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SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q 1.Define the term Hysteresis. Draw the


Hysteresis curves for soft iron and steel.
The lagging of magnetisation behind the
magnetising field is called hysteresis. The
quantities like saturation value, retentivity,
coercivity and area of hysteresis loop provide
information about the nature of magnetic material.
Ans.

Q 2. Why ferrornagnetism is lost on heating?


Ans. The suceptibility (Xm) of the ferromagnetic
substance follows the Curie-Wiess
Law which show that Xm is Inversely proportional
to the temperature. Hence Xm decreases with
temperature and when ferromagnetic subtances
are heated above certain temperature (curie
temperatu?e), their out standing magnetic

properties are lost. Also at high temperature


ferromagnetic domains distored.
Q3. Define Coercive force and. hysteresis.
Ans. The phenomenon by virtue of which intensity
of magnetisation lags behind the magnetising field,
when a magnetic substance is taken through a
complete cycle of magnetisation, is called
hysteresis.
Coercive force In order to reduce the residual
intensity of magnetisation to zero, a magnetic field
(=OC) has to be appiied in the opposite direction.
This value of rnagnetising field is called the
coercivity or coercive force for the sample.

Q 4. What is ferrites materials?


Ans. Ferrimagnetic materials having very high
resistivity are known as ferrites. nemic
formula of ferrite is M Fe203 where M can be
ciivlent cation from Zn, Cd, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu Mg.

Ferrites are used in transformer cores to much


higher frequencies than iron.
Q 5. Classif magnetic materials in terms of
magnetic properties.
Ans. (i) Diamagnetic substances Diamagnetic
substances are those in which individual
atoms/molecules/ions do not possess any net
magnetic moment on their own Bismuth, Copper,
Gold etc.
(ii) Paramagnetic substances : Paramagnetic
substances are those in whion individual atom!
molecule/ion has a net non-zero magnetic moment
of its own. E.g:
Platinum, Magnesium etc.
(iii) Ferromagnetic substances: Ferromagnetic
substances are those in which each individual
atom/molecule/ion has a non-zero magnetic
moment as in a paramagnetic substance. e.g. Iron,
Cobalt, Nickel etc.
Q 6. Explain magnetic anisotropy.
Ans. According to Domain theory, ferromagnets
tend to magnetise along certain directions known
as directions of easy magnetisation. This property
is known as magnetic anisotropy.

Q 7 Define the magnetic induction and


magnetisation.
Ans. Magnetic Induction : When a magnetic
material is placed in an external magnetic field,
material gets magnetized. Such magnetism
produced in the material is called induced
magnetism and phenomenon is called magnetic
induction.
The intensity of magnetisation of a magnetic
material is defined as the magnetic moment per
unit volume of the material.

Q 8. Give some applications of ferrites.


Ans. (i) Ferrites are used as computer elements
for logics memory circuits.
(ii) Ferrites are used as flyback transformer for
television picture tube.
(iii) It is used for antenna cores in broadcast radio
receiver due to its high permeabilil
(iv) It is used in transformer and inductor.
Q 9. What are magnetic domans? How do
these originate?

Ans. Magnetic Domains : .SmaI regions of


spontaneous magnetization, formed temperature
below Curie temperature are known as domains.
Domains originate in ordei to lower magnetic
energy. The domains will reduce the external
magnetic field. The altanme of dipoles or formation
of domains lower the magnetic energy but
increases the energy. So, a stage reaches where
no of domains becomes maximum and enery
becomes minimum.
Q 10. Differentiate between cliamagntic and
paramagnetic materials.
Ans. Difference betwen paramegnetic and
diamagnetic substances

Q 11.Define Magnetostriction.
Ans. Magnetostriction: It refers to changes in
dimensions of a ferromagnetic material
when it is subjected to a magnetising field.

Q 12. Define magnetic susceptibility.


Ans. It is defined a ratio of intensity of
magnetisation produced in the materia[ to the
magnetic intensith H.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q 1. Explain the terms magnetostriction


effect, hard magnetic materials,
hysteresis loss.
Ans. Magnetostriction : It refers to change in the
dimension of a ferromagnetic material
when it is subjected to a magnetising field.
Magnetostriction consists of two main effects
(a) Mechanical strains produced in a material when
placed in a magnetic field..
(b) Magnetic changes produced in the specimen
when mechanically stressed.
The effect (a) consists of four subdivisions
(i) Longitudinal and transverse effects.

(ii) The magnetic specimen exhibits a bending


effect when influenced by a magnetising field,
(iii) The ferromagnetic material is twisted when
subjected to a circular and longitudinal
magnetising fields.
The effect (b) is concerned with the changes in
magnetic induction due to change in
longitudinal and transverse mechanical stresses.
The changes in magnetic induction are also due to
bending and twisting of a materialwhen placed in
magnetic field.
Hard Magnetic Materials : If the domaui walls are
difficult to move/rotate (i.e. difficult to magnetize)
the material is known as hard magnetic material.
e.g. CuNiFe alloy, AlNiCo Alloy etc. These materials
have the following characteristics:
1. They possess high value of energy product.
2. They have high retentivity and coercivity,
3. They have strong magnetic reluctance.
4. They have hystersis loop rectangular in shape.
5. They have low initial permeability and high
hystersis energy losses.
Hysteresis Loss : When a ferromagnetic
substance is set into a cycle of magnetisation,
it involves a lots of energy. This is because, work
has to be done to increase, the induction by a
given amount. Hence during a magnetisation cycle,
when we start magnetising the substance a greater
magnetising force has to be used to obtain a given

induction. The same induction can be achieved


with less magnetising force when we start
demagnetising. The energy required to magnetise
a substance a specimen is not recovered on
removing the magnetising field because
magnetisation (I) does not become zero. If I (or B)
has to become zero, a field in reverse direction
has to be applied. Thus there is a loss of energy in
taking a magnet through a cycle and it appears as
heat in specimen. This loss is known as hysteresis
loss.

Q 2. Explain the terms permeability and


susceptibility and drive the relation between
them.
Ans. Permeability : The measure of degree to
which the magnetic lines of force can
penetrate into a substance is called permeability of
substance. Numerically, itis defined as ratio of
magnetic induction B to the magetising field H

Susceptibility : The magnetic susceptibility of a


specimeft measures the cease with which the
specimen can be magnetised. It is defined as the
ratio of intensity of magnetisation to the
magnetising field.
Relation between permeability and
susceptibility :When a magnetic substance
having cross-sectional area A and relative
permeability hr is placed in a uniform field H, two
types of lines of induction are present in it, one
due to magnetising field H and other due to
material itself being magnetised by induction.
Thus, the total flux density B will be given by B
= .t0 H + h0M. Now, permeability of medium is
given by

Q 3. Discuss the domain theory of


ferromagnetism.
OR

What are ferromagnetic domains? Explain


their existence in terms of atomic dipole
moments.
.
Ans. Ferromagnetic domains : The small region in
which few atoms of ferromagnetic materials are
coupled together is called domain. A piece of unmagnetised
Q 4. Explain what are Ferrites? Mention some
applications of Ferrite materials.
OR
What are ferrites? Give their applications.
Ans. Ferrites are the class of ferromagnetic
materials and are given by chemical formula
Me2, Fe23, 04, where Me represents divalent ion
such as C02+, Mn2, Ni2, Fe2, Mg2 etc. The
electrical resistance of ferrites is 1 O to 1015 times
the resistance of ferromagnetic materials, hence
ferrites are goodinsulators. They have high
permeability and low
hystersis.
Properties of Ferrites
1.Ferrites are distinguished for their appreciable
ferromagnetic properties and are poor
conductors of electricity.

Ferrites with a variety of properties than can be


obtained depending on the composition and
treatment.
3. The hysteresis ioop of ferrites is nearly
rectangular. The rectangular shape of B-H curve
faciltates in switching over from state of
magnetisation to other.
4. Magnetic induction of ferrites is much less
than that of ferromagnetic substances.
5. Because of their poor electrical conductivity,
ferrities are used as the core of devices
operating with high frequency currents, where it
is impossible to use steel cores.
This ensures small eddy current losses in them. .
6. Ferrites have high permeability.
7. Ferrites have low hysteresis.
8. Ferrites have high resistivity.
9. Ferrites are used in transistor receives.
Applications of Ferrites
1. The property of low eddy current losses
enables their used in microwave sysetms and
computers.
2. They are used as ferromagnetic insulators in
electrical circuitry.
3. Soft magnetic ferrites are used in transducer
application, making compact aerials for radiosets
and in making recording tapes.

4. Hard magnetic ferrites are used in focussing


magnets for TV picture tube, information storage
and switching devices in computers.
5. Some ferrites like MnO ; ZnO ; Fe 03 are used
in low frequency transformers and filters.
6. Ferrites like NiO ZnO. Fe203 find low
frequency application in timers and are also used
as switches in refrigerators, air conditioners etc.
due to their thermal sensing
characteristics.
7. Ferrites having high frequency characteristics
and hardness are used for magnetic head
transducer in recording.
Q 5. Prove that-the area of the B-H curve is
-i--it times the energy dissipated per
cc of metal during each magnetic cycle.

Q6 Classify the magnetism and write their


properties Also explain hard and

soft magnetic materials.


OR
What are magnetic materials Distinguish
between hard and soft magnetic materials
Name the factors on which shape of B-H
curve for different types of magnetic
materials depend.
Ans Materials which possess magnetic properties
are termed as magnetit materials On the basis of
their magnetic properties different materials
have been classified by Faraday in three
categories:
(i) Diamagnetic substances : Diamagnetic
substances are those in which the individual
atoms/molecules/ions do not possess any net
magnetic moment on their own e.g. Bismuth,
Copper, Gold etc.
(ii) Paramagnetic substances : Paramagnetic
substances are those in which each individual
atom! molecule/ion has a net non-zero magnetic
moment of its own. E.g : Aluminium, Platinum,
Magnesium etc.
(iii) Ferromagnetic substances : Ferromagnetic
substances are those in which each
individual atom/molecule/ion has a non-zero
magnetic moment as in a paramagnetic
substance. E.g Iron, Cobalt, Nickel etc.

Soft materials exhibit high permeability. They


cannot store large amount of magnetic
energy. They have negligible coercive force. They
have low hysteresis loss and low electrical
resistivity.
Hard magnetic materials possess high value of
energy product i.e. BH value. They have high
retentivity and.high coercivity. They exhibit low
initial permeability and high hysteresis loss.
The shape of B-H curve depends on
(i) Retentivity
(ii) Coercivity
(iii) Saturation value of magnetism.
Q 7. What are soft and hard magnetic
materials? Also write their applications.
OR
What is the difference between soft and
hard magnetic materials?
Ans. Soft materials exhibit high permeability.
They cannot store large amountpf magnetic
energy. They have negligible coercive force. They
have low hysteresis loss and low electrical
resistivity.
Hard magnetic materials possess high value of
energy product i.e. BH value They have high
retentivity and high coercivity. They exhibit low
initial permeability and high hysteresis loss.

Q 8. Explain the terms:


(i) Magnetic Domain (ii) Magnetic
anisotropy (iii) Magnetostriction.
Ans. (i) A ferromagnetic material consists of a
large number of small domains which are
spontaneously magnetized. In demagnetized
state, the magnetization vectors of these
domains are oriented in such a way that the
resultant magnetic moment is zero. When
external M.F. is applied all magnetization vectors
align themselves in the direction of applied field
and as a result there is a net magnetic moment.
(ii) According to Domain theory, ferromagnets
tend to magnetise along certain directions known
as directions of easy magnetisation. This
property is known as magnetic anisotropy.
(iii) When a ferromagnetic material is subjected
to a magnetising field its dimensions
changes and this property is known as
magnetostriction.