. The other
parts which are assembled are Pillar A- Out, Pillar B-Out, Pillar
Hinges and Stiffeners etc.

22

B-in, and

SML ISUZU

CABIN ASSEMBLY JIG NO-1

The side frames are welded to the floor assembly. The front panel, cross member
front and header are spot welded at this station. The assembly of cabin is done
on two jigs. The first one has its poles operated hydraulically whereas clamps are
pneumatic. All above stated parts are assembled on the jig.

CABIN ASSEMBLING JIG NO-2

In this jig roof is being welded and remaining spots of front panel etc are also
welded.
Then assembly is taken to other jig which is approximately 2m above the ground
level to enable spot welding of side frames with the floor assembly from the
bottom to make the cabin water proof. Rubber Sealant is applied to the bottom
floor assembly.

CABIN FINISHING STATION

From cabin assembly station cabin is taken to this station by Fitting on the trolley.
At this station punches caused by spot welding are repaired by brazing. Doors
are also fixed to the cabin at this station. Before the cabin is taken to the paint
shop, cabin number is punched to the cabin. Minimum weld penetration required
is 20 percent of the sheet thickness. The cabin for WT48 & WT49 is same where
as it is different for WT50.

Types of Welding Operations in Body Shop


Two types of welding operations are used in body shop these are:
1. Gas Metal Arc welding ( MIG)
2. Resistance Spot Welding
23

SML ISUZU
1. GAS METAL ARC WELDING
MIG is an arc welding process in which heat for welding is generated by an arc
between a consumable electrode and work metal. The electrode of M.S. Copper
coated wire having diameter 1.2 mm is continuously fed to the weld area by
means of a D.C. Motor at speed of 9-12 m/min. This speed of feeding the
electrode can be adjusted according to the requirement. The steam of CO 2 gas is
to provide protection from atmospheric contamination to weld puddle, arc, and
adjusted area of base metal and the electrode. The direct current with reverse
Polarity (i.e. electrode is made positive and work is made negative) is used.
2. RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING
Resistance spot welding is a process in which surfaces are joined by the
heat generation by resistance to the floor of electric current through work piece
that are held together under force by electrodes. The surface in contact is
heated, in the region of current concentration by short time pulse of low voltage,
high amperage current to form a fused nugget of weld metal. When the flow of
current ceases, the force is maintained while the weld metal rapidly cools and
solidifies.

Paint Shop
In this shop painting and other surface treatment process are carried out on
cabin assemblies and cargo boxes.
This shop is again divided into two stations, which are:

Pretreatment Line.

Paint line

24

SML ISUZU
In pre-treatment line various surface treatment processes are carried out on the
cabin assembly, which is received from the body shop.
The pre treatment processes are carried out in the following sequence :

Kerosene cleaning.

Degreasing.

Rinsing.

Derusting.

Surface conditioning.

Phosphating.

Rinsing.

Passivation.

Black dipping.

In paint shop cabin and cargo boxes are painted before these are sent to the
vehicle assembly shop. The painting of cabin is done after being pretreated. So
we can divide the total paint shop in the two lines. These are Pre-treatment Line
and Paint Line.
Sheet metal painting is required to improve life and static appearance.
Pre- Treatment Line
Pre- treatment line is having series of different operations. The detail of these
operations is as follows:

25

SML ISUZU

1. DEGREASING

CHEMICAL

NIPAKLIN GN 360

BATH PARAMETRS

BATH SPECIFICATION

TEMPERATURE
FAL (POINTAGE)
OIL CONTENT (PPM)
DIPING TIME

(55-60)C
252
<3000
5 MIN.

DISCARD FREQUENCY

ONCE IN A FOUR MONTH


(100%)

TANK CLEANING

ONCE IN A MONTH

Chemical used in degreasing is caustic solution of nipaklin 22-25

The chemical in the tank is maintained at a temperature of 55 +5 oC

The dipping time for cabin in Degreasing Tank is 3-5 minutes.

The purpose of the degreasing is to remove dust and grease.

2.

SIMPLE WATER TANK (WATER RINSING)

After dipping in degreasing tank, the cabin is dipped in a simple water tank for
Water Rinsing. This operation is used to clean the chemical which is used in the
Degreasing Process.

3. DERUSTING TANK

26

SML ISUZU

The chemical used in the tank contains 30 % Phosphoric Acid Solution

This operation is done to remove the light rust.

Dipping time for cabin in Derusting Tank is 3-5 minutes.

4. WATER RINSING TANK


Water Rinsing is done on the cabin so that all the derusting chemicals can be
removed.

5. SURFACE CONDITIONER
Chemical used in surface conditioner is Detonium Salt .The dipping time cabins
25 seconds. The process is to prepare cabin for phosphating.
6. PHOSPHATE TANK (PHOSPHATING)
After surface conditioning operation, cabin is taken to phosphate Tank. The
chemical used in this Tank is Zinc phosphate. The chemical in the tank is
maintained at a temperature of 45

5oC. The dipping time in the tank is 3-5

minutes.
7. PASSIVATION
The chemical used for passivation operation is chromic acid solution. This
operation is done to increase corrosion resistance of phosphate coating.
8.

DM WATER RINSING

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SML ISUZU
After passivation no other chemical operation required. So DM Water rinsing is
done. Demineralised Water is used for DM Water Rising. This operation is used
to achieve acid neutralisation. The cabin is dipped 2 or 3 times. Water is
maintained at room temperature.

9. BLACK DIPPING
Black dipping of the cabin is done to increase the strength of the part of the cabin
to increase the strength of the floor, only floor is black dipped in water soluble
black paint which is chemical resistant. The paint is maintained at a temperature
of 30oc.

10. BAKING
After black dipping cabin is placed on the trolley and pushed inside the oven
where the temperature is maintained at 160C. After placing cabin for 30 minutes
in the oven. It is taken out of the oven and sends for next operation.

Paint Line
The Pre-treated Cabin is firstly coated with Thermosetting Primer surface spray.
Then sent for paint coating whereas cargo boxes are directly sent for paint
cooling after some operations of cleaning and rubber sealing etc. The various
operations in paint line are as follows:
1. COATING OF SOUND DEADNER

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SML ISUZU
Sound deadener is a rubber compound. Sound deadener layer is coated over
the wheel curvature of cabin and also at the lower side of mudguard. Sound
deadener destroys the sound created by stone hitting the mudguard and
prevents it from being transmitted to the inside of the cabin. Sound deadener is
applied in the booth between the pre- treatment line and paint line.

2. CLEANING
Cabin is cleaned by using sand papers of different numbers and then using often
cloth pieces to remove dust particle from the cabin surface. The operation is
done, for proper adhesion of primer on the cabin surface.
3. PRIMER COATING
After cleaning operation cabin is then taken to paint booth. In the paint booth
thermosetting primer surface spray is sprayed on the surface of the cabin. In
paint shop all paint booths are given filtered air that flows from roof to the floor
with pressure which grinds the overspray paint particles to flow with the running
water. Sufficient air pressure is given within the booth so that painters feel
comfortable during painting.

4. FLASH OFF
After painting operation cabin is kept for 5-10 minutes in another booth to enable
the primer to settle down to some extent. After 5-10 minutes it is wheeled inside
the oven and exposed to oven temp.

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SML ISUZU

5. BAKING
Cabin is placed inside the oven which is maintained at a temp of 140 * C for 30
minutes so that Primer gets adhere properly to the surface of the cabin, Sealant
is applied at all joints of the cabin to make the cabin water proof. Then again after
sealant operation cabin is wheeled inside the oven to allow the sealant to get
hardened due to Baking.
6. CLEANING
Before painting operation, cabin is cleaned in order to remove a possible
impurity on the primer coated surface of the cabin. This makes the surface ready
for proper adhesion of the paint on the cabin surface.
7. PAINT COAT
After cleaning operation, cabin is taken inside the paint booth. The paint booth
has the capacity of storing the cabin at a time. Top coat paint is sprayed on the
cabin surface. This top coat has high glass, high weather durability and high
chemical resistance.
8. FLASH OFF
After painting operation cabin is kept for 5-10 minutes to another booth to enable
the paint to settle down to some extent. After 5-10 minutes it is wheeled inside
the oven and exposed to oven temperature.

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SML ISUZU

9. BAKING
Cabin is placed inside the oven which is maintained at a temp. of 140 oc fro 30
minutes. So that the paint gets adhere properly to the surface of the cabin. The
paint coat sequence for the cargo box is same as the above cabin.
Vehicle Assembly Shop

CABIN ASSEMBLY LINE

AXLE SHOP

ENGINE & TRASMISSION ASSEMBLY LINE

MAIN LINE

PIT INSPECTION

CARGO BOX ASSEMBLY

Cabin Assembly Line


In Cabin Assembly Line cabins received from the paint shop and various parts
are assembled to it. It has got five stations. The stations are designated as F-1,
F-2, F-3, F-4, and F-5. This line has got the manpower of 17. The different
Stations are discussed as follows:-

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SML ISUZU
1. F-1 Station
This station is further divided into three shops.
BRAKE ASSEMBLY SHOP
This is the first shop in station F-1. In this shop brakes are assembled. The
main parts are as follows:Vacuum master: It is used in brakes to create vacuum. These are of two types:

Big Vacuum Master-: It is large in size. It has 90mm dia. It has low power
as compared to the small Vacuum master.

Applications-: Big Vacuum Master is used in SML ISUZUs SARTAJ 26 and 48


models.

Small Vacuum Master-: It is small in size as compared to Big Vacuum


Master. It is used in models except 48 and 26.

CLUTCH ASSEMBLY SHOP


In SML ISUZUs LCV`s, Single disc or plate clutch is used. The main parts of the
clutch which are assembled in the clutch assembly shop are:

Clutch Pedal

Bracket with bush

Hose lever assist BKT

32

SML ISUZU

Clutch cylinder

Electronic devices

HAND BRAKE ASSEMBLY SHOP


In this shop the hand brakes are assembled. They are also known as parking
brakes, power brakes.
Main Parts of the Hand Brake are:

Hand brake assembly

Unit control clip and switches

Wiper motor Sub. Assy. fitment

2. F-2 Station
This station is divided into two parts A and B.
Station F-2A
The following accessories are fitted to the cabin.
a.

Water pipe

b.

One air pipe / vent pipe / vent hole

c.

Tool box

d.

Jack lever clamp, Crank lever clamp, Seat locker.

e.

Roof sealing.

PROCEDURE

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SML ISUZU
a. First of all water pipe is fitted in the inner side below the front glass.
b. Then one air pipe or vent pipe is fitted in left hand side vent hole. It is
c. made up of plastic and is fitted for the continuous circulation of air in cabin.
d. After fitting vent pipe tool box is fitted with clamps at the rear side and is used
to keep the tools.
e. Then the Jack lever clamp, crack lever clamp are fitted on inner back side
and
f. are used to hold Jack lever and lever.
g. Seat locker is fitted on inner back side and is used to hold the seats.
h. 6. After lifting seat lockers, roof sealing is attached on the inner top of the
cabin

made up of plastic & foam and is used to keep the cabin warm.

Station F-2B
a. In this Station following attachments are fitted.
b. Vacuum Master
c. Acc. Assy
d. Clutch Assembly
e. Wiper motor sub assy and wiper linkage
f. Hand brake assy
PROCEDURE
a. In this shop first of all Vacuum master is fitted on right-hand side below the
inner side of front glass. With vacuum master Tandem master cylinder is also
attached. The two brake pipes are attached with T.M.C.
b. Then clutch assembly is fitted just left hand side of Hand brake Assy.
c. After fitting clutch assembly, hand brake is fitted with Vacuum master.
d. Acc. Assembly: Accelerator is used to increase the speed of engine and is
fitted at the extreme right hand side. With this an acc. Switch is also fitted on
support.

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SML ISUZU
e. The wiper motor is fitted. It is used to give to and fro motion to the wipers with
the help of a rod known as wiper linkage rod. After fitting the attachment trolley is
passed to next station.
3. STATION F-3
In this station instrument panel is fitted which contains a meter grill in which
Speedo meter, fuel meter, voltmeter and amp meter are attached.
4. STATION F-4
In this station the following attachments are fitted
.
a. Washer Tank
b. Change Lever
c. Left hand side door trim
d. Right hand side door trim
e. Gear lever
f. Ventilator Grill
g. Room Mirror
h. Crank Rod
i. Room Lamp
j. Clutch Switch
k. Door Lock
l. Key Lock
m Lock Fastener
o. Steering Shaft
5. STATION F-5
In Station F-5 following attachments are fitted:

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SML ISUZU
a. Foot Step
b. Rear glass fitment
c. Front glass fitment
d. Left hand glass fitment
e. Right hand side door glass fitment
f. Lever fitment
After assembling all parts to cabin, it is sent to the station F-10 of main line,
where it is attached with the cabin.
Axle Shop
In axle shop front axle, differential and rear axles are assembled. There are two
shops of rear axles, two shops for front axles and two for differential.
This shop also has a dip washing machine to wash the parts before assembling
them to remove any contamination of grease, oil etc. After assembling the axles,
these are passed to the leaf spring assembly line where leaf springs are attached
with axles.

Front Axle
The main parts of front axle are as below:

Axle beam

Knuckle

Steering Arm

Tie rod

King Pin

Sim cap

Shocker Bolt

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SML ISUZU

Brake drums

FRONT AXLE ASSEMBLY

ATTACHMENT OF
STEERING KNUCLE/ KING
PIN/ ARM KNUCLE ETC. ON
FRONT AXLE BEAM

FITMENTS OF BOLTS,
OUTER RACE, INNER
RACE IN HUBS

ATTACHMENT OF BACK
PLATE, ASEMBLED HUB
STEERING KNUCLE NUT
AND ADJUSTMENT OF
PRELOAD

ATTACHMENTS OF
GREASE FILLED
BEARING AND OIL
SEAL

ATTACHMENT OF BRAKE
DRUM AND NOTCH
ADJUSTMENT OF BRAKES

ATTACHMENT OF
ROD ASSEMBLY

37

SML ISUZU

TRANSPORT THE
ASSEMBLY TO MAIN LINE
FOR SUB ASSEMBLY OF
FRONT SUSPENSION
AXLE BEAM: It is made up of cast Iran and is fitted at the front side of chassis.
Axle beam is main part of the front Axle.
KNUCKLE: - It is joined with axle beam with the help of king pin. It has a hub like
shape. It is square in shape at the top and then it slopes or tapered down
towards the end where brake drums are mounted.
KING PIN: It is used to connect the knuckle with axle beam at both ends. It is
made up of Cast Steel.
ARM: It is also known as steering arm and is connected with the steering gear
with the help of drag link. It is also used to turn the vehicle. When we rotate the
steering wheel, it in turn rotates the steering gear with the help of steering shaft.
When steering gear rotates it in turn rotates the link which pushes the arm in
backward or forward direction and thus turns the vehicle left or right.
TIE ROD: It is used to connect the brake drums which are mounted on the both
ends on the axle beam for steering purposes and Toe in and Toe out purposes.
SHOCKER BOLT: It is used to connect the dampers with axle and chassis to
give shock resistance to the vehicle.
BRAKE DRUM: In the Brake drum assembly is mounted. On the brake drums
tyres are attached. In SML ISUZU Ltd. 90 mm dia and 110 mm dia size brake
drums are used.

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SML ISUZU
The all upper parts when attached to the axle beam then it becomes a front
axle.

6.2.2 Rear Axle Shop

REAR AXLE ASSEMBLY

POURING OF OIL AND


ATTACHMENT OF
DIFFERENTIAL ASSEMBLY TO
REAR AXLE CASING

ATTACHMENT OF BRAKE
ASSEMBLY IN REAR AXLE
CASING

ATTACHMENT OF SUB
ASSEMBLED HUB WITH
LOCK NUT AND ADJUST
PRELOAD

ATTACHMENT OF BRAKE
DRUM AND NOTCH
ADJUSTMENT OF BRAKES

ATTACHMENT
OFMAIN
REARLINE
AXLE
TRANSPORT TO
39
SHAFT
ON
HUBS
FOR SUB ASSEMBLY OF REAR
SUSPENSION

FITMENTS OF BOLTS,
OUTER RACE, INNER
RACE IN HUBS

ATTACHMENTS OF
GREASE FILLED
BEARING AND OIL
SEAL

SML ISUZU

CONSTRUCTION: - Rear axle is made from sheet steal of 10 mm thickness by


casting process. It is made in two halves and then joined with the help of seam
welding process. Rear axle consists of a differential casing in which gears are
attached.
DESCRIPTION: -Rear axle contains two brake drums, in which brake assembly
is mounted. On the brake drums tyres are mounted .It may be mentioned here
that the power is transmitted from the engine to the rear axle with the help of
propeller shafts. These shafts at one end are attached with engines transmission
and at other end, these are attached with differential.
From the rear axle shop the axles are passed to the leaf spring assembly line
where according to the model and load capacity leaf spring are attached to the
axle.
When the engine starts up it rotate the crankshaft, which rotate the flywheel in
turn flywheel rotates the main shaft. From main shaft power is transmitted to
differential with propeller shaft. When the propeller shaft rotates it rotates a
differential gear which in turn rotates the wheel.

Differential Assembly
The differential gear is used in the rear drive of an automobile has following
functions:

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SML ISUZU

It is used to transmit the motion from the engine shaft to rear driving
wheels.

II To rotate the rear wheels at different speeds while the automobile is taking
a turn
As long as the automobile is running on a straight path the rear wheels are

driven directly by the engine and speed of both the wheels is same. But when the
automobile is taking a turn the outer wheel will run faster than the inner wheel
because at that time outer rear wheel has to cover more distance than the rear
inner wheel. This problem does not arise with front wheels as they are greatly
used for the steering purposes and are mounted on the separate axles and can
run at different speeds. This is achieved by the epicyclic gear train with bevel
gears.

Engine and Transmission Assembly Line


The Engine Assembly Line and Transmissions Assembly Line as it is clear from
the name it has two lines-Engine Assembly line and Transmission Assembly Line.
The detail of each line is given below:
Engine Assembly Line
It has six work stations which are as follows1. E-1 STATION
Crank caps are removed from the cylinder block. The cylinder block is placed on
the engine mounting fixture and also at this station engine No. is marked.
2. E-2 STATION

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SML ISUZU
The parts those fitted are: oil filter, oil pump, timing gear cover in line fuel
injection pump. The sub assembly that is done here are: timing gear case and
oil cooler. Timing adjustment is also done here.
3. E-3 STATION
The parts those fitted here are: cylinder Head, Water pump, Flywheel, Clutch
Plate , Lower and Upper Oil Pan.
4. E-4 STATION
At this station the parts like Fuel Pipes, Injection pipes, Rocker Arm and Fuel
Filters are fitted here.
5. E- 5 STATION
At this station the important assemblies includes Inlet Manifold, Fan Alternator,
Air Heater, Pulley and Vacuum Pump. After the assembly of engine, it is sent to
engine testing room on trolley for testing before being sent to the line.

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SML ISUZU

ENGINE ASSEMBLY SHOP


NUMBER PUNCHING ON CYLINDER
BLOCK, REMOVE CAPS AND MOUNT
CYLINDER ON FIXTURE

ATTACHMENT OF CAM SHAFT METAL


SET BEARING CRANK SHAFT AND
CYLINDER BLOCK CAPS

ATTACH PISTONSUB ASSEMBLY AND


SELECT CYLINDER HEAD GASKET

SUB ASSEMBLY OF
PISTON AND
CONNECTING ROD

MOUNT GEAR CASE, CAM GEAR,


CRANK GEAR, FIP GEAR AND GEAR
COVER
ATTACH BODY ASSEMBLY WITH
CYLINDER BLOCK

ATTACH CYLINDER HEAD S/A AND


ROCKER ARM. TIGHTEN CYLINDER
HEAD A/S WITH CYLINDER BLOCK
AND ATTACH CYLINDER HEAD
COVER AND ALTERNATOR

REMOVE ENGINE FROM FIXTRE AND


PUT ON TROLLEY FOR TESTING.
ATTACH EXHAUST MANIFOLD,
BREATHER PIPE ETC. 43
FILL ENGINE OIL PUT ENGINE ON
HOT BED TESTING

SUB ASSEMBLY OF
CYLINDER HEAD
COVER

MOVE ENGINE TO MAIN


LINE FOR DOCKING
WITH TRANSMISSION

SML ISUZU
6.3.2 Engine Testing
1. Hot test: This is done at the highest and lowest rpm and the temperature
of the water is checked.
2. Lubrication test: in this test engine is tested for the oil consumption in the
engine for lubrication.
3. Vibration test: In the vibration of the engine is checked at idle (730 rpm)
and full throttle conditions (3830 rpm).
4. Acceleration test: This is done to check the reliability of the V belt.

Transmission Assembly Line


Transmission Assembly line also has six work stations. The detail of the parts,
those are fitted to complete the transmission assembly at different stations are
given below.
1. T-1 STATION
At this station the counter shafts sub. assembly and main shaft sub assembly are
done.
2. T-2& T-3 STATIONS
At these stations the sub assemblies of T-1 station are assembled in the
transmission case along with gear main drive. Counter shaft and main shaft form
a synchromesh gear system.
3. T-4 STATION

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SML ISUZU
At this station transmission case is mounted on a jig which moves on a
pneumatic conveyer. Also assembly of rear cover, transmission mounting bracket
and shifting fork is done.

TRANSMISSION ASSEMBLY
PUT CASE
TARANSMISSION AND
ATTACH SUB ASSEMBLY
OF COUNTER SHAFT
(GEAR) AND MAIN SHAFT

SUB ASSEMBLY OF
COUNTER SHAFT
AND MAIN SHAFT

PUT THE TRANSMISSION


ON THE ASSEMBLY
FIXTURE

ATTACH FRONT COVER


AFTER CHECKING BACK
LASH ADJUSTMENT
ATTACH SUB ASSEMBLY
OF CLUTCH PLATES AND
REAR COVER

SUB ASSEMBLY OF
CLUTCH HOUSINGS

PUT OIL IN THE


TRANSMISSION AND
ATTACH THE TOP COVER

SUB ASSEMBLY OF
TOP COVER

ATTACH BRAKE
ASSEMBLY BARAKE
DRUM AND ADJUST
NOTCHES OF BRAKE
ASSEMBLY
REMOVE
FROM FIXTURE
AND PUT ON THE
TRANSMISSION FOR
TESTING

45

AFTER TESTING,
MOVE TRANSMISSION
TO MAIN LINE FOR
DOCKING WITH
ENGINE

SML ISUZU

4. T-5 STATION
At this station bearing and clutch housing are assembled. After this the
transmission is subjected to a leakage test the case is them dipped in the water
tank to detect leakage from any point.
5. T-6 STATION
At this station the assembly of brakes and brakes drum is done. Then it is taken
for noise test. After engine and transmission tests these are brought to the main
line for further assembly operations.
7. Main Assembly Line
As the name suggest it is the important line because in this line all the parts
which comes from different shops are mounted on chassis whether it is cabin or
engine and other different parts are mounted.
This line has 9 stations from F-6 to F-15and a Pit Shop. The parts mounted on
the chassis are discussed station wise below:
1. F 6 STATION
Here Front Axle and Rear Axle along with their assembly with leaf spring are
attached with chassis.
2. F-7 STATION

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SML ISUZU
Following jobs are performed at this station:
a. Chassis number Punching.
b. Vacuum Pipe Fitment
c. Radiator Stay and Holder Rubber Fitment.
d. Transmission Mounting BKT.
e. Brake pipe, Hose, Protector Fitment.
f. Rear Hook and Bypass Fitment.
g. Three Way Pipe Joining Fitment.
h. Park Brake and Speedo Cable Fitment.
i. Rear Court Fitment.
j. Front Brake Hose and Pipe Fitment.
3. F-8 STATION
Following jobs are performed at this station:a. Starter Fitment.
b. Exhaust Brake Unit with Pipe.
c. Engine and Transmission Mounting.
d. Fuel Filter Mounting.
e. Engine Transmission Docking.
4. F-9 STATION
Following jobs are performed at this station:
a. Gear and Pitmen Fitment.
b. Oil in Gear and Pitmen.
c. Radiator Mounting
d. Fuel Cut Motor Mounting.
e. Fuel Filter Mounting
f. Fuel Pipe with Hose.
g. Battery Carrier Mounting.
h. Apron Wheel Fitment and Tightening.

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SML ISUZU
5. F-10 STATION
In this station following parts are attached to the chassis:
a. Torsion bar Bush Fitment.
b. Torsion Bar Hinge and Assy.
c. Torsion Bar with Cabin.
d. Cabin Mounting on Chassis.
e. Vacuum Tank Fitment.
f. Battery Fitment.
g. By Pass Pipe Fitment.
h. Rubber Seal on Cabin.
6. F-11/F-12 STATIONS
Following jobs are performed at this station:
a. Propeller Shaft Yoke Greasing.
b. Silencer Fitment.
c. Centre Bearing Support.
d. Propeller Shaft Bolts.
e. Drum Centre Bolt
f. Joint Sealer.
g. Air Cleaner Fitment.
h. Air Intake Hose Fitment.
i. Fuel Tank Strap Fitment.
j. Packing Alignment.
k. Accelerator Wire Fitment.
l. Lower and upper grill Fitment.
m. Model Plate Punching.
n. Antenna Hole Covering.

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SML ISUZU
7. F-13 STATION
Following jobs are performed at this station :
a. i

Head Lamp Fitment.

b. Outer Mirror Fitment.


c. Horn Connection
d. Fender with Air Guide Fitment
e. Front Bumper Mounting
f. Number Plate Mounting.
g. Model Plate Fitment.
h. Jack plate Fitment.
i. Spare Wheel hinge Fitment.
j. Wiper Arm Nozzle Fitment.
8. F-14/ F-15 STATIONS
Following jobs are performed at this station:
a. Tyre Fitment
b. Spare Wheel Fitment.
c. Jack and Rod Fitment.
d. Brake Bleeding.
e. Engine Oil Level Checking.

PIT INSPECTION
Operation of warning lights, functions of instrument panel and leveling of engine
oil, coolant, transmission oil and differential oil etc are checked. Toe

in and toe

out angles of wheels are adjusted as 31 o + 1 o and 42 o + 1 o respectively. RPM

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SML ISUZU
of the engine are checked by magnet type tachometer. Vehicle is also checked
for any defect of loose fitment/ wrong fitment
Shower test is performed by sprinting water from all the sides on the cabin with
pressure to check leakage inside the cabin.
After shower test the vehicle is taken for road test. The vehicle is taken to test
track to check brakes, emission, balance of vehicles, gears, steering control etc.
After final inspection the vehicle is ready for delivery.

8. Quality Engineering Department


This department is the most crucial department. The responsibility of this
department is to ensure the quality of incoming and outgoing components.
Structure of quality engineering department is as shown in figure. This
department is to ensure that s has passed the various manufacturing, checked
and controlling facilities for quality production.

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SML ISUZU

QUALITY
QUALITY
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING

QUALITY
QUALITY
MANUFACTURING
MANUFACTURING

QUALITY
QUALITY
DEVELOPMENT
DEVELOPMENT

QUALITY
QUALITY
RECIEPT
RECIEPT

QUALITY
QUALITY
ASSURANCE
ASSURANCE

STRUCTURE OF QUALITY ENGINEERING DEPART MENT

1. Quality Engineering (manufacturing): An LCV in brief has to pass through


strict test numbering about 250. Similarly, at sub assembly states etc. Like
body shop, paint shop, day to day report of quality goes to department for
necessary action.
2. Quality Development: Quality development has given more stress on
prevention of defects rather than setting it right by rectification. In quality
development for proper insurance of quality, reliability, service and other
aspects in manufacturing products through and scientific activities. The job of
evaluating the companies with respect to quality, reporting the result of
evaluation to all concerned department for necessary action and information.
3. Quality Engineering (receipt): It is responsible for every item that is being
received at the receipt store from various vendors. Since it is not possible to
check each and every item, therefore random sampling is done.
4. Quality Engineering Lab: This department is responsible for all type of lab
work in the organization her all the critical dimensions are checked in the
standard room with sophisticated aides, and precision instruments. Various
gauges like height gauges, dial indicators, profile projector, thread gauges are

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SML ISUZU
used. Hardness test and tensile tests are conducted in this lab. Also chemical
compositions of various components are checked.
8.1 Metrology Lab: Metrology lab is the place where all the material testing like
hardness, chemical composition of the materials and microstructure of the
materials is done. Quality parameters which are tested under this lab are:
Hardness: In the hardness test mainly components which are forged, casted, induction
hardened and carburized hardened have been checked.

a) Rockwell hardness machine: Rockwell hardness machine is used for harder


materials. In this machine there are three scale R C scale, RB scale and RA
scale. Through this scale we find the hardness number of the material.
1) On RC scale the load is 150 kg and indenter is of diamond
2) On RB scale load is 100 kg and indenter is of steel ball of diameter 1/16 inch.
3) On RA scale the load is 60 kg and indenter is of diamond.
b) Brinell hardness tester (BHN): This machine is used for testing material which
is less harder than which are tested under Rockwell hardness machine. In
this hardness is finding as Brinell hardness number (BHN). Load is 3000kgs
and the indenter is steel ball of diameter 10 mm or 5mm.
c) Micro hardness tester: This tester machine is used for carburized
components to check the case depth of the components.
8.2 Chemical Composition
Chemical Treatment: In this we test the material with different chemical to check
the composition of material. This method is very time consuming but less
expensive.

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SML ISUZU
Spectrometer analysis: In this method we put the testing material in argon
atmospheric vacuum tube and spark is strikes on material and different elements
emits different radiation so we differentiate the composition of material.
Microstructure Analysis: Microstructure analysis is done to check the different
phases of the material during that state like whether it is martensite, bainite, or
combination of some other phases.

In this components is first is cleaned

properly then cutting is done then grinding and after that fine grinding is done
with ivory paper and after that polishing is done with diamond paste and
kerosene mixture. In the end nival picral (2% nitric acid in ethanol) is put on the
material and then under microscope microstructure of components is studied.
Magnaflux Crack Testing Machine : This machine is used for checking the cracks
in the components. In this machine the components is magnetized with electric
current and a florescent powder is put on it, after that in florescent light the
cracks can easily be detected.
8.3 Standard Room
As the name indicates standard room its the room where all the instruments are
standard and all the instruments which are used for measuring the dimensions of
the parts of the components of body parts of trucks assembly are calibrated with
these instruments. All the dimensions of engines parts are done here. There are
some standards instruments which are used for measuring the dimensions of
engine parts and for calibration of the other instruments which are as follow.
1. PROFILE PROJECTOR: Profile projector is the machine which is used for
projecting the projection of very small parts in the magnified way on the projector.
It has vertical optical axis and the image formed is inverted and reversed.
Projection lenses have the magnification of 5X, 10X, 20X, 50X, and 100X. It has

53

SML ISUZU
the magnification accuracy of upto.05%of contour illumination and .075% of
surface illumination. Its weight is 800kg.it has 3 lens of screw type.
2. COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE: AS we know that micrometer vernier
caliper and height gauges are used for measuring only one direction and profile
projector measure two dimensions in spite of these entire coordinate measuring
machines is used for three dimensions of the components of engine in X, Y, Z
direction. Coordinate measuring machine is also used for measuring the
dimension of any part with respect to some other dimension. Suppose we have
to find the pitch circle diameter of the part with respect to some other point it give
us that dimension. It also helps to calculate the diameter of circle accurately as it
is electronically operated.

3. UNIVERSAL LINEAR MEASUREMENT MACHINE : this machine is used for


the calibration of the ring gauges and plug gauges. It is mainly used for the
measuring the pitch of the gears. It is also known as light machine as it is
optically operated.
4. TORQUE WRENTCH TESTER: It is the instrument which is used for the
calibration of the torque wrentch.(Torque wrentch is the device which is operated
up to specify torque it means that if torque wrentch has the specification of
10kgm then in tightening bolt after 10kgm it becomes free.)It is electronically
operated.
5. AIR GAUGES AND BORE GAUGES: these are mainly used for measuring
the internal diameter of any part. Air gauge are operated by air by air pressure
and bore gauges are operated mechanically or by hands. Bore gauges has the
range from12mm to 300mm.

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SML ISUZU
6. STANDARD PINS AND SLIP GAUGES : These are the standard ones and
used for measuring the accurate dimensions of any parts and used or calibrated
other instruments. Slip gauges are used for measuring the width of any parts and
has the range 300mm. and standard pins are used for measuring diameter of any
hole and it has the range from.5mm to 300mm.
7. ELECTRONIC AND MECHANICAL HEIGHT GAUGES: These are mainly
used for the height of any part .mechanical height gauges has the range upto
300mm and electronic height gauges has the range upto 600mm.
8. SQUARNESS TESTER:t is used for checking the perpendicularity of two
surfaces of the components.
9. HEIGHT MASTER: It is the master which is used for the calibration of the
height gauges .it has the least count of 1 micron.
10. BARO PROTECTOR:It is the additional accessory which is used for
measuring the helix angle of the gear and threaded parts
11. VERNIER AND MICROMETER: Last but not the least vernier and
micrometer are the instruments which are used for measuring the dimension
any
parts. Vernier & Micrometer also has other different varieties which are used
for measuring dimensions.
8.4 Electrical Lab
Electrical lab is another important lab in the quality checking procedure. It is the
place where all the electrical accessories are checked. In the electrical lab the
main parts which are checked are listed below.

55

SML ISUZU
1. WIRING ASSEMBLY: In the wiring assembly we checked all the important
accessories are connected with wiring system. In this it is all checked weather all
the equipments are working properly or not some important circuits of wiring
assembly are enclosed.
2. SELF STARTER AND ALTERNATOR: Other important accessories which are
checked in this lab are self starter and alternator as they are important in running
the engine.
3. LIGHTENING AND SIGNAL EQUIPMENT AND OTHER ELECTRICAL
ACCESSORIES: To check these electrical accessories like head lamps tail lights
wipers horns there is standard platform is made on which all these accessories
are attached and these are checked.

Project No.1
Name of the project:
To Develop a diagnostic tool to cure low lubricating oil
pressure in engine during engine testing.
Description of the project:
The project includes the taking into account the frequent
problems which leads to the low oil pressure in the engine. The study includes
testing the engines and formulating the problems in a decreasing order which are
responsible for low oil pressure. The order of the frequently occurring problems
helps to develop a diagnostic tool. The diagnostic tool is therefore a helping hand
in curing low oil pressure to a normal value.
Introduction:
Lubricating circuit is one of the most important ones in the
engine. The engine cannot run smoothly for more than a few minutes without the

56

SML ISUZU
lubricating oil. Whenever two metallic surfaces move over each other direct
contact, dry or solid friction is produced. This is due to the irregularities on the
two surfaces interlocking each other. The dry friction thus created produces a lot
of heat and results in wear of the metal surface.
However, when a film of some lubricating oil is interposed
between two surfaces so that the two are not in actual contact with each other,
the only resistance to motion remains of the oil itself. This type of friction is
termed as viscous or fluid friction. This state, from lubrication point of view is
called hydrodynamic lubrication. It is observed in practice that the coefficients of
friction obtained in viscous friction i.e. hydrodynamic lubrication are far less as
compared to those prevailing in dry friction. Thus it is the viscous friction which is
most desirable and every effort is made to keep the viscous friction conditions in
the running engine even for a while when the lubricating oil is not present in
proper quantity in the engine. A third type of friction, also exists, i.e , greasy or
boundary friction which state is termed boundary lubrication from lubrication view
point. In this some lubricant is there but that is not sufficient to cause the
complete separation of the two surfaces i.e. only their high spots touch. In this
the friction coefficients are undoubtedly higher than in case of viscous friction, but
nevertheless they are far less than the coefficients in dry friction. Boundary
lubrication may exist in piston rings and valve train.
Objects of lubrication:
The primary objects of lubrication are:1. To reduce the friction between moving parts to its minimum value so that
power loss is minimized.
2. To reduce the wear and tear of moving parts as far as possible.
The secondary objects of lubrication are:1.

To provide cooling effect. The lubricating oil takes heat from the hot
moving parts during its circulation and delivers it to the surrounding air
through the crank case.

57

SML ISUZU
2.

To provide cushioning effect. The lubricating oil serves also as a good


cushion against the shocks present in the engine. For example, instant
combustion of the fuel in the combustion chamber produces a sudden
pressure rise in the cylinder and the bearings through the piston,
gudgeon pin and the connecting rod. This shock is then absorbed by the
layer of oil present in the main bearings.

3.

To provide cleaning action. Apart from the objects to be achieved by


lubrication as described above, the lubricating oil serves another useful
purpose in providing a cleaning action. During its circulation it dissolves
many impurities, e.g., carbon particles. This oil may be purified by
filtration.

4.

To provide a sealing action. The lubricating oil also helps the piston rings
to maintain an effective seal against the high pressure gases in the
cylinder from leaking out toward the crank case side.

Components of lubrication system:1. Sump


2. Oil collection pan
3. Oil tank
4. Pickup tube
5. Oil pump
6. Oil pressure relief valve
7. Oil filters
8. Spurt holes & galleries
9. Oil indicators
10. Oil coolers
Why low Oil pressure occurs?

58

SML ISUZU
During normal vehicle operation, oil is vital to ensures leak tightness between the
combustion chamber and the crankcase. The oil pressure indicator shows how
well this is being done.
An unusual drop in oil pressure can result from either lower engine oil viscosity
due to dilution by fuel (injector problem or use at low load) ; too little oil in the
lubrication system (due to an oil leak, excess oil consumption, or failure of the oil
circulation pump) ; or even mechanical part wear.

Consumption of lubricating oil:The various sources of oil losses in the engine are:1. Combustion. The oil works past the piston rings into the combustion
chamber, where it is burnt up. This cannot be avoided altogether since
some of the oil has to go past the piston rings to lubricate the upper
portion of the piston and the cylinder walls.
2. Loss through leakage. There may be some loss of oil through leakage at
the faulty crankshaft bearing seals, at the defective joint between the
cylinder block ( or crankcase ) and the oil pan, at the loose or faulty drain
plug, or due to some crack in the crankcase. However, with proper care
such losses can be reduced tom negligible.
3. Loss through crankcase ventilation. Some of the oil is carried away from
the crankcase as vapour or mist or alongwith the exhaust gases.

59

SML ISUZU

Although, the piston and the rings are designed to form a gas tight seal between
the piston and the cylinder walls, yet the products of combustion do leak from the
combustion chamber into the crankcase. These contain mainly unburnt air fuel
mixture, partially burnt hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, water vapour, carbon
monoxide and carbon dioxide, but may also consist of traces of acid due to the
sulphur present in the fuel. The methods of crankcase ventilation that have been
developed are:1. Road draft method
2. Manifold suction method

Lubrication system used in SML ISUZU four stroke diesel engine :Pressure system. This system is almost used in every modern automobile
engines. The splash system though cheaper, is not suitable for automobile
engines because of the absence of positive lubrication. In the pressure system,
an oil pump takes the oil from the wet sump through a strainer and delivers it
through a filter to the main oil gallery at a pressure of 200 to 400 kpa. The oil

60

SML ISUZU
pressure is controlled by means of a pressure relief valve, situated in the filter
unit or the pump housing.

The above shown is pressure system of the engine lubrication as a hole.

There is one main gallery in case of inline engines, whereas v-engines use two
main galleries or one main gallery and two valve tappets galleries. From the main
gallery, the oil goes through the drilled passages to the main bearings from
where some of the oil after lubricating the main bearings falls back to the sump,
some is splashed to lubricate cylinder walls, while the rest goes through a hole to
the gudgeon pin. After lubricating the gudgeon pin bearings the oil falls back or
effects ring lubrication. The oil that falls on cylinder walls drains back into the oil
pan and is recirculated through lubricating system. However, in light duty
engines, the simplest and most commonly used method of cylinder and piston
lubrication is by the big end splash. For the camshaft and timing gears,
lubricating oil is led through separate oil lines from the oil gallery to each
camshaft bearing through a pressure-reducing valve. To lubricate the timing
gears and the sprocket chain sometimes a direct oil jet is employed. The valve
tappets are lubricated by connecting the main oil gallery to the tappet guide
surfaces through drilled holes. In case of overhead valve mechanism, the rocker

61

SML ISUZU
arms are still mounted on hollow shafts which carry oil under pressure from the
oil gallery. These hollow shafts feed oil for the lubrication of rocker arms. In some
other designs, the push rods are made hollow and the oil under pressure is made
to seeps from the valve train as above is returned to the oil pan through drain
holes, which are sometimes so placed that the oil drains holes, which are
sometimes so placed that the oil drains on the camshaft and the timing gears to
lubricate them.
At the end of the main oil gallery an oil pressure switch is provided, which
operates the warning light in the dash board. When the oil pressure becomes
lower then the specified value, say 0.3 bar, the warning light comes on to drivers
attraction.
During its circulation, the oil gains heat from the various engine parts, which is
given out to be the sump walls. In some heavy duty engines separate oil cooler is
employed. lubricating system in SML ISUZU lcvs has already been shown.
an oil pump here speeds the oil to the crankshaft, valve mechanisms, time gears,
injection pump, air compressor and water pump bearings. The pistons are
lubricated and cooled by the oil jet stream. Two oil filters, a full flow and a bypass type, provide double protection to extend engine life. Heat absorbed by the
circulating oil is removed by an oil cooler.
Why lubrication is important?
The answer lies in the pie chart diven below.

62

SML ISUZU

Project work and the study:It is very important to know about the lubrication system and the factors helping it
and the factors deteriorating it. The parts which are lubricated by it must be
known and mechanism and order should be a must. The study leding to project is
as follows.
Study 1.
The study includes the calculation of the various components of the engine which
are lubricated by the system.
The various components are:1. Crank shaft main bearings
2. Connecting rod bearings
3. Gudgeon pin bearing
4. Tachometer drive gear
5. Jack shaft thrust plate
6. Piston rings and cylinder walls
7. Cam shaft and Cam shaft bearings
8. Valve mechanism
Intermittent lubrication portion

63

SML ISUZU
Rocker arm
Distributor drive gear
The components are clearly shown in the diagram below:-

Study 2.
Chalking out the working of the lubrication circuit inside the engine. The study
included working of the components supporting oil to the desired direction.
The devices which form a important part of the lubrication circuit are:1. Oil filter and oil by pass filter
2. Pressure relief valve
3. Oil sump
4. Block main gallery
5. Head main gallery
6. Oil pump and oil tank
7. Oil cooler and oil indicators
The diagram showing the lubrication system in SML ISUZU engine:-

64

SML ISUZU

The components used in SML ISUZU engine are as below with their
specifications:1. Oil Filter. The oil filter used in the engine is cartridge type oil filter. This
type is used on most automobile engines and it consists of a filtering
element placed in the metallic casing. The impure lubricating oil is made to
pass through the filtering elelent, which takes up all the impurities. The
element is given pleated form to maximize the surface area of the filter for
a given size of element. Currently filter elements with fine fine bores have
been employed which has made it practicable to arrest particles of size
down to within the region of 5 microns. In the filter shown, the oil enters
the filter at the top and passes through the filter elements as shown by
arrows. The pure oil then goes to the porous metallic tube from where it
goes to the outlet for the circulation. A drain plug is also provided as
shown. The filtering elements of two types are available, i.e, one which

65

SML ISUZU
can be cleaned and those which have to be replaced after certain intervals
say, 1000 km.
The oil filter used in SML ISUZU is provided by PUROLATOR INDIA LTD.

Oil filter
The filter cartridge has an impressive surface area of 316 sq in, which is very
close to the AC Delco Duraguard. The difference is that Purolator's filter element
is compressed into more pleats (51) than the AC Delco. This may restrict flow
somewhat, but not as much in this model than the Pure One. It features a
spring-loaded metal bypass valve and a nitrile rubber diaphram-type antidrainback valve, which doubles as the seal between the backplate and the
cartridge.
The telltale sign for a Purolator filter are: 8 medium-sized holes for the oil inlet
and nothing but a black (or orange for the Pure One) diaphragm to be seen
through them. There are 6 large crimps holding the gasket in place.
Average Retail Price
Cartridge Length

$3
4.125 inches

Cartridge Outside Diameter

3.250 inches
3.251

Cartridge Inside Diameter

1.625 inches
1.626

Cartridge Pleats
Cartridge End Cap Type

51
Stamped-steel

66

SML ISUZU

Anti-Drainback Valve Type


Bypass Valve Type
Element Type
Element Length
Element Width
Element Surface Area
Shell Thickness
Backplate Thickness
Gasket Type

Nitrile rubber diaphragm


Spring-loaded steel
Paper media, stamped metal seam
79.0 inches
4.000 inches
316 square inches
0.011 inches
0.115 inches
Nitrile rubber

2. Oil by pass filter. The oil by pass filter is mounted in the engine to work
with hand in hand with oil filter. The action of by pass filter further purifies
the oil. It is however small in size as compared to the main oil filter. It is as
shown below.

67

SML ISUZU

By-pass filter
3. Oil cooler. In all heavy duty engines the engine temperature and hence the
temperature of oil becomes quite high. As the viscosity of lubricating oil
decreases with temperature rise, at higher temperatures the oil film in the
bearings might break and the conditions of boundary lubrication may be
created instead of fluid lubrication which is desired. To avoid such thing to
happen, the heavy duty engines are provided with oil coolers.
Oil coolers are nothing but simply coolers to cool the oil. The water type
coolers are more common because they can be used as reversible
coolers i.e, at the start when it is desirable that the oil should not be
cooled, rather it should be heated somewhat to provide complete
circulation in the lubrication circuit as fast as possible. The water initially
hot will heat the oil and when temperatures are reached, the reverse will
happen. One such oil cooler used in SML ISUZU is as shown below. It is a
water cooled oil cooler.

68

SML ISUZU

Oil coolers
4. Oil pump. The oil pump used in SML ISUZU engine is Gear pump. This is
mostly used in the automotive sector. It consists of two spur, or for quieter
running, helical gears only which are in mesh with each other. One gear is
mounted on a stub shaft and is driven only whereas the other gear is
driving gear, itself being driven directly by the cam shaft through the same
gear which drives the distributor shaft. The oil is transported from the inlet
to the outlet in gear. Continuously delivery of the oil from the outlet post
exceeds discharged oil then causes the oil pressure in the system and
rate of oil to be increased.

Gear pump

Working of lubrication system:The Oil pump takes up the oil from the oil filter and move it to the oil galleries.
After the cleansing action of the oil filter the oil goes into the main oil gallery. The
oil then passes through the oil cooler. Afterwards it reaches cam shafts and then

69

SML ISUZU
to tappets etc. after completing its circle the oil keep on sipping down and is
regularly collecting in the oil pan.the by pass alarm switch is mounted near the
three outlets on oil filter. The bypass valve is provided after the oil cooler.
Study 3.
TESTING OF ENGINES. The main and the final step in the project is the testing
of engines. The engine are tested in the engine testing shop to diagnose any
problem before it is finalized for assembling. The engines are tested for low oil
pressure and vibrational analysis. The engines are made to run at full rpm
during testing.

Procedure for engine testing:1. After making all connections and all bleeding, run the engine at idle rpm
for two minutes and check any leakage or any abnormal noise.
2. Run the engine at 1000 rpm for 2 minutes.
3. Run the engine at 2500 rpm for 3 minutes.
4. Run the engine at full throttle till opening of valve.
5. Check any abnormal voice and leakage.
6. Stop the engine and adjust tappets ( adjusted by a feeler gauge)
7. Restart the engine and set idle rpm and check oil pressure.
8. Check oil pressure at 2500 rpm.
9. Check oil pressure at full throttle.

Instructions to follow:1. Sudden acceleration and de-acceleration not allowed.


2. Initially running at idle rpm is a must and unavoidable.
3. Keep a check on the leakage from every single point.

70

SML ISUZU
Important terms and values:1. Idle rpm

: 750-1000 rpm

2. Medium rpm

: 1000-2500 rpm

3. High rpm

: 2500-3000rpm

Points to remember about oil pressure:1. Amount of lubricating oil to invest: 8.214 litre or 8 litre approximately.
2. At idle( 720) Rpm, the value of oil pressure: 1.8-2.2 kgf
3. At full Rpm( 3950-4000) , the oil pressure : 4.0-4.5 k

Table below shows the testing results of the engines:In a single day the production of the unit was 35 vehicles, but the number of
engines tested was 30.
Result of test 1 of 15 engines :-

71

SML ISUZU
Serial

Engine no.

no.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Sm/801/02/06
Sm/802/02/06
Sm/803/02/06
Sm/804/02/06
Sm/805/02/06

Oilpressure Oilpressure
at idle rpm
1.9
2.0
1.9
2.1
1.7

at full rpm
4.1
4.0
4.1
4.1
4.1

Low oil

Fault

Time

pressure
No
No
No
No
Yes

area
_
_
_
_
Oil

taken(min)
20
22
20
23
30
35

6.

Sm/806/02/06

2.0

3.8

Yes

filter
Oil

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Sm/807/02/06
Sm/808/02/06
Sm/809/02/06
Sm/810/02/06
Sm/811/02/06
Sm/812/02/06
Sm/813/02/06
Sm/814/02/06

2.0
1.9
1.9
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.7

4.1
4.1
4.3
4.2
4.3
4.3
4.4
4.3

No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes

filter
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
Oil

23
25
21
23
23
24
23
32

15.

Sm/815/02/06

1.9

4.2

No

pump
_

20

The problem or faulty components were oil filter and the oil pump.

Result of test 2 of 15 engines:-

Serial
no.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Engine no.
Sm/830/02/06
Sm/831/02/06
Sm/832/02/06
Sm/833/02/06
Sm/834/02/06
Sm/835/02/06

Oilpressure Oilpressure
at idle rpm
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.0
1.8
1.9

at full rpm
4.1
4.2
4.1
4.0
4.1
4.2
72

Low oil

Fault

Time

pressure
No
No
No
No
No
No

area
_
_
_
_
_
_

taken
23
20
21
24
24
25

SML ISUZU
7.
8.
9.
10.

Sm/836/02/06
Sm/837/02/06
Sm/838/03/06
Sm/839/02/06

1.9
2.1
2.0
1.8

4.4
4.3
4.1
3.9

No
No
No
Yes

_
_
_
By

25
21
23
35

pass
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Sm/840/02/06
Sm/841/02/06
Sm/842/02/06
Sm/843/02/06
Sm/844/02/06

1.9
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.0

4.0
4.1
4.2
4.1
4.4

No
No
No
No
No

filter
_
_
_
_
_

20
24
24
23
24

The problem occurs in the second test is only in oil bypass filter. Due to
malfunctioning of the oil bypass filter the low oil pressure occurred. The problem
in these parts are founded later.

Result of test 3 of other 15 engines:Serial


no.

Engine no.

Oilpressure Oilpressure

Low oil

Fault

Time
taken
20
20
40

1.
2.
3.

at idle rpm
Sm/870/02/06 1.9
Sm/871/02/06 1.9
Sm/872/02/06 1.7

at full rpm
4.1
4.2
4.1

pressure
area
No
_
No
_
Yes
Main

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Sm/873/02/06
Sm/874/02/06
Sm/875/02/06
Sm/876/02/06
Sm/877/02/06
Sm/878/02/06
Sm/879/02/06
Sm/880/02/06

4.0
4.1
4.4
4.1
4.2
4.1
4.5
3.9

No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes

2.0
2.1
2.0
2.0
2.2
1.9
1.8
1.8

73

gallery
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
Oil

24
24
20
24
23
21
25
36

SML ISUZU
12.
13.
14.
15.

Sm/881/02/06
Sm/882/02/06
Sm/883/02/06
Sm/884/02/06

1.8
1.9
2.0
2.2

4.2
4.1
4.2
4.1

No
No
No
No

indicator
_
_
_
_

21
23
24
25

The result of test 3 is the new problem occurring in the engine i. e. in main gallery
and oil indicator.
Inference:- The main oil galleries are sometime chocked by some gel type
material which is by default during manufacturing or due to adulteration of the
lubrication oil. The cause is founded later.

Result of test 4 of next 15 engines:Serial


no.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Engine no.
Sm/915/02/06
Sm/916/02/06
Sm/917/02/06
Sm/918/02/06
Sm/919/02/06
Sm/920/02/06
Sm/921/02/06
Sm/922/02/06
Sm/923/02/06
Sm/924/02/06
Sm/925/02/06
Sm/926/02/06
Sm/927/02/06
Sm/928/02/06
Sm/929/02/06

Oilpressure Oilpressure
at idle rpm
2.0
2.1
1.7
1.9
1.8
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.1
2.2
2.1
1.9
2.0
1.6
2.0

at full rpm
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.9
4.2
4.4
4.3
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.1

74

Low oil

Fault

Time

pressure
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
N0
No
No
Yes
No

area
_
_
Oil filter
_
_
_
Con rod
_
_
_
_
_
_
Gaskets
_

taken
20
23
35
24
24
23
40
25
25
26
23
23
23
38
24

SML ISUZU
The test no. 4 shows the problem occuring in the engine at running condition.
The new problems occurring are in con rod and gaskets. The gaskets may not be
air tight or some leakage can occur due to loose connections made during
assembling. The exact cause is found later.

Result of test 5 of next 15 engines:-

Serial
no.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15

Engine no.
Sm/960/02/06
Sm/961/02/06
Sm/962/02/06
Sm/963/02/06
Sm/964/02/06
Sm/965/02/06
Sm/966/02/06
Sm/967/02/06
Sm/968/02/06
Sm/969/02/06
Sm/969/02/06
Sm/970/02/06
Sm/971/02/06
Sm/972/02/06
Sm/973/02/06

Oilpressure Oilpressure
at idle rpm
1.8
1.9
1.7
2.0
2.0
2.1
1.7
2.1
2.1
2.2
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.9
1.9

at full rpm
4.0
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.2
4.0
4.1
4.0
4.3
4.5
4.2
3.8
4.3
4.1
4.1

Low oil

Fault

Time

pressure
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No

area
_
_
Oil filter
_
_
_
Bearings
_
_
_
_
Oil pump
_
_
_

taken
20
24
35
24
25
25
35
25
25
21
26
37
23
25
24

The above test denotes the oil filter, bearings and oil pump be the main problems
of low oil pressure in the engine. There may be any leakage occurring in the
bearing or it may be a manufacturing problem.

75

SML ISUZU

Result of test 6 of other 15 engines:Serial


no.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Engine no.

Oilpressure Oilpressure

Sm/oo1/03/06
Sm/002/03/06
Sm/003/023/0

at idle rpm
1.9
1.6
2.0

at full rpm
4.0
4.3
4.2

6
Sm/004/03/06
Sm/005/03/06
Sm/006/03/06
Sm/007/03/06
Sm/008/03/06
Sm/009/03/06
Sm/010/03/06
Sm/011/03/06
Sm/012/03/06
Sm/013/03/06
Sm/014/03/06
Sm/015/03/06

2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.0
2.1
1.9
1.8
1.9
1.7

4.3
3.8
4.2
4.3
4.5
4.3
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.3
4.1
4.2

Low oil

Fault

pressure
area
No
_
Yes
Oil pump
No
_
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes

_
Con rod
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
Bearings

Time
taken
25
38
27
23
36
23
21
23
23
25
25
23
24
24
35

The test reveals that the problem occurred here is by the oil pump, con rod and
the bearings.

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Result of test 7 of next 15 engines:-

Serial

Engine no.

Oilpressure Oilpressure

Low oil

Fault

Time

no.
1.
2.
3.

Sm/o35/03/06
Sm/036/03/06
Sm/037/023/0

at idle rpm
1.8
1.9
2.0

at full rpm
4.0
4.3
4.2

pressure
No
No
No

area
_
_
_

taken
25
21
27

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

6
Sm/038/03/06
Sm/039/03/06
Sm/040/03/06
Sm/041/03/06
Sm/042/03/06

2.1
2.1
2.2
2.1
1.7

4.3
4.3
4.2
4.3
4.5

No
No
No
No
Yes

_
_
_
_
Gaskets

23
23
23
21
38

9.
10.
11.
12.

Sm/043/03/06
Sm/044/03/06
Sm/045/03/06
Sm/046/03/06

2.2
2.0
2.1
1.8

4.3
4.2
4.2
3.9

No
No
No
Yes

_
_
_
Bearings

23
25
25
35

13.
14.
15.

Sm/047/03/06
Sm/048/03/06
Sm/049/03/06

1.8
2.0
1.9

4.3
4.1
4.2

No
No
No

_
_
_

24
24
25

The test output as observed from table clearly tells that the bearings and gasket
are responsible for the low oil pressure occurring in the engine.

Result of test 8 of next 15 engines:-

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SML ISUZU
Serial

Engine no.

no.
1.
2.

Sm/o80/03/06
Sm/081/03/06

Oilpressure Oilpressure
at idle rpm
1.8
1.9

at full rpm
4.0
3.8

Low oil

Fault

Time

pressure
No
No

area
_
Oil

taken
25
34
27

3.

Sm/082/023/0

2.0

4.2

No

filter
_

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

6
Sm/083/03/06
Sm/084/03/06
Sm/085/03/06
Sm/086/03/06
Sm/087/03/06

2.1
2.1
2.2
2.1
1.7

4.3
4.3
4.2
4.3
4.5

No
No
No
No
Yes

_
_
_
_
Oil

23
23
23
21
38

No
No
No
No
Yes

pump
_
_
_
_
Con

23
25
25
25
35

No
No

rod
_
_

24
25

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Sm/088/03/06
Sm/089/03/06
Sm/090/03/06
Sm/091/03/06
Sm/092/03/06
Sm/093/03/06
Sm/094/03/06

2.2
2.0
2.1
1.8
1.6

4.3
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.3

2.0
1.9

4.1
4.2

The test no. 8 depicts that the oil filter, oil pump and the con rod are the areas of
fault and should be diagnosed properly. The fault which leads to their failyre is
found afterwards.

Result of test 9 of 15 engines:-

Serial
no.
1.

Engine no.
Sm/125/03/06

Oilpressure Oilpressure
at idle rpm
1.7

at full rpm
4.0

78

Low oil

Fault

Time

pressure
Yes

area
Oil

taken
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SML ISUZU
2.
3.

Sm/126/03/06
Sm/127/023/0

1.9
2.0

4.3
4.2

No
No

filter
_
_

21
27

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

6
Sm/128/03/06
Sm/129/03/06
Sm/130/03/06
Sm/131/03/06
Sm/132/03/06
Sm/133/03/06
Sm/134/03/06
Sm/135/03/06
Sm/136/03/06
Sm/137/03/06
Sm/138/03/06
Sm/139/03/06

2.1
2.1
2.2
2.1
1.9
2.2
2.0
2.1
1.8
1.8
2.0
1.9

4.3
4.3
4.2
4.3
4.5
3.8
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.3
4.1
3.9

No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes

_
_
_
_
_
Galleries
_
_
_
_
_
Bearings

23
23
23
21
28
33
25
25
25
24
24
35

The point which the above graph signifies is that the low oil pressure is caused
due to the fault in galleries, oil filter and the bearings. The proper fault finding is
done by the quality engineering and is listed later.

Result of test 10 of next 15 engines:-

Serial

Engine no.

no.
1.
2.

Sm/165/03/06
Sm/166/03/06

Oilpressure Oilpressure
at idle rpm
1.8
1.9

at full rpm
4.0
3.9

Low oil

Fault

Time

pressure
No
Yes

area
_
Oil

taken
25
34
27
23
33

3.

Sm/167/023/0

2.0

4.2

No

pump
_

4.
5.

6
Sm/168/03/06
Sm/169/03/06

2.1
1.6

4.3
4.3

No
Yes

_
Con

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6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Sm/170/03/06
Sm/171/03/06
Sm/172/03/06
Sm/173/03/06
Sm/174/03/06
Sm/175/03/06
Sm/176/03/06
Sm/177/03/06
Sm/178/03/06
Sm/179/03/06

2.2
2.1
1.9
2.2
2.0
2.1
1.8
1.8
2.0
1.9

4.2
4.3
4.5
4.3
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.3
3.7
4.2

No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No

rod
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
Gaskets
_

23
21
28
23
25
25
25
24
34
25

The above table restores the heading that the oil pressure is because of the
gaskets, oil pump and the con rod. The problem occurring in the engine due to
these is corrected by the quality engineering department. The faults are listed
later.

Overall result of the 10 tests performed on engines:-

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The above bar chart shows the frequency of the main causes of the low oil
pressure in the engine. It can be summed up from here that the oil filter tops the
chart for leading to low oil pressure followed closely by oil pump, then con rod,
gaskets, bearings and gallery in that order.
Other small problems are listed below:-

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1. Weak relief valve spring
2. Defective oil line
3. Dilution of oil
4. Incorrect pressure gauge
5. Loose joints

DIAGNOSTIC TOOL

OIL FILTER

OIL PUMP

CON ROD

GASKETS

BEARINGS

GALLERY

MISCELLANEOUS

THE ABOVE LINK IS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL TO CURE LOW OIL PRESSURE IN


THE SML ISUZU FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE. THIS IMPLIES THAT

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WHENEVER A LOW OIL PRESSURE OCCURS DURING ENGINE TESTING
THEN THE ABOVE MENTIONED ORDER SHOULD BE FOLLOWED TO CURE
IT. THE TIME TAKEN TO TEST THE DEFECTED ENGINE WILL REDUCE AND
PRODUCTION INDIRECTLY INCREASES. THE ABOVE DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IS
MY AUTHENTIC PROJECT TO HELP INCREASE PRODUCTION.

Analysis of Frictional mechanical losses resulting from low oil pressure in


the engine:-

The above pie chart gives an account of the frictional losses occurring in the
engine block. Clearly piston rings account for the highest friction loss due to less
lubrication in these parts.

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Project No.2
Name of the Project:- Time comparison of Air brakes and Hydraulic brakes and
suggest a new station for assembling air brakes.
Description of the project:The project includes the time study of the assembling of
air and hydraulic brakes and confirm which is better to be assembled in the
vehicle and prepare a station for it.
Study of the project:The foremost study in the project is the understanding of
the project is the knowledge of air and hydraulic brakes and their main parts and
their working. The description of air brakes is as follows:Air Brakes:The operation of air brakes is similar to the operation of hydraulic brake except
that in their case compressed air is used to apply brakes instead of hydraulic
pressure. Air brakes are commonly used on heavy vehicles, like trucks, buses,
etc,
Layout:The complete layout circuit is shown in the figure shown below. The compressor
takes air from the atmosphere through the filter and the compressed air is sent to

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the reservoir through the unloader valve, which gets lifted at a predetermined
reservoir pressure( about 900 kpa ) and relieves the compressor of load. From
the reservoir the air goes to various accessories and alsi to the brake chambers
also called the diaphragm units at each level, through the brake valve. The
control of brake valve is with the driver who can control the intensity of braking
according to the requirements. When the brakes are applied, the air pressure in
the reservoir decreases. When the pressure drops to approximately 700 kpa, the
governor again cuts in the compressor to raise system pressure. In case the air
system pressure falls to about 400 kpa, a warning usually in the form of a buzzer,
is sounded. The main components have been discussed in the following
paragraphs.

1. Unloader valve:- The air pressure in the system must be maintained at


the recommended value. An excessive will result in fierce braking, while
the lower air pressure would lead to inadequate braking effect. The
unloader valve in the air braking system serves to regulate the line
pressure. When the specified air pressure has been attained, the unloader
valve relieves the compressor. Similarly when the pressure decreases
below the required limit, it re-establishes the compression. It consists of a
governor valve, an unloader plunger and a non-return valve. As the
reservoir pressure increases, pressure also builds up in the hollow

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plunger, the end of which is sealed by the spring loaded valve inletexhaust valve. With build up of pressure, the diaphragm assembly lifts
against the pressure setting spring. When the preset compressor cut out
point is reached, the inlet exhaust valve closes the exhaust passage. Air
pressure also acts upward on the underside of the governor plunger, thus
fully opening the inlet valve, when air pressure moves the unloader
plunger against the force of its spring and unseals the unloader valve
allowing air from the exhaust check valve. On decrease of air pressure to
the compressor cut in point, the force due to air pressure under the
diaphragm and plunger closes the inlet valve and opens the exhaust valve
so that the air pressure in the unloader plunger bore escapes to
atmosphere through exhaust check valve. As soon as the exhaust valve is
opened, the unloader valve is forced against its seat, thereby stopping the
flow of air. The compression of air is then continued till the reservoir
pressure again rises to the cut-out point.

2. Reservoir:- The reservoir or air tank stores compressed air at the


specified pressure for brake application. It is made of steel sheet. A safety
valve is provided at the top of the reservoir to regulate the air pressure. A
drain plug is also provided at the bottom for periodic draining of the

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SML ISUZU
reservoir, without which the lubricating oil from the compressor and
moisture in the air would from emulsion which would damage the brake
units such as the brake valve, brake chambers, etc.
3. Brake valve:- Brake valve or application valve is meant to control the
intensity of braking in an air pressure system. Figure shows the simplified
construction of such a valve. It consists of a spring loaded hollow piston,
with inlet and exhaust valves, an air bleed hole and exhaust port. The
compressed air from the reservoir enters the brake valve through the inlet
valve and goes to the stop light switch on one side and to the brake
chamber at each wheel on the other side as shown. Brake valve is
operated either by a foot treadle or by push rod operated linkage or by
means of slave cylinder supplied with hydraulic pressure from a remote
master cylinder. When the driver presses the brake pedal to apply brakes,
the force is transmitted through the linkage to the brake valve, so that the
piston there is pushed down against the force of the graduating spring
which is compressed. It is this spring force which gives a feel of braking
intensity to the driver. With this downward movement of the piston the
exhaust valve closes, the inlet valve opens and the compressed air from
the reservoir goes to brake chambers at the wheels to apply the brakes at
each wheel, when the brakes are applied, the compressed air also enters
the chamber under the piston, through the bleeder hole. The air pressure
thus acts on the bottom side of the piston and balances the mechanical
force, piston is lifted up, the pressure on the two sides. The exhaust valve
is closed in this position. If the driver now wants to increase the braking
intensity, he will press the brake pedal further, thus applying more
mechanical force on the piston. This will cause the piston to move down,
opening the inlet valve more and admitting more air under pressure
achieving a position of new balance. On the other hand if he wants to
decrease the braking intensity, he will reduce the force on the brake pedal
and consequently on the brake valve through which the air escapes via

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SML ISUZU
the exhaust port. Till a balance of forces is again established on the
piston.

Brake valve
4. Dual brake valve:- Such a valve has two sections which provide
independent sequential response from a single controlling linkage. The
primary section provides control of normal service air brake application
and release by metering air pressure proportional to the force applied to
the valve. The secondary section does not function ordinarily, except for
the secondary operation in case the service brake fails. In that eventuality,
the secondary section controls the springs set emergency brake units till
sufficient air pressure is available reservoir for spring brake units.
Operation of primary section, the force applied to the brake valve treadle
is transferred to the metering spring which depresses the primary piston
down against its return spring. The piston then depresses the inlet exhaust
port is closed. Further movement of the piston opens the inlet valve. This
allows the compressed air pressure below the primary piston balances
against the applied force. The valve remains in this holding position until a
change of controlling force balances it, either to increase the braking
intensity or to exhaust the system for reducing the braking intensity.

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Dual brake valve

5. Hand control valve:- These valves are used in trucks to control the
actuators and brakes simultaneously during secondary brake application
and the spring brakes only during parking. This control of simultaneous
application and release of air pressure is achieved by the two graduating
elements contained within the valve body. When the valve lever is in the
park position, positive locking device comes into operation which provides
safety against accidental release of brakes.

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Hand control valve
6. Brake chamber:- One brake chamber is installed on each wheel. Its
function is to convert the pressure energy of compressed air into useful
mechanical energy for the application energy for the application of brakes.
These are generally of single diaphragm type. Brake chambers with push
rods are normally used for front brakes, whereas for near brakes sliding
forks are fitted to allow separate mechanical handbrake operation. Double
diaphragm, triple diaphragm and diapgragm/piston brake chambers are
designed so that failure of one system will only effect one method of brake
actuation. Spring brake chambers or actuators have also been used which
provide usual service air brake operation and in addition, spring set
parking secondary brake operation. All these types of brake chambers will
now be discussed here. The diaphragm used here in these brake
chambers are made of nylon and neoprene bonded together providing
strength and flexibility.
These are single, double, triple andpiston brake chamber.
7. Slack adjuster:- It acts as a lever during braking. Besides it is also used
to adjust the clearance between the brake shoe and the drum, for which it
employs worm and wheel. The worm wheel has internal splines and is
mounted on the shaft of the s-cam. The worm is in mesh with the worm
wheel. An adjusting nut is mounted on the shaft of the worm. Turning the
adjusting nut turns the worm which in turn, turns the shaft of the s-cam
through the worm aheel, thus adjusting the clearance between the brake
shoe and the drum.

90

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Slack adjuster

Hydraulic brakes:Layouts and components:- Most of the cars today use hydraulically operated foot
brakes on all the four wheels with an additional hand brake mechanically
operated on the rear wheels. An outline of the hydraulic braking system is shown
in the figure. The main component in this is the master cylinder, which contains
reservoir for the brake fluid. Master cylinder is operated by the brake pedal and is
further connected to the wheel cylinders in each wheel through steel pipe lines,
unions and flexible hoses. In case of Hindustan ambassador car, on front wheel
each brake shoe is operated by separate wheel cylinder ( thus making the brake
two shoe leading ). As the rear wheel cylinders are also operated mechanically
with the hand brake, they are made floating. Further all the shoes in the
ambassador car are of the floating anchor type. The system is so designed that
even when the brakes are in the released position, a small pressure of 50 kpa is
maintained I the pipe lines to ensure that the cups of the wheel cylinder are kept
expanded. This prevents the air from entering the wheel cylinders when the
brakes are released. Besides this pressure also serves the following purposes.
(i)

It keeps the free travel of the pedal minimum by opposing the brake
shoe retraction spring.

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(ii)

During bleeding, it does not allow the fluid pumped into the line to
return, thus quickly purging air from the system.

(iii)
The two main components of the hydraulic braking system. i.e, the master
cylinder and the wheel cylinder are discussed in detail:-

Layout of hydraulic brake

1. Master cylinder:This can be rightly named as heart of the hydraulic braking system. There are
two main chambers viz. the fluid reservoir and compression chamber in which
the piston operates. The fluid in the reservoir compensates for any change in the
fluid volume in the pipelines due to temperature variations and to some extent
due to leakage. To prevent leakage there are rubber seals on both ends of the
piston is always surrounded by the fluid. A rubber boot covers the push rod end
of the master cylinder to prevent the dirt from entering inside. Towards the brake
lines side of the compression camber, there is a fluid check valve with a rubber
cup inside. It serves to retain the residual pressure in the brake lines even when
the brakes are released.

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There are a number of holes in the piston head on the primary seal side. Two
holes connect the fluid reservoir to the compression chamber. The smaller one
out of these is about 0.7mm diameter and is called the bypass or compression
port. The second hole is called the intake or the recuperation port. The push rod
is operated with the foot brake pedal through linkage. As the pedal is pressed,
push rod moves the piston to left against the force of the spring, till it covers the
by-pass port. Further movement of the push rod causes building up of the
pressure in the compression chamber. Finally, when sufficient pressure has built
up, the inner rubber cup of the fluid check valve is deflected, forcing the fluid
under pressure in the lines. This fluid enters the wheel cylinder or the caliper and
moves the pistons thereby applying the brakes.
When the brake pedal is released, the spring
pressure in the compression chamber moves the piston to the extreme position.
This same force of the spring keeps the fluid check valve pressed on its for
sometime and thereby delays the return of fluid from the lines into the
compression chamber again. Some delay is also caused by the inertia of the fluid
in the lines. This produces a vaccum in the compression chamber and unless this
is destroyed immediately, there are all chances into the system. Even a very
small amount of air will render the brakes unless, the air being compressible.
This problem is solved by having intake port as shown. As soon as some vaccum
is formed, the atmospheric pressure in the fluid reservoir forces the fluid through
intake port and holes in the piston which deflects the rubber cup and enters the
compression chamber, destroying the vaccum.
But by the time this vaccum is destroyed, the fluid
from the lines comes back into reservoir by lifting the fluid valve off its seat. This
extra fluid now has to be accumulated somehow, because compression chamber
is fully and there are all chances of brake shoe rubbing with the drum. Once this
happens, there will be more heat generated at the drum, which when transmitted
to the wheel cylinders, causing the shoes to move still further towards the drum.
In this way, a vicious circle will start, causing the brakes to jam ultimately.

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This is avoided by means of by-pass port. The extra
coming from the lines passes to the fluid reservoir, where pressure is maintained
atmospheric by providing an air vent.
In case brake linings or pads are worn so that there is excessive clearance
between lining and drum or between pad and disc, a quick release of brake pedal
will draw extra fluid from the reservoir into the compression chamber and
thereafter a quick pressing of the pedal will send this extra fluid into the brake
pipelines, thus taking pedal up the excessive clearance. In this way a quick
pumping up of the brake pedal helps compensate for the wear of the brake
linings or pads.

Master cylinder
2. Tandem master cylinder:Tandem master cylinder ensures reliability with not much extra cost. In this
separate lines go to different sections of the brake system, say, the rear and the
front brakes and it is so arranged that if the front brake lines are damaged, the
rear brakes will be still effective. Similarly if rear brake line is defective, at least
front brakes will be applied. A simplified diagram of the tandem cylinder is shown.
Under ordinary conditions the brake fluid will transmit pressure to front as well as
the rear brakes, when the brake pedal is applied. However, when, say, the front
brake lines are damaged, piston 2 will move till it comes up against stop 3. after
this pressure will start building up in space between piston 1 and piston 2. and

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SML ISUZU
rear brakes will be applied. Similarly when the rear brake lines are damaged, no
pressure will build up in space between pistons 1 and 2. so piston will move
freely till it comes up against 2. further push at the brake pedal will move both
pistons together. Such hydraulic brake system which tandem cylinder to operate
two different sections of the vehicle brakes are called split brakes. The system
described above, wherein the front and the rear brakes are operated by the
different chambers of the tandem master cylinder is called axle by axle split
system. It is generally used for the light vehicles say up to swept volume in the
master cylinder chamber, the two different chambers can be designed different in
size according to the braking effect required on the two axles. In passengers
cars, larger braking effort is required at the front axle, so the larger chamber of
the master cylinder is connected ti the front axle and the smaller chamber to the
rear axle.
For medium duty vehicles, it may be used. However
when all the brakes are two shoe leading, it is preferable to employ the system
shown. The advantages of all the system shown in figure. In this system all the
brakes are two shoe leading.

Tandem cylinder

Pressure differential valve with warning light switch:95

SML ISUZU
This is employed to warn the failure of one part of the braking system. When
both the halves of the braking system are working, pressure from both sides
keeps the plunger in the centre, so that the warning switch contact is in the
released position, keeping the switch off. However, when one half of the system,
say the rear one, fails, the pressure on that side drops to zero, which causes the
plunger to move towards right, thereby pressing the switch contact so that the
warning light is on.
Proportioning valve:This is employed to proportion the braking effect between the front and the rear
axles. Different types of brakes at the front and the transfer of weight during
brake application require different forces to be applied ti the wheel cylinders or
calipers at the front and the rear. This is done by the proportioning valve.
Metering valve:During brakes use return springs to bring back the shoes when the brakes are
released. But there are no such springs in case of disc brakes. Therefore, if in a
vehicle, disc brakes are employed at the front with drum brakes at the rear, the
front brakes would start applying long before the rear drum brakes if no suitable
provision is used to rectify the same. This may cause the front wheels to lock
when the driver applies to happen a metering valve is used, which delays the
application of pressure to the front disc brakes till sufficient pressure has been up
in the rear brake lines to overcome the force of return spring here, which is
usually about 800-900 kpa. When the brakes are released metering valve is
closed and a return valve located inside the assembly will open, allowing the fluid
to return from the lines freely.
Wheel cylinder:Wheel cylinders in the braking system are meant for the forcing the brake shoes
against the drum. The construction is very simple. Each wheel cylinder is
provided with pistons, rubber seals, cup spreaders and dust covers. The brake

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SML ISUZU
line from the master cylinder is attached to the inlet port and a bleeder screw with
a cover is provided to bleed air from the system whenever required. Wheel
cylinders are mounted on the back plate.

Wheel cylinder

When brakes are applied the fluid under pressure from the master cylinder enters
the inlet port and forces the pistons to move outward to push the shoes against
the drum. Similarly, when the brakes are released, the brake shoe retractor
spring force the brake fluid out of the wheel cylinder by pushing the pistons
inward.

Study 2 of the project:Time Study


Time study is a technique for determining as accurately as possible from a limited
number of observations, the time necessary to carry out a given activity at a
defined level of performance.
Objectives of Time Study
The objective of time study is to determine by direct observation the quantity of
human work in a specified task and hence to derive the proper time for the task.

97

SML ISUZU
Time Study Procedure
The basic steps in time study procedure are as follows:
1. SELECT: Select the job to be studied. Job might be studied for a variety of
reasons. It could be because of:a) a new job
b) a change in method for which a new standard time is needed
c) a complaint received from workers about time allowed for an operation
d) a change in management policy such as the introduction or withdrawal of an
incentive scheme
2. RECORD: Record all the information about the job, the operator and the
surrounding conditions which are likely to affect the carrying out of work. Plan the
program by which all constituents can be measured economically and accurately.
Record a complete description of the method and break down operation into
elements which could be conveniently observed, measured and analyzed.
3. MEASURE: Measure with a stop watch time for each element repeated for a
sufficient no. of cycles, so as to provide reliable data covering during all expected
conditions.
4. COMPILE: Compile all element times and add the allowances to get standard
time.
5. DEFINE: Define all the activities covered and issue the standard time for the
job or operation and put into practice now.
Basic terms used in time study
1. OBSERVED TIME: It is the time directly recorded by stop watch while
observing the activity of the operator.
2. BASIC TIME/NORMAL TIME: It is the calculated time of the activity of the
operator taking into account is rate of performance.
Basic time = Observed time performance rating
3. RATING FACTOR: It is a comparison of actual performance with some
standard or normal performance (equivalent to walking 4 miles in 1 hour). Normal

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performance is the working rate of the average worker working under capable
supervision but without the stimulus of an incentive wage plan. For example, a
rating factor of 0.9 means an efficiency of 90%. In this study we have assumed a
rating factor of 0.7.
4. ALLOWNCES: It is a time added to the basic time of the operation to provide
the worker with an opportunity to recover from physiological and psychological
effects of carrying out specified work under specified conditions.
a) Relaxation Allowance: These are further of two types:
I. Fixed 9% (4% Fatigue + 5 % personal needs such as lavatory, water and
tea)
II. Variable (poor working environment and added stress)
b) Other allowances:
I. Contingency 5% (unavoidable delays and occasional extra work)
II. Special Allowances (set up allowance for preparing machine + shut down
+ cleaning + tool maintenance + learning allowance)
5. STANDARD TIME: It is defined as the allowed time which is determined to be
necessary for a quality worker working at a normal pace under capable
supervision and experiencing fatigue to do a defined amount of work of specified
quality when following prescribed method.
Project work:- Study of the assembly of air brake diesel engine.

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102

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103

SML ISUZU

104

SML ISUZU

105

SML ISUZU

106

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107

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Introduction of air brake system in main assembly line for trucks

Description: The project aimed to start the production of air brake vehicle at
Main Line- A of SML ISUZU. We were to accomplish the task by fabricating a line
balancing sheet for the purpose for the existing line by taking the time standards
into account.

Methodology:
The step wise procedure for the project is listed below:Step 1: Study of the air brake system and components.
Step 2: Identification of the activities that had to be deleted from the current
hydraulic brake vehicle.
Step 3: Detailed activity identification for air brake vehicle.
Step 4: Time study for both the deleted and added activities for respective
systems.
Step 5: Preparation of the final line balancing sheet.
Step 6: Manpower planning for the additional work in air brake vehicle.

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OBSERVATION:Detailed activity for DDU vehicle :Serial no.
1.

Station
F25L

Main

activity
time (IT)
Attachment
12
of
side

2.

3.

4.

F25R

F25L

F25L/R

Average

Average

Tooling

time (CT)
15

Pneumatic

single

gun,

seal

nut rear LH
Attachment

22/100
12

15

gun,

RH
Attachment

19/100
Pneumatic

17.5

22.5

gun,

connectors
Attachment

22/100
Pneumatic

17.5

17.5

quick

valve
Attachment
of

6.

F25L

gun,

F25R

21

45

cp

Spanner
24

10

34

hose

assembly
Attachment

cp

19/100

hose

assembly
Connection
to

7.

cp

of

release
F25L

Pneumatic

of nut gear

of

5.

cp

Spanner
24

23

28

Torque

of

wrench

automatic

22, 4 kgm

load
sensing
valve
Detailed activity for DDU vehicle:-

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SML ISUZU
Serial no.
8.

9.

Station
F25R

F25R

Main

Average

activity
time (IT)
Attachment
35

Average

Tooling

time (CT)
35

Pneumatic

of aslv arm

gun,

to bracket

22/100

Attachment

25

37

of pipe aslv
10.

F25L

Attachment
of

11.

F25R

181

brake

pipe aslv
Attachment

Pneumatic
gun,

60

57

of drg. &

cp

19/100
Pneumatic
gun,

47

cp

cp

22/100
Torque
wrench

distribution
12.

F25R

unit
Attachment
of

13.

14.

F25R

F25L

25

40

pipe

delivery
Connection

Torque
wrench

25

40

Torque

to rear &

wrench

park brake

22, 4 kgm

pipe
Vonnection

34

Torque

of rear &

wrench

park brake

22, 4 kgm

pipes

Detailed activity of DDU vehicle:Serial no.


15.

Station
F25R

Main

Average

Average

Tooling

activity
Connection

time (IT)
5

time (CT)
34

Pneumatic

of

park

gun,
113

cp

SML ISUZU
pipes
16.

F25

22/100

Connecting

103

278

brake pipe
17.

F25R

chassis
Attachment

Pneumatic
gun,

10

22

of

cp

19/100
Spanner
24

compresso
r
18.

19.

F25R

F25L

delivery

pipe
Attachment

10

22

of

wrench

connector
Attachment

22, 4 kgm
Pneumatic

15

20

of
20.

F25R

gun,

connector
Front long

15

20

connector
21.

F25L

Torque

Attachment
of

19/100
Pneumatic
gun

21

33

hose

Torque
wrench

assembly

22, 4 kgm

to
connector

Serial no.
22.

Station
F25R

Main

Average

activity
time (IT)
Attachment
21
of
asly.

cp

hose

Average

Tooling

time (CT)
33

Torque
wrench

To

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SML ISUZU
23.

F25L/R

connector
Attachment
of

24.

F25L

25.

F25R

10

59

10

59

brake

F25R

Attachment
of

27.

F25R

28.

F25L

22/100
Pneumatic
torque

12

15

wrench
Pneumatic
gun

seal

nut
Attachment
of

cp

gun,

single

side

cp

19/100
Pneumatic
gun,

pipe RH
26.

Pneumatic
gun,

brake

pipe front
Attachment
of

15

T-

connector
Attachment
of

10

12

15

single

side seal
Connection
of

Pneumatic
gun

17

hose

Torque
wrench

assembly

22, 4 kgm

FR LH

Serial no.
29.

Station
F25R

Main

Average

Average

Tooling

activity
Connection

time (IT)
12

time (CT)
17

Torque

of

hose

wrench

assembly
30.

F25L/R

to actuator
Attachment
of

22, 4 kgm
10

front

22

Torque
wrench

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SML ISUZU
delivery
31.

F26R

22, 4 kgm

pipe
Tightening

30

46

of

Torque
wrench

compresso
32.

F27L

r
Attachment

47

63

of reservoir
33.

F27L

bracket
Attachment
of

34.

F27R

gun,
30

86

air

reservoir
Connection

F27L

& 22
Connection
of

cp

19/100
Pneumatic
gun,

cp

19/100
Torque

34

of pipe 21
35.

Pneumatic

wrench
10

34

brake

Torque
wrench

pipe

22, 4 kgm

chassis

to

air
reservoir
Detailed activity for DDU vehicle:Serial no.
36.

Station

Main

Average

activity
time (IT)
Attachment
15
of

Average

Tooling

time (CT)
20

Pneumatic

hose

gun,

holder
37.

22/100

Connection
of

cp

10

front

20

Torque
wrench

delivery

22, 4 kgm

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pipe

to

hose
38.

F27L

holder
Connection
of

120

268

brake

wrench

pipe

22, 4 kgm

chassis
39.

F26R

&

cabin
Attachment
of

Torque

10

20

180

180

Plier

hose

vaccum for
40.

PIT

exhaust
Pressure
build up in
air
reservoir

TOTAL TIME- 2091


Changes made:Deleted activities in DDU w.r.t hydraulic vehicle:Serial no.

Part no.

Description

Station

Total time
(sec)

Attachment of
rear

W02543650C Pipe

axle W0254660B

brake pipe.

rear F6 R.A.

brake

859543609

Pipe

rear

LP3642660

bracket

LP3643660

Protector

859543609

bracket

W02343635

Pipe

W02443820

brake RH

rear

117

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Pipe

rear

brake LH
hose
Clip

Attachment of
clip-brake

W02345901

pipe

brake F7L

pipe

with

chassis
S/A of holder- W02345470

Brake hose

brake hose

Holder

W02345390

W02343635
Attachment of W02345902

Bolt
Clip brake

clip

W02345910

Holder

997960616

Bolt

W06545902B

Clip brake

W06545901A

Clip

997960620

Bolt

W06545903

Protector

57845995

Protector

57845991
Attachment of 997961020

Clip
Bolt

holder-brake
Attachment of W02345451

3 way joint

brake pipe

W02345260

Brake pipe

997960630
Attachment of LP0145320

Bolt
Pipe brake

pipe-brake

57845991

Clip

front LH

57845995

Protector

997960620

Bolt

W02343635
Attachment of W02245370

Clip flexible
Pipe brake 2

brake

pipe W07345360

Pipe brake 3

LP3645370

Pipe brake 2

W02345370

External pipe

rear

118

F7L

F7L

F7L

F7L

F7L

SML ISUZU
LP0245370

brake 2

LP0245371

Two way joint

W02345460

Bolt

997960620

Two way joint

W02345460

bolt

997960620
Connecting of W02343635

Clip

pipe

hose

brake

flexible F7L

with RR axle
Attachment of W07345280

Pipe brake

pipe

Clip

brake 57845991

front RH

57845995

Protector

997960620

Bolt

W02343635

Clip

Attachment of W02043842
pipe

Clip

vaccum
Tightening

90

flexible

hose
Hose vaccum

assy. 992831500

F7R

270

W06543836

Hose vaccum

992831500

Hose

of

F7R

F8

24

F10L

30

F10S/A

30

F10

42

all brake pipe


connections
Connections
of brake pipe
of cabin with
brake

pipe

chassis
S/A of vaccum W02443760E

Tank

tank

Flexible pipe

with W02443842A

cabin/cowl

992831500

Clip

( frt. Side)

W20143640

Flexible pipe

992831500
Attachment of 997960816

Clip
Bolt

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SML ISUZU
vaccum
with

tank 990400800

Nut flange

cabin/

cowl( frt. Side)


Connection of
vaccum
with

F10

10

tank

vaccum

pipe
Adjustment of

24

hand brake
Brake

F15

200

bleeding
TOTAL TIME:- 850

PROPOSED LINE BALANCING OF DDU:Existing activities


Station F6 S/A

New activities
Attachment of single sided seal

Attachment of pipe rear brake RH

Attachment of qrv assembly

Attachment of pipe rear brake LH

Connect temp. rear and park brake

Attachment of protector brake pipe

pipes

Attachment of hose flexible with clip


Station F7 L

Attachment of single sided seal nut with

Attachment of clip brake pipe

washer

s/a of holder brake pipe

Attachment of t-connector

attachment of clip

Temperature

attachment of pipe brake

assembly

station F7 R

Attachment of hose assembly

attachment

of

attachment of pipe brake front


station F7 additional

Attachment of siglr sided seal

station F8L

Attachment of front long connector

tightening of all brake pipe connections

Attachment of pipe brake front


120

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SML ISUZU
station F8 additional

Attachment of DDU

station F10 S/A

Attachment of ASLV

S/A of vaccum tank

Attachment of pipe aslv

Attachment of vaccum tank

Attachment of long connector

Station F10

Full attachment of pipe 21 & 22

Connection of brake pipe chasis with Attachment of front delivery pipe


brake pipe cabin
Connection of vaccum tank
Adjustment
Temperature connection of brake pipe
chassis
Station F10 additional
Attachment of compressor delivery pipe
Attach arm of aslv to qrv bracket
Station F15

Tighten brake pipe fully


Tighten brake pipe fully

Attachment of hose holder


Brake bleeding

Attachment of reservoir

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Project no:- 3
Name of the project:- To study the heat exchange inside the cooling system of
the diesel engine.
Description of the project:- The project includes the study of the cooling
system of the engine and the flow of the coolant inside the paths
Study 1 of the project:- The cooling system of SML ISUZU diesel engine:Necessity of cooling system:All the heat produced by the combustion of fuel in the engine cylinders is not
converted into useful power at the crankshaft. It is seen that the quantity of heat
given to the cylinder is considerable and if this heat is not removed from the
cylinders it would result in the preignition of charge. In addition, the lubricant
would also burn away, thereby causing the seizing of piston. Excess heating will
also damage the cylinder material.

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Keeping the above factors in view, it is observed that suitable means must be
provided to dissipate the excess heat from the cylinder walls, so as to maintain
the temperature below the certain limits.
However, cooling beyond optimum limits is not desirable, because it decreases
the overall efficiency due to the following reasons:
1. Thermal efficiency is decreased due to more loss of heat to the
cylinder walls.
2. The vaporization of fuel is less; this results in fall of combustion
efficiency.
3. Low temperatures increase the viscosity of lubricant and more
piston friction is encountered, thus decreasing the mechanical
efficiency.
4.
Though more cooling improves the volumetric efficiency, yet the factors
mentioned above result in decrease of overall efficiency.
Thus it may be observed that only sufficient cooling is desirable and any
deviation from the optimum limits will result in the deterioration of the engine
performance.
METHODS OF COOLING:Various methods of cooling are given below:
1. Air cooling.
2. Water cooling.
In SML ISUZU water cooling system is used.
WATER COOLING
In water cooling system, the cooling medium used is water. In this, the engine
cylinders are surrounded by the water jackets through which cooling water flows.

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Heat flows from the engine cylinder walls into water which goes to the radiator
where it losses its heat to the air. Usually some antifreeze is added to the cooling
water, due to which it is often referred as coolant.
Water cooling systems are of two types:
1. Thermosyphon system.
2. Pump circulation system.

Thermosyphon system:-

Thermosyphon system

A very simple system, which was used in many early automobiles upto about
nineteen forty, is obsolete now. It consists of a radiator connected to the engine
through flexible hoses. In this system, circulation of water is obtained from the
difference in densities of the hot and cold regions of cooling water. The circulating
water gets heat from the engine cylinders, thereby cooling the same. The same
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heat in the water is then dissipated into the atmosphere, through the radiator, by
mainly conduction and convection. Therefore, the circulating water becomes cold
by the time it reaches the collector tank of the radiator. The same water is then
circulated through the engine to collect heat from the cylinders. The rate at which
water circulates in this system is proportional to the heat output or the load on the
engine and not to the engine speed. Some of the thermosyphon systems also
had fans mounted behind the radiator and driven by belt and pulleys from the
crankshaft, to assist the flow of cooling air.
The advantages of this system are simplicity and low initial cost. However this is
accompanied by many disadvantages also:
1. As the circulation of coolant is maintained by natural convection
only, the cooling is rather slow. Therefore, to have adequate
cooling, the capacity of the system has to be large.
2. Due to the quantity of coolant being large, it takes, more time for
the engine to reach the operating temperature.
3. Radiator header tank must be located higher than the top of the
cylinder coolant jackets, which is no more possible with the modern
body styles.
4. Certain minimum level of coolant water must be maintained in the
system. If the coolant falls below that level, continuity of flow would
break and the system would consequently fail.
Pump circulation system:This system is similar to thermosyphon system described above with the only
differences that a pump is used for the circulation of coolant. The pump is driven
by means of a belt from the engine crankshaft. The drive for the fan is also
obtained from the same belt that drives the pump and the generator.
This system has the following advantages over the thermosyphon system:
1. Circulation of coolant is proportional to both load and sped.

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2. Circulation of coolant is positive and hence more efficient due to which
smaller water jackets can be used resulting in overall decrease of engine
size.
3. Unlike in thermosyphon system, it is not necessary to place radiator
header tank at above the engine level.
4. Even the radiator need not to be placed in the front. It can be placed on
the side or in the rear, if the design conditions so require.
However, this is more complicated and costlier than the thermosyphon system.

COMPONENTS OF WATER COOLING SYSTEM


The main components that will be discussed are:
1. Radiator
2. Pressure cap and expansion reservoir
3. Thermostat
4. Pump
5. Fan

Radiator
The function of the radiator is to ensure close contact of the hot coolant coming
out of the engine with outside air, so as to ensure high rates of heat transfer from
the coolant to air. A radiator consists of an upper tank, core and the lower tank.
Besides, an overflow pipe in the header tank and drain pipe in the lower tank are
provided. Hot coolant from the engine enters the radiator at the top and is cooled
by the cross-flow of air, while flowing down to the radiator. The coolant collects in
the collector tank from where it is pumped to the engine for cooling.

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There are two basic types of radiator cores, viz., tubular type and cellular type. In
the former, it the coolant that flows through tubes and air passes around them,
while in the cellular type the air passes through the tubes and the coolant flows in
the spaces in between them. Out of these, tubular type cores are the most
commonly used which are further classified depending upon the shape of the fins
around the tubes, which are meant to increase the area for heat transfer from
coolant to cooling air.
The materials used for the radiators should be resistant to corrosion, posses
higher thermal conductivity and form easily, apart from adequate strength.
Copper and yellow brass is the widely used materials used for the radiators.
Aluminum is also used from the weight and cost considerations.

radiator
The size of the radiator must be adequate to remove the heat which is
approximately equal to the heat energy utilized for producing power in the
engine. Alternatively, the radiator size is matched to the displacement volume of
the engine. The air conditioned vehicle would require a larger radiator due to
extra heat load on account of the compressor. Besides, it is also ensured that
maximum cooling is attained with minimum air resistance. Thus frontal area of
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SML ISUZU
the radiator is kept minimum, which may be achieved by making core thicker and
accommodating more core material into the same volume without increasing the
air resistance.
For heavy duty applications, radiators shutters are also sometimes used. These
are automatically controlled by means of the compressed air taken from the
brake system. Shutter control mechanism is installed with the upper hose of the
cooling system. depending upon the coolant temperature coming from the
engine, which itself depends upon the engine temperature, the shutter control
mechanism causes the shutter to open or close .thus for example, the shutter
remains closed during starting and it gradually opens up as the engine attains its
working temperature, thus allowing the fresh air to come into contact with the
radiator.

Pressure cap and expansion reservoir:Radiator filler neck in modern use is covered with a pressure cap, which forms an
air tight joint due to which coolant is maintained at some pressure higher than the
atmospheric. Due to this higher pressure the boiling point of coolant is raised.
The following advantages thus result from the use of pressure cap:
1. The engine can operate at higher temperatures without boiling the
coolant. As the rate of heat transfer from the cooling system to the
atmospheric depends upon the difference between coolant
temperature and atmospheric temperature, this will result in
additional heat transfer to the atmosphere. This means for the
same engine, small radiator can be used.
2. The preparation of air fuel mixture is improved at the higher
operating temperature.
3. At high altitudes, the atmospheric pressure is low which causes the
coolant to boil at a lower temperature. Thus under severe working
conditions at high altitudes, e.g., during steep climb, the coolant in
the radiator may boil if the system is open to atmosphere. With
pressure cap, a higher pressure is maintained inside, irrespective of

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SML ISUZU
any change in the atmospheric pressure, thus avoiding overheating
while driving at higher altitudes and maintaining the cooling
efficiency of the system.
Pressure cap contains a pressure valve and vacuum valve. When due to severe
working conditions, the coolant starts boiling and vaporizes, the pressure in the
system exceeds a certain predetermined value, and the pressure blow off valve
opens releasing the excess pressure to the atmosphere through the overflow
pipe. On the other hand if due to any reason a vacuum is created inside, the
vacuum valve operates to avoid collapse of the radiator.
It is important to remember that a pressure cap should never be opened when
the radiator is still hot, because on removing the cap, the pressure in the cooling
system will suddenly drop, causing the boiling point of coolant to be decreased
all of a sudden. This causes the coolant to start boiling immediately, which may
spill over and burn and burn anyone standing nearby severely. Further, in case of
loss of cap, the replacement cap must be of the same pressure rating as the
original one.
In some engines, instead of overflow pipe an expansion reservoir is provided.
This is so connected with the radiator that it receives the excess coolant as the
engine temperature increases. When the cooling water cools down, its volume
decreases and the coolant in the reservoir returns to the radiator keeping the
system full of coolant. The reservoir is usually made of translucent plastic so that
it cannot indicate the level of the coolant anytime. Such a system is also known
as coolant recovery system and it has the following advantages:
1. There is no loss of coolant due to overflow on account of
expansion.
2. As the air does not enter the cooling system with this arrangement,
corrosion of the cooling jackets and passages and deterioration of
antifreeze is reduced appreciably.
3. Relatively smaller upper tank may be used with the radiator.

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SML ISUZU

Pressure cap

Thermostat
It is already discussed above that optimum cooling of the engine is desirable and
overcooling results in deterioration of engine efficiency. To keep a rigid control
over the cooling, therefore, a thermostat is used, which automatically keeps the
cooling water temperature at a predetermined value. Moreover, it also helps the
engine to reach the operating temperature as soon as possible after starting as
the engines are designed to operate most efficiently over a small temperature
range.
Two types of thermostat are used:
1. Bellows or aneroid type
2. Wax or hydrostatic type
In SML ISUZU bellows type thermostat is used.

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SML ISUZU

Bellows type thermostat


It consists of metallic bellows particularly filled with some volatile liquid like
acetone, alcohol. A valve is attached to one end of bellows, while to another end
is attached a frame which fits into the cooling passage. The thermostat is fitted in
a coolant hose pipe at the engine outlet. When the engine after start is warming
up, it is desired that the cooling system should not operate so that the engine
warms up early. During this period, the thermostat valve remains closed,
because the liquid inside as yet has not changed its state and, therefore does not
exert any pressure on the valve. As the thermostat valve is closed with the
coolant pump running to avoid excessive pressure build up, a part of the held up
coolant is made to circulate back through a bypass to the pump inlet.
But as the coolant temperature reaches a predetermined value, the liquid inside
the thermostat is converted into vapour which exerts a pressure on the valve,
which begins to open, so that the water circulation through the radiator starts.
The valve then opens gradually further as the water temperature increases, until
it is fully open at about 90-95 degree Celsius. Thus the thermostat controls the
flow of water through the radiator according to the engine cooling requirements.
In this type of the thermostat, the valve movement depends upon the difference
between the vapour pressure in the bellows at any given temperature and the
cooling system pressure.

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SML ISUZU
Coolant pump:A coolant pump is necessity for the forced circulation type of engine cooling
system. The pump is mounted at the front end of the engine and is driven from
the crankshaft by means of a v-belt. Centrifugal type pump is the one which is
used for this purpose. The coolant from the radiator enters the pump at the
center where inlet is located. The flow of the coolant depends upon the pump
speed which is proportional to engine speed. This is desirable since at higher
engine speeds more heat is developed which requires more cooling. The scroll is
connected to the front of the engine to direct the coolant into the block. For vengines the coolant pump has two outlets, one for each bank of cylinders.
When the impeller rotates, the coolant between the vanes is thrown outward due
to centrifugal force, thus forcing the cooled coolant at the periphery, with a force
depending upon the speed of rotation of the pump spindle, which itself is
proportional to engine speed. This water leaving the periphery of the impeller
tangentially and having maximum kinetic energy then enters the involute or the
scroll, which is smoothly curved passage cast in the casting, whose cross
sectional area gradually increases towards the outlet port. Thus the enlarging
scroll converts the kinetic energy of coolant to pressure energy. In this way a
coolant pressure is created at the pump outlet that forces the coolant through the
cooling system.
The present trend is to make the coolant pumps smaller and lighter. Light alloys
are increasingly being used for pump bodies while use of synthetic resins is on
increase for impellers. The shaft-bearing design in which shaft and bearings are
combined in one unit has resulted in more compact design.

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SML ISUZU

Fan
When the vehicle is going at high speed with light load, the natural draft of air
passing through the radiator may be sufficient for cooling of the engine, but when
the vehicle is moving under heavy load and at a low speed e.g. when driving
uphill, the natural draft is certainly insufficient to produce the desired cooling. This
explains why fan is necessary part of the engine cooling system.
It is mounted behind the radiator on the same shaft on which the water pump is
mounted. It is driven by a v-belt from the crankshaft pulley. It may four to seven
blades, sometimes spaced unevenly to reduce space. It is generally made of
sheet metal, but these days molded plastic materials e.g. nylon or polypropylene
are also being used for making fans.
Sometimes the fan is mounted inside a thin plastic or metal housing around its
periphery. This housing is attached behind and against the radiator and is called
fan shroud. It allows fan to pull more air past the radiator.
For efficient and economical running, it is required that the fan must give
adequate air flow at all the conditions of vehicle load and speed. More flow than
the minimum necessary for effecting cooling at any particular time is simply

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uneconomical. Thus the commonly method of running the fan at one constant
speed ratio with the engine is not desirable. If, for example the fan is designed to
give adequate air flow at low vehicle speeds, say, when going uphill when the air
flow due to vehicle speed is very small, obviously the air draught at high vehicle
speeds will be much more than the desired, when the air flow due to the vehicle
speed itself is quite high. Thus a fan that is always running when the engine runs,
will be unnecessarily consuming engine power which has been estimated as
much as 5 percent of the engine b.p. and producing more noise. This is clearly
wastage and must be avoided. The following methods are currently being
employed for this:
i. The fan blades are of variable pitch type, which is controlled by
the engine speed itself. As the engine speed increases, the
pitch decreases, thus reducing the air flow. Alternatively, the
blade pitch is controlled directly by the cooling water
temperature, which has to be found more efficient design.
ii. The fan is not directly driven by the belt from the crankshaft, but
is driven through a fluid coupling. One rotor of the coupling is
driven by the engine, while to another one is attached the fan.
The spacing between the rotors is controlled by the
temperature of the cooling system, which changes slip of the
coupling thus changing the fan speed according to the
requirements.
iii. The fan is driven by means of a separate electric motor which is
supplied with power from the electric circuit of the engine. A
thermostat switch is placed at an appropriate place I the
cooling system and depending upon the cooling system
temperature it opens to switch off or on the fan motor. It has
been found that under ordinary conditions, only about 5%of
the time the fan motor remains in on position, while 95%of the
time it is off. The saving of engine power thus achieved may,
therefore, be well imagined.

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Study 2 of the project:The cooling system of the engine

Study 3:Automotive engines get hot because of the explosions that take place in the
combustion chambers and friction from the moving parts. The cooling system's
job is to keep the engine at ideal operating temperature. If the engine runs too
cool it will operate inefficiently, waste fuel, and wear prematurely. If the engine
runs too hot, parts may melt or distort, ruining the engine. The engine has a
water jacket that surrounds the combustion chambers and cylinders that is filled
with a 50/50 mixture of antifreeze and water known as coolant. The coolant

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absorbs the heat created by the engine, then the water pump pumps it to the
radiator to be cooled down. The thermostat controls the flow of coolant from the
engine to the radiator. When the engine is too cool, the thermostat blocks the
flow to warm the engine up. If the engine is too warm the thermostat opens to
allow flow to cool the engine down. The radiator is two tanks connected by many
thin tubes. The tubes have thin fins soldered to them that help to dissipate heat.
Coolant flows from one tank to the other getting cooler as it travels down the
tube. Cool air blowing across the radiator helps it to remove heat from the
coolant. Normally the movement of the car as you are driving provides the air
flow, but when the car slows down there is a cooling fan to provide air flow across
the radiator. There are two primary types of radiator fans: mechanical and
electric. Mechanical fans are bolted directly to the waterpump pully or more
commonly to a thermostatic fan clutch that lets the fan freewheel when the
coolant temperature is low. Electric radiator fans use an electric fan motor to spin
the fan blades. The motor is controlled by a thermostatic switch that gives the fan
motor power once a preset coolant temperature is reached, then turns the fan off
once the coolant temperature drops below a preset temperature. The cooling
system is pressurized to increase the boiling point of the coolant. The pressure is
regulated by the radiator cap. When the pressure rises above system's rating
(usually about 15 PSI) the radiator cap releases some of the pressure into the
overflow tank. The overflow tank's level increases as the engine warms up and
the coolant expands. When the engine cools down and the coolant contract
coolant is sucked from the overflow tank back into the radiator.

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A vehicle's cooling system is designed to protect the engine from the destructive
forces of too much heat. If the system isn't in good repair, simple tasks such as
sitting idle in rush-hour traffic can cause a vehicle to overheat even when
temperatures drop below the freezing mark.
Heat, sometimes expressed as Btus or British thermal units, is the one item that
every diesel engine has in abundance. One Btu is the amount of thermal energy
necessary to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree
Fahrenheit
A cylinder head gasket is required to effect a seal between the cylinder head and
block of a gasoline or diesel engine. It is an integral component of the engine and
is requ Internal combustion engines run on heat. Chemical energy in the fuel is
transformed into thermal energy when the fuel burns, which produces
mechanical energy to push the pistons, spin the crankshaft and drive the vehicle
down the road.
The head gasket is one of the most critical gaskets in an engine because it has
to seal all of the combustion chambers as well as the coolant and oil passages
between the head and block. The gasket has to provide a leak-free seal from the
moment it is first installed, and maintain that seal for the life of the engine - which
might well be 150,000 miles or more on many of todays vehicles
Ordinary leaks are easy enough to diagnose because they're hard to miss. A leak
of any size at all will weep, drip or spray coolant. The resulting loss of coolant
usually leads to engine overheating, which can cause more damage if the leak
isn't found and fixed. Leak inhibiting additives can usually seal small leaks. But
sealers Extreme cooling performance. Thats what August typically demands
from a vehicles cooling system. The thermal loads created by the hottest
ambient temperatures of the year, maximum air conditioning and city traffic can
push many cooling systems to the max and give a vehicle a bad case of the BTU
blues. As cooling demands climb, the system has to work harder and harder to
dump the extra heat. Eventually the point may be reached where the cooling

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system cant keep up with the load and the engine starts to overheat. What
happens next depends on the driver, the driving conditions and the vehicle
itselfare a temporary fix and m One method is to use a block tester, also known
as a combustion leak tester, to determine if you have exhaust gases in your
cooling system. A combustion test kit can be found at your local NAPA, auto parts
store. The part number is 700-1006. The price for this part is less than $50.00.
Exhaust gases in your cooling system can suggest a head gasket leak, a cracked
block, or a warped Its not unusual for automobile enthusiasts to want to increase
the power of the engine in their automobiles and many aftermarket options are
available to them to accomplish this. Increasing the engine horsepower then
presents the problem of making sure that other components of the vehicle, such
as the drive train and the cooling system, can handle the increased engine power
head, etc.

Non-Aqueous Cooling:
In all engines hot metal in contac t with coolant causes localized boiling called
nucleate boiling at critical metal temperature locations in the engine. Nucleate
boiling is a very efficient way to remove heat as the heat of vaporization is so
high. This boiling forms vapor which is later recondensed back into liquid when
the vapor reaches the appropriate temperature. For ethylene glycol and water
(EGW) systems, the recondensation of vapor takes place generally in the
radiator. Since vapor by volume from a 50/50 solution of EGW is more than 98%
water vapor under one atmosphere of gauge pressure (14.0 PSIG), the water will

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not recondense until the temperature of the coolant is below the boiling point
of water at the system pressure. During moderate loads and ambient
temperature conditions, that temperature is normally seen inside the radiator. As
the temperature of the coolant rises under stressed conditions, that vapor does
not recondense even inside the radiator. Most engine designers and test
engineers
are unaware that vapor is in fact being generated and recondensed continuously
inside the engine cooling system.
As a result of localized boiling, there is a layer of vapor which can build up
on the surface of the hot metal within the coolant jackets. That layer keeps the
coolant from coming in contact with the hot metal surface. The temperature of
the metal covered by the vapor pocket increases, causing a "hot spot". The
hotter the spot, the more vapor produced, the larger the vapor pocket becomes,
and the higher this critical metal temperature rises. These "hot spots" become
so hot that they become secondary "spark plugs" or ignition points and are the
cause of engine performance limitations (ignition instability) and emission
problems. Thus it has been an important goal of the Evans Cooling System to
reduce the vapor build-up on the hot metal surface and reduce or eliminate "hot
spots".
Vapor, which is created from localized boiling, actually affects the cooling
efficiency of the engine. Large amounts of vapor in the cooling system decrease
the amount of liquid to metal contact throughout the cooling system, reducing
the ability of the cooling system to remove heat.
In addition as the engine and cooling system is used under stressed conditions
or in higher ambient temperature locations, coolant temperatures typically rise
above 220 F. As EGW coolant temperatures increase above 220 F, the vapor
which
is generated cannot be recondensed efficiently inside the system and can be
seen
as cloudy coolant. Often at about 220 F the pump starts to cavitate and the
flow rate of the coolant starts decreasing , increasing further the temperature

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of the coolant. This results in additional cavitation and the loss of coolant
through overflow vents. Evans has developed computerized models of EGW
cooling
systems which generate vapor tables plotting this phenomenon. These
theoretical
vapor tables track empirical test data very accurately and are proof that vapor
is constantly being generated and recondensed. The vapor tables also allow for
accurate design predictions of system components size requirements identified
during dynamometer testing.
In examining the vapor generation it became apparent that water is the reason
for such a high amount of vapor production within the engine with resultant "hot
spots". Water is the cause of cavitation. Water is the reason for requiring
pressurized cooling systems to elevate the acceptable operating coolant
temperatures above the boiling point of water. Even so the coolant temperatures
cannot exceed 224F for pressurized water. Therefore the use of water as a
coolant requires adding poisonous ethylene glycol to raise the pressurized
boiling point to 250 and decrease the freezing point. Water has been found to
be the reason that additives used for corrosion deplete and "fall out", causing
limited coolant life. Water is also the cause of corrosion of parts inside the
cooling system and in some systems the resultant accumulation of high
concentrations of lead and other heavy metals in the coolant after prolonged
use. The solution was to remove the water from the coolant.
In choosing the proper replacement coolant Jack Evans, the inventor, attempted
to solve a number of problems: the toxicity/waste stream environmental issue,
the cavitation issue, the corrosive coolant issue, the heavy metal deposit
issue, the depletion of additives issue, the liquid to metal contact or "hot
spot" issue and the overheat issue.
Non-Aqueous Propylene Glycol (NPG) with additives to protect metal surfaces
was
chosen as the replacement liquid. Because of the specific heat and specific
gravity differences between NPG and EGW coolants, it is theoretically necessary

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to increase NPGs coolant flow approximately 27% over that for EGW to remove
equal amounts of heat from the engine. In actual application however, where
current cooling systems produce significant amounts of vapor, less flow increase
can provide the same, and even increased, heat rejection. Since there is no
water in the system to cause cavitation of pumps, the increased speed is easily
achieved. The flow can be further increased to provide even better cooling of
the engine. The physics of why NPG cooling allows for higher engine
performance
can be best understood by looking at how the vapor is managed.
Bubble Size: The size of the bubbles formed on the hot metal surface, which then
break off into the liquid, directly affect the size of the vapor buildup on the
metal surface. Nucleate boiling produces bubbles, the size of which depends on
a
liquid characteristic known as surface tension. Lower surface tension and
directly proportional cohesive characteristics produce smaller surface layer
bubble sizes. NPG has lower surface tension and lower cohesive tendencies
than
EGW.
Another fluid characteristic which works in favor of decreasing bubble size is
the difference in vapor pressure. The vapor pressure of water is 100 times that
of NPG (vapor by volume from a 50/50 solution of EGW is more than 98% water
vapor under one atmosphere of gauge pressure).
The more turbulent flow of the NPG system produces shear forces which tend to
shear bubbles into smaller bubbles at the metal surface.
Heat of Vaporization Cal/Mole: Another characteristic, which determines the
amount of vapor generated in changing a liquid to a gas when a given weight of
liquid changes to a vapor, is called the Heat of Vaporization. When the heat
transferred from the hot metal surface vaporizes liquid it does so according to
the heat of vaporization. NPG has a heat of vaporization of 12,500 Cal/Mole
compared to 9,720 for EGW. Simply stated, each vapor bubble of NPG coolant
carries 29% more calories (heat) than a vapor bubble of EGW coolant. Therefore

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NPG generates less vapor by volume and will displace less coolant from the
surface than will EGW for the same amount of heat transferred.
Reduction of "hot spots:" Obviously if the vapor bubbles condense back into
liquid rapidly there is less vapor traveling through the cooling system. Less
vapor means higher metal to liquid contact. The fact that NPG generates less
vapor for the same heat transfer helps here also (See Below; "h Molar Heat of
Vaporization:").
Compared to NPG, water vapor from the EGW condenses at a lower
temperature and
hence is not fully condensed until it is in the radiator. However the
temperature of NPG in the cooling system is considerably below its saturation
temperature (boiling point), readily condensing NPG vapor back into the liquid
locally. Evans has been able to ensure that all NPG vapor generated inside the
engine rapidly condenses back into liquid before the coolant leaves the engine.
Small bubble sizes assists here also as the smaller the bubble the lower the
ratio of vapor volume to bubble surface area (the recondensation occurs at the
liquid/gas interface, the surface of the bubble).
Reduction of "hot spots" & turbulent coolant flow: Turbulent flow of the coolant
increases coolant scrubbing of the vapor from the surface of the metal, thereby
improving the wetting of the metal surface by the coolant.

Other technical considerations:


Boiling Point: 369 F for NPG versus 224 F for 50/50 "EGW" ethylene
glycol and water (at atmospheric pressure - 0.0 psig) - benefits include
elimination of afterboil and overheating, allowing temperature excursions
above those for EGW, faster recondensation of vapor inside the engine, low
(2.0 - 4.0 PSIG) or non-pressurized system, no coolant loss operating in
high ambient temperatures, and the capability to increase thermostat
temperature settings if desired.
Molar Heat of Vaporization: 12,500 Cals/Mole for NPG versus 9,720

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Cals/Mole for EGW - benefits include faster recondensation because less
vapor is produced, and a reduction of hot spots because of improved liquid
to metal contact. All of which eliminate the occurrence of "Film Boiling"
and the accumulation of excessive surface vapor.
Surface Tension: 35 Dynes/Cm for NPG versus 56 Dynes/Cm for EGW -benefits include small vapor bubble sizes, allowing for faster
recondensation of vapor and increased liquid to metal interface, and
decreased area of nucleate boiling centers, again increasing liquid to
metal interface.
Freezing Point: -70 F for NPG versus -38 F for EGW. NPG does not freeze,
it crystallizes and supercools (contracts slightly and becomes a viscous
slurry).
Toxicity: EGW is considered a hazardous waste whereas NPG is not as PG is
used as a food additive and pharmaceutical base fluid.
Vapor Pressure: 590 mm of Hg for EGW at 212 F versus 18 mm of Hg for
NPG.
This is the major reason for the dramatic decrease in cylinder liner and
pump cavitation.
Although most vehicles overheat at EGW coolant temperatures of approximately
250 F (pressurized to 13.0 psig), the non-aqueous coolant can tolerate
temperatures above 350 F. Although using higher coolant temperatures can
introduce other problems, (i.e.: increased oil temperatures) the NPG will allow
the possibility of increasing coolant temperatures with all the resultant
performance improvements as those problems are addressed and resolved.
EGW is
temperature constrained only by the physics of the liquid.
Over the years engineers have solved many of the problems of using EGW at the
limits of its physical properties. The same can be expected to happen with NPG,
allowing full use of NPGs high boiling point. Currently, however, most all NPG
conversions are operated at traditional thermostat settings (180 - 200F) with

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the high temperature capabilities of NPG utilized as a "safety measure".
Important Benefits of NPG Coolant:
Reduction of Hot Spots (Critical Metal Temperatures);
For Gasoline Engines:
Higher Gasoline Efficiency.
Reduces Emissions.
Higher Compression, Power.
Knock Reduction.
Improved Octane Tolerance (lower octane fuel useable).
For Diesel Engines:
Higher Fuel Efficiency.
Lower Particulate Emissions.
Higher Power.
Elimination of Overheat and After Boil.
Elimination of Cylinder Wall and Pump Cavitation.
Elimination of Corrosion on Cooling System Parts.
Significant Reduction of Coolant Leaks; NPG operates at a low (i.e.; 4.0
7.0 PSIG ) or atmospheric pressure.
Not a Hazardous or Dangerous Waste.
Long Life, Stable Coolant. Increased from 40,000 (with EGW) to more than
400,000 miles. The system has been tested to 400,000 miles in a Class 8
Detroit Diesel engine running at North American Van Lines. After 400,000
miles additives have decreased by only 11%, still within initial
manufacturing tolerances for the coolant.
Fleet applications: decreased maintenance requirements and costs.
Secondary Benefits of NPG Coolant:
For Gasoline Engines:
Non-pressurized: (or low pressure, i.e. 4.0 psig) decreased leaks, lower
pressure parts, decrease of thermal flexing or cycling (component life

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extended), elimination of accidents resulting from accidental removal of
radiator caps from hot engines.
Allows for a totally closed system (Hermetically Sealed) requiring no
service checks and is not subject to contamination.
Improved stability of engine operating temperatures.
Improved aerodynamic styling. The radiator no longer needs to be higher
than the engine and can be placed anywhere.
Weight reduction possible if higher coolant temperatures are used. Smaller
radiators, less coolant, light-weight metals (such as magnesium for
engines), small cooling jackets in the engine, smaller fans.
Decreased duty cycle of coolant fan for the same coolant temperature by
allowing for higher temperature excursions for short intervals with no
adverse effects on the engine.
Faster combustion chamber metal surface warm-up, CO reduced in start-up
(liners get hot faster) mostly because of lower specific heat of cold NPG.
Elimination of premature spark plug failure and head cracking by better
cooling of head.
Reduction or elimination of pre-ignition and detonation:
Reduce head distortion and cracking at high compression and supercharged
/ turbocharged boost levels.
Reduce head gasket fire ring failure.
Reduce piston dome and ring failure.
Reduce valve face sinking ("tuliping").
Reduce rod bearing failure (caused by cylinder pressure, detonation
related, spikes).
For Diesel Engines:
Non-pressurized (or low pressure, i.e. 4.0 psig) system provides fewer
leaks, lower pressure parts, decrease of thermal flexing or cycling
(extended component life) and elimination of accidents resulting from
accidental removal of radiator caps from hot engines.
Elimination of Cylinder Liner Cavitation allowing for reduction of

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thickness of cylinder liners with the following benefits:
Weight and critical engine dimension reduction.
Better cooling of piston cylinder wall surfaces.
Totally closed system requiring no service checks and no contamination.
Weight reduction if higher coolant temperatures are used with smaller
radiators, less coolant, smaller cooling jackets in the engine, and
smaller fans.
Decreased duty cycle of coolant fan for the same coolant temperature by
allowing for higher temperature excursions for short intervals with no
adverse affects on the engine.
Faster combustion chamber metal surface warm up of cylinder liners &
combustion domes provides lower emissions, improved gas mileage.
Eliminates frequent maintenance checks of coolant additives and subsequent
adjusting of additive levels.
Reduction of coolant disposal costs as no coolant needs to be replaced
(limits of coolant life have not yet been found. Some vehicles have been
tested up to 500,000 miles).

Engine coolant flow:Using the radiator as a starting point, engine coolant is drawn into the water
pump located at the front of the engine through lower radiator hose. Once inside
the pump, coolant is discharged under pressure through the two water pipes on
either side of the pump. Coolant then flows through the water pipes and enters
the engine through either the cylinder heads or directly into the engine block,
depending on the engine model. Once coolant circulates through the engine
block and cylinder heads, it flows through the intake manifold. From the intak e t

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If the coolant is hot enough so the thermostat is open, coolant flows through the
thermostat, the upper coolant outlet, the upper radiator hose and back into the
radiator. If the thermostat is closed, coolant flows directly from the thermostat
housing back to the water pump through the bypass hose. When the thermostat
is

partially

open,

coolant

flow

is

split

between

the

two

systems.

Coolant flow for the heater core is provided typically from either a port on the
intake manifold, or from a port directly on the thermostat housing, depending on
the vehicle and engine combination. Coolant flows from the supply port, through
a length of heater hose, through the heater control valve, through the heater core
and back though another length of heater hose to a fitting on the side of the wat
In terms of differing pressure areas, the higher-pressure areas inside the coolant
system are the intake manifold and thermostat housing. Low-pressure areas
would be the lower radiator hose and the heater core return port on the side of
the water pump.

Part Number Open Temp Description


13708

180 F

Obsolete, Superceded

45477

170 F

Boxed Superstant Thermostat

45478

180 F

Boxed Superstant Thermostat

45479

190 F

Boxed Superstant Thermostat

65477

170 F

Carded Superstant Thermostat

65478

180 F

Carded Superstant Thermostat

65479

190 F

Carded Superstant Thermostat

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SML ISUZU
The new fins on this type of core are louvered, instead of merely folded (see
sketch), which increases fin surface area and increases heat rejection. The tanks
were custom built (there is an outfit in Texas which stamps out new tanks and
supplies the industry) and made of metal thicker and stronger than the original. A
3-tube core, which was heavy duty for Scout IIs, was only $75 less, and I could
not see going this far into the project and cutting that corner. I certainly would
never have to worry about overheating while towing, running the A/C, and
pumping in heat from an automatic tranny. They did have to use the original inlet,
outlet, and auto trans cooler, and mounting plates, but that does not compromise
strength or reliability. I had to supply a complete core radiator from which they
salvaged those pieces and took dimensions. A buddy had one built at the same
time for his '80 Scout II, and we discovered that the clearance between the front
of his fan clutch and the back of the radiator core was about 3/4 inch, maybe,
and that is using a Hayden replacement fan clutch (for the later water pump with
4-bolt pattern). My clearance is almost 2" using the stock setup for a 1975 Scout
II with the fan clutch with the large integral nut. It seems the later style
fans/clutches/water pump combinations stick further forward than that earlier
style. Nonetheless, unless your engine isn't bolted down or you drive your truck
into a tree, the fan should not hit the core. A 4-tube is rated at least 25% more
efficient than the 3-tube, which is a heck of a margin, considering that 3-tubes
weren't all that bad to begin with. And, with the modern fin design, airflow through
the radiator is not restricted because of the extra core thickness, either, which, in
the past, has been the trade-off when increasing radiator capacity in this manner.
I can still feel a draft moving through the front of my radiator at idle, just like
before. Even with this extra capacity, resist the temptation to discard your add-on
automatic transmission cooler, if you have one. It's to your advantage to keep the
As I said, we had two radiators built within weeks of each other, but they were not
entirely identical. There are at least two choices the radiator shop has in their
construction (maybe other shops have additional twists, so it pays to run this by
them first). Because the original Scout tanks were unusually long (we would call

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it "tall" - radiator lingo has to be clarified), there is no modern equivalent being
stamped. This led to a series of small choices in the final construction. Each has
1) Inlet tank (passenger side): This tank must be cut and spliced to make it tall
enough. It's shape closely resembles that of the original, and clearance-to-frame
is a non-issue.)Outlet tank (driver's side). Here you have two choices. The first
radiator I had built reused the bottom of the original tank (see sketch). It was in
good condition, and the "new" tank retained the original contour for frame
clearance (see sketch). My second radiator was different. The donor radiator was
thoroughly rotted, and I had the new tank spliced from two new tanks of the same
dimensions. Careful measurements indicated that going this route would still net
me frame clearance of 1/4 inches. Tight, but still acceptable. There is no
equivalent contoured piece which is available (OK, OK, if you have more money
than sense somebody somewhere would probably go to the trouble and fashion
one for you). My rationale was this: Scout II frames are extremely rigid, and the
bodies are solidly mounted in this area. If I tweaked the frame and body
sufficiently to shift the radiator and crack it, I probably did something I shouldn't
have done. So far it hasn't hit, and I don't go out of my way to avoid potholes. .
3) DEMAND silver solder on all splices, INSIDE AND OUT, and the remounting of
outlets. If your radiator shop balks, find a radiator shop with a more enlightened
attitude. Also, try to get them to splice the passenger-side tank from two tanks,
instead of cutting a tank in two and inserting a piece. This way, you'll only have
one splice on that side instead of two. One less source of potential leakage.
4) If you are like me, you try to keep an eye to the future. If you have a manual
trans, and there is the slightest possibility that you may "go automatic" in the
future, have them install the trans cooler. Simply plug the inlet/outlets with a pipe
plug until you need the device. This won't detract much, if at all, from cooling
capacity. I also needed a bung welded in for that coolant sensor (1979 - 1980
vehicles).

This,

too,

is

conveniently

done

at

the

same

time.

5) Even if the radiator shops do careful work, the Scout's inner fenders can shift

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slightly over time, and alignments may change. The mounting holes may not be
exactly right. One of mine weren't (because of the vehicle), and aggression with a
round

file

in

the

mounting

plate's

holes

cured

the

ailment.

6) If you don't get new tanks, at least do yourself this favor during your next
recore: IH used rivets to hold the mounting plates to the tanks. Bad design.
Vibration will eventually tear those out, and leakage is the result. A savvy radiator
shop will weld closed those holes in the tanks, and then solder the mounting
plates to the tanks. This will eliminate rivet holes as another source of leakage.
7) Work with your radiator shop. Don't be a pain in their "&%$@#$". You want to
be seen as a valued customer, not a nuisance. Since I had these tanks built, I've
needed their services for rebuilding my air conditioner's evaporators and hoses
(Yup, these are the same folks you turn to for help in that area too). If you show
them you are a reasonable fellow, they'll usually give you the service you
deserve. Believe me, rebuilding Scout A/C systems pose a few challenges at this
point

in

time,

and

you'll

need

all

the

cooperation

you

can

get.

THE FINAL RESULTS: Now I shamelessly run my a/c whenever I feel so


inclined. Unlike before, chugging in slow traffic with the air full-blast has almost
no effect on my temperature gauge. The needle simply stays put - unlike before,
where idling would bring things up 10 - 15o or so, and that's a lot. It's been well
worth the extra trouble that I went through.
The in-line valve that controls the flow of coolant from the engine through the
heater core is a frequent source of problems for IH owners. This valve is
operated from the cab via a control cable and a small lever (one of three) on the
dashboard.
The heater valves that I've purchased (both from Big A and from CarQuest) seem
to last only a year before they bind enough to make operation from the cab
difficult. I don't know a better solution other than to keep the receipt and keep
exchanging them under warranty. Stant also make a replacement valve that is

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listed

in

the

"universal"

section

of

their

catalog.

In a pinch, you can usually turn the heater control valve in the engine
compartment to the desired "open" or "closed" position with a pair of pliers. When
the valve fails, it's rarely such that it "leaks". Rather, it just becomes so stiff it's
impossible to operate with the mechanical disadvantage of the cable control and
dash lever. Another option (if "closed" is the position you desire) is to simply
disconnect the heater hoses in the engine compartment and bypass the heater
core altogether. the lever in the cab operates freely and easily, yet appears to
have no effect, then you've probably got a broken control cable. The ends of the
control cable core are bent into little "loops" which sometimes break off.
Inference:If you wish to really keep your vehicle in shape and head off leaks and the like,
consider cleaning out the scale and corrosion in the water pump housing, water
pipes, and the outlet neck and thermostat housing. DO replace the thermostat if it
has never been changed (180 degree), the elbow bypass hose, and the heater
hoses. Here's why: Poorly maintained systems get scale deposits in them, which
reduce the efficiency of the system, and eroded water pipes can spring leaks.
Old thermostats can simply jam at the most inopportune time, and you'll get boilover. Thermostats also break with age, the resulting pieces "jamming" into a
permanently open condition. This is not as catastrophic, but is still harmful. The
engine will warm up slowly in warm or hot climates, and will simply never warm
up in a cool one. This promotes incomplete combustion, plug fouling, poor
mileage, and lousy driveability. Plus, your heater won't work! And, hoses of all
types will either harden or swell with age. Failures of each of these components
have occurred to me at one time or another in the backcountry in summertime,
hence my strong orientation towards preventative maintenance! This stuff can
literally

endanger

your

life,

and

the

lives

of

your

loved

ones.

We did this project recently on two Scouts while changing the water pumps and
radiators. If you are changing pumps, see "Water Pump Removal &

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Replacement" elsewhere in this FAQ. When you get to the point where the pump
itself

has

been

removed,

proceed

as

follows:

1) Remove the water pipes and housing. You'll find that the ends of the water
pipes may have been eaten away (grooves where the o-rings ride), and you must
replace the pipe (304 and 345 water pipes are interchangeable, and I believe
they are the same for the early 392s as well. Later improved-cooling 392 pipes
are different. Be careful with the 4-cylinder engines. Early 152s and 196s were
one-half of a 304; later 196s were one-half of an improved-cooling 392. I've seen
water pipes from 4 bangers which would not fit any V-8 I was familiar with). If not
completely eaten away, and the o-ring grooves are somewhat corroded but the
LIP is intact, lightly sandblast (or a good wire wheel will work) the whole thing
and repaint. It not only looks better, but fresh paint helps prevent further
corrosion, especially where they use road salt. Although you can get the o-rings
from IH, you can also get them locally as well. The "National" brand o-ring
assortment that many auto supply houses have has just the right one: #216. This
ring fits snug in the groove and works. Ring #217 is only slightly larger, and
should work also, and, in fact, may give a little bit better "squeeze".
2) The water pump housing should be sandblasted to remove scale and crud,
and sandblasting is the only real solution to cleaning out the machined pockets
where the water pipe and o-ring seat. On the cylinder heads (where I don't
recommend sandblasting, even if you could get the gun in there), scrape the
crust "ridge" out and sand the pocket until it is reasonably smooth. Remember
that the o-ring must slide freely "home", and any crust could damage it and/or
prevent good sealing. Take a few extra minutes to do the job right. Reinstall the
pump housing, making sure the bolts have clean threads. I treat all hardware
threads in this area to a coat of anti-seize. Torque down to 35 ft./lbs.
3) When re-installing the pipes, make sure the pockets that the pipe ends go into
are clean and dry. As the factory manual says, coat the o-rings with brake fluid

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before inserting into the housing and head. This serves as a lubricant to get them
in, and I think the rationale was that brake fluid would slightly "swell" the rings
themselves, giving a better seal. Since these seals are synthetic, this shouldn't
happen much, if at all. Perhaps anti-seize compound would work just as well.
Even though the pipe ends seem to slip in almost too easily, I've never seen a
sound pipe (one with intact o-ring grooves) leak. Properly position the U-clips and
install their bolts. If the U-clips aren't squarely seated, you'll get leakage.
4) I also recommend that if you have access to a sandblaster, remove the outlet
neck and the small housing which holds the thermostat. Clean out the internal
passages, which are prone to scaling. Make the effort to thoroughly clean the
surfaces which the large hoses seal to. Then repaint. When re-installing the large
hoses, a smear of moly grease on the mating surfaces helps keep the hose from
"bonding" to the metal, and facilitates easier removal in the future. When you
finally get it all back together and running, of course check these areas for leaks.
5) Replace your heater hoses at this time. Evaluate your heater coolant valve for
leakage and excessive corrosion. Once they start leaking around the "pin",
they're goners. This is actually a Ford part, and can easily be matched up at the
auto parts store. It costs about $25. Unless you are doing a "restoration", replace
all those original "tower clamps" with new quality worm-drive clamps. Reused
tower clamps can be very difficult to reseal.

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Project no.4
Name of the project: To implement 3S in the Engine assembly shop.
Description of the project: The 3S project includes to implement the principles
of Japanese thesis of 3S.

3S and Visual Control

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Manufacturing Engineering, Inc. provides comprehensive 3S training and
implementation. 3S is a methodology for organizing, cleaning, developing, and
sustaining a productive work environment. Does this describe your work areas?
Space is crowded with parts and tools
Unneeded items are stacked between workers
Excess inventory on the floor
Excess items and machines make it difficult to improve process flow
Equipment is dirty and a collection point for miscellaneous materials
Needed equipment such as tools are difficult to find

These are signs that your facility may be in need of a 3S Program. At


Manufacturing Engineering, Inc. we pride ourselves on implementing sustainable
programs that will return your plant to a renewed condition and keep it that way.
The key to a successful implementation is developing self-directed employees.
Based on this fact we will take a team focused approach when developing and
implementing a 3S program in your facility. Team based activity result in
improved pride and ownership within the workplace. When people feel their
thoughts and ideas are truly valued, they are more willing to apply themselves to
activities that will improve their performance as well as the companies.
Our standard training and implementation project consist of:
1. 8 on site training sessions of two hour each.
2. 16 days on site implementing 3S
3. Team facilitation
4. Analysis of the current state
5. Determine where improvements are to be made
6. Sustaining the gains
We work with small implementation teams from each area within the facility to
train and implement the 3S principles. Our training involves a combination of

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classing training and on the floor implementation. Our class training materials
include our company developed training materials and industry leading videos.
1. Sort: Get rid of clutter. Separate out what is needed for the operations.
2. Set in order: Organise the work area. Make it easy to find what is needed.
3. Shine: Clean the work area. Make it shine.
3S examples:

Die storage rack

Organised supply cabinet

Tool shadow board


Manufacturing Engineering, Inc. has extensive experience and a proven
approach for delivering 5S solutions.

It is our objective to deliver high-

performance solutions to every customer every time. Let us work with you to
meet your needs.

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Manufacturing Engineering, Inc. can support all your 5S needs, from consulting
services and training to implementation materials. We would like to discuss your
5S issues and talk about how we can be a part of your solution. If there is
continued interest after further discussion, we will provide a proposal that is
geared to your specific situation. Send us your information by completing the 5S
Information Form.

Essential

in

the

The

Seiri

Lean

Manufacturing

Structure

"3S"

Seiton

is
Philosophy

Seiso

The use of the 3S's in our Kaizen Workshops is a basic part of the process. This
is the finest piece of easy information about this subject that I have ever seen.
The 3"S"s are explained here as a very simplified but thorough and feasible
process. I am sure that you will find it excellent! Thank you Todd.
Enrique Mora

Anyone who has recently opened a new machine shop has certainly had these
thoughts: How can I improve efficiency, work organization, quality, safety and
housekeeping and protect my investment at the same time? Todd Skaggs,
President of Metaltek Mfg. Inc., decided that the 3S process could effectively
impact the way his company did business.
Based on Japanese words that begin with S, the 5S Philosophy focuses on
effective work place organization and standardized work procedures. 5S

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simplifies your work environment, reduces waste and non-value activity while
improving quality efficiency and safety.
Sort (Seiri) the first S focuses on eliminating unnecessary items from the
workplace. An effective visual method to identify these unneeded items is called
red tagging. A red tag is placed on all items not required to complete your job.
These items are then moved to a central holding area. This process is for
evaluation of the red tag items. Occasionally used items are moved to a more
organized storage location outside of the work area while unneeded items are
discarded. Sorting is an excellent way to free up valuable floor space and
eliminate such things as broken tools, obsolete jigs and fixtures, scrap and
excess raw material. The Sort process also helps prevent the JIC job mentality
(Just In Case.)
Set In Order (Seiton) is the second of the 3Ss and focuses on efficient and
effective storage methods.
You must ask yourself these questions:
1. What do I need to do my job?
2. Where should I locate this item?
3. How many of this item do I really need?
Strategies for effective Set In Order are: painting floors, outlining work areas and
locations, shadow boards, and modular shelving and cabinets for needed items
such as trash cans, brooms, mop and buckets. Imagine how much time is wasted
every day looking for a broom? The broom should have a specific location where
all employees can find it. "A place for everything and everything in its place."
Shine: (Seiso) Once you have eliminated the clutter and junk that has been
clogging your work areas and identified and located the necessary items, the
next step is to thoroughly clean the work area. Daily follow-up cleaning is
necessary in order to sustain this improvement. Workers take pride in a clean

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and clutter-free work area and the Shine step will help create ownership in the
equipment and facility. Workers will also begin to notice changes in equipment
and facility location such as air, oil and coolant leaks, repeat contamination and
vibration, broken, fatigue, breakage, and misalignment. These changes, if left
unattended, could lead to equipment failure and loss of production. Both add up
to impact your companys bottom line.
Standardize: (Seiketsu) Once the first three 5Ss have been implemented, you
should concentrate on standardizing best practice in your work area. Allow your
employees to participate in the development of such standards. They are a
valuable but often overlooked source of information regarding their work. Think of
what McDonalds, Pizza Hut, UPS, Blockbuster and the United States Military
would be without effective work standards.
Sustain: (Shitsuke) This is by far the most difficult S to implement and achieve.
Human nature is to resist change and more than a few organizations have found
themselves with a dirty cluttered shop a few months following their attempt to
implement 5S. The tendency is to return to the status quo and the comfort zone
of the "old way" of doing things. Sustain focuses on defining a new status quo
and standard of work place organization.

Once fully implemented, the 3s can increase morale, create positive impressions
on customers, and increase efficiency and organization. Not only will employees
feel better about where they work. The effect on continuous improvement can
lead to less waste. Better quality and faster lead times. Any of which will make
your organization more profitable and competitive in the market place.

Japanese- English Translations


-------- -------------------Seiri - Put things in order
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(remove what is not needed and keep what is needed)
Seiton - Proper Arrangement
(Place things in such a way that they can be easily reached whenever they are
needed)
Seiso - Clean
(Keep things clean and polished; no trash or dirt in the workplace)
Test the probability of a sample median being equal to hypothesized value.
H0: m1=m2=m3=m4 (null hypothesis)
Ha: At least one is different (alternate hypothesis)
3P
A 3D model of TQM, having People, Product and Process as the 3 axis.
For Implementing TQM, all the 3 parameters should be improved.
1. People: Satisfaction of both Internal and External customer.
2. Product: Conforming to the requirements specified.
3. Process: Continuous Improvement of all the operations and activities is at the
heart of TQM.
5 Why's
The 5 why's typically refers to the practice of asking, five times, why the failure
has occurred in order to get to the root cause/causes of the problem. There can
be more than one cause to a problem as well. In an organizational context,
generally root cause analysis is carried out by a team of persons related to the
problem. No special technique is required.

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An example is in order:
You are on your way home from work and your car stops:
Why did your car stop? Because it ran out of gas.
Why did it run out of gas? Because I didn't buy any gas on my way to work.
Why didn't you buy any gas this morning? Because I didn't have any money.
Why didn't you have any money? Because I lost it all last night in a poker
game.
I hope you don't mind the silly example but it should illustrate the importance of
digging down beneath the most proximate cause of the problem. Failure to
determine the root cause assures that you will be treating the symptoms of the
problem instead of its cause, in which case, the disease will return, that is, you
will continue to have the same problems over and over again.
Also note that the actual numbers of why's is not important as long as you get to
the root cause. One might well ask why did you lose all your money in the poker
game last night?
heres another example. I learned the example using the Washington Monument
used when demonstrating the use of the 5 Whys.
The Washington Monument was disintegrating
why? Use of harsh chemicals
why? To clean pigeon poop
Why so many pigeons? They eat spiders and there are a lot of spiders at
monument
Why so many spiders? They eat gnats and lots of gnats at monument

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Why so many gnats? They are attracted to the light at dusk.
Solution: Turn on the lights at a later time.
The traditional 6Ms are:
* Machines
* Methods
* Materials
* Measurements
* Mother Nature (Environment)
* Manpower (People)

Other definitions:
Machines
Methods
Materials
Measurements
Milieu (Mother Nature, surroundings, environment)
Manpower (People/mainly physical work)
Mind power (Also people/mainly brain work)
Management (separate from Manpower/People because it considers Tampering)
Money
Miscellaneous
(the) Moon (so far unknown cause)
You can read more about it in the The Cause and Effect Diagram (a.k.a.
Fishbone)
article

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The 7 wastes are at the root of all unprofitable activity within your organization.
The 7 wastes consist of:
1. Defects
2. Overproduction
3. Transportation
4. Waiting
5. Inventory
6. Motion
7. Processing

Use the acronym 'DOTWIMP' to remember the 7 Wastes of Lean.

The worst of all the 7 wastes is overproduction because it includes in essence all
others and was the main driving force for the Toyota JIT system, they were smart
enough to tackle this one to eliminate the rest.

8 D Process
The 8D Process is a problem solving method for product and process
improvement. It is structured into 8 steps (the D's) and emphasizes team. This is
often required in automotive industries. The 8 basic steps are: Define the

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problem and prepare for process improvement, establish a team, describe the
problem, develop interim containment, define & verify root cause, choose
permanent corrective action, implement corrective action, prevent recurrence,
recognize and reward the contributors.
Of course, different companies have their different twists on what they call the
steps, etc...but that is the basics.
8 D Process
8 D is short for Eight Disciplines which oOriginated from the Ford TOPS (Team
Oriented Problem Solving) program. (First published approximately 1987)
D#1 - Establish the Team
D#2 - Describe the problem.
D#3 - Develop an Interim Containment Action
D#4 - Define / Verify Root Cause
D#5 - Choose / Verify Permanent Corrective Action
D#6 - Implement / Validate Permanent Corrective Action
D#7 - Prevent Recurrence
D#8 - Recognize the Teak
Acceptable Quality Level - AQL
Acceptable Quality Level. Also referred to as Assured Quality Level. The largest
quantity of defectives in a certain sample size that can make the lot definitely
acceptable; Customer will definitely prefer the zero defect products or services
and will ultimately establish the acceptable level of quality. Competition however,
will 'educate' the customer and establish the customer's values. There is only one
ideal acceptable quality level - zero defects - all others are compromises based
upon acceptable business, financial and safety levels
Acceptance Number
The highest number of nonconforming units or defects found in the sample that
permits the acceptance of the lot.

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Accessory Planning
The planned utilization of remnant material for value-added purposes.
Accountability
Conditional personal or professional liability after the fact, determined by action
or responsibility. Accountability to action assumes the willingness to be held
accountable for adequate expertise and capability. (see responsibility)
Accuracy
1) Accuracy refers to clustering of data about a known target. It is the difference
between a physical quantity's average measurements and that of a known
standard, accepted 'truth,' vs. 'benchmark.' Envision a target with many arrows
circling the bullseye, however, none of them are near each other.
2) Precision refers to the tightness of the cluster of data. Envision a target with a
cluster of arrows all touching one another but located slightly up and to the right
of the bullseye.
In practice it is easier to correct a process which has good precision than it is to
correct a process which is accurate. This is due to the increased amount of
variation associated with accurate but not precise process.
Activity Based Costing (ABC)
A form of cost accounting that focuses on the costs of performing specific
functions (processes, activities, tasks, etc.) rather than on the costs of
organizational units. ABC generates more accurate cost and performance
information related to specific products and services than is available to
managers through traditional cost accounting approaches.
Affinity Diagram
A tool used to organize and present large amounts of data (ideas, issues,
solutions, problems) into logical categories based on user perceived relationships
and conceptual frameworking.

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Often used in form of "sticky notes" send up to front of room in brainstorming
exercises, then grouped by facilitator and workers. Final diagram shows
relationship between the issue and the category. Then categories are ranked,
and duplicate issues are combined to make a simpler overview
Affinity Diagram
A tool used to organize and present large amounts of data (ideas, issues,
solutions, problems) into logical categories based on user perceived relationships
and conceptual frameworking.
Often used in form of "sticky notes" send up to front of room in brainstorming
exercises, then grouped by facilitator and workers. Final diagram shows
relationship between the issue and the category. Then categories are ranked,
and duplicate issues are combined to make a simpler overview.
Alias
Lost interactions in a Design of Experiment. An alias indicates that you've
changed two or more things at the same time in the same way. Aliasing is a
critical feature of Plackett-Burman, Taguchi designs or standard fractional
factorials. Lower the resolution higher is the aliasing issue. Aliasing is a synonym
for confounding.
Alpha Risk
Alpha risk is defined as the risk of rejecting the Null hypothesis when in fact it is
true.
Synonymous with: Type I error, Producers Risk
In other words, stating a difference exists where actually there is none. Alpha risk
is stated in terms of probability (such as 0.05 or 5%).
The value (1-alpha) corresponds to the confidence level of a statistical test, so a
level of significance alpha = 0.05 corresponds to a 95% confidence level.
Alternative Hypothesis (Ha)
The alternate hypothesis (Ha) is a statement that the means, variance, etc. of the

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samples being tested are not equal. In software program which present a p value
in lieu of F Test or T Test When the P value is less than or equal to your agreed
upon decision point (typically 0.05) you accept the Ha as being true and reject
the Null Ho. (Ho always assumes that they are equal)
Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA)
Analysis of variance is a statistical technique for analyzing data that tests for a
difference between two or more means by comparing the variances *within*
groups and variances *between* groups. See the tool 1-Way ANOVA.
Anderson-Darling Normality Test
After you have plotted data for Normality Test, Check for P-value.
P-value < 0.05 = not normal.
normal = P-value >= 0.05
Note: Similar comparison of P-Value is there in Hypothesis Testing.
If P-Value > 0.05, Fail to Reject the H0
The Anderson-Darling test is used to test if a sample of data came from a
population with a specific distribution. It is a modification of the KolmogorovSmirnov (K-S) test and gives more weight to the tails than does the K-S test. The
K-S test is distribution free in the sense that the critical values do not depend on
the specific distribution being tested. The Anderson-Darling test makes use of the
specific distribution in calculating critical values. This has the advantage of
allowing a more sensitive test and the disadvantage that critical values must be
calculated for each distribution.
Andon
In 'ancient' Japan, Andon was a paper lantern (a handy vertically collapsible
paper lampshade with an open top and a candle placed at the central section of
the closed bottom). To the ancient Japanese, Andon functioned as a flashlight, a
signaling device in distance, or even a commercial sign.

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Nowadays, Andon at many manufacturing facilities is an electronic device: audio
and/or color-coded visual display. For example, suppose an Andon unit has three
color zones (red, green, and orange) and when the orange zone flashes with a
distinctive sound, it calls for an attention of and is signaling operator to replenish
certain material.
ANOVA
Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA), a calculation procedure to allocate the amount of
variation in a process and determine if it is significant or is caused by random
noise. A balanced ANOVA has equal numbers of measurements in each
group/column. A stacked ANOVA: each factor has data in one column only and
so does the response.
APQP
Advanced Product Quality Planning
Phase 1 Plan & Define Programe - determining customer needs, requirements &
expectations using tools such as QFD
review the entire quality planning process to enable the implementation of a
quality programme how to define & set the inputs & the outputs.

Phase 2 Product Design & Development - review the inputs & execute the outputs, which
include FMEA, DFMA, design verification, design reviews, material & engineering
specifications.
Phase 3 Process Design & Development - addressing features for developing
manufacturing systems & related control plans, these tasks are dependent on the
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successful completion of phases 1 & 2 execute the outputs.
Phase 4 Product & Process Validation - validation of the selected manufacturing process
& its control mechanisms through production run evaluation outlining mandatory
production conditions & requirements identifying the required outputs.

Phase 5 Launch, Feedback, Assessment & Corrective Action - focuses on reduced


variation & continuous improvement identifying outputs & links to customer
expectations & future product programe.
Control Plan Methodology discusses use of control plan & relevant data required to construct & determine
control plan parameters
stresses the importance of the control plan in the continuous improvement cycle.
Artisan Process
Known for pioneering efforts to invent or create that which has never existed, it is
one of a family of four work process types and is characterized as a temporary
endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or result which is performed by
people. (Artisan Process, Project Process, Operations Process, Automated
Process)
A-square
A-squared is the test statistic for the Anderson-Darling Normality test. It is a
measure of how closely a dataset follows the normal distribution. The null
hypothesis for this test is that the data is normal. So if you get an A-squared that
is fairly large, then you will get a small p-value and thus reject the null
hypothesis. Small A-squared values imply large p-values, thus you cannot reject
the null hypothesis.

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Assignable Cause
See *Special Cause*.
Assurance
Providing an optimal degree of confidence to Internal and External Customers
regarding establishing and maintaining in the organization, practices, processes,
functions and systems for accomplishing organizational effectiveness.
Establishing and maintaining an optimal degree of confidence in the
organizational practices, processes, functions and systems for accomplishing
organizational effectiveness.
Alternate definition:
Establishing and maintaining the commitments made to Internal and External
Customers.
Attribute Data
Attribute data is the lowest level of data. It is purely binary in nature. Good or
Bad, Yes or No. No analysis can be performed on attribute data.
Attribute data must be converted to a form of Variable data called discrete data in
order to be counted or useful.
It is commonly misnamed discrete data.
Audit
a timely process or system, inspection to ensure that specifications conform to
documented quality standards. An Audit also brings out discrepancies between
the documented standards and the standards followed and also might show how
well or how badly the documented standards support the processes currently
followed.
Corrective, Preventive & Improvement Actions should be undertaken to mitigate
the gap(s) between what is said (documented), what is done and what is required
to comply with the appropriate quality standard. Audit is not only be used in

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accounting or something that relates to mathematics but also used in Information
Technology.
Authority
the granting or taking of power and liability to make decisions and influence
action on the behalf of others.
Autocorrelation
Autocorrelation means that the observations are not independent. Each
observation will tend to be close in value to the next. This can result in under
estimating sigma. A little bit of autocorrelation will not ruin a control chart.
Automated Process
Known for eliminating labor costs, it is one of a family of four work processes
characterized as an on-going endeavor undertaken to create a repetitive product
or result which planned, executed and controlled. (Artisan Process, Project
Process, Operations Process, Automated Process)

Availability
Availability is the state of able readiness, of a product, process, practicing person
or organization to perform satisfactorily its specified purpose, under pre-specified
environmental conditions, when called upon
Average Incoming Quality
AIQ - Average Incoming Quality: This is the average quality level going into the
inspection point.
Average Outgoing Quality
AOQ - Average Outgoing Quality: The average quality level leaving the
inspection point after rejection and acceptance of a number of lots. If rejected lots

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are not checked 100% and defective units removed or replaced with good units,
the AOQ will be the same as the AIQ.
Project work:During my six months training the second project assigned to me was
IMPLEMENTATION OF 3S IN LAB. The company decided to implement the
Japanese policy of 3S and fortunately I got this opportunity to work on this
mandatory project of the company.
PURPOSE:
The purpose of 3S is to reduce waste, simplify your work
environment and eliminate non-value activity while improving quality, efficiency
and safety.
3S INCLUDES:
1) SORT

- (SEIRI)

2) SET IN ORDER-(SEITON)
3) SHINE- ( SIESO)
IMPLEMENTATION
SORT
To implement first S in the Lab a thorough study of the necessary items require
in the lab was done. The first S focuses on eliminating unnecessary items from
the workplace. After visual inspection of the whole lab a category was made
which included the occasionally used and unnecessary items of the lab. All these
items were placed in a proper location in the lab. This location was named as the
RED TAGGED AREA. The smaller items were kept in the boxes and were tagg
with a red tag. The pictures of lab before implementation of 3S, work in progress
and after the work was over were clicked and matched. The results were easily
seen.

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The red tagged area comprised of the following items:
1. Uncomfortable cam shaft
2. Tested filters
3. Old motor
4. Unnecessary tools
5. Paper rolls
6. Used oil drums
7. Old gauges
8. Rusted nuts and bolts
9. Old wires
10. Old tubes and fans
11. Old rusted housings
12. Extra samples of filters
13. Obsolete jigs and fixtures
14. Broken tools
15. Worn out Gaskets
16. Broken piston rings
17. Tested oil pump
The items placed in the red tagged area were sorted. The occasionally used
such as old motors, hydraulic power pack paper rolls, and extra samples of filters
were shifted to the store.
The unnecessary items such as used filters, broken jigs, old gauges, rusted nut
and
bolts, old wires, obsolete fixtures were declared as scrap, and shifted to the

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scrap
area. After the sorting process was over the lab was audited by 5S auditor for 3
activity.
SET IN ORDER
2nd S of the 3S focuses on efficient and effective storage methods. It focuses on
A place for everything and everything in place.
STRATEGY USED:1. Painting areas
2. Outlining work areas
3. Placing bulletins board
4. Big dustbins for waste papers
5. Shelfs for thrash cans, filters etc
6. Timely cleaning
7. Visual display
To implement the second S firstly the lab was visited and each every corner
was inspected, just to check whether the things were in the proper places and
were easily accessible. After surveying the lab all the points were noted and
requisite actions were taken.
FOLLOWING OBSERVATIONS WERE MADE:

No proper test dust area in the lab. Test dust was placed on different
shelves at different places so a proper identified dust area was not
present.

The nuts, bolts, gaskets and washers of different sizes were placed in a
common shelve and were difficult to locate when some test had to be
carried out.

The parts to be assembled were not arranged as per the standards.

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The housings were kept at different locations.

No identification of bolts to be fitted at some stations.

No proper numbering on the files.

No proper scrap area.

Oil on engine block, parts to assemble and floor.

Steps undertaken:1. A proper area for the collection of dust was identified and the different
sections were prepared for the disposition of waste materials. The moving
trolleys were placed in the shop and named for putting in various waste.
The trolleys can be easily moved after they are full to their capacity. They
are named as:1. Trolley no.1 for wste bolts
2. Trolley no.2 for worn out gaskets
3. Trolley no.3 for waste papers and rolls
4. Trolley no.4 for broken washers
5. Trolley no.5 for oil etc
All the nuts, bolts and washers were sorted out and were placed in proper racks
according to their sizes as follows:1. 18mm bolt/nut/washer
2. 15mm bolt/nut/washer
3. 12mm bolt/nut/washer
4. 9mm bolt/nut/washer
5. 7.5mm bolt/nut/washer
6. 6mm bolt/nut/washer
The tags were mentioned on the racks for easy and fast working.

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1)

The files were haphazardly arranged in the file rack. All the files were
numbered with a proper identification on them and arranged in a serial
order. The format of identification was as follows:
PIL PWN
LAB
FILE NAME
FILE NO.

2)

A proper scrap area was made in the lab where all the tested filters and
trash was placed and removed from time to time.

3)

Identifications and operating instructions on some rigs were not available,


that are pre-requisites of every rig. Metallic stickers were pasted on the rigs
on all the switches.

4)

All the housings were placed in a single cupboard according to the flow
rate per minute.
Finally the second audit was done by the 5S auditor, to check whether the lab
was in proper order and whether the 5S policy was working or not.
Sieso : Shine:The next step after the setting in order of the items of use and of no use is shine.
Shine means cleaning of your work area and keeping the environment clean and
safe. The cleniness is the work of a person working on a certain station. So the
instructions should be given to him clearly.

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Strategy used:1. Pasting of banners showing importance of clean environment
2. Providing supportive items for cleaning
3. Selecting a particular day once in a month for cleaniness drive
4. Note the dirt, oil and unnecessary things by visual inspection
Transformation suggested after implementing 3S:after carrying out the complete study of 3S in the lab a new assembling idea was
chalked out for assembling the engine at various stations to achieve fast results
in less time and increase the time to be devoted to important inspections. The
following is the new plan erected.
Station no.1
1. Engine components cleaned properly
2. Engine no. punching
3. Cleaning with cloth & air
4. Oil jet mtg. & T(1.20-1.80)kgm
5. Liner fitment matching to bore marks with oiling
6. Topping of liner 0.9mm
7.Tappets attachment
8. Attachment of stud on cylinder block
9. Camshaft attachment
10. Thrust plate efitment with sealant
11. Sealant on bolts & torque kgm
12.Free movement of cam shaft
Station no.2
1. Crankshaft cleaning with cloth
2. Brg. Selection crankshaft
3. Crankshaft assy. With thrust plate
4. Oil application on brg. Caps
5. Main brg. Cap bolt (T10-10.7)kgm
6. Crank gear fitment with key
7. Free movement of crankshaft & end play
8. All bolt torque marking
9. Piston selection with depth gauge/crank shaft(N) note reading all over
10. Oil cooler assy. Fitment on block loose and movement of cover
11. Spindle idle gear hole matching(2.3kgm)
12. Case timing mtg. on block with gasket and torque 2.3 kgm
Station no.2A
1. Oil ring assy.
2. Top marking on ring conform
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3. Connecting rod wt. mark (N) node
4. Piston direction & con rod wt. marks assy. Of con rod with piston
5. Locking of pins on both side of piston
6. Con rod caps on both side of piston
7. Brg. Assy. In cleaning check dent mark
8. Case timing subv assy.
Station no.3
1. Ring groove setting & oiling
2. Att. Of piston assy. On crankshaft
3. Tightening 8.2-9.0 kgm. con rod
4. End play in con rod
5. Crankshaft with piston free movement
6. gasket selection mode
7. All gear fitment & setting & attachment
8. Position of waver washer ok
9. FIP gasket & setting & attachment
10. Cam gear bolt(6.4-9.6kgm)
Station no.4
1. Pressing of oil seal with oil
2. cover timing fitment & torque(2.3kgh)
3. Water pump gasket &assy. &torque(2.3 kgm)
4. Rear oil seal fitment and assy. With torque(2.3 kgm)
5. Oil pump fitment bolts, torque 3.8-5.3 kgm
6.Oil pipe in with O ring
7. Brkt. Stainer pipe fitment & t2.6 kgm
8. Tightening and torquing of oil pipe stainer & oil pipe with gasket(@>#kgm)
Station no.5
1. Gasket onboth sides, setting & sealant application
2. Att. Of FR/RR seal with sealant
3. Oil pan up fitment & torque (1.7-2.6kgm)
4. Lower pan with gaskets
5. Tightening order & torque marks(1.7-2.6kgm)
Station no.6
1. End plate bolt torquing (3.8-5.3 kgm)
2. Marking pin fitment
3. Flywheel bolt with oil & torque (21 to 23 kgm)
4. Cover assy. Clutch assy. With centering tool
5. Tightenung order
6. Torque mark 2.6 kgm
Station no. 7
1. Matching of indicator pin with TDC
2. Piston topping & mark setting
3. Gasket selection & assy. Of push rod
4. Locate cylinder head bolt after dipping in oil
5. Crank pulley fitment & torque ( 35 to 40 kgm)
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6. S.O.B.P pipe fitment & torque
Station no. 7A
1. Cylinder head studs fitment & tight all
2. Sub assy. Of inlet manifold with stud
3. Assy. Inlet manifold with gasket & torque
4. Case assy. Thermo with gasket & torque
5. Thermostat fitment
6. Engine hanger ( rear & front)
7. Fitment of exhaust manifold gasket & torque 2.3 kgm
Station no.8
Cylinder head bolt tightening order torque 6 kgm & torquing of rocker arm nut
1. 1.3-1.7 kgm
2. Marking & rotation to 90 degree + 90 degree
3. Movements of rocker brkt.
4. Tappet clearance setting ex. 35 in 0.3mm
Station no.9
1. Nozzles with O ring washer
2. Assy. Of nozzle & torque
3. Return pipes & clipping
4. Assy. Of oil pipe & torque 810,560
5. Fuel filter assy.
6. Assy. Of fuel filter pipe & torquing
7.Assy. of fuel pipe 880
Station no.10
1. Engine mfg. bracket & torque
2. Brkt. Alternator & torque
3. Water pump pulley
4. Cooling fan tightening T 2.5 kgm
5. Belt fitment & torque
Station no.11
1. Heater with gaskets
2. Tightening & torque 2.3 kgm
3. Att. Of oil gauge pipe with dipstick
4. Sub assy. Of head cover with sealant
5. Attachment cyl. Head cover
6. Attachment of HPP & tightening of stud of manifold M-5
7. Movement of empty trolley
Station no.12
1. Breather of exhaust manifold gasket & torque
2. SOBP filter fitment & torquing
3. Attachment of mtg. brkt. & torquing
4. Black paint on machined surface
5. All bolts torque marking
6. Sub assy. Of mtg. brkt. & fitment
7. Att. Both hose alternator
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S/Assy. Station-I
1. Sub assy. Cyl. Head
A. Cyl. Head cleaning
B. Valve cleaning & Assy.
C. Measurement of valve depth & note
D. Seal fitment
E. Spring fitments & setting
F. Cotter pins & locking
G. Valve leakage check with soap solution
Cover timing sub assembly
1. Rubber seal fitment
2. Plate fitment & torque
Oil cooler Sub assembly
a. Gasket fitment on oil cooler
b. Att. Of cooler body with cooler & torquing
c. Filler gasket with oil & torque (2.5kgm)
d. Leak test conform
S/Assy. Station-II
FIP calibration-14 degree & torquing
Attachment mtg. brkt. & torque
All of over flow pipe
CNG distributor assy.
Euro-II Rotary pump S.A.

The above was my work in 3S activity carried out in SML ISUZU ltd. The report
on new transformation was submitted after carving out printouts.

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APPENDIX:This section consists of the various processes which are occurring in the unit but
are not a part of my projects. These are listed below:Working of diesel engine:The cycle of events that take part in the engine are shown below.

The diesel engine takes in air from the atmosphere and mixes with the diesel in
the cylinder. This air is then compressed to about 1/22 of its original volume. The
average automotive diesel engine has a compression ratio of 22:1. when the
piston is at the top dead centre, the fuel is injected into the cylinder. The raised
temp. of the compressed air is sufficient to ignite the fuel. There is an increase in
pressure which drives the piston down giving working stroke. The exhaust valve
opens at the end of the working stroke and the exhaust gas are driven out as the
piston ascends.

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The combustion in a diesel engine occurs in four stages. These are going on
simultaneously in different parts of combustion chamber during injection of fuel.

Comparison of petrol and diesel engine:Petrol engine


Mixture of air and fuel is drawn in

Diesel engine
Only air is drawn in cylinder & fuel is

Compression ratio is 9:1


Diesel is cheaper
Higher combustion efficiency
Less noise
Easy start in winter

injected through nozzle


Ratio is 18:1
Petrol is costlier
Lower combustion efficiency
More noise
Cold start in winter

Parts of the engine:-

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Bibliography:1. Automobile engineering by kirpal singh
2. SML ISUZU working manual
3. Practical work done
4. Automobile engineering by carles Henley
5. Howstuff works.com

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