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KeyTerms

Monsoontraditionallydefinedasaseasonalreversingwindaccompaniedby
correspondingchangesinprecipitation

VedasthemostancientHinduscriptures,writteninearlySanskritandcontaining
hymns,philosophy,andguidanceonritualforthepriestsofVedicreligion.

VarnaVarnaisaSanskritwordwhichmeanstype,order,colourorclass

JatiThecastesystem,asitactuallyworksinIndiaiscalledjati.Thetermjatiappearsin
almostallIndianlanguagesandisrelatedtotheideaoflineageorkinshipgroup.

Karma(inHinduismandBuddhism)thesumofaperson'sactionsinthisandprevious
statesofexistence,viewedasdecidingtheirfateinfutureexistences.

Moksha(inHinduismandJainism)releasefromthecycleofrebirthimpelledbythelaw
ofkarma.

BuddhaGautamaBuddha,alsoknownasSiddhrthaGautama,ShakyamuniBuddha,
orsimplytheBuddha,afterthetitleofBuddha,wasanasceticandsage,onwhose
teachingsBuddhismwasfounded.

MahayanaBuddhismoneofthetwomajortraditionsofBuddhism,nowpracticedina
varietyofformsespeciallyinChina,Tibet,Japan,andKorea.

TheravadaBuddhismthemoreconservativeofthetwomajortraditionsofBuddhism
(theotherbeingMahayana),andaschoolofHinayanaBuddhism.Itispracticedmainly
inSriLanka,Burma(Myanmar),Thailand,Cambodia,andLaos.

HinduismHinduismlikeotherfaithsisappropriatelyreferredtoasareligion

MauryanEmpireInthewakeofthedeathofAlexandertheGreatin323bce,
Chandragupta(orChandraguptaMaurya),founderoftheMauryandynasty,carvedout
themajorityofanempirethatencompassedmostoftheIndiansubcontinent,exceptfor
theTamilspeakingsouth.


AshokaAshokawasanIndianemperoroftheMauryaDynastywhoruledalmostallof
theIndiansubcontinentfromc.268to232BCE.

MahabharataTheMahabharataorMahbhrataisoneofthetwomajorSanskritepics
ofancientIndia,theotherbeingtheRamayana.

BhagavadGitaTheBhagavadGita,oftenreferredtoassimplytheGita,isa700verse
HinduscriptureinSanskritthatispartoftheHinduepicMahabharata.

TamilkingdomsTheTamilkingdomswerethekingdomsofsouthernIndia,inhabited
primarilybyspeakersoftheDravidianlanguages.

GuptaEmpireTheGuptaEmpirewasanancientIndianempire,foundedbySriGupta,
whichexistedatitszenithfromapproximately320to550CEandcoveredmuchofthe
Indiansubcontinent.

TheaterStateInpoliticalanthropology,atheatrestateisapoliticalstatedirected
towardstheperformanceofdramaandritualratherthanmoreconventionalendssuch
aswelfare

MalaypeoplesFunanocatedinmainlandSoutheastAsiacenteredontheMekongDelta
thatexistedfromthefirsttosixthcenturyCE


CornellNotes

Onwhatbasesdidmenandwomenchoosespouses?Manymarriageswerearranged
bythewivesparents.Mostgirlsweremarriedoffbeforepuberty.Somewealthy
womensparentswouldinviteamnymentoabanquethallandthewomanwouldchose
herspousefromthere.

WhathistoricalpowersledtothecomplexsocialgroupingsofancientindiaThe
introductionofirontoolswhichmadeitastoundinglyeasytoplowfieldswithironplows
andthefarsuperiorirontoolsgratlycahngedsociety.Alsothecastesystemchanged
theindiancultureforeverbyaddingsocialclassesthatinfluencedlifeandreligion.

Howdidthereligiousdevelopementinfluencesociety,economyandpoliticalaspectsin
India?theycreatedreligioustraditionstoupholdandcontrolsocialstatus.They
impactedthecastesystembyintergratingitwithreincarnationwhichstrengthenedthe
reliogionsreachesandpoweroverthepeople.Thisalsomadeitsowomencouldnot
ownpropertyandthatwomenwereusuallymarriedoffinthermidtolateteenstomen
whowherepickedforthembytheirparents.

Howdidgeographyinfluencetrade?Sincetheoceanswereslowtowarmupandcool
downtherewasgreatmonsoonwinds.Tradingsailorswouldusethesewindstosailup
anddownthecoastusingthewindtosialtotheirlocationandthenwaitsomemonths
forthewindtoswitchdirectionsandthentheywouldsailbackhomeonthemonsoon
winds.

Whydidjaneistsgotosuchextremelengthstonothurtanything?TheJaneistsbelieved
thattoreachnirvanaandtobebornintoabetterbodytheymustnotkillorharm
anythingevenifitwasbyaccident.Theybelievedthatiftheyhadkilledsomethingthey
wouldbepunishedbycomingbackasaroachorpestintheirnextlife.

HowdidtheMaurynandGuptaempiresuniteafragmentedIndia?TheyunitedIndiaby
havingeverybodysharethesamereligousandpoliticalviews.Theyalsodidthe
oppositeofthepreviousbykeepingeconomyandtraderoutesandrelationshipsthe
sameforthemostpart.ThisunitedIndiaandinthisperiodoftimeitisconsideredone
ofthegreatesttimeperiodsinIndia.