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WalterGropius
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

WalterAdolphGeorgGropius(18May18835July1969)wasaGermanarchitectand
founderoftheBauhausSchool,[1]who,alongwithLudwigMiesvanderRohe,LeCorbusier
andFrankLloydWright,iswidelyregardedasoneofthepioneeringmastersofmodern
architecture.

WalterGropius

Contents
1 Earlylife
2 Earlycareer(190814)
3 Bauhausperiod(191932)
4 PostBauhaus(193345)
5 Death
6 Legacy
7 Quotes
8 Selectedbuildings
9 References
10 Bibliography
11 Furtherreading
12 Externallinks

Earlylife
BorninBerlin,WalterGropiuswasthethirdchildofWalterAdolphGropiusandManon
AugustePaulineScharnweber(18551933).

WalterGropius(circa1919).PhotobyLouisHeld
Born

WalterAdolphGeorgGropius
18May1883
Berlin,GermanEmpire

Died

5July1969(aged86)
Boston,Massachusetts,UnitedStates

Nationality German
Occupation Architect
Spouse(s)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Gropius

AlmaMahler,IseGropius
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ManonGropiuswithherparents
AlmaMahlerandWalter
Gropius,1918

WalterGropiusWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

In1915GropiusmarriedAlmaMahler(18791964),
widowofGustavMahler.WalterandAlma'sdaughter,
namedManonafterWalter'smother,wasbornin1916.
WhenManondiedofpolioatage18,in1935,composer
AlbanBergwrotehisViolinConcertoinmemoryofher(it
isinscribed"tothememoryofanangel").Gropiusand
Almadivorcedin1920.(Almahadbythattimeestablished
arelationshipwithFranzWerfel,whomshelatermarried.)
On16October1923,GropiusmarriedIlse(laterchanged
toIse)Frank,andtheyremainedtogetheruntilhisdeathin
1969.Theyadoptedadaughtertogether,BeateGropius,
knownasAti.[2]IseGropiusdiedon9June1983in
Lexington,Massachusetts.[3]

Earlycareer(190814)

Children
Awards

ManonGropius,Beate("Ati")Gropius
AIAGoldMedal (1959)
AlbertMedal (1961)
GoethePrize (1961)

Practice

PeterBehrens(190810)
TheArchitects'Collaborative(194569)

Buildings

FagusFactory
WerkbundExhibition(1914)
Bauhaus
GropiusHouse
MaxvonLaue
UniversityofBaghdad
J.F.KennedyFederalBuilding
PanAmBuilding

WalterGropiuswasdraftedAugust1914andservedasa
sergeantandthenasalieutenantinthesignalcorpsintheFirstWorldWar.[4]Hesurvivedbeingbothburiedunder
rubbleanddeadbodies,andshotoutoftheskywithadeadpilot.HewasawardedtheIronCrosstwice.[5]Gropius
then,likehisfatherandhisgreatuncleMartinGropiusbeforehim,becameanarchitect.Gropiuscouldnotdraw,and
wasdependentoncollaboratorsandpartnerinterpretersthroughouthiscareer.Inschoolhehiredanassistantto
completehishomeworkforhim.In1908,afterstudyingarchitectureinMunichandBerlinforfoursemesters,
GropiusjoinedtheofficeoftherenownedarchitectandindustrialdesignerPeterBehrens,oneofthefirstmembersof
theutilitarianschool.[3]HisfellowemployeesatthistimeincludedLudwigMiesvanderRohe,LeCorbusier,and
DietrichMarcks.

Gropiusinhissergeant'suniform
duringWorldWarI

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Gropius

In1910GropiusleftthefirmofBehrensandtogetherwithfellowemployeeAdolfMeyerestablishedapracticein
Berlin.Togethertheysharecreditforoneoftheseminalmodernistbuildingscreatedduringthisperiod:the
FaguswerkinAlfeldanderLeine,Germany,ashoelastfactory.AlthoughGropiusandMeyeronlydesignedthe
facade,theglasscurtainwallsofthisbuildingdemonstratedboththemodernistprinciplethatformreflectsfunction
andGropius'sconcernwithprovidinghealthfulconditionsfortheworkingclass.Thefactoryisnowregardedasone
ofthecrucialfoundingmonumentsofEuropeanmodernism.Gropiuswascommissionedin1913todesignacarfor

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thePrussianRailroadLocomotiveWorksinKnigsberg.ThislocomotivewasuniqueandthefirstofitskindinGermanyandperhapsinEurope.[6]
OtherworksofthisearlyperiodincludetheofficeandfactorybuildingfortheWerkbundExhibition(1914)inCologne.
In1913,Gropiuspublishedanarticleabout"TheDevelopmentofIndustrialBuildings,"whichincludedaboutadozenphotographsoffactoriesand
grainelevatorsinNorthAmerica.Averyinfluentialtext,thisarticlehadastronginfluenceonotherEuropeanmodernists,includingLeCorbusierand
ErichMendelsohn,bothofwhomreprintedGropius'sgrainelevatorpicturesbetween1920and1930.[7]
Gropius'scareerwasinterruptedbytheoutbreakofWorldWarIin1914.Calledupimmediatelyasareservist,Gropiusservedasasergeantmajoratthe
Westernfrontduringthewaryearsandwaswoundedandalmostkilled.[8]GropiuswasawardedanIronCross(whenitstillmeantsomething,he
confidedtohisfriendChesterNagel)whilefightingforfouryearsforGermanyontheWesternFront.[9]

Bauhausperiod(191932)
Gropius'scareeradvancedinthepostwarperiod.HenryvandeVelde,the
masteroftheGrandDucalSaxonSchoolofArtsandCraftsinWeimar
wasaskedtostepdownin1915duetohisBelgiannationality.His
recommendationforGropiustosucceedhimledeventuallytoGropius's
appointmentasmasteroftheschoolin1919.Itwasthisacademywhich
GropiustransformedintotheworldfamousBauhaus,attractingafaculty
thatincludedPaulKlee,JohannesItten,JosefAlbers,HerbertBayer,
LszlMoholyNagy,OttoBartningandWassilyKandinsky.Inprinciple,
theBauhausrepresentedanopportunitytoextendbeautyandqualityto
everyhomethroughwelldesignedindustriallyproducedobjects.The
Bauhaus(built192526)inDessau,
Bauhausprogramwasexperimentalandtheemphasis,wastheoretical.[10]
Germany
OneexampleproductoftheBauhauswasthearmchairF51,designedfor
theBauhaus'sdirectorsroomin1920nowadaysareeditioninthe
market,manufacturedbytheGermancompanyTECTA/Lauenfoerde.

WalterGropius'sMonumenttothe
MarchDead(1921)dedicatedtothe
memoryofnineworkerswhodiedin
WeimarresistingtheKappPutsch

In1919,GropiuswasinvolvedintheGlassChainutopianexpressionistcorrespondenceunderthepseudonym"Mass."Usuallymorenotableforhis
functionalistapproach,the"MonumenttotheMarchDead,"designedin1919andexecutedin1920,indicatesthatexpressionismwasaninfluenceon
himatthattime.

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In1923,Gropiusdesignedhisfamousdoorhandles,nowconsideredaniconof20thcenturydesignandoftenlistedasoneofthemostinfluential
designstoemergefromBauhaus.WalterGropiusdesignedthenewlyconstructedschoolbuildingin1925onbehalfofthecityofDessau.Gropius
collaboratedwithCarlFieger,ErnstNeufertandotherswithinhisprivatearchitecturalpractice.[11]Healsodesignedlargescalehousingprojectsin
Berlin,KarlsruheandDessauin192632thatweremajorcontributionstotheNewObjectivitymovement,includingacontributiontotheSiemensstadt
projectinBerlin.

PostBauhaus(193345)
TheriseofHitlerinthe1930sdroveGropiusoutofGermany.WiththehelpoftheEnglisharchitectMaxwell
Fry,GropiuswasabletoleaveNaziGermanyin1934,onthepretextofmakingatemporaryvisittoItalyfora
filmpropagandafestivalhethenfledtoBritaintoavoidthefascistpowersofEurope.Helivedandworkedin
Britain,aspartoftheIsokongroupwithFryandothersandthenmovedontotheUnitedStateswithhisfamily.
WalterGropiusandhissecondwife,IseGropius,arrivedintheUnitedStatesinFebruary1937,whiletheir
twelveyearolddaughter,Ati,finishedtheschoolyearinEngland.[12]Thoughbuiltin1938,theGropiuses
believedtheirhousecouldembodyarchitecturalqualitiessimilartothosepracticedtoday,suchassimplicity,
economy,andaestheticbeauty.[12]Indesigninghishouse,GropiususedtheapproachdevelopedattheBauhaus.
ThehousetheGropiusesbuiltforthemselvesinLincoln,Massachusetts(nowknownasGropiusHouse),was
GropiusHouse(1938)inLincoln,
influentialinbringingInternationalModernismtotheU.S.,butGropiusdislikedtheterm:"Imadeitapointto
Massachusetts
absorbintomyownconceptionthosefeaturesoftheNewEnglandarchitecturaltraditionthatIfoundstillalive
andadequate."[13]HelenStorrow,abanker'swifeandphilanthropist,becameGropius'sbenefactorwhenshe
investedaportionofherlandandwealthforthearchitect'shome.Shewassosatisfiedwiththeresultthatshegavemorelandandfinancialsupportto
fourotherprofessors,twoofwhomGropiusdesignedhomesfor.WiththeBauhausphilosophyinmind,everyaspectofthehomesandtheirsurrounding
landscapeswereplannedformaximumefficiencyandsimplicity.GropiusshousereceivedahugeresponseandwasdeclaredaNationalLandmarkin
2000.[14]
GropiusandhisBauhausprotgMarcelBreuerbothmovedtoCambridge,Massachusetts,toteachattheHarvardGraduateSchoolofDesignand
collaborateonprojectsincludingTheAlanIWFrankHouseinPittsburghandthecompanytownAluminumCityTerraceprojectinNewKensington,
Pennsylvania,beforetheirprofessionalsplit.In1938hewasappointedchairmanoftheDepartmentofArchitecture,aposthehelduntilhisretirementin
1952.[15]GropiusalsosatontheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnology(MIT)VisitingCommitteeattheendofhiscareer.Thewellknownarchitect
designedtheRichardsandChildresidencehallsontheHarvardcampusthatwerebuiltinthe1950s.[16]In1944,hebecameanaturalizedcitizenofthe
UnitedStates.

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In1946,Gropiusfoundedtheyoungarchitectsassociation,TheArchitects'Collaborative(TAC),amanifestationofhis
lifelongbeliefinthesignificanceofteamwork,whichhehadalreadysuccessfullyintroducedattheBauhaus.Basedin
Cambridgewithagroupofyoungerarchitects,whichtheoriginalpartnersincludedNormanC.Fletcher,JeanB.Fletcher,
JohnC.Harkness,SarahP.Harkness,RobertS.MacMillan,LouisA.MacMillen,andBenjaminC.Thompson.Onework
producedbythisofficeistheGraduateCenterofHarvardUniversityinCambridge(1949/50).[17]TACwouldbecomeone
ofthemostwellknownandrespectedarchitecturalfirmsintheworld.TACwentbankruptin1995.
In1967,GropiuswaselectedintotheNationalAcademyofDesignasanAssociatememberandbecameafullAcademician
in1968.
GropiuswithHarry
SeidlerinSydney,1954

Death

GropiusdiedonJuly6,1969inBoston,Massachusetts,aged86.WalterGropiuswasdiagnosedwithanillnessthatconsistedofaninflammationofthe
glands,andwasadmittedtothehospitalon7June.Afteranecessaryoperationperformedon15Juneendedsuccessfullytherewashopeofafull
recovery.Gropiusdescribedhimselfasatougholdbirdandcontinuedtomakeprogressforaboutaweek.Hislungsbecamecongestedandcouldnot
supplyproperamountsofoxygentothebloodandbrainandhelostconsciousnessanddiedinhissleepearlySundaymorning.[18]

Legacy
Today,GropiusisrememberednotonlybyhisvariousbuildingsbutalsobythedistrictofGropiusstadtinBerlin.Intheearly1990s,aseriesofbooks
entitledTheWalterGropiusArchivewaspublishedcoveringhisentirearchitecturalcareer.TheCDaudiobookBauhausReviewed191933includesa
lengthyEnglishLanguageinterviewwithGropius.
Uponhisdeathhiswidow,IseGropius,arrangedtohavehiscollectionofpapersdividedintoearlyandlatepapers.Bothpartswerephotographedwith
fundsprovidedbytheThyssenFoundation.Thelatepapers,relatingtoGropius'scareerafter1937,andthephotosoftheearlyones,thenwenttothe
HoughtonLibraryatHarvardUniversitytheearlypapersandphotosofthelatepaperswenttotheBauhausArchiv,theninDarmstadt,since
reestablishedinBerlin.[19]Mrs.GropiusalsodeededtheGropiusHouseinLincolntoHistoricNewEnglandin1980.TheGropiushousewasaddedto
theNationalRegisterofHistoricPlacesin1988andisnowavailabletothepublicfortours.[14]
TheBauhausCenterintheWhiteCity,TelAvivrecognizesthegreatestconcentrationofBauhaushomesintheworld.
In1959hereceivedtheAIAGoldMedal.

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Quotes
Wewanttocreatethepurelyorganicbuilding,boldlyemanatingitsinnerlaws,freeofuntruthsorornamentation.WalterGropius[3]
"Theultimateaimofallartisticactivityisbuilding!...Architects,sculptors,painters,wemustallgetbacktocraft!...Theartistisaheightened
manifestationofthecraftsman....Letusform...anewguildofcraftsmenwithouttheclassdivisionsthatsetouttoraiseanarrogantbarrier
betweencraftsmenandartists!...Letustogethercreatethenewbuildingofthefuturewhichwillbeallinone:architectureandsculptureand
painting."WalterGropius[20]
"Architecturebeginswheretheengineeringends"WalterGropius[21]
WalterGropiushasbeendescribedas"oneofthefewactualinventorsofmodernarchitecture,thecreatoroftheworldfamousBauhausandthe
mostfamousarchitecturalteacheralive."[22]
"TheBauhausstrivestobringtogetherallcreativeeffortintoonewhole,toreunifyallthedisciplinesofpracticalartsculpture,painting,
handicrafts,andthecraftsasinseparablecomponentsofanewarchitecture.Theultimate,ifdistant,aimoftheBauhausistheunifiedworkofart
thegreatstructureinwhichthereisnodistinctionbetweenmonumentalanddecorativeart.TheBauhauswantstoeducatearchitects,painters,
andsculptorsofalllevels,accordingtotheircapabilities,tobecomecompetentcraftsmenorindependentcreativeartistsandtoformaworking
communityofleadingandfutureartistcraftsmen.Thesemen,ofkindredspirit,willknowhowtodesignbuildingharmoniouslyintheirentirety
structure,finishing,ornamentation,andfurnishing."WalterGropius,AimsoftheprogramoftheStaatlicheBauhausinWeimar1919[23]
TheBauhauscouldbecomeahavenfromeccentricsifitweretolosecontactwiththeworkandworkingmethodsoftheoutsideworld.Its
responsibilityconsistsineducatingpeopletorecognizethebasicnatureoftheworldinwhichtheylive,andincombiningtheirknowledgewith
theirimaginationsotobeabletocreatetypicalformsthatsymbolizethatworld.Whatisimportantthen,istocombinethecreativeactivityofthe
individualwiththebroadpracticalworkoftheworld!"WalterGropius,TheViabilityoftheBauhausIdea,1922(lettertotheBauhaus
masters)[23]
TheBauhauswasnotaninstitutionitwasanidea.MiesvanderRohe,itslastdirector1953[24]

Selectedbuildings
191011theFagusFactory,AlfeldanderLeine,Germany
1914OfficeandFactoryBuildingsattheWerkbundExhibition,1914,Cologne,Germany
1921SommerfeldHouse,Berlin,GermanydesignedforAdolfSommerfeld
1922competitionentryfortheChicagoTribuneTowercompetition
192532BauhausSchoolandFaculty,Housing,Dessau,Germany
1936VillageCollege,Impington,Cambridge,England
193666OldChurchStreet,Chelsea,London,England
1937TheGropiusHouse,Lincoln,Massachusetts,USA
1939Waldenmark,WrightstownTownship,Pennsylvania(withMarcelBreuer)
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194244AluminumCityTerracehousingproject,NewKensington,Pennsylvania,USA
194559MichaelReeseHospital,Chicago,Illinois,USAMasterplanned37acre(150,000m2)siteand
ledthedesignforatleast8oftheapprox.28buildings.
194950HarvardGraduateCenter,Cambridge,Massachusetts,USA(TheArchitects'Collaborative)[25]
195760UniversityofBaghdad,Baghdad,Iraq
196366JohnF.KennedyFederalOfficeBuilding,Boston,Massachusetts,USA
1948PeterThacherJuniorHighSchool,
195759Dr.andMrs.CarlMurchisonHouse,Provincetown,Massachusetts,USA(TheArchitects'
Collaborative)
195863PanAmBuilding(nowtheMetlifeBuilding),NewYork,withPietroBelluschiandproject
AluminumCityTerrace(1944)
architectsEmeryRoth&Sons
1957InterbauApartmentblocks,Hansaviertel,Berlin,Germany,withTheArchitects'Collaborativeand
WilsEbert
1960TempleOhebShalom(Baltimore,Maryland)
1960theGropiusstadtbuildingcomplex,Berlin,Germany
1961TheawardwinningWaylandHighSchool,Wayland,Massachusetts,USA(demolished2012)
195961EmbassyoftheUnitedStates,Athens,Greece(TheArchitects'Collaborativeandconsulting
architectPericlesA.Sakellarios)
1968GlassCathedral,ThomasGlassworks,Amberg
196769TowerEast,ShakerHeights,Ohio,wasGropius'slastmajorproject.
196870HuntingtonMuseumofArt,Huntington,WestVirginia,USA.Originalbuildingexpandedwith
TheAlanIWFrankHouse
Gropiusadditionwithlittlealterationtotheoriginalstructure.OnlyAmericanartmuseumtobebroughtto
completionusingaGropiusdesign.
197380PortoCarras,atChalkidiki,Greece,wasbuiltposthumouslyfromGropiusdesigns,itisoneofthelargestholidayresortsinEurope.
ThebuildinginNiederkirchnerstrae,Berlin,knownastheGropiusHausisnamedforGropius'sgreatuncle,MartinGropius,andisnotassociatedwith
Bauhaus.

References
1.Bauhaus(http://www.tate.org.uk/learn/onlineresources/glossary/b/bauhaus),
TheTateCollection,retrieved18May2008
2."RecollectionsbyAtiGropiusJohansen,daughterofWalterandIse
Gropius"(http://www.architects.org/architectureboston/articles/recollections
atigropiusjohansendaughterwalterandisegropius),ArchitectureBoston,
Summer2013issue:AmericanGropius(Volume16n2)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Gropius

3."IseGropius(Frank)"(http://bauhausonline.de/en/atlas/personen/ise
gropiusfrank).bauhausonline.de.
4.Isaacs,pp.3841
5.PaulDavies(30April2013)"WalterGropius"(http://www.architectural
review.com/reviews/waltergropius/8646993.article).architectural
review.com.
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6.Isaacs,pp.25and29
7.AmericanColossus:theGrainElevator18431943(http://www.american
colossus.com/),ColossusBooks,2009.americancolossus.com
8."WalterAdolphGropius18831969".BritishBroadcastingCorporation.
Retrieved2August2006.
9."Tiestothepast"(http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2014/03/tiestothe
past/).news.harvard.edu(19March2014)
10.Isaacs,pp.6672
11.TheBauhausBuildingbyWalterGropius(http://www.bauhaus
dessau.de/thebauhausbuildingbywaltergropius.html/).bauhausdessau.de
12.GropiusHouseHistory(http://www.historicnewengland.org/historic
properties/homes/Gropius%20House/gropiushousehistory/).HistoricNew
England
13.GropiusHousebyWalterGropius
(http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/gropiushouse/).galinsky.com
14."WalterGropius"(http://www.ncmodernist.org/gropius.htm).
ncmodernist.org
15."WalterGropius"
(http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/246573/Walter
Gropius/2889/Harvardyears).EncyclopaediaBritannica.
16."GSASResidenceHalls"
(http://www.gsas.harvard.edu/current_students/gsas_residence_halls.php/).
gsas.harvard.edu.

17."WalterGropius"(http://bauhausonline.de/en/atlas/personen/walter
gropius).bauhausonline.de.
18.Isaacs,p.311
19."Gropius,Walter,18831969.Additionalpapers".HoughtonLibrary,
HarvardUniversity,OnlineFindingAid.Retrieved4June2012.
20."BauhausMovement,ArtistsandMajorWorks|TheArtStory"
(http://www.theartstory.org/movementbauhaus.htm).theartstory.org
21.PaulDavies(30April2013)"WalterGropius"(http://www.architectural
review.com/reviews/reputations/waltergropius/8646993.article).
architecturalreview.com.
22."ThetheatreprojectsofWalterGropius.WendellColeObservatoriespais
escnics"(http://espaciosescenicos.org/ThetheatreprojectsofWalter
GropiusWendellCole).espaciosescenicos.org.
23."Designinthe20thCentury//Art208"
(http://courses.washington.edu/vcd208/syllabus_quotesbauhaus.html).
courses.washington.edu.
24.Isaacs,p.68
25.HarvardGraduateCenterWalterGropiusGreatBuildingsOnline
(http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Harvard_Graduate_Center.html).
greatbuildings.com

Bibliography
Isaacs,Reginald(1991).WalterGropius:AnillustratedBiographyoftheCreatoroftheBauhaus(FirstEnglishlanguageed.).Berlin:Bulfinch
Press.ISBN0821217534.

Furtherreading
TheNewArchitectureandtheBauhaus,WalterGropius,1935.
TheScopeofTotalArchitecture,WalterGropius,1956.
FromBauhaustoOurHouse,TomWolfe,1981.
TheWalterGropiusArchive,Routledge(publisher),19901991.

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Externallinks
Designerportraitonrosenthalusa.com(http://www.rosenthalusa.com/1288d872/GROPIUS_Walter.htm)
MoreinformationonGropius'searlyyearsattheBauhaus(http://content.cdlib.org/view?
docId=tf5779n7f0&chunk.id=bioghist1.7.3&brand=oac)canbefoundinhiscorrespondencewithLily
Hildebrandt,withwhomhehadanaffairbetween191922:GettyResearchInstitute,California.
BauhausReviewed191933audiobooklinernotesatLTM
(http://www.ltmrecordings.com/bauhausreviewednotes.html)

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